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Life, Works and Writings of Jose P.

John Patrick Habacon
Instructor, College of Arts and Sciences
The 19th Century was extremely dynamic and creative age
especially in Europe and the United States.
Six Major Changes of the 19th Century:
The struggle for nationalism
Gradual spread of democracy
Modernization of Living through the Industrial Revolution
Advancement in Science and Technology
Growth of Imperialism
New Ideas and Confidence for Growth
Rizal on the Growth of Nationalism
In his letter to his Austrian friend Ferdinand Blumentritt, Rizal
I would stimulate these Philippine studies which are like nosce
te ipsum(Know Thyself) that gives the true concept of oneself and
drives nation to greatness.
When people become aware that they are different from
other race, they become proud and willing to serve their nation.
They become patriotic and develop proud in their country. All
these are possible only if they know their country better.
Rizal on the French Revolution and American War for
Rizal wished that Spain would have
benefited the gifts of Liberty, Equality and
Progress and shared them with the
However, Spain did not plant in those
islands (Philippines) those inestimable gifts
so that they might be the exclusive
patrimony and feudal dominion of the
reactionary friars.
Rizal on the Advancement of Science
In his novel Noli, Rizal hailed the Jesuits whom the
Philippines owes her dawning system of instruction in
the natural sciences, the soul of the nineteenth
As people become more interested in science, many
of its secrets were discovered with systematized
experimentation. Scientists around the world worked
to know more about the facts of nature.
Businessmen funded researches which in turn, the
results brought huge profits to the business.
Rizal on Imperialism

He said, The Filipinos remained loyal and faithful

to Mother Spain for three centuries, giving up their
liberty and independence, now fascinated by the
promised heaven, now flattered by the friendship
offered them by a great and noble nation(Mother
Spain), and now compelled to submission by the
superiority of arms for persons with low opinion of
themselvesor now because of foreign invaders,
taking advantage of the internal dissension, played
the role of the third party of divide and rule
Rizal on Demand for Independence
The demand for national identity and
independence was a result of Western ideas
of nationalism and democracy.
Rizal was prophetic when he said;
No matter how much the Filipinos owe
Spain, they cannot be compelled to renounce
their right of redemptionHowever great is
the loyalty of the Filipinos, Spain cannot
prevent the fatal laws of history be fulfilled.
Rizal on the significance of Enlightenment for
Rizal on the significance of Enlightenment for progress of
the Philippines:
Despite all that system, organized, perfected and
followed with tenacity by (Spain) who wished to keep
the islands in holy ignorance, there are Filipino writers,
free thinkers, historians, chemists, physicians, jurists,
artists. Enlightenment is spreading and its persecution
encourages it. The divine flame of thought is
inextinguishable among the Filipino people
Filipinos were
unfortunate victims
of the evils of the
unjust, bigoted and
colonial power.
Instability of colonial
Corrupt Officialdom
No Philippine
representation in the
Spanish Cortes
Human Rights Denied to
No Equality Before the Law
Maladministration of
Racial Discrimination
Forced Labor or
Polo Y Servicios
Haciendas Owned
by the Friars