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2.

3 Selection Concept and Process Waste Treatment

All liquid and solid waste from this plant will be processed in waste treatment facility. The
overview of waste water treatment process of this plant is illustrated in the waste management
flow diagram that can be seen in Figure x. Here is the description of each process in this waste
water treatment facility:

a. Segregation & Waste Holding


The waste that produced from fucoxanthin plant is differentiate by form of waste
(solid or liquid) and hazardous level. The waste will be segregated to different holding
tank.
Liquid wastes (consist of microfiltration water, freeze-drying water, ethanol,
hexane, phospholipid) will be kept separately in 4 tanks. Holding tank 1 is for keeping
water, holding tank 2 is for keeping ethanol, holding tank 3 is for keeping hexane, and
holding tank 4 is for keeping phospholipid.
Solid wastes (consist of alumunium sulfate, ammonium nitrate,and phosphorus)
will be kept separately in 3 tanks. Holding tank 5 is for keeping alumunium sulfate,
holding tank 6 is for keeping ammonium nitrate, and holding tank 7 is for keeping
phosphorus.
Emission gas that is released during drying prosess is carbon dioxide (CO2). From
standards, the plant can released gas waste into the environment by way of venting for
CO2 emission can be directly discharge into the air because it is no dangerous emission.
Based on regulation, there are several substances that are considered hazardous
and must treated differently. Ethanol, hexane, ammonium nitrate are considered
hazardous waste. So in this case, the plant will hold the waste for maximum 90 days and
then will be distributed to PT. PLIB (Pengolahan Limbah Industri Bekasi) for further
waste management. Meanwhile, the other waste that are non-hazardous will have further
wastewater management.
b. Utilization of Waste
Alumunium sulfate from holding tank 5 can be re-used as coagulant for
wastewater treatment application. Alum has high efficiency, effectiveness in clarification,
and utulity as a sludge dewatering agent. The chemical leaves no residual collor and
offers very good turbity removal. Moreover, alum is easy to dissolve in water.
Phosphorus from holding tank 7 can be distributed to fertilizer company.
Phosphorus can be re-used as main material for organic fertilizer. Meanwhile,
phosholipid from holding tank 4 can be distributed to bio-diesel company as one of the
material for the product.

Industrial and Domestic Wastewater Treatment

Industrial wastewater is considered as wastewater that produced from main


process of the fucoxanthin plant. While domestic wastewater is considered as wastewater
that produced from washing water and household activity. The following industrial and
domestic wasterwater management are:

c. Filtration
First, the wastewater filtered out to remove any solids that present in the water using filter
screen. The purpose of this filtration process is to prevent any blockage along the
pipe,valve,and pump.
d. Mixing and Equalization
The filtered waste water will enter the mixing and equalization tank, where it will be
mixed with wastewater from domestic water. The different flows of wastewater which
may vary in terms of concentration,flow rate, pH, and other properties are combined into
one large equalization tank. This process is done to provide optimum conditions for the
following treatment process.
e. Coagulation
The liquid waste stream from previous tank then transferred to coagulation tank.
Coagulation process is the binding of colloidal particle by the coagulant that aims to
separate soluble material from waste water. The coagulant that used is alumunium sulfate
that comes from holding tank.
f. Sedimentation
After treated in coagulation tank, the stream moves to sedimentation tank. The aim of this
step is to settle the flocculate from coagulation with the help of gravity force. The
flocculate of this waste contains organic soluble solid and biomass from previous
processes. The settled flocculate then can be transferred to solid waste management unit
as re-used material. Meanwhile the separated waste water will move to next step.
g. pH Adjustment Tank
The wastewater that considered free of colloidal particle is transferred to pH adjustment
tank. In this process, the wastewater will have neuralization from alkalin properties to
normal condition by using acid. This addition is performed to reduce the degree of acidity
(pH) because it will have an effect on the growth of bacteria. The wastewater treatment
that will be used in fucoxanthin plant is a biological treatment where will use a activated
sludge to reduce BOD & COD value.
h. Indicator Checking
The effluent of processed waste water is transffered to indicator tank which is consist of
membrane. This membran will filtrate the wastewater that already achieved the targeted
parameter (BOD&COD and particle size). If the parameter already sufficient, the
wastewater can be discharged safely. If not, the wastewater will go through the waste
management from the beginning (filtration).
Figure 1. Waste Management Flow Diagram

2.4 Plant Environmental Impact


Enviromental impact that could produced from fucoxanthin plant can be divided into three
categories which are air pollution, water pollution, and noise pollution.
a. Air Pollution
The air pollution of this plant comes from the microalgae cultivation process. As
mentioned before, the gas of this plant consists of residual CO2. The concentration is
below 0.5%, which is under the limit of CO2 based on BSN standard. From the standard,
the plant can be directly released gas waste into the environment by way of venting for
CO2 emission can be directly discharge into the air because it is not dangerous emission.
b. Water Pollution
Water pollution in this plant comes from industrial and domestic wastewater. All of this
wastes, contain very high level of BOD anf COD. If it was about to be discharged
directly without treatment, it would pollute the majority of water body. These waste
could lead to pandemy of pathogenic microbes, because organic waste is the suitable
ecosystem for pathogenic microbes.
c. Noise Pollution
The noise pollution especially comes from equipments that have moving motor and high
pressure, like pump, peeling machine and chipping machine, etc. Because the location of
this plant process layout will have some space and the sound has low intensity, so it is
assumed that the noise will not disturb the society.

3.1 Area Classification

The plant layout is made by considering the space available must be enough for the whole
plant and its supporting facilities, spacing between process instruments is ruled by Inside Battery
Limit (IBL), and the spacing between supporting facilities is ruled by Outside Battery Limit
(OBL), safety consideration, pipeline length. The fucoxanthin plant classified into several areas
which are the office area, utilities area, production process area, safety area and another
supporting area.
a. Production Process Area
Process area will cover the area and building involved in production line of fucoxanthin
and tryglycerides. In the process area, all employees should use safety equipment or PPE
(Personal Protective Equipment). In this area, the layout shall be planned carefully since
it involves the process units; this leads to the usage of battery limit for equipment and
building. The areas and buildings in this process include warehouse, control room, and
process area. Process equipment are placed in the process area. Several units of process
are cultivation unit, filtration unit, extraction unit, flocculation unit, drying unit,
condensing and evaporation unit.
b. Office Area
Office are covers area for office building and laboratory. Office area contact directly with
administration, management of the plant, and quality assesment of the product produced
in plant. Office area involves building of non production activities in the plant.
c. Utilities Area
Utility area is consists of cooling tower room and generator set room. There is only one
cooling tower with 2,540 kg of cooling water/hour capacity. This area is an open air area
but there is roof also. In this room, there is an area for the operator to control the cooling
tower. The generator set room consists of one generator set that worked by diesel. The
diesel will be stored in metal drum that send by supplier.
d. Safety and Emergency Area
This area covers for safety office, fire station, meeting/evacuation point. This area has
major purpose to maintain and ensure the safety of the plant besides the primary function
related to fire management, and safety workers management.
e. Waste Management Area
This area is localized to treat the waste water from production area and service area. It
should be located remotely from production area to prevent contamination in raw
material and finished good. It should be placed in the side of the plant so the treated
waste water can easily transfers to trench. There will be a small control room to monitor
the quality of treated waste water to achieve the government rules of environment
monitoring.
f. Supporting Area
Supporting area is area that equipped the workers activity in the plant. This areas covers
area for entrance area (gate), security post, parking area, clinic, mosque, canteen, loading
and shipping area, and park.

REFERENCE

Earlham.edu. (2017). Solvent Waste, Chemical Hygiene and Safety | Earlham College. [online]
Available at: http://earlham.edu/chemical-hygiene-and-safety/hazardous-waste-disposal/solvent-
waste/ [Accessed 11 Nov. 2017].

Publications, I. (2017). Coagulation and Flocculation in Water and Wastewater Treatment | IWA
Publishing. [online] Iwapublishing.com. Available at:
https://www.iwapublishing.com/news/coagulation-and-flocculation-water-and-wastewater-
treatment [Accessed 11 Nov. 2017].

Beckart.com. (2017). Aluminum Sulfate (Alum) Al2(SO4)3 for Industrial Waterwaste Treatment.
[online] Available at: http://www.beckart.com/chemistry/coagulants/alum.php [Accessed 11
Nov. 2017].
WorkSafe Queensland. (2017). Ammonium nitrate. [online] Available at:
https://www.worksafe.qld.gov.au/injury-prevention-safety/hazardous-chemicals/specific-
hazardous-chemicals/ammonium-nitrate [Accessed 11 Nov. 2017].