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Moment of Inertia

dereje.woldemichael@petronas.com.my

Lesson Outcomes

Determine the mass moment of inertia of a rigid body or a

system of rigid bodies.

DEW 1

Applications

The large flywheel in the picture is

connected to a large metal cutter. The

flywheel mass is used to help provide a

uniform motion to the cutting blade.

important for this use? How can we

determine a value for this property?

flywheels circumference?

Applications (continued)

undergoes rotation about a fixed

axis that is not at its mass center.

The crank develops a kinetic

energy directly related to its mass

moment of inertia. As the crank

rotates, its kinetic energy is

converted to potential energy and

vice versa.

rotation smaller or larger than its moment of inertia about its

center of mass?

DEW 2

Mass Moment of Inertia

mass at G. It is free to rotate about the z axis,

which passes through G. Now, if we apply a

torque T about the z axis to the body, the body

begins to rotate with an angular acceleration of

.

mass moment of inertia (MMI) about the z axis.

the body to angular acceleration. The MMI is often used when

analyzing rotational motion.

I analogous to Mass, m

moment of

mass inertia

F ma

sum of

sum of linear acceleration

moments angular acceleration

forces

.. about an axis

resistance of a body to angular acceleration.

DEW 3

Moment of Inertia vs Mass

Two objects with similar mass provide the same resistance

to linear motion but their resistances to angular motion

depends on how far the elemental masses are away from

the axis of rotation.

mA=mB=mC

A B C

IA< IB IA< IC

Z Y I ofa body must be defined with

reference to an axis.

W W Normally, it is useful to determine

I of a body about;

X X the axis of rotation or

an axis passing through its

centre of mass.

Y

Z The values of I of the same object

about axes W-W, X-X, Y-Y and Z-Z

are not the same.

DEW 4

Mass Moment of Inertia (continued)

The figures below show the mass moment of inertia formulations for two

shapes commonly used when working with three dimensional bodies.

These shapes are often used as the differential element being integrated

over an entire body.

Moment of inertia - the integral of the second moment

about an axis of all the elements of mass dm, which

compose the body. Describes the distribution of mass

about an axis

I Z r 2 dm Unit: kg.m2

from the z axis to the arbitrary element dm

I >0

DEW 5

Calculating I

Each elemental mass dm has a density

dm dV occupying an elemental volume dV

m V

x y z

shape is not functions of all

three cartesian axes.

When using direct integration, only symmetric bodies having surfaces

generated by revolving a curve about an axis will be considered here.

Shell element

If a shell element having a height z, radius r = y, and

thickness dy is chosen for integration, then the volume

element is dV = (2y)(z)dy.

This element may be used to find the moment of inertia Iz

since the entire element, due to its thinness, lies at the

same perpendicular distance y from the z-axis.

Disk element

If a disk element having a radius y and a thickness dz is

chosen for integration, then the volume dV = (y2)dz.

Using the moment of inertia of the disk element, we can

integrate to determine the moment of inertia of the entire

body.

DEW 6

I about the Centre of Mass

Moment of inertia computed about an axis that passes

through its centre of mass and perpendicular to the plane of

motion is normally referred to as IG

centre of mass

I of Common Solids

DEW 7

Parallel-Axis Theorem

If the mass moment of inertia of a body about an axis passing through

the bodys mass center is known, then the moment of inertia about any

other parallel axis may be determined by using the parallel axis theorem,

centre

I I G md 2

I about

of mass axis of

d

axis of rotation

rotation

I about axis that distance

passes through between

the mass centre the two

axes

Radius of Gyration

Moment of inertia of the body about its centre of mass

can be expressed by using radius of gyration (k).

The radius of gyration is a measure of the distribution of

the bodys mass about the axis at which the moment of

inertia is defined.

2 I mk 2

r

m

dm

k I Z r 2 dm

m m

Unit: m

radius of gyration from the solid CAD model

DEW 8

Composite Bodies

If a body is constructed of a number of simple shapes, I

of the body about any axis z can be determined

summing the I of all the composite shapes computed

about the z axis

Algebraic addition is necessary since a composite part

must be considered as a negative quantity if it has

already been counted as a piece of another, eg, a hole

Parallel axis theorem is needed for calculations if center of

mass of each composite part does not lie on the z axis

(axis of rotation).

I (IG md 2 )

density of the material, , is constant.

2

I r dm r 2 dV r 2 dV

V V V

dV ( 2 r ) h dr

I r 2 dV r 2 2 rhdr

V r

R R4

I 2 h r 3 dr 2 h

0 4 Iz 1

2 mR 2

1

2 R 2 hR 2 1

2 VR 2 1

2 mR 2

DEW 9

Example #2: I for a Disk Element

A solid is formed by revolving the shaded area about the y

axis. If the density of the material is 5000 kg/m3, determine Iy

dm dV ( x 2 dy )

The disk dm is similar to a

cylinder of radius x and height dy;

Iy 1

2 mR 2

dI y 12 ( dm ) x 2

y2=x

2 2 4

Iy 1

2 x x dy 12 x dy

r r

1

Iy 8 I y 12 5000 19 [ y 9 ]10

1

2 y

0

dy

2

12 5000 19 [1 0 ] 873 kgm

Example #3

Given: The pendulum consists of a slender

q rod with a mass 10 kg and sphere with

a mass of 15 kg.

r Find: The pendulums MMI about an axis

perpendicular to the screen and

p

passing through point O.

for a composite area (as done in

statics).The pendulums can be

divided into a slender rod (r) and

sphere (s).

DEW 10

Example #3 (continued)

Solution: 1. The center of mass for rod is at point Gr, 0.225 m

from Point O. The center of mass for sphere is at Gs,

0.55 m from point O.

2. The MMI data for a slender rod and sphere are given

on the inside back cover of the textbook. Using

those data and the parallel-axis theorem, calculate

the following.

IO = IG + (m) (d) 2

IOr = (1/12) (10)(0.45)2 +10 (0.225)2 = 0.675 kgm2

IOs = (2/5) (15) (0.1)2 + 15 (0.55)2 = 4.598 kgm2

IO = IOr + IOs = 5.27 kgm2

Example #4

Given: The pendulum consists of a 5-kg plate

and a 3-kg slender rod.

the pendulum about an axis

perpendicular to the screen and

passing through point G.

Plan:

composite bodies. Then, determine the radius of gyration using the

MMI and mass values.

DEW 11

Example #4 (continued)

Solution:

1. Separate the pendulum into a square plate (P) and a slender rod

(R).

2.25 m and 1 m from point O, respectively.

y = ( y m) / ( m )

= {(1) 3 + (2.25) 5} / (3+5)

= 1.781 m

Example #4 (continued)

3. The MMI data on plates and slender rods are given

on the inside cover of the textbook. Using those

data and the parallel-axis theorem;

= 1.621 kgm2

IR = (1/12) 3 (2)2 + 3 (1.781 1)2

= 2.830 kgm2

Radius of gyration k = IO / m = 0.746 m

DEW 12

Example #5

If a plate has a density of 8000 kg/m3 and a thickness of

10mm, determine its moment of inertia about an axis

directed perpendicular to the page and passing through

point O.

Plate consists of 2 composite parts, the 250mm radius

disk minus the 125mm disk

Calculations are performed using parallel axis theorem

1 2

IG mr

2

I O I G md 2 ;

Example #5 (continued)

Disk,

md dVd 8000 0.25 0.01

2

15.71 kg

2

Id O 12 md rd md d 2

12 15.710.25 15.710.25 1.473 kg . m 2

2 2

Hole:

IO I d O IhO

mh dVh 8000 0.125 0.01

2

1.473 0.276

3.93 kg

2 2

1.20 kg . m 2

I h O mh rh mh d

1

2

1

2 3.930.125 3.930.25

2 2

0.276 kg . m 2

DEW 13

Example #6

consists of two thin rods, each having a weight of

50N. Determine the pendulum's I (a) about O,

and (b) about the mass center G of the pendulum.

1 1 50 2

I O ml 2 ( I OA ) O 1 1.70 kg . m

2

3 3 9.8

1

I G ml 2

12

1 1 50 2 50 2

( I BC )O ml 2 md 2 1 1 5.52 kg . m

2

12 12 9.8 9.8

I O ( I OA ) O ( I BC ) O 1.70 5.52 7.22 kg . m 2

Example #6 (continued)

Part (b)

For mass center G located relative to pin at O,

~

y m 0.5(50 / 9.8) 1(50 / 9.8)

y 0.75 m

m (50 / 9.8) (50 / 9.8)

rods OA & BC to G

I O I G md 2 ;

100 2

7.22 I G 0.75

9.8

I G 1.49 kg . m 2

DEW 14

Summary Questions

to _____________.

A) translational motion B) deformation

C) angular acceleration D) impulsive motion

A) a negative quantity

B) a positive quantity

C) an integer value

D) zero about an axis perpendicular to the plane of motion

about a transverse axis located at its end is _________ .

A) (1/12) m L2 B) (1/6) m L2

C) (1/3) m L2 D) m L2

about the z axis is ___________ .

A) (1/2) m R2 B) m R2

C) (1/4) m R2 D) 2 m R2

DEW 15

Summary Questions (continued)

mass is always ____________.

A) maximum B) minimum

C) zero D) None of the above.

____________.

A) IA = 2IB B) IA = (1/2)IB

C) IA = 4IB D) IA = (1/4)IB

References:

SI 13th Edition, Prentice-Hall, 2012.

DEW 16

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