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# UNIT 4

## Time-domain Analysis of Control System

Lec11: Objectives

## Write the general response of second-order systems given the

pole location
Find the damping ratio and natural frequency of a second-
order system
Find the settling time, peak time, percent overshoot and rise
time for an under-damped second-order system
Second-order Systems

## Why study second order system??

They are the simplest systems that exhibit
oscillations and overshoot.
Many important systems exhibit second order
system behavior.
Second order behavior is part of the behavior of
higher order systems and understanding second
order systems helps you to understand higher
order systems.

## Goal for this lesson:

To be able to predict and understand how it
responds to an input
Second-order Systems

Mass-spring-damper system:

m F
k
x

## The differential equation:

m(d2x/dt2) + c(dx/dt) + kx = F
Second-order Systems

## Any other examples?

Second-order Systems

1. Overdamped
Poles: 2 real poles at -s1,-s2
Natural response: 2 exponentials with time constants equal to the reciprocal of
the pole locations.
s1t s 2t
c(t ) K1e k2e
Second-order Systems

2. Underdamped response
Poles: 2 complex pole at -sdjd
Natural response: Damped sinusoid with an exponential envelope whose time
constant equal to the reciprocal of the poles real part. The radian frequency is
equal to the imaginary part of the poles.
sdt
c(t ) Ae cos(w t )
d
Second-order Systems

3. Undamped response
Poles: 2 imaginary poles at j1
Natural response: Undamped sinusoid with radian frequency equal to the
imaginary part of the poles.

c(t ) A cos(w1t )
Second-order Systems

## 4. Critically damped response

Poles: 2 real poles at s1
Natural response: One term is exponential, time constant = the reciprocal of the
pole location. Another term is the product of time, t, and an exponential, time
constant = the reciprocal of the pole location.
s1t s 2t
c(t ) K1e k 2 te
The General Second-order
Systems
Natural Frequency, n The angular frequency of oscillation of the
system without damping.

Damping Ratio,
Exponential decay frequency

1 Natural period (sec)
Natural frequency (rad/sec) 2 Exponential time constant

An
2
To reflect these new definitions,
the general second-order system G( s) 2
s 2 n s n
2
is represented by:

## The denominator of this transfer

D(s) s 2n s n
2 2
function is called characteristic
equation where;

## Solving for the poles of the

transfer function in the above s1, 2 n n 2 1
equation yields:
The General Second-order
Systems
s1, 2 n n 2 1
The General Second-order
Systems
s1, 2 n n 2 1
SummaryEffect of damping ratio

## = 0 The system is undamped. Has no damping and the

response is sinusoidal. Both system roots are
imaginary, i.e. have no real components.
= 1 The system is critically damped. Repeated real
roots. Because both roots are real, the system does
not overshoot.
< 1 The system is under damped. Two complex roots.
Oscillatory response
> 1 The system is over damped. Both roots are real.
No oscillation
Performance measures for
underdamped 2nd-order systems

Tr

Rise time Tr: Time taken for the response to rise from 0 to the ss value
or time required to go from 10% to 90% of final value
Tr = 1/(2)
Performance measures for
underdamped 2nd-order systems

Ts

## Settling time Ts: Time required for oscillations to be bounded

within 2% of steady state value 4
Ts
n
Performance measures for
underdamped 2nd-order systems

Tp

## Peak time, Tp: Time to reach maximum peak.

Tp =
or Tp
n 1 2
Performance measures for
underdamped 2nd-order systems

%OS

## Percentage overshoot, %OS: The amount that the waveform

overshoots the steady state of final value

%OS exp
1
2

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