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Hormone Source Chemical Stimulus for Inhibitor Effects Excess Deficiency Lab Testing

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Growth Hormone Anterior Protein -Growth hormone- -Somatostatin -Antagonizes -Acromegaly -Growth hormone -Oral glucose
pituitary releasing hormone -Glucose loading the effect of -gigantism deficiency (growth failure) loading (100g)
(GHRH) --agonists insulin on Dwarfism -Urinary GH
-Sleep --blockers glucose -hypopituitarism or measurement
-Exercise - metabolism complete/partial failure of -immunoassays
-Physiologic stress Emotional/psychogenic -promotes the pituitary
-Amino acids stress hepatic
-Hypoglycaemia -Nutritional gluconeogenesis
-Sex steroids deficiencies -Stimulates
--agonists -Insulin deficiency lipolysis.
--blockers -Thyroxine deficiency
Adrenocorticotropic Anterior Peptide -Corticotropin- -Cortisol -Controls the -Cushings disease -Weakness -radioimmunoassay
hormone (ACTH) pituitary releasing hormone -somatostatin secretion of -Addisons disease -Hypoglycaemia -
(CRH) hormones by -Weight loss Immunoradiometric
the adrenal -Decreased auxiliary or assay
cortex pubic hair -Chemiluminescent
Prolactin Anterior Protein -Thyrotropin- -Prolactin inhibitory -Stimulates the -Hypogonadism -Sheehan syndrome -evaluate TSH and
pituitary releasing hormone factor (PIF) production of -Galactorrhea -Pituitary tumor, necrosis, free T4 (or total
(TRH) -Dopamine milk by the -Medications or infarction thyroxine and T3
-Estrogen mammary (phenothiazines, -hypotituitarism resin uptake) to
glands and butyrophenones, - eliminate primary
prolongs metoclopramide, Pseudohypoparathyroidism hypothyroidism of
progesterone etc.) cause of elevated
secretion -Disruption of prolactin
following pituitary stalk -assess other
ovulation and (inflammation, pituitary function to
during trauma, tumors) confirm pituitary
pregnancy in -Renal failure tumor
females -Polycystic ovary
-Increases syndrome
sensitivity to LH -Physiologic
in males stressors (exercise,
Thyroid-stimulating Anterior Glycoprotein Thyrotropin- -Somatostatin -increases the -Primary -Secondary hypothyroidism - for hyperthyroid
hormone (TSH) pituitary releasing hormone -High blood levels of secretion of hypothyroidism -Subclinical patients, TSH and
(TRH) thyroid hormones hormones by -Subclinical hyperthyroidism T4 are usually
the thyroid hypothyroidism -Graves disease monitored
gland -Hashimotos

Cortisol Zona Steroid - Glucagon -Increases fat Primary: Primary: -ACTH-dependent:

fasciculata cells Adrenocorticotropic and protein -Cushing's syndrome -Addison's disease (Primary ACTH>15pg/L
of adrenal hormone (ACTH) breakdown Secondary: Adrenal insufficiency) -ACTH-
cortex -Hypoglycaemia -Increase -pituitary or ectopic -Nelsons syndrome independent:
glycogenesis tumor Seconday: ACTH<5pg/L
-Increase blood -Secondary Adrenal Cortisol > 15pg/L
glucose levels insufficiency -Fluorometric
-Reduces the (hypocortisolism resulted assayas
inflammatory from pituitary lesion) -Competitive
and immune -Sheehans syndrome Protein Binding
responses -
immunoassay using
- High-
performance liquid
method (for
determination of
glucocorticoids in
Aldosterone Zona Steroid -Angiotensin II -Progesterone -Increase -Aldosteronism -Distal RTA type IV ACTH stimulation
glomerulosa - -Dopamine sodium hypertension, hyperkalemia, renal salt test for aldosterone
cells of Adrenal Adrenocorticotropic resorption with hypokalemia, wasting
cortex hormone (ACTH) resultant water metabolic alkalosis -Addison's disease
-Elevated serum retention -Aldosterone -Liddles syndrome
potassium Increase blood adenoma
-Decreased serum pressure -Adrenal hyperplasia
sodium Stimulates H+ -Bartters Syndrome
and K+ excretion -Gitelmanss
Adrenal Androgens Zona reticularis Steroid -Prolactin Anti-androgenic drugs Stimulate organ -Virilization in -Addison's disease -Measurement of
cells of adrenal -Pro- development, women and children -Andropause testosterone levels
cortex opiomelanocortin linear growth, (boys - penile in blood
peptides and epiphyseal enlargement,
-T lymphocytes fusion androgen-
dependent hair
growth; girls -
hirsutism, acne,
-Short stature
dysfunction and
infertility in men and

Luteinizing Anterior Glycoprotein Gonadotropin- Inhibin -Stimulates -Klinefelters -Kallmanns Syndrome -evaluated together
hormone (LH) pituitary releasing hormone ovulation in Syndrome -Hyperprolactinemia with FSH to detect
(GnRH) females -Testicular -Type 2 Diabetes ovarian failure
-Acts on Leydig Feminization -Bioassays
cells of the Syndrome -Immunoassays
testes -Myotonic Dystrophy
stimulating -5-Reductase
them to Deficiency
synthesize and -Testicular Injury and
secrete Infection
testosterone in
Follicle-stimulating Anterior Glycoprotein -Gonadotropin- Inhibin -Stimulates -Klinefelters -Kallmanns Syndrome --evaluated
hormone (FSH) pituitary releasing hormone maturation of Syndrome -Hyperprolactinemia together with LH to
(GnRH) an ovarian -Testicular detect ovarian
- Activin follicle and Feminization failure
ovum in females Syndrome -Bioassays
-Acts on Sertoli -5-Reductase -Immunoassays
cells to Deficiency
stimulate -Myotonic Dystrophy
protein -Sertoli Cell-Only
synthesis, Syndrome
inhibin, and
binding protein
and stimulates
the maturation
of sperm in the
testes in males
Vassopressin or Posterior Peptide -Increased plasma -decreased plasma -Regulates renal -Syndrome of -Diabetes Insipidus Direct
Antidiuretic pituitary osmolality osmotic pressure free water Inappropriate ADH -Primary nocturnal measurement of
hormone (ADH) -Decreased blood excretion secretion (SIADH) enuresis ADH:
volume or blood -Promotes -Medications -hypernatremia -Urine
pressure factor VII (carbamazipine, immunoassay
release from clofibrate, and vinca -
hepatocytes alkaloids) Radioimmunoassay
and von -Physiologic stimuli + extraction
Willebrand (nausea, pregnancy, procedure
factor release hypoglycaemia, and -Serum/urine
from hypoxia) osmolality
endothelium -hyponatremia Test for SIADH:
-serum and
-Water load test
Test for diabetes
-Dehydration test
Oxytocin Posterior Peptide -impulses from -cessation of suckling -Stimulates -benign prostate Poor social skills -24-hour urinary
pituitary hypothalamus in uterine hyperplasia oxytocin
response to contraction -emotional problems -Bioassays
stretching of during (oversensitivity) -
cervical or uterine childbirth Radioimmunoassay
area Stimulates milk
-suckling of infant secretion
Estrogen Ovary Steroid Follicle-stimulating Aromatase inhibitors -Develop and -Breast cancer -fatigue Urinary Estrogen:
hormone (FSH) maintain female -Endometrial cancer -depression -Browns method
sex -UTI -Kobers reaction
characteristics -Vaginal/bladder infections Serum Estradiol
(promote -Immunoassay
development of -Non-isotope assay
breasts, uterus,
and vagina)
accumulation of
blood on
uterine wall
menstrual cycle
Progesterone Ovary (Corpus Steroid -luteinizing Aromatase inhibitors -Prepares the -ovarian cysts -endometriosis -
luteum) hormone (LH) uterus for -ovarian cancer -depression Radioimmunoassay
- Follicle- implantation of -fatigue -Non-isotopic
stimulating the zygote immunoassay
hormone (FSH) -Thickening of -Administration of
the cervical hCG (test ability of
mucus corpus luteum to
-Reduction of secrete steroids)
rises after
Testosterone Testes Steroid -Gonadotropin- Anti-androgens -aids in sperm -precorious puberty -Decrease in muscle mass; -ordered with FSH
releasing hormone (decrease cell production, that may lead to increase in body fat and LH tests
(GnRH) Gonadotropic maintenance of infertility -fragile bones -
-luteinizing hormone -> decrease functional -polycystic ovary -decrease in body hair Radioimmunoassay
hormone (LH) testosterone) reproductive syndrome -Klinefelters Syndrome
- Follicle- organs, -Testicular Feminization
stimulating secondary Syndrome
hormone (FSH) sexual -Myotonic Dystrophy
characteristics, -5-Reductase Deficiency
sexual -Testicular Injury and
behaviour Infection
-Kallmanns Syndrome
-Type 2 Diabetes
thyroxine (T4) and Thyroid Amino acid Thyroid-stimulating Somatostatin -Tissue growth -Thyrotoxicosis -Cretinism -can be measured
triiodothyronine derivative hormone (TSH) -brain -Graves disease -Myxedema as free T3/T4 or
(T3) maturation -Hyperthyroidism -Primary hypothyroidism total T3/T4
-increased heat -Low T3 & Low T4 Syndrome -Immunoassays
production -FT4 index
number of -
Insulin -cells of islets Protein High glucose levels Low glucose levels -Decrease Hypoglycaemia - Diabetes Mellitus Measured together
of Langerhans plasma glucose -hyperglycemia with serum glucose,
in the pancreas levels glucagon, and C-
-Increase peptide levels
movement of
glucose into the
cells and
increase glucose
and glycolysis
Glucagon -cells of islets Peptide Low glucose levels High glucose levels -Increase Hyperglycemia Hypoglycaemia Measured together
of Langerhans Stress Amylin plasma glucose with serum glucose,
in the pancreas Fasting state levels insulin, and C-
- Increases peptide levels
Parathyroid Parathyroid Protein Low blood calcium High blood calcium -Stimulates Hyperparathyroidism -Hypoparathyroidism Intact PTH assay
hormone gland levels levels osteoclastic -paresthesia
activity, which
releases Ca2+
and HPO4- in
absorption of
Ca2+, excretion
of HPO4-, and
activation of
renal 1--
hydroxylase in
Calcitonin Thyroid Peptide High blood calcium -Low blood calcium -decreases rate -Hypocalcemia -Hypercalcemia T4, T3, and TSH also
medullary cells levels levels of bone -Medullary thyroid -Pagets disease evaluated for
-somatostatin breakdown cancer -Bone metastases diagnosis of C-cell
-prevents large hyperplasia and
increase in thyroid cancer
blood calcium
levels following
a meal
Vitamin D Skin following Steroid Parathyroid Low PTH secretion -Promotes -hypercalcemia -rickets (young) -Measurement of
exposure to hormone (PTH) intestinal -osteomalacia (adult) 25-hydroxyvitamin
UVB rays from absorption of -Hypovitaminosis D D3 and 1,25-
the sun Ca2+ and HPO4- -cardiovascular disease dihydroxyvitamin
-Promotes renal -cancer D3
reabsorption of -
Ca2+ and HPO4- Radioimmunoassay
-Stimulates or HPLC in
differentiation conjuction with
of osteoclast competitive protein
precursors to binding for
osteoclasts quantitation of
metabolites of
vitamin D