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ACI STRUCTURAL JOURNAL TECHNICAL PAPER

Title no. 105-S47

Concrete Walls

by Cevdet K. Gulec, Andrew S. Whittaker, and Bozidar Stojadinovic

Squat reinforced concrete walls (height less than twice the length) 318 2005); 2) Chapter 11 of ACI 318-05 (ACI Committee

are important structural components of both conventional and 318 2005); 3) Barda et al. (1977); 4) ASCE/SEI 43-05

nuclear safety-related structures. Predictive equations are available in (ASCE 2005); and 5) Wood (1990). Nominal rather than

the literature to compute the shear strength of squat walls but the design strengths are used for the comparison because the

scatter in the results for a given set of design variables is large.

strength reduction factor is not intended to account for bias in

The utility of five predictive equations is evaluated using data from

tests of 120 rectangular walls. The equation proposed by Wood in the strength equation. Reported material strengths and

1990 resulted in a median ratio of the predicted to measured member dimensions are used to predict nominal strengths.

strengths close to 1.0 with a small coefficient of variation. Test The mean, median, and dispersion in the ratios of the

data are also used to quantify the loss of strength with repeated predicted to measured peak shear strengths provide insight

cycling. The inter-cycle drop in strength and stiffness is significant, into the utility of each strength equation and the simplified

with the largest reductions observed for walls with aspect ratios models on which the equations are based. The loss of shear

less than 0.5. strength with repeated cycling to displacements equal to or

greater than that of the displacement associated with the peak

Keywords: reinforced concrete; shear strength; squat walls; strength resistance is presented. Based on the observed comparisons,

degradation. one equation is identified as the most reliable of the five. Factors

to estimate the mean second- and third-cycle strengths as a

INTRODUCTION percentage of the measured peak shear strength are provided

Squat reinforced concrete walls, defined herein as walls as a function of the aspect ratio.

with a height-length ratio less than or equal to 2, are widely

used in conventional buildings and safety-related nuclear RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE

structures. The typical behavior of such walls under quasi- This study presents experimental data related to the shear

static cyclic loading in a standard test is shown in Fig. 1, strength of squat reinforced concrete walls with rectangular

where only the first quadrant of the force-displacement cross sections. The accuracy and reliability of five predictive

response of a rectangular reinforced concrete squat wall with equations used widely in U.S. practice are investigated. Loss

an aspect ratio of 0.5 is plotted (Synge 1980). This wall of wall shear strength with repeated cycling to the same or

attains its peak strength during the first cycle of loading to a larger displacement is quantified. The data generated in this

displacement of 10 mm (0.394 in.); its strength and stiffness study can be used to develop robust nonlinear macromodels

degrade rapidly with repeated cycling. Accurate evaluation of squat rectangular walls for analysis and to validate

of both the peak and degraded strengths of squat walls is predictive strength equations developed in the future.

important because conventional buildings are likely to

experience multiple deformation cycles at or beyond yield in

maximum earthquake shaking, and nuclear safety-related

structures will likely be subjected to multiple cycles of

loading to peak strength in safe shutdown earthquake shaking.

Building codes, manuals of practice, guidelines, and the

literature provide a number of predictive equations for the

peak shear strength of reinforced concrete walls. These

procedures use parameters such as aspect ratio, horizontal

reinforcement ratio, vertical reinforcement ratio, and axial

force to estimate the peak shear strength. Prior studies have

indicated that the scatter in the shear strength predicted by

these equations is substantial, which is problematic because

shear strength is the key variable for force-based design and

performance assessment. The topic of strength degradation

in structural walls is not widely reported in the literature. Fig. 1Load-displacement relationship of Wall 1 tested by

Herein, the results of tests of 120 squat walls with rectangular Synge (1980). (Note: 1 kN = 0.2248 kip; 1 mm = 0.0394 in.)

cross sections are compiled and reduced to evaluate peak

shear strength and to characterize strength degradation. The ACI Structural Journal, V. 105, No. 4, July-August 2008.

MS No. S-2007-074.R1 received February 19, 2007, and reviewed under Institute

experimentally measured peak shear strengths of the 120 walls publication policies. Copyright 2008, American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved,

are compared with nominal shear strengths predicted by five including the making of copies unless permission is obtained from the copyright proprietors.

Pertinent discussion including authors closure, if any, will be published in the May-

equations: 1) Chapter 21 of ACI 318-05 (ACI Committee June 2009 ACI Structural Journal if the discussion is received by January 1, 2009.

concrete compressive strengths varied from 1991 to 7395 psi

ACI member Cevdet K. Gulec is a Graduate Student Researcher at the State University of

New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY. He received his BS from Istanbul Technical University, (13.7 to 51 MPa); the horizontal web reinforcement ratios ranged

Istanbul, Turkey, in 2002 and his MS from the State University of New York at Buffalo in between 0.00 and 0.0161; and the vertical web reinforcement

2005. His research interests include the seismic design of reinforced concrete structures.

ratios ranged between 0.00 and 0.0287. Boundary

ACI member Andrew S. Whittaker is a Professor of structural engineering at the element reinforcement was provided in 99 of the 120 walls

State University of New York at Buffalo. He received his BS from the University of in addition to the conventional vertical web reinforcement

Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia, in 1977 and his MS and PhD from the University of

California-Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, in 1985 and 1988, respectively. He is a member of with boundary element reinforcement ratios up to 0.128.

ACI Committee 349, Reinforced Concrete Nuclear Structures. His research interests Fourteen of the 120 walls in the dataset did not have horizontal

include earthquake and blast engineering, performance-based design, and seismic web reinforcement, 12 did not have vertical web reinforcement,

protective systems.

and seven had neither horizontal nor vertical web reinforcement

Bozidar Stojadinovic, FACI, is an Associate Professor of structural engineering at and included only boundary element reinforcement at wall

the University of California-Berkeley. He received his Dipl.Ing. in civil engineering

from the University of Belgrade, Serbia, in 1988; his MS from Carnegie Mellon

ends. The reported yield stress of the wall vertical web

University, Pittsburgh, PA, in 1990; and his PhD in civil engineering from University reinforcement ranged between 43.5 and 88.5 ksi (300 and

of California-Berkeley in 1995. He is a member of ACI Committees 335, Composite 610 MPa), and that of the horizontal web reinforcement

and Hybrid Structures; 341, Earthquake-Resistant Concrete Bridges; 349, Concrete

Nuclear Structures; 374, Performance-Based Seismic Design of Concrete Structures; ranged between 47.3 and 108.1 ksi (326 and 745 MPa). The

E803, Faculty Network Coordinating Committee; and Joint ACI-ASCE Committee reported yield stress for the boundary element reinforcement

445, Shear and Torsion. His research interests include probabilistic performance-

based seismic design of nuclear structures and bridges.

ranged between 43.5 and 84.8 ksi (300 and 585 MPa). Figure 3

summarizes the 120 walls studied herein with respect to

aspect ratio (presented in terms of height-to-length and

EXPERIMENTAL DATA moment-to-shear) and horizontal web reinforcement ratio:

A significant number of tests of squat reinforced concrete these are two principal parameters used to predict the

walls were conducted from 1950 to date in countries strength of squat walls. The wide range of values of the

including the U.S., Canada, Chile, England, France,

Germany, Japan, New Zealand, Switzerland, Portugal,

Mexico, and Taiwan. Most of these studies have focused on

the peak shear strength of squat walls and included tests on

three types of cross sections, namely rectangular, barbell

(rectangular section with columns at wall ends), and flanged

(I-shaped cross section). Gulec (2005) reviewed and

catalogued the results of tests of 352 reinforced concrete

squat walls (192 walls with barbells, 49 walls with flanges,

111 rectangular walls). The authors expanded the database in

2006 to include additional 37 rectangular wall tests. The data

from the 148 rectangular wall tests were assembled from

Alexander et al. (1973), Hirosawa (1975), Cardenas et al.

(1980), Hernandez (1980), Synge (1980), Endebrock et al.

(1985), Maier and Thrlimann (1985), Wiradinata (1985),

Pilette (1987), Wasiewicz (1988), Huang and Sheu (1988,

1994), Lefas et al. (1990), Lefas and Kotsovos (1990), Rothe

(1992), Maier (1992), Cheng (1992), Cheng et al. (1994),

Cheng and Yang (1996), Mohammadi-Doostdar (1994),

Pilakoutas and Elnashai (1995a,b), Hidalgo et al. (1998,

2002), Salonikios et al. (1999), Xie and Xiao (2000), Lopes

(2001a,b), and Greifenhagen and Lestuzzi (2005).

This study addresses the responses of rectangular walls

only. Test specimens were selected based on the following

criteria: 1) a minimum web thickness of 2 in. (51 mm); 2)

symmetric reinforcement layout; 3) no diagonal reinforcement

or additional wall-to-foundation reinforcement to control

sliding shear; and 4) aspect ratios (hw /lw) less than or equal

to 2.0, corresponding to a maximum moment-shear ratio*

(M/Vlw) of 2.13. The data for the 28 walls of the 148 that did

not meet all of the aforementioned criteria were excluded

from the analysis that is presented herein.

Figure 2 presents summary information on the 120 rectangular

walls considered in this study. The web thicknesses ranged

from 2.36 to 6.30 in. (60 to 160 mm); the wall lengths varied

between 23.6 and 118.1 in. (600 and 3000 mm); and the wall Fig. 2Histograms of geometric, material, and loading

heights varied between 19.7 and 78.7 in. (500 and 2000 mm). properties of 120 walls. (Note: 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ksi =

Thirty-four walls were tested with coexisting axial loads that 6.895 MPa.)

ranged between 0.022Aw fc and 0.182Aw fc; the reported

Some authors used cube strength rather than cylinder strength to report compressive

*Moment-shear

strength of concrete: cube strengths were converted to cylinder strengths per Mindess

ratios are normalized by actual wall length herein. et al. (2003).

horizontal web reinforcement ratio in the aspect ratio V n2 = V c + V s 10 f c t w d 1 (2)

interval of 0.5 and 2.0 is notable.

The selected walls were tested using one of these three

types of loading: monotonic (static), cyclic (quasi-static), Nu d1

V c = 3.3 f c t w d 1 + -----------

- (3)

and dynamic. Monotonically-loaded specimens (26 of 120) 4l w

were subjected to incrementally increasing loads in one

direction until failure. Cyclically-loaded specimens (91 of

0.2N

l w 1.25 f c + -------------u-

120) were loaded in the plane of the wall with incremented

forces or displacements until failure. Dynamic tests (three of lw tw

120) were conducted using earthquake simulators. V c = 0.6 f c + ---------------------------------------------------

- tw d1 (4)

Mu lw

------- ----

Vu 2

PUBLISHED EQUATIONS FOR PREDICTING

PEAK SHEAR STRENGTH OF SQUAT

REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS

A v f yh d 1

Five sets of equations based on the procedures provided in V s = ----------------- (5)

Chapter 21 of ACI 318-05 (ACI Committee 318 2005), s

Chapter 11 of ACI 318-05 (ACI Committee 318 2005),

Barda et al. (1977), ASCE/SEI 43-05 (ASCE 2005), and Per Section 11.10.6 of ACI 318-05, the shear strength

Wood (1990) are used to predict the peak shear resistance of provided by concrete is taken as the lesser of the values

the 120 rectangular walls. provided by Eq. (3) and (4), Eq. (4) does not apply if Mu/Vu

ACI 318-05 provides two semi-empirical equations, both lw/2 0, and the peak shear stress is limited to 10 f c psi

based on the modified truss analogy approach, to predict the (0.83 f c MPa). The minimum horizontal web reinforcement

peak shear strength of squat reinforced concrete walls. One ratio is 0.25%. The minimum vertical web reinforcement ratio

equation is provided in ACI 318-05, Section 21.7 is given by

(Special reinforced concrete structural walls and coupling

beams) for seismic design. The equation in Section 11.10 h

v = 0.0025 + 0.5 2.5 -----w- ( h 0.0025 ) (6)

(Special provisions for walls) is used for general design. lw

Equation Set I (Eq. (1)) is from Section 21.7 of ACI 318-05

Equation Set III (Eq. (7)) was proposed by Barda et al.

V n1 = ( c f c + h f yh)A w 10 f c A w (1) (1977) to predict the peak shear strength of squat walls

h Nu

V n3 = 8 f c 2.5 f c -----w- + ------------

- + v f yv t w d 2

Chapter 21 of ACI 318-05 imposes an upper limit of

(7)

10 f c psi (0.83 f c MPa) on peak shear stress; the limit is l w 4l w t w

intended to prevent diagonal compression failure. A lower

limit of 0.25% is imposed on the horizontal and vertical web

reinforcement ratios. For walls with aspect ratios less than or Equation Set IV is those of Eq. 4.2-4 and 4.2-3 of ASCE/

equal to 2.0, ACI 318-05, Chapter 21, requires that the vertical SEI 43-05 (Eq. (8) through (10)) to predict the peak shear

web reinforcement ratio be no less than the horizontal strength of squat walls with barbells or flanges. This equation set

can also be used for near-rectangular walls with small

web reinforcement ratio.

barbells or flanges when the total plan area of the wall is only

The procedure to predict the peak shear strength in Section slightly greater than that of the web alone. This equation set is

11.10 of ACI 318-05 is given by Eq. (2) through (5) applicable for walls with aspect ratios hw/lw 2 and vertical

(Equation Set II). and horizontal web reinforcement ratios less than or equal

to 1%. If the reinforcement ratios exceed 1%, the combined

reinforcement ratio se (calculated using Eq. (10)) is limited to

1%. ASCE/SEI 43-05 (ASCE 2005) imposes an upper limit

of 20 f c psi (1.66 f c MPa) on the peak shear stress.

h Nu

v n = 8.3 f c 3.4 f c -----w- 0.5 + -------------

- + se f y1 20 f c (9)

lw 4l w t w

se = Av + Bh (10)

to calculate the peak shear strength of squat walls

A vf f y2

aspect ratio and horizontal web reinforcement ratio. (Note: 6 f c A w V n5 = ------------

- 10 f c A w (11)

1 psi = 6.895 kPa.) 4

COMPARISON OF PREDICTED et al. (1977) and ASCE/SEI 43-05 equations (Vn3 and Vn4,

AND MEASURED RESULTS respectively) overpredict the measured peak strength of 83%

The accuracy and reliability of the five predictive equations and 89% of the 120 walls, respectively. Equation Set V

outlined previously are evaluated using the measured peak (Vn5), developed by Wood (1990), is accurate and reliable

strengths (Vpeak) of the 120 squat rectangular walls. For the because the mean and median values are close to 1.0 and the

cyclically loaded walls, the peak strength was taken from the standard deviation and COV are both relatively small.

first quadrant of the shear force-lateral displacement relationship. ACI 318-05, Chapter 21Figure 5 presents the variation

The 120 squat rectangular walls were divided into four

of Vn1/Vpeak with wall horizontal web reinforcement ratio. The

groups: Group 1: all 120 squat walls; Group 2: ACI 318-05-

dashed line in this figure (and in Fig. 6 and 8) represents the

compliant squat walls; Group 3: shear-critical squat walls;

and Group 4: ACI 318-05-compliant shear-critical squat walls. limiting value of hfyh in Chapter 21.7 of ACI 318-05 for

Grade 60 reinforcement. Values of Vn1/Vpeak greater than 1.0

For each wall in the database, the area centroid of the wall

represent an unconservative estimate of the measured peak

vertical reinforcement in tension (to calculate d2 in Eq. (7))

shear strength. Equation Set I consistently overestimates the

and the location of the resultant tensile force in the vertical

reinforcement (to calculate d1 in Eq. (2) through (5) and d3 peak shear strength of walls with hfyh greater than 350 psi

in Eq. (8)) were computed using a commercially available (2413 kPa). Figure 6 presents the variation of Vn1*/Vpeak

cross section analysis program. Concrete was assumed with wall horizontal web reinforcement ratio, where Vn1* is

unconfined and a standard nonlinear stress-strain relationship calculated using Equation Set I without imposing the upper

was used to model reinforcement. The reported values of shear stress limit of 10 f c psi (0.83 f c MPa). A comparison

geometric (wall cross-sectional layout, reinforcement size, of Fig. 5 and 6 indicates that the upper shear stress limit,

and layout), material ( fc , yield, and fracture stresses for linked to the change of failure mode from diagonal tension to

reinforcement), and loading properties (axial force) were diagonal compression, governs the peak shear strength of

used for the cross-section analysis. The concrete tensile walls with h fyh larger than approximately 500 psi (3447 kPa).

strength was set equal to zero, the compressive failure strain Figure 7 presents the variation of Vn1/Vpeak with moment-

was assumed to be 0.003, and the modulus of elasticity was shear ratio of the wall specimens. Equation Set I provides

taken as 57,000 f c psi (4733 f c Pa . For reinforcement, conservative estimates of the peak shear strength for walls

the strains at the onset of hardening and the fracture strain with moment-shear ratios of 0.5 and less, although it must be

were taken as 0.01 and 0.1, respectively.

A statistical presentation of the ratios of the predicted to

measured peak shear strength for the 120 walls in Group 1

are presented in the rows of Table 1 for the five equation sets.

Values in columns two (arithmetic mean) or three (median or

50th percentile) in Table 1 greater than 1.0 indicate that the

corresponding strength equation is unconservative in a mean

or median sense, respectively, namely, the equation over-

estimates the measured peak shear strength. The last column

in the table reports the percentage of unconservative

predictions for the 120 specimens in the group. The standard

deviation (column four) and coefficient of variation (COV)

(column five) are also reported to provide supplemental

information on the dispersion in the ratios. Figure 4 presents the

distributions of the ratios of the predicted peak strength to Fig. 4Distribution of ratio of predicted shear strengths to

measured peak strength for the five procedures using box measured peak shear strengths for all walls.

and whisker plots, which present the lower quartile (Q1),

median (Q2), upper quartile (Q3), and extreme values. The Table 1Statistics of ratio of shear strength

maximum length of a whisker was limited to 1.5 times the predicted using Equation Sets I through V to

interquartile range (IQR) unless its length was governed by measured peak shear strength of all walls

minimum or maximum data points. The data points larger (Group 1)

than Q3 + 1.5 IQR or smaller than Q1 1.5 IQR and are

identified by + in the figure. Standard Percent over-

Mean Median deviation COV Minimum Maximum predictions

The mean and median values of the shear strength ratios Vn1/

presented in Table 1 and Fig. 4 for Equation Sets I (Vn1) and II Vpeak 1.19 1.08 0.53 0.44 0.40 3.51 60

(Vn2) indicate that Equation Set II (Chapter 11 of ACI 318-05) is

Vn2/

the more accurate of the two because the mean ratio for Vpeak

0.97 0.88 0.40 0.41 0.37 2.73 40

Equation Set II is closer to 1.0. The assumption about the

Vn3/

effective shear area of the wall is the principal reason why

Vpeak 1.39 1.30 0.45 0.33 0.59 2.61 83

Equation Set II is more conservative than Equation Set I. In

Equation Set I, the effective shear area is equal to the gross Vn4/

1.46 1.42 0.37 0.26 0.71 2.71 89

Vpeak

area of the wall, lwtw; in Equation Set II, the effective shear

area of the wall is equal to d1tw and smaller than that for Vn5/

Equation Set I. Furthermore, the scatter, as measured by Vpeak 1.01 0.91 0.34 0.34 0.48 2.23 40

standard deviation, is smaller for Equation Set II. The Barda Note: COV = coefficient of variation.

Fig. 5Variation of ratio of nominal shear strength predicted Fig. 7Variation of ratio of nominal shear strength predicted

using Equation Set I to measured peak shear strength with using Equation Set I to measured peak shear strength with

horizontal web reinforcement ratio. (Note: 1 psi = 6.895 kPa.) moment-to-shear ratio.

Fig. 6Variation of ratio of nominal shear strength predicted Fig. 8Variation of ratio of nominal shear strength predicted

using Equation Set I (without upper stress limit of using Equation Set II to measured peak shear strength with

10 f c ) to measured peak shear strength with horizontal horizontal web reinforcement ratio. (Note: 1 psi = 6.895 kPa.)

web reinforcement ratio). (Note: 1 psi = 6.895 kPa.)

strength of squat rectangular walls. Figure 11, which

noted that the sample size in this range of moment-shear presents the variation of measured peak shear strength

ratio values is extremely small. normalized by the product of f c and (d3tw) with the

combined reinforcement ratio (se fy1), shows that the

ACI 318-05, Chapter 11Figure 8 presents the variation

20 f c psi (1.66 f c MPa) upper bound on peak shear

of Vn2/Vpeak with wall horizontal web reinforcement ratio. Most

stress was not reached by any of the 120 walls. The utility of

of the unconservative strength predictions correspond to

this upper limit on shear stress is highly questionable.

values of h fyh greater than 350 psi (2413 kPa). Most of the

predictions of peak shear strength are conservative for values of Wood (1990)Figure 12 presents the variation of Vn5/

h fyh less than 300 psi (2068 kPa). The upper stress limit of Vpeak with Avf fy2/Aw , where Avf is the total area of wall

Equation Set II governs the calculated strengths of walls with vertical reinforcement. Woods (1990) equation (Equation

h fyh larger than 500 psi (3447 kPa). Set V) becomes more conservative as the vertical reinforcement

ratio increases. One hundred and ten of the 120 predictions

Barda et al. (1977)Equation Set III is based on the work

of peak shear strength were governed by the lower limit on

of Barda et al. (1977) who tested eight squat reinforced

shear stress of 6 f c psi (0.5 f c MPa); none of the

concrete walls with flanges. Figure 9 presents the variation

predictions was governed by the upper limit of shear stress.

of Vn3/Vpeak with wall vertical web reinforcement ratio.*

Of the five sets of predictive equations, Woods (1990)

Equation Set III substantially overestimates the peak shear

equation provides the best estimates of peak shear strength

strength of rectangular walls for v fyv greater than 200 psi

of rectangular squat walls, with the smallest coefficient of

(1379 kPa).

variation and mean and median values of 1.01 and 0.91,

ASCE/SEI 43-05 (ASCE 2005)Figure 10 presents the respectively. Ninety percent of the strength ratios determined

variation of Vn4/Vpeak with the combined wall reinforcement using this equation ranged between 0.50 and 1.50.

ratio (se fy1). Equation Set IV overestimates the peak shear

Group 2: ACI 318-05-compliant squat walls

*Equation Set III uses the vertical web reinforcement ratio to calculate peak shear

Chapter 21 of ACI 318-05 requires that reinforcement in

strength and not the horizontal web reinforcement used in previous strength calculations. structural walls be continuous and uniformly distributed

across the shear plane; web reinforcement ratios v and h strength as determined by cross section analysis. Seventy-three

be no less than 0.25%; and, if the aspect ratio hw /lw does not of the 120 squat walls were judged shear-critical.

exceed 2.0, that the vertical web reinforcement ratio v be no Figure 13 presents the variation of Vflex/Vpeak ratio with

less than the horizontal web reinforcement ratio h. Table 2 moment-shear ratio, where Vflex is the shear force associated

presents similar data to Table 1, but for only those 56 (of with the development of wall flexural strength (hereafter

120) squat walls in the database that comply with require- referred to as shear-flexural strength). The data points in the

ments of ACI 318-05. shaded region correspond to the shear-critical walls that

A comparison of the mean, median, and percentage of form this group. Figure 13 reveals, as expected, that walls

over-predictions in Tables 1 and 2 shows that Equation with small moment-shear ratios are generally shear-critical

Sets I through V are more unconservative if only ACI and that walls with moment-shear ratios of 1.5 and greater

318-05-compliant walls are considered. Woods (1990) are generally flexure-critical.

equation provides the best estimate of peak shear strength Table 3 summarizes results for the shear-critical walls.

with a median value of Vn5/Vpeak equal to 1.01 and a COV of Figure 14 presents box-and-whisker plots, similar to Fig. 4,

0.34. Equation Set II yields a median value of Vn2/Vpeak for the shear-critical walls. If the dataset is limited to these

equal to 1.00 but the COV associated with this equation set walls, a comparison of results presented in Tables 1 and 3

(0.38) is greater than that of Equation Set V. The equations shows a reduction in the percentage of unconservative

of Chapter 11 of ACI 318-05 provide the most conservative predictions for Equation Sets I through III. Woods (1990)

median predictions of peak shear strength for the ACI 318-05- equation (Equation Set V) best estimates the shear strength

compliant walls. of shear-critical walls with a median value of the ratio Vn5/

Vpeak equal to 0.93 and a relatively small COV. The equations

Group 3: Shear-critical squat walls of Chapter 11 of ACI 318-05 provide the most conservative

A shear-critical wall was identified as a wall with estimations as measured by median results. The procedures

measured peak shear strength less than the shear force of Barda et al. (1977) and ASCE/SEI 43-05 are substantially

associated with the development of expected flexural unconservative for shear-critical walls.

Fig. 9Variation of ratio of nominal shear strength predicted Fig. 11Variation of measured peak shear strength normalized

using Equation Set III to measured peak shear strength with by product of f c and d3tw with combined reinforcement ratio

vertical reinforcement ratio. (Note: 1 psi = 6.895 kPa.) (sefy1). (Note: 1 psi = 6.895 kPa.)

using Equation Set IV to measured peak shear strength Fig. 12Variation of ratio of nominal shear strength predicted

with combined reinforcement ratio (sefy1). (Note: 1 psi = using Equation Set V to measured peak shear strength with

6.895 kPa.) Avffy2 normalized by total wall area. (Note: 1 psi = 6.895 kPa.)

Figure 15 presents the variation of c (see Eq. (1)) with of the walls either did not fail in diagonal tension and/or the

moment-shear ratio, where c was back-calculated from the horizontal reinforcement did not yield. Importantly, the

measured peak shear strengths, assuming yielding of the scatter in the prediction of the parameter is significant. No

horizontal web reinforcement. The data of Fig. 15 attempt to conclusions related to appropriate values for c as a function

isolate the concrete contribution to shear strength per of M/Vlw can be drawn from this dataset aside from the use

Chapter 21.7 of ACI 318-05, assuming that the horizontal of c = 3 across a range of moment-shear ratios of 0 < M/Vlw <

web reinforcement yields. The piecewise linear representation 1.5 is likely inappropriate.

of c per Eq. (21.7) of ACI 318-05 is also shown in the

figure. The negative values of c in Fig. 15 show that some

Group 4: ACI 318-05-compliant shear-critical

squat walls

The 24 squat walls in Group 4 are both ACI 318-05-

compliant and shear critical. Table 4 summarizes the results

for these walls. A comparison of the results presented in

Tables 3 and 4 shows an improvement in the predictions of

Equation Sets I, II, and V for the Group 4 walls in terms of

standard deviations. Woods (1990) equation once again

provides the best estimates of the peak shear strength of ACI

318-05-compliant shear-critical walls with a median value of

1.00 for Vn5 /Vpeak and a relatively small COV. The equations

of Chapter 11 of ACI 318-05 again provide the most

conservative estimates of peak shear strength as measured

by median results. The equations of Barda et al. (1977) and

ASCE/SEI 43-05 provide substantially unconservative

predictions of peak shear strength for ACI 318-05-compliant

Fig. 13Variation of ratio of shear-flexural strength to shear-critical walls.

measured peak shear strength with moment-to-shear ratio.

Table 2Statistics of ratio of shear strength

predicted using Equation Sets I through V to

measured peak shear strength of ACI 318-05-

compliant walls (Group 2)

Standard Percent over-

Mean Median deviation COV Minimum Maximum predictions

Vn1/

Vpeak 1.26 1.08 0.52 0.41 0.66 2.67 61

Vn2/

1.00 0.86 0.38 0.38 0.49 2.03 41

Vpeak

Vn3/

1.61 1.58 0.44 0.27 0.91 2.61 96

Vpeak

Vn4/

1.40 1.35 0.41 0.29 0.71 2.35 82

Vpeak

Vn5/

Fig. 14Distribution of ratio of the predicted shear 1.01 0.92 0.35 0.34 0.48 1.97 46

Vpeak

strengths to measured peak shear strength considering only Note: COV = coefficient of variation.

shear-critical walls.

predicted using Equation Sets I through V to

measured peak shear strength of shear-critical

walls (Group 3)

Standard Percent over-

Mean Median deviation COV Minimum Maximum predictions

Vn1/

Vpeak 1.09 1.00 0.54 0.49 0.40 3.51 49

Vn2/

0.92 0.86 0.42 0.45 0.37 2.73 30

Vpeak

Vn3/

1.24 1.23 0.40 0.32 0.59 2.51 73

Vpeak

Vn4/

1.48 1.41 0.36 0.24 0.71 2.71 92

Vpeak

Vn5/

1.03 0.93 0.33 0.32 0.57 2.23 44

Fig. 15Variation of c with moment-shear ratio for Vpeak

shear-critical walls. Note: COV = coefficient of variation.

STRENGTH DEGRADATION IN SQUAT Wood (1990). Results were presented using four groups of

REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS squat walls: 1) all 120 walls; 2) ACI 318-05-compliant

Figure 1 presents the first quadrant of a load-displacement walls; 3) shear-critical walls; and 4) ACI 318-05-compliant

relationship for a squat reinforced concrete wall tested under shear-critical walls.

cyclic loading (Synge 1980). The peak shear strength of the The key conclusions of this study are:

wall, Vpeak, was recorded at a horizontal displacement of 1. The scatter in the values of peak shear strength predicted

10 mm (0.39 in.), corresponding to a story drift of 0.67%. by all equations is substantial. Most of the conservative

The resistance of the wall diminished with repeated cycling predictions of shear strength were obtained for lightly

to displacements equal to or greater than 10 mm (0.39 in.). reinforced walls;

To quantify the loss of shear strength with repeated 2. The best predictions of peak shear strength of rectangular

cycling for all walls in the database, shear strengths Vpeak2 squat walls were obtained using Woods equation, which

and Vpeak3 were extracted at the displacement, peak, gave median and mean values of the ratio of computed-

corresponding to the peak strength, Vpeak, in the second and measured peak strength close to 1.0 and consistently

third excursions at or beyond peak, respectively. Note that produced the smallest COV for all four groups of walls. Most

the choice of loading protocol will influence the rate of of Woods (1990) estimates of peak shear strength were

degradation, but that is not quantified herein. Figure 16 governed by the lower limit on wall shear stress.

presents the mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) of 3. The nominal strength equations of Chapter 11 of ACI

Vpeak2/Vpeak and Vpeak3/Vpeak for three ranges of wall aspect 318-05 generally provided the most conservative (lowest)

ratio. The greatest percentage loss of strength with repeated estimates of peak shear strength;

cycling is observed in those walls with aspect ratios less than 4. The procedures of Barda (1977) and ASCE/SEI 43-05

1.0: the mean values of Vpeak2/Vpeak and Vpeak3/Vpeak were consistently overestimated the peak shear strength of the

73% and 43%, respectively. The values of Vpeak2/Vpeak and rectangular walls in the database and should not be used to

Vpeak3/Vpeak increase with an increase in the wall aspect proportion shear walls with rectangular cross sections.

ratio, which indicates that strength degradation is most

severe for walls with low aspect ratios. The dispersions are

greater in the third cycle than the second for all aspect ratios.

Figure 17 presents the ratios of the shear strength

predicted using Equation Set I to Vpeak2 and Vpeak3 as a

function of the horizontal web reinforcement ratio. As

expected, the equation substantially overestimates the

second- and third-excursion shear strengths.

The experimentally measured peak shear strengths of

120 squat rectangular walls were compared with nominal

shear strengths predicted by five equations presented in

ACI 318-05, Barda et al. (1977), ASCE/SEI 43-05, and

predicted using Equation Sets I through V to

measured peak shear strength of ACI 318-05- Fig. 16Means and standard deviations (in parenthesis)

compliant shear-critical walls (Group 4) of ratios of second- and third-cycle shear strengths normalized

by measured peak shear strength as function of aspect

Standard Percent over- ratio for all walls.

Mean Median deviation COV Minimum Maximum predictions

Vn1/

Vpeak 1.11 0.99 0.43 0.39 0.66 2.06 46

Vn2/

0.91 0.85 0.33 0.37 0.49 1.60 29

Vpeak

Vn3/

Vpeak 1.42 1.31 0.40 0.28 0.91 2.51 92

Vn4/

1.43 1.35 0.36 0.25 0.71 2.11 88

Vpeak

Vn5/

1.00 0.89 0.30 0.30 0.57 1.67 46

Vpeak

Note: COV = coefficient of variation.

equations (Equation Set IV)

hw /lw 0.5 A=1 B=0

0.5 hw /lw 1.5 A = hw /lw + 1.5 B = hw /lw 0.5 Fig. 17Variation of ratio of nominal shear strength predicted

hw /lw 1.5

using Equation Set I to Vpeak2 and Vpeak3 with horizontal web

A=0 B=1

reinforcement ratio. (Note: 1 psi = 6.895 kPa.)

5. The 20 f c psi (1.66 f c MPa) shear stress limit in REFERENCES

ASCE/SEI 43-05 was not achieved by any wall in the ACI Committee 315, 2005, Building Code Requirements for Structural

Concrete (ACI 318-05) and Commentary (318R-05), American Concrete

database and should be revised; Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 430 pp.

6. Squat reinforced concrete shear walls undergo a significant Alexander, C. M.; Heidebrecht, A. C.; and Tso, W. K., 1973, Cyclic

loss of shear strength with repeated cycling to or beyond the Load Tests on Shear Wall Panels, Proceedings, Fifth World Conference on

displacement corresponding to peak shear strength. Strength Earthquake Engineering, Rome, pp. 1116-1119.

loss is more rapid in walls with low aspect ratios; and ASCE, 2005, Seismic Design Criteria for Structures, Systems, and

Components in Nuclear Facilities (ASCE/SEI 43-05), American Society

7. Better equations are required for squat reinforced of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, 96 pp.

concrete walls to assess both peak strength and loss of strength Barda, F.; Hanson, J. M.; and Corley, W. G., 1977, Shear Strength of

and stiffness with repeated cycling. The equation(s) for peak Low-Rise Walls with Boundary Elements, Reinforced Concrete Structures

shear strength must accommodate alternate failure modes and in Seismic Zones, SP-53, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills,

include variables for those parameters that influence shear MI, pp. 149-202.

Cardenas, A. E.; Russell, H. G.; and Corley, W. G., 1980, Strength of

strength. The equations(s) should provide median estimates of Low Rise Structural Walls, Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to

peak shear strength with only a small dispersion. Wind and Earthquake Forces, SP-63, American Concrete Institute, Farmington

Hills, MI, pp. 221-241.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Cheng, F. Y., 1992, Coupling Bending and Shear Hysteretic Models of

The authors thank S. Wood, J. Moehle, M. Sozen, and D. Rothe for Low-Rise R. C. Walls, Concrete Shear in Earthquake, University of

providing information on tests of squat walls and assistance in populating Houston, Houston, TX, pp. 276-288.

the squat wall database. Cheng, F. Y.; Lou, K. Y.; and Yang, J. S., 1994, Analytical and Experimental

Studies of RC Structures with Low-Rise Shear Walls, Proceedings, Fifth U.S.

National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Chicago, IL, pp. 45-54.

NOTATION Cheng, F. Y., and Yang, J. S., 1996, Hysteresis Rules and Design Parameter

Av = area of horizontal reinforcement within distance of s, in.2 Assessment of RC Low-Rise Shear Walls and Buildings with Openings,

Avf = area of total reinforcement (sum of areas of vertical web and Department of Civil Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla,

boundary element reinforcement) crossing shear plane, in.2 MO, 344 pp.

Aw = area of the wall, in.2 Endebrock, E.; Dove, R.; and Dunwoody, W. E., 1985, Analysis and Tests

COV = coefficient of variation on Small-Scale Shear Walls FY-82 Final Report, Report No. NUREG/CR-

d1 = distance from extreme compression fiber to location of resultant 4274, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, 53 pp.

of forces in vertical reinforcement in tension and assumed Greifenhagen, C., and Lestuzzi, P., 2005, Static Cyclic Tests on

equal to 0.8lw unless larger value is determined by strain Lightly Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls, Engineering Structures,

compatibility analysis, in. V. 27, pp. 1703-1712.

d2 = distance from extreme compression fiber to area centroid of Gulec, C. K., 2005, Ultimate Shear Strength of Squat Rectangular

wall vertical reinforcement in tension, in. Reinforced Concrete Walls, MS thesis, Department of Civil, Structural

d3 = distance from extreme compression fiber to location of resultant and Environmental Engineering, State University of New York at Buffalo,

of forces in vertical reinforcement in tension, which may be Buffalo, NY, 222 pp.

determined from strain compatibility analysis and is assumed Hernandez, B. O., 1980, Diseno de Muros de Concreto con Falla por

equal to 0.6lw if no analysis is performed, in. Cortante, Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de

fc = compressive strength of concrete, psi Mexico, Mexico, 165 pp. (in Spanish)

fy1 = reinforcement yield stress used with se Hidalgo, P. A.; Jordan, R.; and Ledezma, C. A., 1998, Experimental

fy2 = reinforcement yield stress for combination of vertical web and Study of Reinforced Concrete Walls under Shear Failure, Proceedings,

boundary element reinforcement, psi Sixth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Seattle, WA.

fyh = yield stress of horizontal web reinforcement, psi Hidalgo, P. A.; Ledezma, C. A.; and Jordan, R. M., 2002, Seismic

fyv = yield stress of vertical web reinforcement, psi Behavior of Squat Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls, Earthquake Spectra,

hw = height of wall, in. Paper No. 297, EERI, V. 18, No. 2, pp. 287-308.

lw = length of wall, in. Hirosawa, M., 1975, Past Experimental Results on Reinforced Concrete

Mu = moment at section, lb-in. Shear Walls and Analysis on Them, Kenchiku Kenkyu Shiryo, No. 6,

Nu = axial load that is negative in tension, lb Building Research Institute, Ministry of Construction, Tokyo, Japan,

s = spacing of horizontal reinforcement in wall, in. 277 pp. (in Japanese)

tw = thickness of wall, in. Huang, C. C., and Sheu, M. S., 1988, Experimental and Theoretical Study

Vc = nominal shear strength provided by concrete, lb on Aseismic Behaviors of Low-Rise RC Shear Walls, Proceedings, Ninth World

Vflex = shear force associated with development of flexural strength, lb Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Tokyo-Kyoto, Japan, pp. 6/35-6/40.

Vn1 = nominal shear strength, lb, per Chapter 21.7 of ACI 318-05 Huang, C. C., and Sheu, M. S., 1994, Experimental and Theoretical

Vn1* = nominal shear strength, lb, per Chapter 21.7 of ACI 318-05 with- Studies of R. C. Shear Walls under Varying Axial and Lateral Loads,

out imposing upper stress limit of 10 f c psi (0.83 f c MPa) Proceedings, Fifth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering,

Vn2 = nominal shear strength, lb, per Chapter 11.10 of ACI 318-05 Chicago, IL, pp. 15-24.

Vn3 = nominal shear strength, lb, per Barda (1977) Lefas, I. D.; Kotsovos, M. D.; and Ambraseys, N. N., 1990, Behavior of

Vn4 = nominal shear strength, lb, per ASCE/SEI 43-05 Reinforced Concrete Structural Walls: Strength, Deformation Characteristics,

Vn5 = nominal shear strength, lb, per Wood (1990) and Failure Mechanism, ACI Structural Journal, V. 87, No. 1, Jan.-Feb.,

Vpeak = measured peak shear strength, lb pp. 23-31.

Vpeak2 = shear force, lb, extracted at displacement in second excursion Lefas, I. D., and Kotsovos, M. D., 1990, Strength and Deformation

to peak Characteristics of Reinforced Concrete Walls under Load Reversals, ACI

Vpeak3 = shear force, lb, extracted at the displacement in third excursion to Structural Journal, V. 87, No. 6, Nov.-Dec., pp. 716-726.

peak Lopes, M. S., 2001a, Experimental Shear-Dominated Response of RC

Vs = nominal shear strength provided by horizontal reinforcement, lb Walls: Part IObjectives, Methodology and Results, Engineering

Vu = shear force at section, lb Structures, V. 23, pp. 229-239.

vn = nominal peak shear stress, psi Lopes, M. S., 2001b, Experimental Shear-Dominated Response of RC

c = aspect-ratio coefficient, which per ACI 318-05, equal to 3.0 Walls: Part IIDiscussion of Results and Design Implications, Engineering

for hw/lw 1.5, 2.0 for hw /lw 2, and varies linearly for 1.5 Structures, V. 23, pp. 564-574.

hw/lw 2 Maier, J., and Thrlimann, B., 1985, Bruchversuche an Stahlbeton-

peak = displacement corresponding to experimentally-determined scheiben, Institut fr Baustatik und Konstruktion, Eidgenssische

shear strength Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zrich, Zrich, Switzerland, 130 pp.

h = horizontal web reinforcement ratio (in German)

se = combined reinforcement ratio that is equal to Av + Bh (A Maier, J., 1992, Shear Wall Tests, Concrete Shear in Earthquake,

and B are defined in Table 5 as function of aspect ratio) University of Houston, Houston, TX, pp. 85-94.

v = vertical web reinforcement ratio Mohammadi-Doostdar, H., 1994, Behavior and Design of Earthquake

Resistant Low-Rise Shear Walls, PhD thesis, Department of Civil Design Basis and Test Results, ACI Structural Journal, V. 96, No. 4, July-

Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 234 pp. Aug., pp. 649-660.

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Concrete Cantilever Walls, Part I: Experimental Results, ACI Structural Christchurch, New Zealand, 142 pp.

Journal, V. 92, No. 3, May-June, pp. 271-281. Wasiewicz, Z. F., 1988, Sliding Shear in Low-Rise Shear Walls under

Pilakoutas, K., and Elnashai, A., 1995b, Cyclic Behavior of Reinforced Lateral Load Reversals, MS thesis, Department of Civil Engineering,

Concrete Cantilever Walls, Part II: Discussions and Theoretical Comparisons, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 127 pp.

ACI Structural Journal, V. 92, No. 4, July-Aug., pp. 425-434.

Pilette, F. C., 1987, Behavior of Earthquake Resistant Squat Shear Wiradinata, S., 1985, Behavior of Squat Walls Subjected to Load

Walls, MS thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, Reversals, MS thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of

Ottawa, ON, Canada, 177 pp. Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 171 pp.

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Stahlbeton wandschieben unter Erdbebenbeanspruchung, PhD Thesis, Walls, ACI Structural Journal, V. 87, No. 1, Jan.-Feb., pp. 99-107.

Fachbereich Konstruktiver Ingenieurbau, der Technischen Hochschule

Darmstadt, Germany, 161 pp. (in German) Xie, L., and Xiao, Y., 2000, Study on Retrofit of Existing Squat Concrete

Salonikios, T. N.; Kappos, A. J.; Tegos, I. A.; and Penelis, G. G., 1999, Shear Walls, Report No. USC-SERP 2000-5, Department of Civil Engi-

Cyclic Load Behavior of Low-Slenderness Reinforced Concrete Walls: neering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 111 pp.

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