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Cross-Cultural Education;

Gender Roles in Different


Paul Wiegand, Brandon Patten, Emma Robinson, Rachel Hubby, Richard Pelletier, Paul Lucas

Australia’s Gender Roles

Men dominate the population

Men usually provide for the families

Women spend twice as much time with


Social Status has really changed in the past

50 years.

Educated women are not as desirable

Changing formation of gender roles

Past male failings have deprived the new


Male teacher population is declining

Males underachieve in english compared to


since 1989 more women have attended

college and 30 percent of them devote themselves to those career paths

Differences in Health

Suicide is 4 times more likely in men than in

women. 16.7 in every 100,000 men commit


It is 6.4 for women

Because of this it is concluded that men have

a lower life expectancy


Japan - Both men and women believe that women

should be stay at home parents while men bring the

actual income. The Prime Minister, however, is pushing for changes to be made.

China - In the traditional Chinese family, the man is

responsible for maintaining, providing for and protecting his family. Chinese mothers usually stay in

the home to take care of the home, the children, and

the rest of the family.

Asia - Cont.

Russia- Russian men also expect that wife will take care

of children and do most of housework. Also many Russian

women think that the life is ideal if they live for the family.

India- The women are expected to take care of the

children while the men provide financially.

South American Gender Roles


Men take leadership roles in the family.

Men are the ones who work.

Men are responsible to managing the family's affairs.

Men are expected to be aggressive and confident.

South America


Take the role of caretaker

Are expected to have and raise children

Are expected to be chaste until marriage.

Family sizes are expected to be large

South America

Changing roles:

In the last decade there has been a mass incorporation

of women into the formal workforce in Latin America.

We are seeing more women in positions of power and as

heads of households.

Some Stuff

Women earn between 60 percent and 90

percent of men’s average income. At the same

time, the percentage of women heads of

households grew from 22 percent in 1990 to 31

percent in 2008, according to the United


Gender Roles in North America

Constantly shifting

●Modern day “Breadwinner Moms”

Traditional gender roles









Gender Roles in North America

Rise of Feminism

Family changed from patriarchy to partnership

Mass Media driving force behind

perpetuated stereotypes

Gender Roles in North America

African American families tend to through

away “idealized” gender roles

Young Canadians tend to cling to traditional

gender roles

African Culture


Under father’s then husband’s authority Usually home-makers and child-bearers

Liberia has female president since 2006

Education cut short in some cases

Not admitted into the Defense Academy in Nigeria


31% of societies based on

male lineages Sons are highly prized

Exercise power over female Hunting, crop cultivation,

animal rearing, fishing

European Culture


- Play a vital role in most

families by having a job

- No restrictions due to

familial/marital status

- Not allowed to lead

religious services


- Men’s attainment of

secondary education

has increased by 6% in

2 years

- Part time work is dominated by females;

full time work is dominated by males

Australia Sources

NSW HSC Online

State of South Wales Department of

Communities and Charles Sturt University

North America Sources

The Unfinished Revolution: How a New Generation Is Reshaping Family, Work, and Gender in America Medved, Caryn E Journal of Marriage and Family; Feb 2011; 73, 1; ProQuest Social Science Journals pg. 312

Changing gender roles in prime-time commercials in Malaysia, Japan, Taiwan, and the United States Mary Jiang Bresnahan;Inoue, Yasuhiro;Liu, Wen Ying;Nishida, Tsukasa Sex Roles; Jul 2001; 45, 1/2; ProQuest Social Science Journals pg. 117


Archibong, E. P., Bassey, A. O., Bassey, U. A., & Ojua, T. A.

(2012). Gender and occupation in traditional African setting: a

study of Ikot Effanga Mkpa community Nigeria. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 2 (3), 238-245.

Constanza, G. (2011). The state of gender relations in Africa: an assessment of the multifaceted issue of gender in Africa. Think

Africa Press, 1. Retrieved from

European Source