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# Syllabus 2017-2018

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CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT
(Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot)

## College Included under 2(f) & 12(8) by UGC

Bachelor of Science (Semester - V & VI)
BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V & VI

CONTENTS

## S.No. Subjects Page No.

1. Physics 01

2. Mathematics 08

3. Chemistry 15

4. Biotechnology 30

5. Microbiology 39

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Physics

PHYSICS
SEMESTER-V

## PAPER P-501(MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS, CLASSICAL MECHANICS & QUANTUM MECHANICS)

Mathematical Physics
(i) Fourier Series
Definition and derivation of the co-efficients of Fourier Series[7.1], Cosine & Sine Series[7.1], Solved
problems on Fourier Series, Applications of Fourier analysis(square wave & full wave rectifier)[7.9],
Problems.
Basic reference book : Mathematical Physics by Rajput, (Pragati Prakashan), Meerut, India.
Classical Mechanics
(i) Lagrangian Formulation
Constraints[8.1], Generalised coordinates[8.2], DAlemberts principle[8.3], Lagrange equations[8.4],
A general expression for kinetic energy[8.5], Symmetries and laws of conservation[8.6], Cyclic or
ignorable coordinates[8.7], Velocity-dependent potential of electromagnetic field[8.8], Rayleighs
dissipation function[8.9], Problems.
(ii) Variational Principle: Lagranges and Hamiltons Equations
Configuration space[11.1], Hamiltons principle[11.4], Equivalence of Lagranges and Newtons
equations[11.5], Advantages of the Lagrangian formulation-electro-mechanical analogies[11.6],
Lagranges undetermined multipliers[11.7], Applications of the Lagrangian method of undetermined
multiplies[11.9], Hamiltons equations of motion[11.10], Some applications of the Hamiltonian
formulation[11.11], Phase space[11.12], Problems.
Basic reference book for (i) & (ii) : Introduction to Classical Mechanics by Takwale and Puranik. (Tata McGraw
Hill Pub Comp. Delhi).
Quantum Mechanics
(i) The Schrodinger equation and Stationary States
Schrodinger equation: A Free Particle in One Dimension[2.1], generalization to Three Dimensions[2.2],
The Operator Correspondence and the Schrodinger equation for a Particle subject to forces[2.3], Physical
interpretation on , Normalization and Probability interpretation[2.4], Non-Normalizable Wave
Functions and Box Normalization[2.5], Conservation of Probability[2.6], Expectation Values,
Ehrenfests Theorem[2.7], Admissibility Conditions on the wave function[2.8], Stationary states: The
Time-Independent Schrodinger equation[2.9], A particle in a Square Well potential, Bound states in a
Square Well(E<0)[2.11]; (a) Admissible solutions of Wave equation (b) The Energy Eigenvalues-
Discrete Spectrum (c) The Energy Eigen functions:Parity (d) Penetration into Classically Forbidden
Regions, The Square Well:Non-localized States (E>0)[2.12].
(ii) General Formalism of Wave Mechanics
Schrodinger Equation and the Probability Interpretation for an N-Particle System[3.1], The Fundamental
Postulates of Wave Mechanics: (a) Representation of States (b) Representation of Dynamical
Variables[3.2], The Adjoint of an Operator, and Self-Adjointness[3.3], The Eigen value Problem;
Degeneracy[3.4], Eigen values and Eigen functions of Self-Adjoint Operators[3.5], The Dirac-Delta
function[3.6].
Basic Reference Book for (i) & (ii) :Text Book of Quantum Mechanics by Mathews and Venkateshan, (Tata
McGraw Hill Pub. Comp.)
Reference Books:
2. Mathematical methods in Physical Science - M.L.Bose, John Willy & Sons
3. Classical Mechanics - Gupta, Kumar and Sharma. Pragati Prakashan, Meerut, India
4. Classical Mechanics - Goldstein
5. Quantum Mechanics - Ghatak and Loknathan, Macmillan India Ltd., Delhi
6. Quantum Mechanics - Ajoy Ghatak
7. Elements of Quantum Mechanics - Kamal Singh and S.P.Singh, S.Chand Co.

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 1

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Physics

## PAPER P-502 (ELECTRICITY, MAGNETISM AND SOLID STATE ELECTRONICS)

Electricity and Magnetism
(i) Electrostatics :
Electric flux and Gauss law (differential form) [2.2.1], Divergence of E [2.2.2], Curl of E [2.2.4],
Introduction to Potential [2.3.1], Poissons and Laplaces equation [2.3.3], the work done on a moving
charge [2.4.1]
(ii) Magnetostatics
Electric Current and current density [5.1.3], Magnetic field of steady current [5.2.1], Divergence of B
[5.3.2], Curl of B [5.3.3], Amperes law [5.3.4], Comparison of Magnetostatics and Electrostatics
[5.3.5], Vector potential [5.4.4]
(iii) Electrodynamics
Faradays law [7.2.1], Maxwells equations [7.3.1], Scalar and vector potentials of electrodynamics fields
[7.4.1], Poynting theorem[7.5.2]
Basic reference book for (i), (ii) and (iii) : Introduction to Electrodynamics by D.J.Griffiths [Prentice Hall of India
Pvt. Ltd, Delhi]
(iv) Motion of Charged Particles
Charged particle in a uniform magnetic field B [8.1], Force on a current in Magnetic field [8.4], Charged
particle in Electric and magnetic fields [8.8]
Basic reference book for (iv) : Electricity and Magnetism by A.S.Mahajan and A.A.Rangwala, [Tata McGraw
Hill]
(v) Power Systems
Generation of Electrical energy[1.2], Sources of Energy[1.3], Fuels[1.8 to 1.10], Power stations[2.1],
Thermal Power station[2.2, 2.3], Hydro power station[2.7, 2.8, 2.10], Diesel power station[2.11],
Nuclear Power station[2.13], Gas power plant [2.13]
Basic reference book for (v) : Principles of Power Systems by V.K.Mehta and Rohit Mehta, (S.Chand &
Company Ltd.)
Reference Books :
1 Electricity and Magnetism - Mahajan and Rangwala
2 Classical Electrodynamics J.D.Jackson
3 Electricity and Magnetism R. Murugeshan
4 Electromagnetics B.B.Laud
5 Electricity and Magnetism K.K.Tiwari
6 Electricity and Magnetism Berkeley Physics Course, Vol. II
Solid State Electronics
(i) Multi-stage Transistor Amplifiers
Multistage Transistor Amplifier[14.1], RC coupled Transistor Amplifier[14.3], Transformer coupled
Amplifier[14.4], Direct coupled Amplifier[14.5], Comparison of Different types of coupling[14.6].
(ii) Transistor Audio Power Amplifiers
Transistor Audio Power Amplifier[15.1], Difference between Voltage and Power amplifier[15.2],
Performance Quantities of power amplifier[15.3], Classification of Power amplifier[15.4], Expression
for Collector Efficiency[15.5], Efficiency of Class A Amplifier[15.6], Maximum Efficiency of
Transformer Coupled Class A Power amplifier[15.7], thermal Runaway[15.9], Heat sinks[15.10],
Mathematical Analysis[15.11], Push pull Amplifier[15.15], Complementary Symmetry
Amplifier[15.16].
(iii) Regulated D.C. Power Supply
Ordinary D.C. power supply[20.1], Important terms[20.2], Regulated Power supply[20.3], Types of
voltage regulators[20.4], Transistor series voltage regulator[20.6], Series feedback voltage
regulator[20.7], Short-circuit protection[20.8], Transistor shunt voltage Regulator[20.9]
Basic Reference book for (i), (ii) & (iii):Principles of Electronics by V.K.Mehta & Rohit Mehta. (S.Chand
& Company Ltd.)
(iv) Electronic Instruments
Laboratory Instrument: Analog and Digital Instruments[37.2], Functions of Instruments[37.3],
Electronic versus Electrical Instruments[37.4], Essentials of an Electronic Instrument[37.5], Digital
voltmeter[37.24], Cathode Ray Oscilloscope[37.25-26], Frequency Determination[37.36], Application
of CRO[37.37].

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 2

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Physics

Basic Reference book for (iv) : Basic Electronics by B.L.Theraja (S.Chand & Company Ltd.)

Reference Books
1. Electronic Devices & Circuits by Allen Mottershad, Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. Delhi
2. Electronic Devices & Circuits Theory by Boylestead & Nashelsky
3. Handbook of Electronics by Kumar & Gupta, Pragati Prakashan, Meerut, India
4. Principal of Electronics by Malvino, McGraw Hill International Editions

## PAPER P-503(OPTICS AND SPECTROSCOPY)

Optics
(i) Interferometer :
Michelsons interferometer [15.7.1 15.7.7], Applications of Michelson interferometer [15.8.1 15.8.4],
Multiple beam interference [15.11.1 15.11.4], Fabry Perot Interferometer and Etalon [15.12.1
15.12.3], Lummer Gehreke Plate [15.13].
(ii) Polarization :
Polarization by Double refraction[20.5.5], Nicol Prism[20.6.1], Anisotropic Crystals[20.7], Calcite
Crystal[20.8.1 -20.8.3], Huygens explanation of Double Refraction[20.9.1 20.9.2], Phase Difference
between e-ray and o-ray[20.13], Superposition of waves linearly polarized at right angles[20.14], Types
of polarized light[20.15], Retarders or wave plates[20.17.1 20.17.2], Analysis of polarized light[20.20],
Babinet compensator(only construction)[20.21], Artificial double refraction[20.29.1 20.29.4],
LCDs[20.30].
Basic reference book for (i) and (ii) : A textbook of Optics by N.Subrahmanyam, Brij Lal &
(iii) Electron Microscopy
Principles and Applications of SEM, TEM and AFM (from reference book).
Reference Books:
1 Principles of Optics Mathur & Pandya
2 Interferometry Tolanski
3 Fundamentals of Optics D.R.Khanna & H.R.Gulati
4 A Textbook of light D.N.Vasudeva
5 Fundamentals of Optics Jenkins & White
6 Optical Electronics A.K.Ghatak & K. Thyagarajan
7 Modern Physical Techniques in Material Technology Mulvey & Webster
Spectroscopy
(i) Atomic Spectroscopy
The spinning electron [3.1], Space quantization[3.2], Quantum numbers and their physical
interpretations[3.3], Zeeman effect and experimental study of Zeeman effect[9.1 and the introduction
before it], Classical interpretation of Normal Zeeman effect[9.2], Vector atom model and Normal
Zeeman effect[9.3], Vector atom model and Anomalous Zeeman effect[9.4 note: *in the equations may
be overlooked for convenience], Paschen-Back effect[9.5], Stark effect[9.11].

Basic Reference Book for (i): Elements of Spectroscopy by Gupta, Kumar, Sharma (Pragati Prakashan)
(ii) Molecular Spectroscopy
Introduction [Pg 764 to second paragraph of page 765], Theory of pure rotational Spectra [769 to second
para of 770], Theory of rotational vibrational Spectra[771 to second para of 772], Theory of electronic
band Spectra[773 to second para 774].
Basic Reference Book for (ii) : Atomic Physics by J.B.Rajam. (S.Chand & Company Ltd.)
(iii) Raman Spectra
Raman effect and its Salient features[4.0], Observation of Raman Spectra[4.1], Classical theory of
Raman effect[4.2], Quantum theory of Raman effect[4.3], Applications and its Importance.
Basic Reference Book for (iii): Elements of Spectroscopy: Gupta, Kumar & Sharma, (Pragati Prakashan)
Reference Books:
1. Atomic Physics - J.B.Rajam. (S.Chand & Company Ltd.)
2. Optics and Spectroscopy - R.Murugeshan & Kiruthiga Sivaprashatha. (S.Chand & Company Ltd.)
3. Optical Electronics - A.K.Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan. Cambridge Uni. Press.

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 3

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Physics

SEMESTER-VI

## PAPER P-601(NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND SPACE PHYSICS)

Nuclear Physics
(i) Accelerators (Construction and working of these)
Synchrocyclotron, Proton Synchrotron [11.7], Alternating gradient accelerator[11.9], Betatron.
Basic Reference Book for (i) : Nuclear Physics by D.C.Tayal, (Himalaya Publishing House)
Interaction between Energetic Particle and matter [29.2], Ionization Chamber[29.3], Solid state
Detector[29.6], GM Counter[29.6], Scintillation Counters[29.12].
(iii) Nuclear Reaction
Rutherford experiment[34.1], Q-value of Nuclear reaction[34.3], Nuclear reaction[34.4], Energy balance
in Nuclear reaction[34.5], Threshold energy of Endoergic reaction[35.1], Nuclear Transmutation[34.7].
(iv) Nuclear Fission and Fusion
Nuclear fission[35.2], Energy released in fission[35.3], Bohr & Wheelers theory of fission, Chain
reaction[35.4], Atom bomb[35.5], Nuclear Reactors[35.6], Nuclear fusion[35.7], Source of stellar
energy[35.8], Thermonuclear reactions[35.9], Pressurized Water Reactor[36.1], Boiling Water
Reactor[36.2], Fast Breeder Reactor[36.3], Fusion Reactor[36.5], Plasma Confinement[36.6].
(v) Elementary Particles
Introduction [38.1], Particles & Antiparticles[38.2], Antimatter[38.3], The fundamental
Interactions[38.4], Elementary particle Quantum numbers[38.5], Conservation laws and
symmetry[38.6], Quark model[38.7].
Basic Reference Book for (ii), (iii), (iv) & (v):Modern Physics by R.Murugeshan & Kiruthinga Sivaprasatha,
(S.Chand & Company Ltd.)
Space Physics
(i) The Universe (description only)
Stars: Brightness, Colour, Temperature, Spectra, Size, HR diagram, Birth of stars, Red giant stars, White
dwarfs, Neutron stars, Black holes, Supernova, Types of Galaxies, Our Galaxy and External Galaxies.
(ii) Concepts and foundations of Remote Sensing
Energy restores and Radiation principles, Energy interactions in the atmosphere, energy interactions with
earth surface features, Data acquisition and interpretations, Reference data, The Global Positioning System, An
idea of remote sensing systems, Practical applications of remote sensing, Land and Geographic information
system(in brief).
Basic Reference Book: Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation by Lillesand and Kiefer, John Wiley & Sons,
4th Edi.
Reference books:
1. Nuclear Physics by D.C.Tayal
2. Nuclear Physics by Roy and Nigam
3. Nuclear Physics by Irving Kaplan
4. Nuclear Physics by S.N.Ghoshal, S.Chand & Co.
5. Atomic Physics by J.B.Rajam, S.Chand & Co.
6. Solar System by N.C.Rana
7. Structure of the Universe by Narlikar
8. Source Book on Space Science by Glasston.

PAPER P-602 (STATISTICAL MECHANICS, SOLID STATE PHYSICS & PLASMA PHYSICS)
Statistical Mechanics
(i) Classical Distribution Law
Phase Space(till the derivation of d>=h3)[1.1], Volume in Phase Space[1.2], Micro States and Macro
States(number of microstates accessible to a macroscopic system onwards not included)[2.1], Stirlings
approximation[2.2], Thermodynamic Probability[2.3], Division of Phase Space into Cells[2.6], Classical
Maxwell Boltzmann Distribution law[2.7].

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 4

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Physics

## (ii) Bose-Einstein and Fermi Dirac Statistics

Derivation of the distribution law of Bose-Einstein Statistics[6.2], Derivation of the distribution law of
Fermi Dirac Statistics[6.3], Comparison of the Maxwell-Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac
Statistics[6.6], Blackbody radiation and the Plancks radiation law[6.10], Specific heat of Solids[7.2],
Dulong and Petit law[7.2.1], Einsteins theory of Specific heat of Solids[7.2.2], Debyes theory of
Specific heat of Solids[7.2.3], Free electron model and Electronic emission[9.3].
Basic Reference Book for (i) & (ii) : Elementary Statistical Mechanics by Gupta and Kumar, (Pragati Prakashan)
Solid State Physics
(i) X-Ray Diffraction
Determination of Crystal Structure[2.1], Laue Method[2.4], Rotating Crystal Method[2.5], Powder
Method[2.6].
(ii) Superconductivity
Experimental Aspects[16.1], Influence of external agents on Superconductivity[16.2], Meissner
effect[16.3], Critical field of Small Specimens[16.6], Thermodynamic of Superconducting
transition[16.7], Alloys & Compounds[16.10], Londons theory[16.14], Josephson effects[16.17], BCS
theory[16.18.1 to 4], Applications of Superconductivity(in brief from reference book).
(iii) Photoconductivity and Luminiscence
History[17.1], Photoconducting materials[17.2], Electronic transitions in Photo conductors[17.3], Photo
sensitivity[17.6], Trapping and its effects[17.11], Luminiscence effect[17.12], Models of Luminiscence
in Sulphide Phosphors[17.13], Electro luminescence[17.17].
Basic Reference Book for (i), (ii) & (iii) : Fundamentals of Solid state Physics by Saxena, Gupta and Saxena,
(Pragati Prakashan)
(iv) Liquid Crystals
Liquid Crystals[43.1], Thermotropic Liquid Crystals[43.2], Lyotropic Liquid Crystals[43.3],
Applications [43.4]
Basic Reference Book for (iv) : Modern Physics by R.Murugeshan and Kiruthiga Sivaprasath (S.Chand &
Company Ltd.)
Plasma Physics
Introduction[19.1], Interaction of Particles[19.2], Concept of Collisions[19.3], Excitation of Atoms and
Molecules[19.7], Dissociation of Molecules[19.7.1], Ionization of Atoms and Molecules[19.7.2],
Recombination[19.7.3] and Photo Ionization[19.7.4], Excitation and Ionization by stages[19.7.5], Production of
Plasma[19.11], Plasma Oscillations[19.13], Properties of Plasma[19.14], Plasma Radiation, Applications of
Plasma(from reference book).
Basic Reference book: Fundamental of Solid State Physics by Saxena, Gupta, Saxena, (Pragati Prakashan)
Reference books:
1. Statistical Mechanics by Mayor and Mayor
2. Statistical Mechanics by Agrawal and Eisner
3. Introduction to Solid State Physics by Charles Kittle (7th edition), John Wiley & Sons
4. Solid State Physics by A.J.Dekker, Macmillan India Ltd.
5. Introduction to Solid by L.V.Azaroff, Tata McGraw Hill Pub.
6. Solid State Physics by Puri and Babbar, S.Chand Comp. Ltd.
7. Introduction to Plasma Physics by Chen
8. Superconductivity & Superconducting Materials by Narlikar and Ekbote.

## PAPER P-603(SOLID STATE ELECTRONICS)

(i) Solid State Switching Circuits
Switch[21.1], Mechanical switch[21.3], Electronic switches[21.5], Advantages of electronic
switches[21.6], Switching transistors[21.8], Switching action of Transistor[21.9], Multivibrators[21.10],
Types of Multivibrators[21.11], Transistor Astable Multivibrators[21.12], Transistor Monostable
Multivibrators[21.13], Transistor Bistable Multivibrators[21.14], Differentiating circuit[21.15],
Integrating circuit[21.16], Clipping circuits[21.18], Application of Clippers[21.19], Clamping
circuits[21.20], Basic idea of a clamper[21.21].
Basic Reference book for (i):Principles of Electronics by V.K.Mehta & Rohit Mehta, (S.Chand &Company
Ltd.)
(ii) Thyristor and their applications

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 5

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Physics

## Introduction[4.1], Applications[4.2], Symbolic representation[4.3], Principle and operation of SCR[4.7],

Two transistor analogy of SCR[4.8], Comparison between Thyristor and Transistor[4.10], Methods of
triggering a thyristor[4.11], DIAC[4.14], TRIAC[4.15], Rectifier circuits using SCR[4.17<1,2 and 3>],
Solid State Switching Circuits using Thyristor[4.18,<1,2,3and 4>], Choppers(in brief)[5.2].
(iii) Thyristor Control Circuit
Temperature Control[7.2], Illumination Control using DIAC & TRIAC[7.3.2], Light active Turn off
Circuit using DIAC, TRIAC & LDR[7.5], Off at Dark Circuit[7.6], Automatic Street Light Circuit Using
LDR & SCR[7.7], Emergency light[7.8], Automatic Water Level Indicator[7.9], Automatic Battery
Charger[7.10], Light Operated alarm[7.11], Burglar Alarm[7.12], Battery Operated Inverter[7.15].
Basic Reference Book for (ii) & (iii) : Industrial Electronics and Control by S.K.Bhattacharya & S.Chatterjee.
(Tata McGraw Hill Pub).
(iv) Integrated Circuits
Integrated Circuits[31.2], Advantages & Drawbacks of ICs[31.3 & 4], Scale of Integration[31.5],
Classification of ICs by Structure[31.6], Comparison between different ICs[31.7], Classification of ICs
by Function[31.8], Linear Integrated Circuits[31.9], Digital Integrated Circuits[31.10], Monolithic ICs
are Made[31.12], Fabrication of IC Components[31.14 & 15], Popular Applications of ICs[31.16], OP-
AMP[31.18], OP-AMP Symbol[31.19], Ideal Operational Amplifier[31.20], OP-AMP
Applications[31.24], Linear Amplifier[31.25], Adder[31.27], Subtractor[31.28], Integrator[31.29],
Differentiator[31.30], Comparator[31.31].
(v) Transducer
Transducer[36.1], Classification of Transducers[36.2 & 3], Resistive Position Transducer[36.4],
Resistive Pressure Transducer[36.5], Inductive Pressure Transducer[36.6], Capacitive Pressure
Transducer[36.7], Self-generating Inductive Transducers[36.8], Linear Variable Differential
Transformer(LVDT)[36.9], Piezoelectric Transducer[36.10], Strain Gauge[36.11], Temperature
Transducer[36.12], Resistance temperature detectors[36.13], Thermistor[36.14], Thermocouples[36.15],
Photoelectric Transducer[36.17], Various Types of Microphones[36.18].
Basic Reference Book for (iv) & (v): Basic Electronics by B.L.Theraja, (S.Chand & Company Ltd.)
(vi) Digital Logic Modules
Combinational and Sequential logic circuits. Multiplexer and Demultiplexer, Memory element, RS flip-
flop, Clocked RS flip-flop, D flip-flop, JK flip-flop, Clocked and 555 Timers (in brief)
Basic Reference Book : Digital Electronics by Malvino, McGraw Hill International Edition.
Reference Books:
1. Electronic Devices & Circuits by Allen Mottershad, Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., Delhi
2. Electronic Devices & Circuits Theory by Boylestead & Nashelsky
3. Handbook of Electronics by Kumar & Gupta, Pragati Prakashan, Meerut, India
4. Principal of Electronics by Malvino, McGraw Hill International Editions
5. Modern Digital Electronics by R.P.Jain
6. A Text book of Digital Electronics by R.S.Sedha, S.Chand
7. Principles of Control Systems by Eugene Xavier and Joseph Cyril Babu, S.Chand
Semester V
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Determine the g using Katers Pendulum
2. Study of Damped Simple Harmonic Motion
3. Study of Fabry-Perot Etalon
4. Study of Lloyds Mirror
5. Study of Double Refraction in Calcite Prism
6. Study of Babinet Compensator
7. Study of Absorption spectra of Iodine
8. Comparison of Capacities by Mixture Method
9. Determine the constant of Ballistic Galvanometer
10. Determine the Self Induction of coils using Owens Bridge
11. Determine the Mutual Induction of coils using Ballistic Galvanometer
12. Study of Transformers coils using Bridge rectifier
13. Determine e/m using Magnetron/Helical Method
14. Study of h-Parameter of CE-Transistor using PCB

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 6

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Physics

## 15. Study of Single stage Transformer coupled Amplifier

16. Study of Complementary-Symmetry Power Amplifier
17. Study of Series Voltage Regulator using Transistor
18. Electronic voltmeter using FET
19. Study of Hartley/RC phase shift Oscillator using Transistors
20. Study of Hysterisis loop of Ferromagnetic Material
21. Study of Hall Effect
22. Measurement of frequency and phase using CRO
A minimum of 75% experiments shall be done by each student.
Semester VI
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Study of Resonance Pendulum
2. Determine the Youngs Modulus by Koeing Method
3. Determine the Elastic constants using Flat Spiral Spring
4. Study of Platinum Resistance Thermometer
5. Study of Searles Goniometer
6. Study of Edser-Butler Plate
7. Resolving power of Diffraction Grating
8. Study of the Output Wave form Clipping and Clamping circuit
9. Study of Astable Multivibrator
10. Study of Plancks constant using Photocell
11. Photo Conductivity of Selenium cell
12. Characteristics of SCR using PCB
13. Study of UJT as Relaxation Oscillator
14. Study of RS, D & JK Flip-flop
15. Study of OP-AMP using IC 741.(inverter, noninverter, adder and subtractor)
16. Study of IC 555 Timer circuit using PCB
17. Study of Multiplexer(4-1 line) and Demultiplexer(1-4 line) using IC 74153 and 74155 respectively
18. Study of Encoder & Decoder Circuit
19. Study of 4-bit Ripple Counter
20. Study of Modulation and Demodulation using IC 723
21. Study of Temperature ON-OFF Controller with Thermistor
22. Study of Linear Variable Differential Transformer(LVDT) Trainer
23. Study of Lamp Dimmer Circuit using DIAC and TRIAC
A minimum of 75% experiments shall be done by each student.
Basic Reference:
1. Practical Physics by C.L.Arora ( S.Chand)
2. Advanced Practical Physics by Chauhan & Singh. (Pragati Prakashan)
3. B.Saraf et al-Physics through experiments Vol.I & II
4. Electronic Laboratory Primer by Poorna Chandra & Sasikala, (S.Chand)
5. Practical Physics by Chattopadhyay, Rakshit & Saha.
Useful CD Rom for e-learning:
1. Hyper Physics 4. Virtual Physics Junior (Original PC CD
2. Encyclopedia of Science (D.K. Rom)
Multimedia) 5. Encyclopedia Britannica-2008
3. Physics Encyclopedia
Useful Website for e-learning:
1. www.wikipedia encyclopedia 5. www.howstuffworks.com
3. www.physic.org 7. www.idrs.org.physic.com

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 7

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Mathematics

Mathematics
SEMESTER V

## Paper 501(A)Mathematical Analysis and Group Theory

Mathematical Analysis - 1
UNIT 1:
25 marks
[a] Riemann Integral:
Partitions and Riemann sums, Upper and lower R-integrals, R-integrability, The integral as
limit, Some classes of integrable Functions, Properties of integrable function.
[b] Continuity, Derivability of the integral functions, Fundamental theorem of integral calculus,
Mean theorem of Integral calculus.
[c] Metric Spaces :
Definition and examples of metric Space, neighborhood, limit points, interior points, open and Closed
sets, Closure, derived set and interior, boundary points. Continuity in metric space . Convergence and
completeness, Cauchys sequence completeness, Dense sets, Cantor sets [include Cantor set is Closed]
but [OMIT: - cantor set is compact and complete.]

Group Theory

UNIT 2: 25 marks

[a] Definition of Binary Operation, Properties of B. O. & examples, Group and its Properties, Examples
of Group, Subgroup & its properties, cosets & its properties, Lagranges theorem.

[b] Permutation, Transposition, Even & Odd Permutation, Symmetric Group, Inverse of Permutation,
Alternative Group & its Universal property.

[c] Cyclic Group &Cyclic Subgroup &its properties, Deduction of Lagranges Theorem. Definition of
Isomorphism, Equivalence Relation.

[d] Cayley Theorem, Automorphism, Properties of Isomorphism, Normal subgroup and quotient group.

## Text Book for MATHEMATICS PAPER 501 SECTION 2 Group Theory

Abstract Algebra, By: Dr. I. H. Sheth,Prentice Hall of India,New Delhi.

## PAPER- 502 (A) (Theory) PROGRAMMING IN C and Numerical Analysis

PROGRAMMING IN C (THEORY)
UNIT 1: 25 marks
[a] History of C, C character set, Constants, Variables, Keywords, Type Declaration, Type Conversion,
Hierarchy of operators, printf & scanf functions, If statement, if else statements, Nested if-else,
Logical operators, Conditional operators.
[b] While loop, for loop, do while loop, break statement, Continue Statement, goto statement,
Introduction to User Defined functions (see chapter 9 of Balaguruswamy for UDF),
[Omit: - switch case statement Pointers, and Recursion]
[c] Data types in C Integers: long and short types, signed and unsigned characters, signed and unsigned
Float and doubles, C processors, meaning, Only Macro Expansion, Macros with Arguments,
[OMIT: - File inclusion and various directives Conditional Compilation #if and #elif
Directives Miscellaneous Directives #undef Directive & pragma Directive.]
[d] Arrays, meaning: one dimensional and two dimensional, only Initialization and use in simple use in
programs. [OMIT: - no pointers and no three dimensional array, Arrays And functions. ]
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS- 1

UNIT 2: 25 marks
[a] Simultaneous linear algebraic equation:
Direct methods: Gauss elimination method, Gauss Jordan method, Method of factorization (L. U.
Decomposition), Crouts method.
Iterative methods: Jacobis method, Gauss Seidals method

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 8

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Mathematics

## [b] Empirical laws and curve fitting:

The linear law, Laws reducible to linear laws, Principle of least Square, Fitting a straight line, a
parabola and exponential curve and the curve y = axb
[c] Finite differences:
Finite differences (forward, backward and central), Differences of polynomials, Factorial polynomial,
Reciprocal Factorial polynomial, Polynomial factorial notation, Error Propagation in difference table,
other difference operators (Shift, Averaging, differential and unit) and relation between them.
[d] Interpolating with equal intervals:
Gregory Newton forward interpolation formula, Gregory- Newton backward interpolation formula,
Equidistance terms with one or more missing values.
Text Book for MATHEMATICS PAPER 502(A) :- (Theory)
Unit-1: PROGRAMMING IN C is as follows:
LET US C By : Yashvant Kanetker 5th Edition, BPB Publications New Delhi.
Unit 2: The scope of the syllabus is roughly indicated as under:
Numerical methods by Dr. V. N. Vedamurthy & Dr. N. Ch. S. N. Iyengar, Vikas Publishing house.

## Paper 503(A)DISCRETE MATHEMATICS & COMPLEX ANALYSIS

DISCRETE MATHEMATICS
UNIT 1: 25 marks

[a] Relations and different types of relations. Binary relations, Equivalence relations and partitions, partial
order relations, Posets, Hasse diagram, Lattices as posets, Properties of lattices , Lattices as algebraic
systems , sublattices , Direct product of two lattices, Homomorphism, , order isomorphism of two posets,
Isomorphic lattices, Complete lattices, Distributive lattices, Complemented lattices.
[b] Boolean algebra:
Definition, Examples BA, Direct product of two BA, homomorphism , atoms of BA , Anti atoms,
Stones representation theorem, The set A (x) of all atoms of BA and its properties. Isomorphism of
a finite of finite BA and (P (A), ), Boolean functions/ expressions, Minterms, Maxterms,
Representation of a B. expression as a sum of product canonical form, Karnaugh map. Minimization of
a B. expression by cube array representation and by Karnaugh map.
COMPLEX ANALYSIS 1
UNIT 2:
[a] Analytic functions:
Functions of complex variables, limits, theorems on limits, Continuity and differentiability of complex
functions, harmonic Functions, Entire functions and analytic functions, Cauchy Riemann conditions in
Cartesian and polar form.
[b] Definite integral contours, line integrals Cauchy Goursat theorem (without proof) , Cauchys integral
formula, Higher order derivative of analytic function, Moreras theorem, Cauchys inequality and
Liouvilles theorem, Fundamental theorem of algebra, Maximum modulus theorem.
Text Book of Mathematics Paper 503 section 2
Complex analysis 1:
Complex Variables and Applications,Fifth Edition, Rul V. Churchill and James Ward Brown.
Mc Graw Hill Publishing Company.

## MATHEMATICS PAPER 501 (B) (PRACTICAL)

Numerical Analysis-1
Pr. No. (1) Fitting (1) a straight line and (2) y = eax
Pr. No. (2) Fitting (1) a parabola and (2) y = axb
Pr. No. (3) Gauss elimination
Pr. No. (4) Gauss Jordan method [OMIT: Triangularisation method and Crouts method.]
Pr. No. (5) Jacobis method
Pr. No. (6) Gauss Seidels method [OMIT: Relaxation method]
Pr. No. (7) Finite differences.
Pr. No. (8) Gregory Newtons forward Interpolation formula.
Pr. No. (9) Gregory Newtons backward Interpolation formula.
Pr. No. (10) Equidistance term With one or more missing values.

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 9

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Mathematics

PROGRAMMING IN C

## Pr. No. (1) To write a program to reverse a number,

Pr. No. (2) To write a program to find sum of the digits.
Pr. No. (3) To write a program to find prime number between two numbers,
Pr. No. (4) To write a program to find nPr and nCr.
Pr. No. (5) To write a program to print Armstrong numbers,
Pr. No. (6) To write a program to generate arithmetic and geometric progressions.
Pr. No. (7) To write a program to find compound interest for given years
Pr. No. (8) To write a program to find net Salary of the employee.
Pr. No. (9) To write a program to solve the quadratic equation,
Pr. No. (10) To write a program to find number of odd number and even numbers.
Pr. No. (11) To write a program to add and multiply two matrices.
Pr. No. (12) To write a program to solve the equation by Bisection method
Pr. No. (13) To write a program to solve the equation by N R Method.
Pr. No. (14) To write a program to verify a number whether it is palindrome or not.

## MATHEMATICS PAPER 503 (B) (PRACTICAL)

PROGRAMMING with SCILAB
Pr. No. (1) To find the inverse of a matrix using Gauss-Elimination method
Pr. No. (2) To find the inverse of a matrix using Gauss-Jordan method
Pr. No. (3) To find Eigen values and eigen vectors of given matrix
Pr. No. (4) To find the inverse of a matrix using cayley hamilton theorem
Pr. No. (5) To solve given system of simultaneous linear algebraic equations using Gauss-Jordan method
Pr. No. (6) To solve given system of simultaneous linear algebraic equations using Gauss-Jacobi method
Pr. No. (7) To solve given system of simultaneous linear algebraic equations using Gauss-Seidal method
Pr. No. (8) To draw graphs of cycloid
Pr. No. (9) To draw graphs of catenaries
Pr. No. (10) To draw graphs of spiral r=exp(-theta/10)

SEMESTER VI
paper- 601(A) (Theory) GRAPH THEORY AND COMPLEX ANALYSIS
Graph Theory :
Unit 1:
[a] Graph theory (25 marks)
Basic definitions and simple examples, Directed, Undirected , multi graph, mixed graph. Incidence relation
and degree of the graph. Empty, complete, regular graphs .Sub graph, connected and disconnected graphs.
Walk and unilateral components ,Euler graphs, Unicursal graph, Operation of graph circuit and tree
.Hamiltonian path and cycles, tree, Binary and spanning trees
[b] Cut set ,connectivity and separability : (OMIT: 1-isomorphism,2-isomorphism)
Planar graphs and their different representation , Dual of a planar graph ,Eulers formula , Kuratowskis
first and second non-planar graph, vector space associated with a graph , Circuit subspace and cut sets
subspace , Orthogonal space.
Vertex coloring , Chromatic number ,Index number and partition , Cyclic graph and demyelization of cyclic
graphs , Matrix representation of a graph, Adjacency matrix, Incidence matrix, Path matrix
(OMIT: circuit matrix ,fundamental circuit matrix and cut set matrix, relationship of these matrices ,rank
Complex Analysis-2
Unit 2 :
[a] Power series: (25 marks)
Definition of complex sequence, complex series and power series. Expansion of complex function in
Taylors series and Laurents series.
Mapping and Conformal mapping:
Elementary functions, mapping by elementary functions , mobius mapping, linear function. Bilinear
2 1
mapping w= (az+b)/(cz+d) ,w=z , w= ,w=exp(z)
z
(OMIT : w=sin z, w=cos z , w=coshz ,w=sinhz transformations, conformal mappings and their
examples)

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 10

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Mathematics

## [b] Residues and poles:

Definition of a singular point, Isolated singular points, Zeros of complex functions, Poles and residues of
complex function, Cauchys residue theorem, Evaluation of improper real integrals by residue theorem
and evaluation of definite integral of trigonometric functions by residue theorem
Text book for Mathematics PAPER BSMT - [601]:
Graph theory:
Graph theory with application to Engineering and Computer science, By- Narsingh Deo, Prentice Hall
of India Private Limited, New Delhi
Complex Analysis-2:
Complex Variables and Applications (fifth edition), By-Ruel V. Churchill and James Ward Brown, Mc
Graw-Hill Publishing Company
References:-

## 1. Complex variables and application by R.V. Churchil and J. Brown

2. Theory of functions of a complex variables by Shantinarayan, Chand & Co.
3. Complex variables, Introduction and applications, by Mark Ablowitz and A.S. Fokas, Cambridge
University Press.
4. Graph theory with application to engineering and computer science by Narsingh Deo.1993, Prentice Hall of
India Pvt. Ltd.
5. Foundation of Discrete Mathematics, K.D. Doshi, New Age International Ltd. Publishers.
6. A first look at Graph theory, by Clark.
7. Discrete Mathematics Structures with application to computer science, by Trembly I.P & Manohar R.
8. Elements of Discrete Mathematics (2nd Edition) by L.Liu, Me.
9. Discrete Mathematics, by Vasta, Vikas Publications.
10. Introduction Graph Theory, By R.J.Willson
11. Discrete Mathematics Structure, By. Dugragi N.

## 602(A) (Theory) ANALYSIS AND ABSTRCT ALGEBRA

Analysis -2
Unit 1: (25 marks)
a) Cover, Open cover, Finite sub cover , Compact set ,Properties of compact sets, Connected sets, separated
sets, Bolzano-Weistrass theorem, Countable set
b) Continuity and uniform continuity ,isometry and homomorphism of two metrics, Equivalent metrics,
compactness, sequential compactness, totally bounded space
c) Laplace Transforms
Definition of Laplace Transforms. Laplace Transforms of elementary function. Inverse Laplace
Transforms. Laplace Transforms of derivatives and integrals, Differentiation and integration of Laplace
Transforms. Convolution Theorem (Omit: Application to differential Equations)
Abstract Algebra -2

## Unit 2: (25 marks)

[a] Homomorphism, Kernel of homomorphism, Fundamental theorem of homomorphism, Ring and its
properties, Sub Ring (Omit: Boolean ring, Euclidean ring)
[b] Field, zero divisor, Integral domain , Characteristics of ring, Cancellation law. Ideals, principal ideal,
polynomial ring, (Omit: Quotient ring, Maximal ideal), Polynomial, Degree of polynomial, Factor and
remainder theorem of polynomial, Product, sum and division of polynomials
[c] Reducible and irreducible polynomials, Factorization of polynomials , unique factorization theorem
(without proof) (Omit: Eisensteins criterion), Division algorithm theorem of polynomials
[d] G.C.D. of polynomials, Quaternion (Omit : Ring homomorphism, Euler and Fermats theorem)

## Text book for Mathematics paper BSMT- 602

Analysis 2
For Laplace Transfoms
Text book for Mathematics Paper BSMT 602(A)
Abstact algebra By- Dr. I.H.Sheth, Precntice Hall of India ,New Delhi
References:
1. Topics in Algebra, I.N. Herstein, Willey Eastern Ltd. New Delhi

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 11

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Mathematics

2. A text Book of Modern Abstract Algebra, by Shantinarayan, S. Chand & Co., New Delhi.
3. Fundamental of Abstract Algebra, D.S. Malik, J. N. Mordoson and M.K.Sen, McGraw Hill
International Edition-1997.
4. University Algebra, M.S. Gopalkrishna, Wiley Eastern Ltd.
5. Abstract Algebra, By Bhattacharya , Yallo Publications.
6. Modern Algebra, Kazi zamiudia & Sursit, Vikas Publication , Delhi.
7. Text Book : Abstract Algebra, Dr. I.H. Sheth, Nirav Prakashan, Ahmedabad.
8. Mathematical Analysis (2nd edition) by S.C. Malik & Arora, New Age Inter, Pvt.
9. Mathematical Analysis, By T. M. Apostol
10. Real Analysis, By R.R. Goldberg (Chap 4,5,6,7,9 & 10.1)
11. A course of Mathematical Analysis, by Shantinarayan, S. Chand & Sons.
12. Metric Space by E. T. Capson
13. Metric Space, P.K.Jain & Ahmad, Naroa Publishing House.
14. Real Analysis by Sharma and Vasishtha Krishna Prakashan , Meerut-2.
15. Mathematical Analysis by Dr. Goyal and Gupta , Krishna Prakashan ,Meerut-2

Optimization

## Unit 1: [25 marks]

[a] The linear programming problems , Formulation of LPP , Matrix form of the LPP, general form, Canonical
form, Standard form of the LPP ,Graphical method to solve LPP, Some definitions and basic properties of
convex sets, convex functions and concave functions. Basic definitions to use Simplex method, Simplex
method, Big M method (Penalty method), Two phase method to solve LPP (Without alternative solution and
unbounded solution)
[b] Principle of duality in LPP, Primary LPP and method to find its dual LPP (simple problems of above articles).
The transportation problems: Mathematical and matrix form of TP, Initial solution of TP by NWCM ,
LCM and VAM, Optimum solution of TP by Modi method (u-v method) (except degenerate
solution),Balanced and unbalanced TP (Simple problem),
Assignment problem: Mathematical and matrix form of AP, Hungarian method to solve method (simple
method)
Numerical Analysis -2
Unit 2 [25 marks]
a) Central difference interpolation formulae:
Gauss forward ,Gauss backward , Sterlings , Bessels and Laplace Evettes interpolation formulae
b) Interpolation with unequal intervals:
Divided differences, properties of divided difference, Relation between divided differences and forward
difference, Newtons divided difference formula, Lagranges interpolation formula, Inverse
interpolation, Lagranges inverse interpolation
c) Numerical Differentiation:
Numerical Differentiation, Derivatives using Gregory- Newtons forward difference formula, Derivatives
using Gregory- Newtons backward difference formula, Derivative using Sterlings formula
d) Numerical Integration
Numerical Integration, General quadrature formula, Trapezoidal rule, Simpsons 1/3 rule, Simpsons 3/8
rule, Weddles rule and errors in quadrature formulae
e) Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations
Solution by Taylors series method, Taylors series method for simultaneous first order differential
equations, Picards method, Picards method for simultaneous first order differential equations, Eulers
method ,Improved Eulers method, Modified Eulers method
f) Runges method,Runge-kutta methods, Higher order Runge-kutta methods, Runge- kutta methods for
simultaneous first order differential equations, Predictor- connector methods, Milnes method
Text book for Mathematics BSMT- 603(A) (Theory)
OPTIMIZATION
Operation Research theory and Application J.K.Sharma, second edition, Macmillan India Ltd
Text book for Mathematics Paper 603(A)
NUMERICAL METHODS

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 12

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Mathematics

## - Dr. V.N. Vedamurthy and Dr. N.Ch.S.N.Iyengar, Vikas Publishing house

Reference Books :

Introduction to Numerical Analysis (2nd Edition) by C.E. Froberg Addision Wasley, 1979.
1.
2.
Numerical Mathematical Analysis by J.B. Scarforough , Oxford & IBH Publi. Co. Pvt. Ltd.,1966.
3.
Numerical method, Problems & Solutions , by M.K. Jain, S.R. Iyengar , R.K. Jain, New Age
International Pvt. Ltd.,1996.
Mathematics paper- 601(B) (PRACTICAL)

Introduction to SAGE
Pr. No. 1 : Introduction to SAGE:
i.e. Introduction to variables , constants, data types, some inbuilt(library) constants and functions, how
to enter a matrix , how to enter a vector, operators, how to get help etc.
Pr. No. 2 : Operations on expressions :

## (a) Solve (f(x)==g(x),x)

(b) Solve ([f(x,y)==0,g(x,y)==0],x,y)
(c) Find a root of f(x) in the given interval [a,b] such that f(x) 0(approximate root)
(d) Finding sum and product of the given series from 1 to n terms (using sum() And prod() functinons)

## (a) Find the limit of a given function

(b) Find left and right hand side limits of a given function
(c) Find the derivative of a given function.
(d) Find maxima and minima of a given function f(x) in the given interval (a, b).
(e) Find the partial derivative of a given bi-variate function.
(f) Find the indefinite integral of a given function.
(g) Find the definite integral of a given function.
(h) Find numerical integral of a given function.
(i) Find Taylor series expansion of a given function f(x) about x=a upto degree n.

## (a) Draw a line passing through the given points.

(b) Draw a polygon having the given points as its vertices.
(c) Draw a circle with the given point as center and with the given radius.
(d) Plotting the graph of a given function f(x).
(e) Draw the graph of the function f(x) (given in parametric form)
(f) Drawing graph of the function. (in polar form)
(g) Drawing combine graphs.
(h) Drawing graphs with animation.
(i) Using options in plotting 2D graphs.

## (a) Drawing a line in three dimension.

(b) Draw a sphere with the given point as center and with the given radius.
(c) Drawing Platonic solids (tetrahedron, cube, octahedron, dodecahedron, icosahedrons).
(d) Draw the graph of given function f(x,y) in 3D.
(e) Draw the graph of given function f(x,y) in 3D (Parametric Form)
(f) Using options in plotting of 3D graphs.
Pr. No. 6 : Simplification and expansion of a given symbolic function:

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 13

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Mathematics

## (b) Finding transpose, adjoint and conjugate of a given matrix

(c) To determine whether the entered matrix is square, zero, identity, scalar, Symmetric , invertible,
nilpotent, idempotent or not.
(d) Entering a square matrix and finding its inverse if exists.
(e) Finding rank, nullity no. of rows , no. of columns , trace, transpose of a given Matrix.
(f) Finding Echelon form of the entered matrix.
(g) Finding characteristic polynomial, eigen values and eigen vectors of the entered matrix.
(h) Performing row operations on the entered matrix.

## (a) Determine the entered number is prime or not

(b) Find the next prime, previous prime next probable prime to the entered number.
(c) Finding primes p such that m p n .(using prime_range(m,n))
(d) Finding prime powers (using prime_powers(m,n))
(e) Finding continued fractions of x.

## (a) Permutation group, Symmetric group and Alternative group of n symbols.

(b) Abelian group, Matrix groups (GL = General Linear Group and SL= Special Linear group), normal
subgroups
(c) Drawing graphs with given vertices and edges.
(d) Chromatic polynomial of graph G.
(e) Testing planarity of graph.
(f) Finding Shortest Path in a graph.

## Mathematics paper- 602(B) (PRACTICAL)

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS - II

## Pr. No. 1: Gauss forward interpolation formula

Pr. No. 2 : Gauss backward interpolation formula
Pr. No. 3 : Sterlings or Bessels formula
Pr. No. 4 : Laplace- Everetts formula
Pr. No. 5 : Interpolation with unequal intervals
Pr. No. 6 : Numerical differentiation
Pr. No. 7 : Numerical Integration
Pr. No. 8 : Taylors or Picards Method
Pr. No. 9 : Eulers method
Pr. No. 10 : Runges method
Pr. No. 11 : Runge Kutta s method
Pr. No. 12 : Milnes method

OPTIMIZATION

## Pr. No. 1 : Solve the following LPP using Graphical method

Pr. No. 2 : Solve the following LPP using Simplex Method
Pr. No. 3 : Solve the following LPP using Big M Method
Pr. No. 4 : Solve the following LPP using Two Phase Method
Pr. No. 5 : Obtain dual of the following LPP
Pr. No. 6 : Find the initial solution of a given transportation problem using NWCM method
Pr. No. 7 : Find the optimum solution of the following Transportation problem using LCM method
Pr. No. 8 : Find the optimum solution of the following Transportation problem using VAM method
Pr. No. 9 : Find the optimum solution of the following Transportation problem using MODI method
Pr. No. 10 : Find the optimum solution of the following Assignment problem

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 14

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Chemistry

CHEMISTRY

SEMESTER V
[C-501]INORGANIC CHEMISTRY & INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY
Unit-I: Inorganic Chemistry [40 Marks]
1. Wave Mechanics
Outline of basic concepts of wave mechanics(Sem-III)
Operators algebra (addition, subtraction, multiplication), commutative property, linear operator,
commutation operator, the operator DEL & DEL SQUERED, momentum operator, Hamiltonian operator
Particle in one dimensional box; normalized wave equation and energy related to a particle moving in
one dimensional box, energy levels and interpretation of energy equation, linear polymers as one
dimensional box, examples.
Particle in three dimensional box : Derivation of normalized wave equation, energy related with it,
energy levels and degeneracy, examples.
Wave equation for hydrogen atom: To derive the relation between Cartesian and polar coordinates,
derivation of volume element in polar coordinates, Schrodinger equation in polar coordinates, separation
of variables.
Energy of 1s orbital, normalization condition and problems on it (in polar coordinates).
2. Crystal Field Theory-1
Introduction
Concept of crystal field theory
Splitting of d-orbitals in octahedral and tetrahedral crystal field with CFSE concept.
Factors affecting splitting energy.
Weak field and strong field ligands.
High spin and low spin complexes with pairing energy.
Magnetic behaviour of transition metal complexes.
Orbital angular momentum contribution to magnetic momentum of complexes.
Examples based on CFSE, Pairing energy and magnituc momentum.
3. Transition metal complexes of - acid ligands
Metal carbonyls: Definition, preparation, physical and chemical properties, nature of M-CO linear bond
based on M.O. Theory with spectral support, classification of metal carbonyls, types of CO groups and
detection of CO groups using IR spectra.
Structure of Ni(CO)4,Fe(CO)5,Fe2(CO)9,Co2(CO)8,Fe3(CO)12 and Mn2(CO)10
Metal nitrosyls.
List of Reference Books (Inorganic Chemistry) :
(1) Quantum Chemistry R.K. Prasad, New Age International Publishers
(2) Inorganic Chemistry- James E Huheey (3rd Edition) Harper International SI Edition
(3) Coordination chemistry Gurdeep Chatwal and MS Yadav, Himalaya publishing House
(4) Principles of Inorganic Chemistry B.R.Puri, L.R. Sharma & K.C. Kalia; Vallabh Publications, Delhi
(5) Modern aspects of Inorganic Chemitry- H.J. Emeleus and A.G. Sharpe; Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.,
39 Store street, London WCIE7DD
(6) Advance Inorganic Chemistry (3rd Edition)- F.A. Cotton and G. Wilkinson; Wiley Eastern Pvt. Ltd.
Unit-II: Industrial Chemistry [35 Marks]
1. Cement
Introduction
Type of cement
Raw material for manufacture
Cement rock benefication
Manufacturing Processes
(a) Dry Process (b) Wet Process
Setting and hardening of cement
(a) Hydrolysis (b) Hydration
Properties of cement
Indian Standard Institute (ISI) specification of cement
Mortar, concrete and RCC

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 15

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Chemistry

## Curing and decay of concrete

Uses of cement
2. Fertilisers

Introduction
Plant nutrients and its role
Classification of fertilisers
Properties of fertilisers
Nitrogenous fertilisers
Ammonium nitrate
(a) Manufacture by Prilling method
(b) Manufacture by Stengel method
Ammonium sulphate
(a) Manufacture from gypsum (Sindri Process)
(b) Action as fertiliser
Urea
(a) Manufacture from ammonium carbamate
(b) Action as fertiliser
Calcium cyanamide
(a) Manufacture by electric carbonate
(b) Action as fertiliser
Phosphate fertiliser
Normal super phosphate
Manufacture
Triple super phosphate
Manufacture
Ammonium Phosphate
(a) Manufacture of mono ammonium phosphate
(b) Manufacture of diammonium phosphate
Potassium fertilizer (K2SO4 & KNO3)
NPK fertiliser
Nomenclature
3. Petrochemicals
Introduction
Petrochemicals from Methane (C1), Ethylene (C2) and Propylene (C3)
Methane
(a) Manufacture of Chloromethanes (Chlorinated hydrocarbons)
(b) Manufacture of Synthetic gas
Ethylene
(a) Manufacture of ethylene glycol from
(1) Ethylene chlorohydrins
(2) Ethylene oxide
(b) Manufacture of ethyl alcohol by
(1) sulphuric acid process and
(2) catalytic hydration process
Propylene
(a) Manufacture of glycerol
(1) via allyl chloride and
(2) via acrolein
(b) Manufacture of acrylonitrile
List of Reference Books (Industrial Chemistry) :
1. A Text Book of Petrochemicals by Bhaskar Rao
2. Advanced Petrochemicals by Dr. G.N. Sarkar
3. Chemicals from Petrochemicals by A.L. Waddam
4. Reigels Handbook of Industrial Chemistry by James A. Kent

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 16

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Chemistry

## 5. Engineering Chemistry by Jain and Jain

6. Outlines of Chemical Technology by Charles Dryden
7. Industrial Chemistry by B.K. Sharma
[C-502]ORGANIC CHEMISTRY & SPECTROSCOPY
Unit-I: Organic Chemistry [40 Marks]
1. Name Reactions, Rearrangement and Reagents:
Reactions
a. Arndt Eistert Reaction
b. Bischler Napierski Reaction
c. Leuckart Wallach Reaction
Rearrangements
a. Hoffmann Rearrangement
b. Curtius Rearrangement
c. Fries Rearrangement
Reagents
a. Lithium Aluminium Hydride LiAlH4
b. Triphenyl phosphine
c. Sodamide
2. Alkaloids
Introduction, Occurrence, Classification, Isolation, General method of proving structure of Alkaloids,
Constitution, Properties and Synthesis of:
a. Coniine
b. Nicotine
c. Papaverine
3. Carbohydrates
Introduction, Classification and nomenclature, General reactions of Monosaccharides (with reference to
Glucose and Fructose)
Inter-conversions:
a. Conversion of Aldose to the corresponding Ketose
b. Conversion of Aldose to the next higher Ketose (Wolform method)
c. Conversion of Aldose to the Ketose having two more carbon atoms (Sowden method)
d. Conversion of Ketose to the corresponding Aldose
Step-up reactions (Ascending in Aldose series)
a. Kiliani Reaction
b. Swoden Nitromethane reaction
Step-down reactions (Descending in Aldose series - Aldohexose to Aldopentose) by Ruffs Method
Configuration of monosaccharides
Ring structure of Aldoses
Determination of ring size of Glucose by
a. Methylation method
b. Periodic oxidation method
Mutarotation of D (+) glucose
4. Synthetic Drugs, Dyes and Sweetening Agents
Only Synthesis and Uses of
Dyes: Orange II, Crysodine G, Auramine O
Sweetening Agents: Saccharin, p-anisylurea and Dulcin
5. Synthesis of Heterocyclic Compounds containing two hetero atoms
Preparation of:
1) Pyrazole
2) Imidazole
3) Isoxazole
4) Thiazole
5) Pyrimidine
6) Pyridazine
7) Oxazine

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 17

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Chemistry

8) Thiazine
9) Dioxane
Unit-II: Spectroscopy [35 Marks]
1. Molecualr symmetry
Introduction,
symmetry elements and symmetry operation with illustration
Definition of Properties of group , subgroup and classes
Products of symmetry operations
symmetry point group.C1, Cs, Ci, Cn, Cnv, Cnh, Dn, Dnh, Dnd, C, Dh, Td, Oh
Multiplication tables for C2v , C3v and C2h point groups. (Point Group are given in separate page )
2. U.V. spectroscopy
Introduction
Theory of ultra violate spectra
Instrumentation
Type of transition in organic molecules ; auxochrome, chromophore ;
Explanation of bathochromic shift and hypsochromic shift,
Hyper chromic effects
Types of bands
Effect of solvent, franck condon principles
Application of UV spectra
Calculation of -max (1) Dienes and conjugated dienes (2) enones and dienones ie. unsaturated carbonyl
compounds, (3) aromatic carbonyl system
3. Infra red Spectroscopy
Introduction
Range of IR , theory of IR
Modes of fundamental vibration
IR active, force constant
Vibration coupling
Fermi resonance
Finger print region
Instrumentation
Application of IR
Structure of organic molecules From IR
Interpretation of IR for given molecules and problems
Reference Books (Spectroscopy) :
(1) Spectrometric identification of organic compounds
By Silverstrin Bassler (16th Editim)
(2) Elementary organic spectroscopy by Y. R. Sharma.
(3) Spectroscopy of organic compounds by John R. Dyer.
(4) Spectroscopy of organic compounds by P. S. Kalsi
(5) Chemical Application of Group theory by F Albert Cotton
(6) Symmetry in chemistry by H. M. Jahe.
(7) Molecular spectroscopy by B. K. Sharma.
(8) Organic Spectroscopy by B. K. Sharma

## Unit-I: Physical Chemistry [40 Marks]

1. Second Law of Thermodynamics
Limitation of first law of thermodynamics
Spontaneous process
Carnot cycle and theorem
Statements of second law of thermodynamics
Perpetual motion of second kind (briefly)
Concept of entropy, Definition of entropy

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## S in reversible and irreversible (spontaneous) process

S in ideal gases
S of mixture of ideal gas
S in physical transformations
Entropy and second law of thermodynamics
Physical significance of entropy

## 2. Free Energy and Chemical Equilibrium

Work function: its physical significance and variation with V and T
Free Energy: its significance and variation with P and T
G for ideal gases, Gibbs Helmholtz equation and its applications
Criteria for chemical equilibrium
Vant Hoff reaction isotherm
Vant Hoff isochore
Law of active mass
Clausius Clapeyron equation
3. Crystalline State
Difference between crystalline and amorphous solid, Crystal and crystallography
Three laws of crystallography
Structure of crystals
Space lattice and Unit cell, Bravice lattices
Type of cubic lattice and inter planar spacing
X- rays Diffraction: Brags equation, Experimental methods (Rotating crystal and Powder method),
Structure of Rock salt (NaCl) and Sylvin (KCl)
Liquid Crystals: Introduction, Definition and Classification of liquid crystals (Smectic, Nematic,
Cholesteric and Disc shaped)
4. Phase Rule
Three component system,
Method of graphical presentation,
Types of partially miscible three liquid systems:
(1) One partially miscible pair: (Effect of adding third compenent, Nature of tie line, Plait point, Binodle
curve, Characteristics of diagram, A is added to binery system, A is constant and B and C varied,)
(2) Formation of two pairs of partially miscible liquid,
(3) Formation of three pairs of partially miscible liquid.
Application of ternary liquid diagram
Reference Books (Physical Chemistry):
(1) Elements of Physical Chemistry, S Glasstone and D Lewis, Macmillon and Co Ltd., New Delhi.
(2) Principles of Physical Chemistry , S H Maron and C F Prutton, Oxford and IBH , New Delhi.
(3) Thermodynamics for Chemists, S Glasstone, Affiliated East West Press Pvt Ltd, New Delhi
(4) Elements of Physical Chemistry, B R Puri, L R Sharma, M S Pathania Vishal publishing Co Jalandhar.
(5) Advanced Physical Chemistry, J. N. Gurtu, Pragati Prakashan, Meerut.
(6) Physical Chemistry, N. Kundu and S. K. Jain, S. Chandand Co. New Delhi
(7) Physical Chemistry, K. L. Kapoor, Macmillan India Ltd. Delhi.
(8) Physical Chemistry, B. K. Sharma Goel Publishing House, Meerut.
(9) Thermodynamics, Dr. Gurdeep Raj, Goel Publishing House Meerut
Unit-II: Analytical Chemistry [35 Marks]
1. Errors and statistics
Introduction
Explanation of errors and mistakes.
Classification of errors, determinate and indeterminate errors, operational and personal error,
Instrumental errors and reagent errors, additive and proportional error
Accuracy and precision, minimization of error
Calibration of Instruments , blank measurement , independent method parallel method, standard

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## Explanation of significant figure and its laws with complete interpretation

Mean and standard deviation , variance and coefficient of variance
Absolute error and relative error , mean value , deviation and relative mean deviation. Gausian
curve and its explanation
Importance of Q test and T -test ( Student T test )
Example on errors, significant figures , Q test and T test
[2] Basic Principle of Qualitative analysis only separation

## Separation of the following in presence of each other ( by any method)

(1) Cl, Br , I (2) NO2 , NO3 , Br
(3) S2 , SO3 -2 , SO4-2 (4) PO4-3 , As O3-3, AsO4-3
(5) CO3-2 , SO3-2 , S-2 (6) Cu+2 , Cd+2
[3] Colourimetry

Introduction
Growth Drapper law, Lamberts Law, Beayers Law,Lamberts & Beayers Law and Derivation,
application and deviation of Lamberts Law
Spectro photometric titration with graph and proper explanation
(1) Deficit of absorbance by product and Titrant
(2) Deficit of absorbance by product and Reagent
(3) Deficit of absorbance by Reagent and Titrant
(4) Deficit of absorbance by product only
[4] Volumetric analysis with example of calculation based on pH, normality, molarity, Ksp etc.
Ostwalds law- Regarding indicator necessary derivation and formula of indicator used in
Neutralization, redox ,precipitation titration.
Primary and secondary standard explanation
(1) Explanation of neutralization titration with graph.
(i) Strong acid - Strong base titration
(ii) Weak acid - Strong base titration
(iii) Strong acid Weak base titration.
(iv) Poly protic acid - Strong base titration
(2) Redox titration :
Principle of external and internal indicator in redox titration. e.g. Diphenyl amine , starch
& K3[Fe(CN)6]
Redox Titration with graph and calculation
Iodometry and Iodimetry titration
Preparation of standard sodium thiosulphate solution
(3) Precipitation Titration :
Argentometric Titration (I) Mohars method (II) Fazans method (III) Olhards method
with use of proper indicator, graph and its practical application
Examples of calculation based on pH, Normality, Molarity,Ksp etc
Reference Books (Analytical Chemistry) :
(1) Fundamental of analytical chemistry by skoog & west
(2) Instrumental method of chemical analysis By B. K. Sharma 22 wilhim
(3) Water analysis and nater pollution by V. P. Kudesia
(4) Instrumental method of chemical analysis By Chatwal Amreli
(5) Thin layer chromatography by Egal stall
(6) Book for water analysis: By R.K. Trivali, V. P. Kulesiya.
(7) Analysis cal chemistry by click
(8) Inorganic inflictive analysis by Vogel and Gehani Parekh
(9) Electronic methods of analysis by brewing
(10) Principle of instrumental analysis by S korg.

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## CHEMISTRY PRACTICALS [C-504]

(1) Organic Separation ( Mixture of two compounds ) [30 marks]
[Minimum 12 mixtures should be done]
Separation & Analysis of an organic mixture containing:
(a) Two solid components using water, NaHCO3, NaOH and HCl for separation
(b) Liquid + liquid component - separation by physical method.
(c) Liquid + solid component - separation by physical method.
(2) Inorganic Volumetric Analysis [20 marks]
[Minimum 8 exercises should be done]
For volumetric exercise all the standard solutions are to be prepared by the students.
(i) Iodometry and Iodimetry
a. Estimation of Cu+2 and CuSO4.5H2O in the given CuSO4.5H2O using 0.05N Na2S2O3.5H2O
solution.
b. Estimation of As+3 and As2O3 in the given As2O3 using 0.05N Na2S2O3.5H2O solution.
(ii) Complexometric titration:
1. Estimation of the amount of Ni+2 in the given NiSO4.7H2O solution using 0.02 N EDTA
solution.
2. Estimation of the amount of Mg+2 and Pb+2 in the given solution containing a mixture of Mg+2
and Pb+2 using 0.02 N EDTA solution
3. Estimation of the amount of Ca+2 and Zn+2 in the given solution containing a mixture of Ca+2
and Zn+2 using 0.02 N EDTA solution
4. Estimation of the amount of Fe+3 and Cr+3 in the given solution containing a mixture of Fe+3
and Cr+3 using 0.02 N/ 0.01 M Pb(NO3)2 and 0.02 N/ 0.01 M EDTA solution.
(iii) Redox titration:
Determination of the amount of NO2-1 in the given NaNO2 or KNO2 solution by reduction
method using 0.1 N KMnO4 solution.
(iv) Water Analysis:
To determine the amount of chloride in the given sample of water using 0.02 N AgNO3
(v) To determine the purity of NaHCO3 in the given sample

## (3) Physicochemical Exercise [25 marks]

[Minimum 12 exercises should be done]
Conductometry
1. To determine normality and gms/lit of xN HCl and also determine specific conductance by
conductometry.
2. To determine normality and gms/lit of the mixture of HCl+CH3COOH by conductometry.
3. To determine the normality of weak acid by conductometry.
4. To determine the concentration of Ni+2 using 0.1M EDTA solution.
5. To determine the normality of xNAgNO3 using 0.5N NaCl by conductometry.
pH metry
1. To determine normality of xN HCl by pH metry.
2. To determine normality and dissociation constant of weak acid (xN CH3COOH) by pH metry.
3. To determine normality and dissociation constant of dibasic acid (xN oxalic acid/malonic
acid/maleic acid) using 0.1N NaOH solution.
Colourimetry
1. Find out the amount of Ni+2 in the given solution by colourimetry method.
2. Find out the amount of Fe+3 in the given solution by colourimetry method.
Viscosity
1. To determine relative and absolute viscosity of pure liquid A, B, C, D by Ostwalds viscometer.
2. Prepare three different 10%, 5%, 2.5% aqueous solution of Glycerine. Find viscosity of these three
solutions as well as unknown concentration solution with the help Ostwalds viscometer.
Refractometer
1. To determine specific refractivity and molecular refractivity of given pure liquid A, B, C, D.

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2. To determine specific refractivity and molecular refractivity of glycerine (10%, 5%, 2.5%) and
unknown glycerine solution.

SEMESTER VI

## [C-601]INORGANIC CHEMISTRY & INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY

Unit-I: Inorganic Chemistry [35 Marks]
1. Multi Electron System
Concept of spectral terms and term symbols.
s-s coupling, l-l coupling, l-s coupling, j-j coupling and L-S coupling with vector diagram.
Derivation of spectral term symbol for P1,P2,P3,&d1 to d9.
Micro states: definition, calculation and derivation of microstates for p1,p2,d1&d2 (pegion hole diagram).
Hund,s rules for the determination of ground state spectral term.

## 2. Crystal Field Theory - II

Jahn-Teller effect: Statement and explanation.
Tetragonal distortion with example.
Splitting of d-orbitals in square planar complexes with examples.
Hole formalism.
Splitting of D and F ground terms(using hole formalism).
Orgel Diagram of D and F states.
Selection rules for d-d transition.
Types of electronic transition in metal complexes.
Absorption spectrum of Ti +3,Cu +2 & Ni +2.
3. Magneto Chemistry
Introduction (Magnetic field, Magnetic pole, Intensity of magnetization).
Magnetic induction.
Permeability, intensity of magnetism, magnetic susceptibility, molar magnetic susceptibility.
Magnetic behaviour : Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism, Ferro magnetism and Antiferro magnetism.
Effect of temperature on magnetic behaviour of substances.
Derivation of equation for total angular magnetic momentum and diamagnetic momentum.
Determination of magnetic susceptibility by Gouy method.
Reference Books:
(1) Quantum Chemistry R.K. Prasad, New Age International Publishers
(2) Inorganic Chemistry- James E Huheey (3rd Edition) Harper International SI Edition
(3) Coordination chemistry Gurdeep Chatwal and MS Yadav, Himalaya publishing House
(4) Principles of Inorganic Chemistry B.R.Puri, L.R. Sharma & K.C. Kalia; Vallabh Publications,
Delhi
(5) Modern aspects of Inorganic Chemitry- H.J. Emeleus and A.G. Sharpe; Routledge & Kegan Paul
Ltd., 39 Store street, London WCIE7DD
(6) Advance Inorganic Chemistry (3rd Edition)- F.A. Cotton and G. Wilkinson; Wiley Eastern Pvt. Ltd.
UnitII : Industrial Chemistry [40 Marks]
1. Glass
Introduction
Physical and chemical properties of glass
Raw materials for manufacture
Chemical reactions involved
Method of manufacturing
o Formation of batch material
o Melting
o Shaping
o Annealing
o Finishing
Special types of glasses

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Fused silica glass, High silica glass, optical glass, borosilicate glass, lead glass, coloured glass, opal glass,
safety glass, fibre glass, glass wool, pyrex glass, photochromic glass, insulating glass, rare earth glass,
vitreosil, photosensitive glass.
2. Oil and Fats

Introduction
Distinction between oils and fats
Properties of fats and oils
Classification of fats and oils
Manufacturing of cotton seed oil
Expression method
Solvent extraction method
Refining of crude vegetable oil
Hydrogenation of oils
Optimum conditions for the process
Dry process
Wet process
Analysis of oils and fats
Saponification value
Acid value
Iodine value
Reichert Meissl (RM) value
3. Soaps and Detergents
Introduction to soap
Raw materials for manufacture
Methods for manufacture of soap
(a) Batch process
(b) Continuous process
Types of soap
Toilet soap, transparent soap, shaving soap, Neem soap, Liquid soap
Recovery of glycerine from spent lye.
Introduction to detergents
Principal group of synthetic detergents
Biodegrability of surfactants
Classification of surface active agents
Anionic detergents
Manufacture of anionic derergents
(a) Oxo Process
(b) Alfol Process
(c) Welsh Process
Cationic detergents
Manufacture
Non Ionic detergents
Manufacture by batch process
Amphoteric detergents
Manufacture of shampoo
4. Environmental Chemistry
Environment definition and introduction
Segments of environment
(a) atmosphere
(b) hydrosphere
(c) lithosphere
(d) biosphere
Air Pollution
Introduction

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## Green house effect

Major sources of air pollution
Photochemical smog and acid rain
CFC and ozone depletion
Sources and effects of NOX and SOX
Control of Air pollution
Water pollution
Introduction
Classification of water pollution
(a) Physical pollution
(b) Chemical pollution
(c) Biological pollution
(d) Physiological pollution
Sources of water pollution
(a) Sewage and domestic waste
(b) Industrial effluents
(c) Agricultural discharges
(d) Fertilisers
(e) Toxic metals
(f) Siltation
(g) Thermal pollutions
Water Pollution Control
Dissolved Oxygen (D.O.) determination
Chemical Oxygen Demand (C.O.D.) determination
Biological Oxygen Demand (B.O.D.) determination
Reference Books ( Industrial Chemistry):
(1) Environment Pollution Control Engineering by Rao C.S.
(2) Industrial Chemistry by B.K. Sharma
(3) Environmental Chemistry by A.K. De
(4) Environmental Solution of Analysis by S.M. Khopkar
(5) Engineering Chemistry by Jain & Jain
(6) Regiels Handbook of Industrial Chemistry by Jomes A. Kent
(7) Environmental Chemistry by Sharma & Kaur
(8) Outlines of Chemical Technology by Charles Dryden

## Unit-I : Organic Chemistry [35 Marks]

Terpenoids
Introduction
Occurrence, Isolation, General characteristics of Terpenoids, Isoprene Rule
Constitution and Synthesis of :
a. Citral
b. -Terpineol
2. Amino acids, Peptides and Proteins
Introduction
Classification of amino acids name and formula
Synthesis of amino acids by:
a. Amination of -halogen acids
b. Gabriel pthalimide synthesis
d. Erlen-meyer azlactone synthesis
e. Hydantoin method

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Physical properties of amino acids, Chemical properties of amino acids, Isoelectric point
Introduction to Polypeptides
Synthesis of Polypeptides by:
a. Bergmann Method
b. Sneehans Method (use of Phthaloyl group)
c. Fischers Method (use of p-toluenesulphonylchloride)
Introduction and classification of proteins
Constitution of Thyroxine, Synthesis of Thyroxine
3 Synthetic Explosive, Perfumes and Insecticides
Synthesis and uses of :
Explosives :
a. RDX (Research Development Explosive)
b. TNT (Trinitrotoluene)
c. PETN (Pentaerythritol tetranitrate)
Perfumes :
a. Musk Xylene
b. Musk Ketone
c. Musk Ambrette
Insecticides :
a. Baygon
b. Carbendazin
c. Parathion
4. Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Introduction, Synthesis and chemical properties:
a. Biphenyl
b. Diphenyl methane
c. Naphthalene
d. Anthracene
5. Conformational Isomerism
Conformation of acyclic system
Conformational analysis of ethane
Conformational analysis of n butane
Conformation of cyclic system: Cyclohexane and cyclopentane
Conformational analysis of cyclohexane: Boat form and Chair form
Conformation of monosubstituted cyclohexane

## Reference Books (Organic Chemistry) :

(1) Synthetic Organic Natural Products (Volume I & II) by O.P Agrawal.
(2) A Text Book of Organic Chemistry (II Edition) by Raj K. Bansal
(3) Medicinal Chemistry by Ashutoshkar
(4) Pharmaceutical Chemistry by Axel Kleemann & Jugen Engel (IV Edition Thieme Stuttgart New York)
(5) Organic Name reactions by Gautam Brahmachari
(6) Chemistry of Alkaloids -University Granth Nirman Board Ahmedabad
(7) Reactions and Rearrangements by Gurdeep Chatwal
(8) Name Reactions in Organic Synthesis by Dr. A.R.Parikh et. al
(9) Organic Chemistry of Natural Products by Gurudeep Chatwal Vol L

## Unit-II: Spectroscopy [40 Marks]

1. NMR Spectroscopy
Introduction, principle
Nuclear quantum number
equivalent and nonequivalent protons with illustrations ; enantiomeric and diasteriomeric protons,
shielding and de shielding of protons;
Chemical shift

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## Paramagnetic anisotropic effect

Relative intensity of signals
Spin- spin coupling and coupling constant
Deuterium labeling
Application of NMR
Problems for determination of structure of organic molecules
2. Mass Spectroscopy
Introduction
Classification of spectroscopy origin and basic principles
Instrumentation
General fragmentation modes
Important future for the mass spectra of alkanes

3. Problems based on application of U.V. IR, NMR spectroscopy with empirical and molecular formula
Reference Books (Spectrosopy) :
(1) Spectrometric identification of organic compounds by Silverstrin Bassler (16th Editim)
(2) Elementary organic spectroscopy by Y. R. Sharma.
(3) Spectroscopy of organic compounds by John R. Dyer.
(4) Spectroscopy of organic compounds by P. S. Kalsi
(5) Chemical Application of Group theory by F Albert Cotton
(6) Symmetry in chemistry by H. M. Jahe.
(7) Molecular spectroscopy by B. K. Sharma.
(8) Organic Spectroscopy by B. K. Sharma

## [C-603]PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY & ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Unit-I : Physical Chemistry [35 Marks]
1. Third Law of Thermodynamics
Nernst heat theorm
Third law of thermodynamics
Determination of absolute entropies of solids, liquids and gases
Applications of third law of thermodynamics (S0, G0 and equilibrium constant of chemical
reaction)
Tests of third law of thermodynamics, Residual entropy

## 2. Partial Molar Properties

Definition
Concept of chemical potential, Gibbs-Duhem equation
Variation of chemical potential with temperature and pressure
Determination of partial molar properties by method of intercept
Applications of chemical potential (Henrys law, Raults law and Nernsts distribution law)
3. Activity of Electrolytes
Ionic Activity:
Introduction
Derivation of a2 = a++ a- - and a2 = a+ a- for 1-1 electrolyte
Mean Activity a , its relation with a+ and a-
Relationship between a2 and a i.e. a2 = a
Mean ionic activity coefficient f and f+ , f-
Ionic Strength: Definition, Explanation and Equation
Debye Huckel Limiting Law (Without derivation):
Derivation of - log f = Az+z- 1/2
Interpretation of Equation
Graph of - log f 1/2 and its explanation / discussion
Empirical correction of Debye Huckel Limiting Law for
(1) Size of ion and
(2) Orientation of solvent molecules

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## Methods to Determine Activity Coefficient:

Solubility method
emf methods: (1) Chemical cell with transference
(2) Concentration cell without transference
Examples based on theory.
4. Electrochemistry
Concentration cells: Definition, (1) Electrode concentration cells (2) Electrolyte concentration cells,
Concentration cells without transference,
Concentration cells with transference,
Liquid junction potential, Elimination of liquid junction potential.
Applications of emf measurements: Determination of
(1) Solubility of sparingly soluble salts,
(2) Valency of metal ion,
(3) Dissociation constant of weak acid,
(4) Transport number of ion,
(5) Ionic product of water,
(6) Degree of hydrolysis
(7) pH by different electrodes
Example
Reference Books (Physical Chemistry)
(1) Elements of Physical Chemistry, S Glasstone and D Lewis, Macmillon and Co Ltd., New Delhi
(2) Principles of Physical Chemistry , S H Maron and C F Prutton, Oxford and IBH, New Delhi
(3) Thermodynamics for Chemists, S Glasstone, Affiliated East West Press Pvt Ltd, New Delhi
(4) Elements of Physical Chemistry, B R Puri, L R Sharma, M S Pathania Vishal publishing Co Jalandhar.
(5) Advanced Physical Chemistry, J. N. Gurtu, Pragati Prakashan, Meerut.
(6) Physical Chemistry, N. Kundu and S. K. Jain, S.Chandand Co. NewDelhi
(7) Physical Chemistry, K. L. Kapoor, Macmillan India Ltd. Delhi
(8) Physical Chemistry, B. K. Sharma Goel Publishing House, Meerut.
(9) Thermodynamics, Dr. Gurdeep Raj, Goel Publishing House Meerut
(10) Introduction to Electrochemistry, S. Glasstone , Affiliated East West Press Pvt Ltd, New Delhi
Unit-II : Analytical Chemistry [40 Marks].
Electrochemistry ( conductometry )
Electric transport , conductance in metals and in electrolyte solution
Specific conductance, equivalent conductance
Importance of conductivity electrodes. and platinization of electrodes
Variation of specific conductance with dilution as well as area of cross section of dip type
electrode and distance between two plates of electrodes etc.
Kohl raurch law and its importance, cell constant and its importance.
Conductometric Titration :
(1) Strong acid - strong base
(2) Strong acid - Weak base
(3) Weak acid Strong base
(4) Weak acid Weak base
(5) Mixture of strong acid + Weak acid - strong base
Precipitation Titration :
(1) AgNO3 NaCl
(2) BaCl2 K2SO4
(3) Ba(OH)2 MgSO4
Replacement Titration :
(1) Salt of weak acid strong acid
(2) Salt of weak base strong base
Degree of hydrolysis and Hydrolysis constant
Determination of solubility and solubility product of sparingly soluble salt, for the measurement
of conductivity
Importance of conductivity water and temperature for the measurement of conductivity

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2. Chromatography
Introduction,
Classification of chromatography - types of chromatography
Detail study of
(2) Partition chromatography paper and TLC.
(3) Gas chromatography- GLC & GSC
(4) Ion exchange chromatography.
Application such as main physical characteristic of chromatography: Solubility,
adsorption value, volatility , Rf value , Rx value , nature of adsorption etc.
(I) Column chromatography:
Principles,
Method of separation of green leat pigment , mixture of inorganic ,vitamins ,colors of
flowers etc. separation of , , carotene from carrot.
(II) Partition chromatography :
(1) Paper chromatography
(2) TLC
(1) Paper chromatography :
Principle of paper chromatography
Experimental methods like :
Ascending and Descending method containing one dimensional and two dimensional method;
circular method and its Rf value , Rx value ;circulation method, separation of amino acid, sugar, phenyl
amine glycine and Fe+2 , Co+2 , Ni+2 mixture using spray reagent ninhydrine and aniline phthalate
(b) TLC :
Introduction of principles ;
Method of preparation of chromatoplate, Experimental techniques, superiority of TCL. over
other chromatographic Techniques, Application of TLC.
(III) Gas chromatography
Introduction,
Principle of GLC and GSC
(1) GLC:
Instrumentation, evaluation selection and characteristic of carrier gas, Effect of temperature &
pressure of gas, application.
(2) GSC:
Methods and its application.
(IV) Ion Exchange chromatography :
Introduction
Principle
Type of resins
Properties of ion exchange resins
Basic requirement of useful resins
Method of separation with illustration curve
Application of ion exchange resins
3. Introduction of complexometry Titration
Method of preparation of standard E.D.T.A. Solution,
Velchers law explanation of pm EDTA vol.,Graph with stability constant value.
Types of EDTA Titration (I) Direct Titration (II) Back Titration (III) Substitution Titration (IV)
Alkalimetry titration mixture with the help of masking and demasking agent ;
Principle of metal ion indicator,Use of EBT, calcon , muroxide with structure and characteristic.
4. Potentimetric and pH metry :
Introduction and interpretation of pH metry and potantiomtry.
Importance of indicator and reference electrode in the measurement of EMF and pH
E.M.F. method :
(I) Study of acid base Titration
(II) Redox Titration

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(III) Argentometric Titration include mixture of Cl, Br , I with graph and proper explanation.
pH metry :
Definition,
Interpretation of various methods of determining pH value like pH paper method
(Demonstration only), potentiometric method using only hydrogen electrode as indicator
electrode and calomel electrode as reference electrode to determine pH value.
Weak acid strong base Titration with curve and determination of dissociation constant (Ka)
of weak acid.
Reference Books (Analytical Chemistry):
(1) Fundamental of analytical chemistry by skoog & west
(2) Instrumental method of chemical analysis By B. K. Sharma 22 wilhim
(3) Water analysis and water pollution by V. P. Kudesia
(4) Instrumental method of chemical analysis By Chatwal Amreli
(5) Thin layer chematography by Egal stall
(6) Book for water analysis: By R.K. Trivali, V. P. Kulesiya.
(7) Analytical Chemistry by click
(8) Inorganic inflictive analysis by Vogel and Gehani Parekh
(9) Electronic methods of analysis by brewing
(10)Principle of instrumental analysis by S korg.

## (1) Inorganic Qualitative Analysis (six radicals) [30 marks]

[Minimum 12 inorganic mixtures should be analyzed]
To analyze the given inorganic mixture containing six radicals

## (2) Organic Synthesis (% age of yield, crystallization, melting point)

[Minimum 8 synthesis should be done] [20 marks]
I. Acetylation / Benzoylation:
1. Acetylation of salicylic acid
2. Acelytation of aniline
3. Acelytation of phenol
4. Benzoylation of aniline
5. Benzoylation of phenol
II. Aliphatic Electrophilic substitution:
1. Preparation of iodoform from ethanol
2. Preparation of iodoform from acetone
III. Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution:
Nitration:
1. Preparation of m-dinitrobenzene,
2. Preparation of nitro acetanilide.
Halogenation:
1. Preparation of p-bromo acetanilide,
2. Preparation 2:4:6 -tribromo phenol
IV. Diazotization / Coupling:
1. Preparation of methyl orange
2. Preparation of methyl red
V. Oxidation: Preparation of benzoic acid from benzaldehyde

## (3) Physicochemical Exercise [25 marks]

[Minimum 12 exercises should be done]
Potentiometry
1. To determine normality and dissociation constant of benzoic acid using 0.1N NaOH.
2. To determine normality of given acid xN HCl using NaOH solution.
3. To determine concentration of xN FAS using K2Cr2O7.

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 29

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Biotechnology

4. To determine normality of each halide in the mixture using 0.1N AgNO3 solution.
5. To determine normality and dissociation constant of benzoic acid using 0.1N NaOH.
Polarimeter
1. To determine specific rotation of three different concentration (10%, 5%, 2.5%) of dextrose solution.
From graph find out the unknown concentration by plotting concentration v/s rotation angle.
2. Study the inversion rate of sugar in presence of 1N HCl and determine the rate of reaction.
Surface tension:
1. Find the surface tension of the liquids A, B, and C by using Drop-weight method. Find the value of
Parachor of liquids and CH2 group.
Thermodynamics:
1. Calculate entropy of vapourization (Sv) of a given liquid by plotting a graph of log (1/time) vs
(1/temperature).
Chromatography:
2. To determine Rf value of individual and mixture of amino acid by ascending paper chromatography.
3. To determine Rf value of individual and mixture of amino acid by circular paper chromatography.
4. To determine Rf value of individual and mixture of amino acid by thin layer chromatography (TLC).
5. To determine Rf value of individual and mixture of metal ions by ascending paper chromatography.
6. To determine Rf value of individual and mixture of metal ions by circular paper chromatography.

## CHEMISTRY PRACTICALS [ C-604 ] Project Report

[ Total Marks: 100 marks { 60 Project Report + 40 Presentation ]
Project Report must be submitted in 35 to 50 pages
Presentation using OHP or PowerPoint for 5 minutes

Biotechnology
SEMESTER V
BT 501 - Bioprocess and Biochemical Engineering
Theory
Unit - 1
1.1 General Consideration: Metabolic Pathways and Metabolic Control Mechanism, Primary and Secondary
Metabolites.
1.2 Enrichment Techniques for isolation and Screening of microorganism, Primary and Secondary screening
1.3 Strain Improvement : Nature of mutation, mutagenesis, isolation of mutants
1.4 Strain Improvement : Application of recombinant DNA technique in strain construction
1.5 Techniques for preservation and storage of cultures
Unit 2
2.1 Fermentor and bioreactor : Design and types of various fermentors
2.2 Introduction to Aeration and agitation, oxygen transfer rate, heat control
2.3 Basic concept of growth and growth kinetics
2.4 Batch, fed-batch and continuous culture operations, chemostat and turbidostat
2.5 Starter culture, its importance and preparation
Unit 3
3.1 Introduction and types of fermentation media
3.2 Raw materials used in fermentation media
3.3 Media optimization
3.4 Sterilization of media, air and equipments
3.5 Automation (process computerization)
Unit 4
4.1 Overview of downstream processing
4.2 Extraction and separation techniques;
Cell disruption disintegration
Flocculation & Floatation
Filtration
Centrifugation

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 31

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Biotechnology

## 4.3 Purification & Concentration of product by:

Solvent-Solvent Extraction
Distillation
Membrane filtration and dialysis
Chromatographic methods
Crystallization and drying
4.4 Bioassay, Quality control procedure and
4.5 Fermentation Economics
Unit 5
5.1 Fermentation processes of alcohol, organic acids (Gluconic acid & Citric acid)
5.2 Fermentation processes of amino acids (Lysine), vitamins (Vit. B12), antibiotics (penicillin)
5.3 An overview of solid state fermentation
5.4 Immobilization Techniques: Immobilization of cell and enzyme: Basic concept of immobilization, principles,
mechanism and techniques of immobilization. Choice of immobilization methods, properties of immobilized
enzyme stability and kinetic properties.
5.5 Supporting matrices used and their properties. Examples of the techniques in biotechnology: Alcohol, semi
synthetic antibiotics and amino acids production
Practicals
Ex: -1 Isolation, Screening and characterization of Lipolytic, Proteolytic, Amylolytic microbes and enzymes
Ex: -2 Screening of antibiotic producing microorganisms (Crowded & Wilkins Method).
Ex: -3 Determination of growth phases of microorganisms
Ex: -4 Optimization of medium parameters (pH, Temperature, Salt, Carbon & Nitrogen) for the production of biomass
and enzymes (Invertase)
Ex: -5 To demonstrate various techniques of bioassay for antibiotic
Ex: -6 Typical fermentation of alcohol & Gluconic Acid.
Exp 7 Gel entrapment of yeast cells and to determine invertase activity by the immobilized cells
References
1. Mukhopadhyay. Process Biotechnology Fundamental. Viva Book
2. Shuler and Kargi, 1992. Bioprocess engineering. Prentice-Hall.
3. Bialy & Ollis. 1986. Biochemical Eng. Fundaments. McGraw-Hill.
4. Schugerl. 1987. Bioreaction engineering. J/W.
5. Stanbury and Whitaker. Principles of fermentation technology.
6. Sikyta. Methods in Industrial microbiology. Ellis Hardwood Ltd.
7. Krijsman. Product recovery in bioprocess technology.
8. T.K.Ghose. Bioprocess computation in biotechnology. Ellis Hardwood Ltd.
9. Murray Joh. 1997. Microorganisms and Biotechnology.
10. Demain (ED). 1999. Manual of mdustrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. Asm Press.
11. Bioprocess Engineering Principles by Doran (D); Academic Press, 1998
12. Cooney, A.E. Humphrey, Comprehensive Biotechnology: The principles and Regulation of
Biotechnology in Industry, Agriculture and Medicine, Vol.2, Pergamon Press, 1985
13. Doran. Bioprocess Engineering Principles - Academic Press - 2001
14. Michael L. Shuler and Fikret Kargi (2003). Bioprocess engineering basic concepts. (2nd edition). Prentice
Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. India.
15. Bioprocess technology: Fundamentals and applications, KTH Stockholm.
BT 502 - Genetics & Molecular Biology
Theory
Unit - 1 Classical Genetics
1.1 Gene structure & organization: Fine Structure of gene (Cistron, Recon, Muton) Structure of eukaryotic gene.
Organization of genes (Gene family) Pseudo genes, Allele, Multiple allele, Pseudo allele, Lethal genes,
Pleiotropic gene.
1.2 Mendelian inheritance: Inheritance patterns & Laws of Heredity.
1.3 Gene Interaction: Allelic Interaction (Dominance, Incomplete Dominance & Co-Dominance) Non allelic
Interaction (Supplementary, Complementary & Duplicative genes, Epistasis).
1.5 Chromosomal Aberrations, Sex Determination

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 32

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Biotechnology

## Unit - 2 Population Genetics & Molecular Genetics

2.1 Genetic polymorphism, Genetic Drift & Hardy Weinberg Law of equilibrium.
2.2 Extra chromosomal Inheritance,
2.3 DNA as genetic material : Experimental evidences (Direct & Indirect Evidences)
2.4 Watson & Crick Model, Alternative forms of DNA, C-value paradox.
2.5 Genomic organization of prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells, Concepts of Central Dogma.
Unit - 3
3.1 Replication Experimental evidences of DNA replication & Enzymes involved in DNA replication
3.2 Process of replication in Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes (Overview of eukaryotic DNA replication with SV 40 as
an example)
3.3 DNA repair Mechanism: Preventative, Direct & Post Replication repair
3.4 Process of gene recombination: Mechanism of gene transfers transformation, conjugation and transduction.
3.5 Transposable elements: Structure & Mechanism of Transposition, Transposable elements in eukaryotes (Ac-
Ds Elements, P-elements, Retro-Transposons & retroposons)
Unit - 4
4.1 Transcription: Overview of Transcription & Types of RNA Molecules.
4.2 Process of Transcription, RNA Processing & Post Transcriptional Modifications.
4.3 Machinery of Protein Synthesis: Genetic code, Ribosomes & Role of t-RNA.
4.4 Process of Translation & Brief discussion of Post translational modifications
4.5 Regulation of gene expression Lac-operon & Trp operon
Unit 5 Concept of Gene Cloning
5.1 Steps of Genetic Engineering & Enzymes involved.
5.2 Cloning Vectors: Plasmids, Phages, Cosmids, YACs, BACs, Expression Vectors (Overview)
5.4 Screening of Recombinants (Blue white screening, Nucleic Acid Hybridization Method)
5.5 Applications of Genetic Engineering
Practicals
Ex: -1 Preparation of genomic DNA from bacteria
Ex: -2 Isolation of genomic DNA from Blood
Ex: -3 Quantitation of DNA by spectrophotometry
Ex: -4 Isolation of plasmid DNA from bacteria
Ex: -5 Agarose gel electrophoresis of isolated DNA
Ex: -6 Bacterial transformation:
6.1 Preparation of competent cells
6.2 Transformation
Ex: -7 Restriction enzyme digestions and its analysis by gel electrophoresis
Ex: -8 U.V. Induced Mutagenesis.
Ex: -9 Problem solving on Mendelian Principles
Ex: -10 Problem solving on Hardy Weinberg Law of equilibrium
References
1. Genetics and Molecular Biology
2. Garder, Principles of genetics, Wiley Publications, 8th edition
3. Levin, Gene VI to Gene VIII, Oxford Pub.
4. Friefelder, Essentials of Molecular Biology, Panima Pub
5. T. A. Brown ,Genome-2 2nd Edition
6. Old & primrose, Principle of Gene Manipulation, Blackwell Pub.
7. Weaver Molecular Biology, Mc Graw Hill
8. Brown, Gene Cloning and DNA analysis, Blackwell Pub.
9. Winnacker, From genes to clones , Panima Pub.
10. P.C. Tumer, Instant notes in Immunology, Viva books Pub.
11. Griffith, Introduction to genetic analysis, Freeman publication, 8th edition
12. Robert Broker, Genetics, Mc Graw Hill
13. Strickberger, Genetics, Prentice Hall Pub.
14. T. A. Brown, Gene Cloning DNA analysis-Blackwell Pub.
15. Stephen Hunt, Functional Genomics Oxford, Tokyo

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 33

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Biotechnology

## 16. Alberts. Molecular Biology of cell. Garland Pub.

17. Verma,Cell biology ,Genetics ,Molecular Biology, Evolution & Ecology.2006
18. Karp,Cell & Molecular Biology: concepts & Experiments.4th Edition.
19. Lodish,Cell & Molecular Biology,W.H.Freeman.5th Edn.
20. Watson, Molecular Biology of the Genes. Pearson Publication.
21. Wilson, & Walker. 1995. Principles and techniques of practical Biochemistry.
22. Becker. 1996. Biotechnology: A laboratory course
23. Lenhinger. Principles of biochemistry,2nd Edn.
24. Glick, Molecular Biotechnology,ASM Publication.
25. Becker & Hardin, The world of the Cell, Pearson Pub.
26. C.B.Powar, Cell Biology, Himalaya Press.
27. Nelson & Cox, Lehninger Principle Biochemistry, Freeman Pub.
28. Desiker, Cell & Development Biology, Dominant Pub.
29. Albert, Essential Cell Biology,Garland Science.
30. Geoffrey Cooper ,The- Cell Molecular Approach, ASM Pub.
31. Ben Hui Liu, Statistical Genomics : Linkage, mapping & QTL Analysis, CRC press
32. Nicholl, An Introduction to Genetic Engg. - 2 ed, Cambridge
33. Primrose, Principles of Gene Manipulation - 6 ed, Blackwell
34. Winnacker, From Genes to Clones, Panima
35. Primrose, Principle of Gene Manipulation, Blackwell
36. Griffiths, Intro. to Genetic Analysis - 8ed, Freeman Pub.
37. Maxine singer-berg, Genes - Genomes, Uni. Sci. Book
38. T.A.Brown, Gene Clonning - DNA Analysis, Blackwell
39. John Witkowski, Recombinant DNA, Scientific American
40. Piramal, Molecular Biotechnology, Dominant Pub.
41. Maxine singer & Paul Berg, Exploring Genetic Mechanism, Uni.science Books
42. Bruce Patterson, Techniques in Quantification & Localization of Gene Expression, Birkhaus Pub.
43. Reed , Holmes, Jonathan Weyers, Practical Skills in Bimolecular Sciences
44. Anthony, Griffiths, William M, Modern Genetic Analysis :Integrating Genes and Genomes

BT 503 - IMMUNOLOGY
Theory
Unit - 1
1.1 Historical Perspective, Innate Immune response and its role in protection
1.2 Adaptive Immune response - Humoral and cellular component of the Immune response, Comparison
1.3 Hematopoiesis
1.4 Cells of the Immune System.
1.5 Organs of the Immune System : Primary and Secondary Lymphoid Organs
Unit - 2
2.1 Antigen: Characteristics of antigens, Factors that influence immunogenicity, Cross reactivity, Epitopes,
2.2 Immunoglobulins: Structure, Classification & Functions.
2.3 Genetic events in synthesis of Ig Chains: Organization & Synthesis of Light chain genes & Heavy chain
genes, Class & Isotype Switching
2.4 Monoclonal Antibodies: Production by Hybridoma Technology & Applications
2.5 Antigen and Antibody Interactions-(Agglutination, Precipitation, ELISA, RIA, Immunoflorescence &
Western Blotting)
Unit - 3
3.1 MHC: MHC molecules and organization of their genes, Structure and function of MHC gene products
3.2 Antigen Processing and Presentation
3.3 T- Cell Receptor
3.4 T- Cell Maturation, Activation, Differentiation
3.5 B- Cell Maturation, Activation, Differentiation
Unit - 4

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 34

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Biotechnology

## 4.1 Cytokines: Properties of Cytokines, Cytokine receptors, Function of Cytokines

4.2 Complement System: Function, Component, Activation and Regulation
4.3 Cell Mediated Effector Responses
4.4 Inflammation
4.5 Vaccines
Unit - 5
5.1 Immune response to Infectious Diseases : Viral (Influenza), Bacterial (Tuberculosis), Protozoan (Malaria)
5.2 Immunodeficiency Diseases Primary (SCID) & Secondary (AIDS)
5.3 Autoimmune Diseases: Organ Specific (Graves disease, Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus) and Systemic
Autoimmune Diseases (Rheumatoid Arthritis, Multiple sclerosis).
5.4 Transplantation Immunology: Graft rejection, Evidence & Mechanism of Graft rejection, Prevention of
Graft rejection, Immunosuppressive Drugs
5.5 Hypersensitive Reactions

Practicals
Ex:-1. Total & Differential Count of blood cells
Ex:-2. Agglutination & Precipitation:
Blood Grouping
Widal Test (Slide /Tube)
Oucterlouny Double diffusion (ODD)
HIV detection rapid test
Latex Agglutination
Ex:-3. Dot ELISA, ELISA Test
Ex:-4. Rocket Immunoelectrophoresis (Demonstration)
Ex:-5. Gel Techniques; SDS PAGE/Western blot
Ex:-6. Antigen-Antibody reactions Coombs test.
Ex:-7. Purification of Immunoglobulin (Demonstration)
References
1. Janis Kuby, Immunology, 5th Edition
2. Ivan Roitt, Essential Immunology, 9th Edn.
3. Ananthnarayan, Medical microbiology
4. Mary S. Leffell,& Noel R. Rose, Handbook of Human Immunology, CR
5. Tizzard, Immunology
6. Elgert Immunology
7. Lidyard, Instant notes in Immunology, 2nd Edition.
8. Darla J wise, Immunology-A comprehensive review : A Blackwell science Pub.
9. Todd & Spickett, Immunology
10. Delves & Roitte Encyclopedia of Immunology- Vol-1 to Vol.-4, 2nd Edition
11. A handbook of practical and clinical immunology. Talwar GP and Gupta SK (1992) CBS Publications
12. Using Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual. Harlow & Lane (1998) Cold Spring Harbor Lab Press.
13. Immunological Techniques Made Easy. Cochet, et al. (1998) Wiley Publishers, Canada.
14. Clinical Immunology Principles and Laboratory Diagnosis. Sheehan (1990)

SEMESTER VI
BT 601 - Principles of Biotechnology Applied to Plants and Animals
Unit - 1 Plant Tissue Culture - I
1.1 Introduction & History of plant tissue culture
1.2 Laboratory requirements
1.3 Aseptic techniques
1.4 Culture medium: Nutritional requirements of explants, PGRs & their in vitro roles, media preparation.
1.5 Explant: Characteristics, Sterilization & Selection
Unit - 2 Plant Tissue Culture - II
2.1 Principles of tissue culture: Totipotency, Cyto-differentiation.

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 35

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Biotechnology

## 2.2 Callus culture, clonal propagation & somaclonal variation

2.3 Haploids: Anther & pollen culture
2.4 Somatic embryogenesis & synthetic seed production
2.5 Protoplast Culture: Principle, Methods of fusion, somatic hybridization, Identification of hybrids.
Unit - 3 Plant Tissue Culture - III
3.1 Genetic transformation in plants: Vector mediated & Non vector mediated methods.
3.2 Application of tissue culture in agriculture, forestry & flory culture.
3.3 Secondary metabolite production from plants using in vitro tools.
3.4 Bioreactors for cell culture techniques.
3.5 Transgenic plants applications - Plantibodies, Edible Vaccines & BT Cotton
Unit - 4 Animal Tissue Culture - I
4.1 Animal tissue culture: History, Scope & importance
4.2 Laboratory requirements & aseptic techniques
4.3 Culture medium: Requirements, Types: Natural, chemically defined & synthetic media
4.4 General procedure for tissue culture: Disaggregation (Enzymatic & Non enzymatic)
4.5 Maintenance, Quantitation.
Unit - 5 Animal Tissue Culture - II
5.1 Primary culture, Secondary culture (Transformed cell & continuous cell lines)
5.2 Cloning & Selection of Cell lines
5.3 In Vitro Fertilization: Need & general Methodology
5.4 Transformation method in animals: Biological, Physical & Chemical.
5.5 Application of transgenic animals
Practicals
1. Plant tissue culture: laboratory organization facilities & equipments
2. Aseptic techniques: Washing, Packing & Sterilization
3. Preparations of stock solutions
4. Preparation of Plant tissue culture media: MS, Nitsch & Whites medium.
5. Production of callus culture & study of characteristics
6. Preparation of synthetic seeds: Encapsulation Techniques
7. Isolation of Protoplast
8. Isolation of DNA from plants
9. Preparation of media for animal cells & tissues (Theory)
References
1. Introduction to Plant Tissue Culture: M.K. Razdan
2. Plant Tissue Culture Theory & Practical: S.S. Bhojwani & M.R. Razdan
3. Plant Tissue Culture: Kalyankumar Dey.
4. Slan A.C. (1996) Plant Tissue Culture- Oxford & BH Publishing co. Pvt. Ltd.
5. Lydiane kyle John Kleyin plant test tubes: An Introduction to micro propagation.
6. Introduction to plant biotechnology by H.S. Chawla
7. Animal Tissue Culture - Mathur
8. Animal Tissue Culture - Freshney
9. Animal biotechnology - Ranga
10. Cell & Tissue Culture in animals Masters

## BT 602 - Analytical Techniques in Biotechnology

Theory
Unit - 1
1.1 Basics of Biochemical and Molecular biology studies
1.2 Quantitative biochemical measurements, Unit of measurements and safety in the laboratory
1.4 Detection and measurement of radioactivity. Geiger Muller Counters, Scintillation Counting.
Unit - 2

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 36

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Biotechnology

## 2.1 Electrophoresis:- Basic Principle, Support media

2.2 Agarose electrophoresis, PAGE, SDS PAGE, 2D PAGE
2.3 Isoelectrofocussing, Capillary Electrophoresis
2.4 Centrifugation: Introduction, Basic Principle of Sedimentation, The basic components of
centrifuge{Electric rotar, Drive Shaft, Rotars to hold Tubes etc}
2.5 Preparative and analytical Centrifuges;Density gradient Centrifugation {Zonal and Isopycnic}, Differential
Centrifugation
Unit - 3
3.1 Spectroscopy: Properties of electromagnetic radiation, Interaction of EM radiation with matter. Physical
Phenomenon-Absorption, Emission, Refraction, Diffraction, Transmission.
3.2 Beer Lamberts Law, Extinction Coefficient, Principle and Application: UV-Visible light Spectroscopy.
3.3 Atomic Absorption & Emission Spectroscopy
3.4 Mass Spectroscopy, X ray Diffraction and Crystallization-Basic principle & biological applications.
3.5 Brief Overview of IR & NMR Principle & biological applications.
Unit - 4
4.1 Chromatography: Chromatography theory and principles
4.2 Partition theory: Retention and differential migration mechanism (impelling retarding forces) and
equilibrium between two phases, definition of key terms: retention time, peak shape, band broadenings,
column efficiency, Rate Theory (HETP), resolution, selectivity, normal chromatography & Reverse.
4.3 Properties of solvents (MP), stationary phase and supporting phase.
4.4 Classifications of the technique, Types: Paper Chromatography, TLC, Column Chromatography, Partition,
Adsorption, Ion exchange, size exclusion, Affinity chromatography.:
4.5 GC/GLC, FPLC and HPLC
Unit - 5
5.1 Biosensors:- Introduction, Principle, Characteristics of Ideal Biosensor, Application of Biosensor
5.2 Different types of biosensors
5.3 Nanotechnology: Fundamental Concept, Techniques & Applications.
5.4 Electroanalytical techniques, potentiometer, coulometry, voltametry
5.5 Patenting and IPR
Practicals
1. Laboratory safety rules
2. Computation of percent solution. Molarity, ppm, ppb and stock solution
3. Complementary color
4. Determining max of given solution using spectroscopy
Quantification of Protein using
5. Folin-Lowry assay
7. Spectrometric assay
8. Centrifugation
(A) Principles and Instrumentation
(B) Problem solving g and RPM of centrifuge
Chromatography
9. Solvent-Solvent extraction
10. Separation of amino acids by Thin Layer chromatography
11. Separation of plant pigments by Paper Chromatography
12. Demonstration of gel filtration chromatography
13. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
14. Ammonium Sulphate precipitation.
15. Desalting of protein by dialysis
References
1. Harmes. Biochemistry.2nd Ed. Viva Book.
2. Fisher. Chemistry for biologists. Viva Books.
3. Wilson, & Walker. 1995. Principles and techniques of practical Biochemistry. Cambridge Univ. Press.
4. Davidson V.L. & Sittman. 1993. Biochemistry.
5. Blood & other 1996. Laboratory DNA Science. Benjamin.
6. Boyer. 2001. Modern Experimental bioch. 3/e. Addison

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 37

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Biotechnology

## 7. Becker. 1996. Biotechnology: A laboratory course. Alp

8. Plumner. An introduction to practical Biochemistry.
9. J.Jayraman. Lab Manual in Biochemistry.
10. Chirikjian, J.P. 1995. Biotechnology Theory and Technique for undergraduate laboratories Vol.1. Jones
and Barlett Pub.
11. Tinoco . Iand others. 1995. Physical chemistry Principles and applications in biological Sciemnces.
Prentice-Hall.
12. Paul H. Teesdale & others. 2001. Essentials of Biological chemistry. J/W.
13. Switzer and Gauity. 1995. Experimental Biochemistry WH Freeman.
14. Voet Donald. 1999. Fundamentals of Biochemistry, J/W.
15. Athel Cornish-Bowder. 1999. Basic mathematics for biochemists. OUP.
16. Elliott & Elliott. 2001. Biochemistry and molecular bilogy. OUP.
17. Millar Thomas. (ED). 2000. Biochemistry explained: A practical guide to learning Biochemistry.
Hardwood Aca. Publ.
18. Haynie, D.T. 2001. Biological thermodynamics Cambridge Univ. Press.
19. Hargreaves and Thmpson (Ed). 1999. Biochemistry of Exercises X. Human Kinetics Publ.
20. Aldridge, Susan. 1994. Biochemistry: a textbook for A - level biology: Practical Guide. Cambridge Univ.
Press.
21. Seidman and Moore. 2000. Basic laboratory methods for biotechnology. Longman
BT 603 - Advanced Molecular Techniques & Bioinformatics
Theory
Unit - 1
1.1 DNA Amplification : PCR -Types and Applications
1.2 DNA Sequencing: Maxam Gillbert, Sangers Dideoxy, Automated, Pyrosequencing, PCR Based Methods
1.3 Artificial synthesis of DNA (Gene Machine/ DNA Synthesizer)
1.5 Hybridization Techniques: Southern, Northern & Western Blotting
Unit - 2
2.1 Basic concepts of Molecular Markers: RFLP, RAPD, Micro satellite & Mini satellite
2.2 Primer Designing
2.3 Restriction Mapping
2.4 DNA Foot Printing
2.5 Chromosome Walking & Chromosome Jumping
Unit - 3
3.1 History & Future prospects of Human Genome Project
3.2 Microarray-Principle & Applications
3.3 Overview of Bioinformatics & Applications
3.4 Introduction, Need & Types of databases.
3.5 Biological Databases: Nature of Biological data, Importance of Biological Databases in Biological
Discovery
Unit - 4
4.1 Introduction to bibliographic databases: PubMed
4.2 Major Bioinformatics Resources: NCBI, EBI & ExPASY
4.3 Nucleic acid sequence databases: GenBank, EMBL, DDBJ
4.4 Protein sequence databases: Uniprot
4.5 Homology and similarity search tools: BLAST, FASTA
Unit - 5
5.1 Protein Structure data base: PDB
5.2 Structural Classification of Proteins
5.3 Multiple Sequence Alignment
5.4 Overview of Comparative & Functional Genomics
5.5 Phylogenetic Analysis
Practicals
1. Introduction to literature database at NCBI and querying the PUBMED database using the ENTREZ search
engine.
2. Getting the gene sequences by exploring and querying the nucleic acid databases. GenBank, EMBL & DDBJ

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 38

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Biotechnology

## 3. Find the Database similarity search through BLAST.

4. Multiple alignment of the given sequences by using ClustalW
5. Overview of OMIM & data retrieval
6. Getting the amino acid sequences by exploring and querying the protein sequence database. Swiss Prot,
Uniprot
7. 3-D Protein structure visualization and measurement of bond length, bond angle and torsion angles using
RasMol.
References
1. Introduction to Bioinformatics by T. Attwood and D. Parry-Smity, Prentice Hall
2. Bioinformatics: A Practical Guide to the Analysis of Genes and Proteins by A.D. Baxevanis and B.F.F
Ouellette, Wiley Interscience.
3. Essentials of Genomics and Bioinformatics by C.W. Sensen, John Wiley and Sons
4. Bioinformatics: Sequence and Genome Analysis by D.W. Mount, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
5. Lesk, A.M. 2002, Introduction to Bioinformatics. Oxford University Press
6. Rastogi, S.C., Mendiratta, N. and Rastogi, P. 2004 Bioinformatics: Concepts, Skills & Applications. CBS
Publishers & Distributors
7. Andreas D. Baxevanis, Current Protocals in Bioinformatics, John Wiley & Sons

## CHRIST COLLEGE, RAJKOT (Affiliated to Saurashtra University, Rajkot) 39

BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Microbiology

Microbiology
SEMESTER - V
MB-501: Applied Microbiology
Unit - I: Microbiology of Soil
A. Properties of soil
1.1 Physical & Chemical Characteristics of Soil
1.2 Rhizosphere & Microbial flora of Soil
1.3 Interactions among soil microorganisms: Neutral, Beneficial & Harmful interactions
B. Biogeochemical cycles
1.4 Introduction of Mineralization & immobilization of elements
1.5 Nitrogen Cycle: Proteolysis, Ammonification, Nitrification, Nitrate reduction, Denitrificaiton;
Biochemistry & genetics of nitrogen fixation (nif gene technology)
1.6 Sulfur Cycle: Sulfur oxidation & Reduction, Winogradskys Column
1.7 Carbon cycle: Degradation of complex organic compounds, formation of humus and its important
Reference Books
1. Principles of Microbiology By Atlas R.M.: 2nd edition
2. Microbiology by Pelczar M.J. & Chain E.C.S. : 5th edition
3. Introduction to soil microbiology by Alexander M: 2nd edition
4. Biotechnology fundamental & applications By Purohit S.S.
5. Diseases of Crop plants in India by Rangaswami G.
6. Microbiology fundamental & applications By Purohit S.S.
7. Microbiology by Prescott L.M.
Unit II: Food Microbiology
2.1 Microbial flora of fresh food
2.2 Microbial spoilage of foods: Fresh foods & Canned foods
2.3 Food Borne infection & intoxication: Role of S.aureus,, C.botulinum & Salmonella Spp.in food
poisoning
2.4 Preservation of foods: General principles & methods of food preservation
2.5 Microbiological examination of food; Introduction to AGMark
2.6 Brief introduction about fermented foods: Pickles, Sauerkraut, Silage, Sausages & Bread
2.7 Microorganisms as food: Single Cell Protein, Mushrooms and Functional foods
Reference Books
1. Fundamentals of Microbiology By Frobisher M.: 9th edition
2. Microbiology by Pelczar M.J. & Chain E.C.S. : 5th edition
3. Industrial Microbiology by Prescott S.C. : 3rd edition
4. Food Microbiology by Frazier W.C. : 3rd edition
5. Food science & Experimental foods By Swaminathan M.
6. Modern food microbiology by J James
Unit III: Dairy Microbiology
3.1 Milk as a medium, normal flora of milk
3.2 Types of microorganisms in milk: Biochemical types, Pathogenic types, Temperature types
3.3 Spoilage of milk & milk products
3.4 Microbial analysis of milk: SPC, Direct count, MBRT, Resazurin test
3.6 Fermented milk Beverages & Manufactured Dairy Products: Starter Culture, Cheese, Yogurt,
Buttermilk, Acidophilus milk, Kefir
3.7 Preservation of milk: Principles & methods of preservation
Reference Books
1 Fundamentals of Microbiology By Frobisher M.: 9th edition
2 Microbiology by Pelczar M.J. & Chain E.C.S. : 5th edition
3 Industrial Microbiology by Prescott S.C. : 3rd edition
4 Food Microbiology by Frazier W.C. : 3rd edition
5 Fundamentals of Dairy Microbiology by Prajapati J.B.
Unit IV: Aquatic Microbiology & Microbiology of Waste Water
A. Introduction

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BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Microbiology

## 4.1 Natural Water: Atmosphere, surface, Stored & Ground water

4.2 Aquatic environment: Temperature, Hydrostatic pressure, Light, Salinity, Turbidity, pH, inorganic &
organic constituents
4.3 Distribution of microorganisms in the aquatic environment
B. Microbiology of drinking water
4.4 Sanitary survey, Bacteriological evidence of pollution, Bacteriological analysis & Sampling techniques
of water
4.5 Microorganisms other than Coliforms as nuisance organisms
C. Water purification
4.6 Sedimentation, Filtration use of Sand filters, Disinfection
D. Waste water
4.7 Chemical and Microbial Characteristics of waste water, B.O.D., C.O.D. as indicator of quality of waste
ater
4.8 Waste water treatment & Disposal - Single Dwelling Process & Municipal Treatment - Primary
Treatment, Secondary Treatment, Advanced & final treatment
4.9 Solid waste processing: Anaerobic Sludge digestion & Composting
Reference Books
1 Principles of Microbiology By Atlas R.M.: 2nd edition
2 Microbiology by Pelczar M.J. & Chain E.C.S. : 5th edition
3 Environmental microbiology by Rania Maier, Academic Press
4 Advanced Waste water Treatment by R.K. Goel
5 Microbiology fundamental & applications By Purohit S.S.
6 Microbiology by Prescott L.M.
Unit V: Environment and Biotechnology
A. Environment
5.1 Types of Pollutants, Sources & Effect on ecology
5.2 Pollution by pesticides, Biomagnifications of pesticide & their Biological control
5.3 Brief account on Water pollution (by Oil, Detergent, Heavy metal & industrial effluent) & their
Biological control
5.4 Role of microorganisms in Biodeterioration of Paper, Textiles, paints, woods & metals and their
control
5.5 Air Pollution & Air Sanitation
B. Biotechnology
5.6 What is Biotechnology, Biotechnology as interdisciplinary science
5.7 Ethical, Legal and Social Implications of Biotechnology
5.8 Bioleaching, Microbial enhanced oil recovery
5.9 Biofuels
5.10 Bioplastics
Reference Books
1 Principles of Microbiology By Atlas R.M.: 2nd edition
2 Biotechnology by Trevan M.D.
3 Environmental microbiology by Rania Maier, Academic Press
4 Biotechnology by Smith, Oxford
5 Biotechnology fundamental & applications By Purohit S.S.
6 Microbiology by Prescott L.M.
Practical
1 Isolation of nitrogen fixing bacteria
2 Cultivation of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria (Demo)
3 Cultivation of cellulose decomposing microorganisms from soil(Demo)
4 Demonstration of oozing, and isolation of pathogen from diseased specimen of lemon leaf showing
citrus canker and isolation of Xanthomonas spp.
5 Standard qualitative analysis of milk
6 Methylene Blue Reduction Time test for milk
7 Estimation of DO.
8 Isolation and identification of coli forms from Water by Presumptive, Confirmed & Completed test
Reference Books

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BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Microbiology

1 International student edition: Microbiology- A laboratory Manual 4th edition. By James G. Chappuccino &
Natalie Sherman
2 Bacteriological Techniques By F.J. Baker
3 Introduction to Microbial Techniques By Gunasekaran.
4 Introductory Practical Biochemistry by S.K. Sowhney & Rundhir Singh
5 Standard Methods for Examination of waste water L.S. Clesceri, A.E. Greenberg & A.D. Eaton APHA
1998
MB-502- Bioprocess Technology
Theory
Unit I: Fermentation Technology & Industrially Important Microorganisms
A. Historical perspective and concept
1.1 General Concept and historical development of industrial microbiology
1.2 Range of Fermentation Processes
1.3 Component parts fermentation process
1.4 Economic aspects of fermentation industry
B. Isolation & improvement of industrially important microorganisms
1.5 Primary & Secondary Screening
1.6 Isolation methods using selection of desired characters
1.7 Improvement of industrially important microbes: Application of protoplast fusion and recombinant
DNA technology
1.8 Concept and application of bioinformatics in fermentation industry
Reference Books
1 Principles of Fermentation Technology By Stanbury & Whittaker : 2nd edition
2 Industrial Microbiology By Casida L. E.
3 A text book of industrial microbiology, 2nd edition By Wulf Crueger & Anneliese Crueger
4 Industrial Microbiology By A.H. Patel
5 Biotechnology: Food Fermentation Microbiology, Biochemistry & Technology Vol. 1 & 2 By V.K. Joshi &
Ashok Pandey
Unit II: Formulation of Fermentation media
2.1 Introduction, Types of Media and Medium formulation
2.2 Raw materials: Crude Carbon and Nitrogen sources
2.3 Minerals, Precursors, Growth Regulators, Buffers, Antifoam agents
2.4 Inoculum Medium
2.5 Media Optimization
Reference Books
1 Principles of Fermentation Technology By Stanbury & Whittaker : 2nd edition
2 Industrial Microbiology By Casida L. E.
3 A text book of industrial microbiology, 2nd edition By Wulf Crueger & Anneliese Crueger
4 Industrial Microbiology By A.H. Patel
5 Introduction to Bioinformatics by Institute of Bioinformatics, India
Unit III: Design and Aseptic Operation
3.1 Introduction and basic functions of fermentor
3.2 Types of bioreactors
3.3 Aeration and Agitation
3.4 Fermentation process: Batch Fermentation, Continuous fermentation and their comparative advantages
3.5 Sterilization process in fermentation industries:
a. Fermentor sterilization
b. Medium sterilization
c. Sterilization of air and feed
3.6 Aseptic operation and Containment
Reference Books
1 Principles of Fermentation Technology By Stanbury & Whittaker : 2nd edition
2 A text book of industrial microbiology, 2nd edition By Wulf Crueger & Anneliese Crueger
3 Industrial Microbiology By A.H. Patel
Unit IV: Downstream Processes

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BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Microbiology

4.1 Methods of Cell separation: Broth conditioning, Precipitation, Sedimentation, Centrifugation, Filtration
4.2 Techniques of Cell Disruption: Mechanical and Non mechanical methods
4.3 Product Recovery: Liquid liquid extraction, Solvent recovery, Two Phase aqueous extraction, Super
critical fluid extraction
4.4 Physical, Chemical and Biological assay of fermentation products
Reference Books
1 Principles of Fermentation Technology By Stanbury & Whittaker : 2nd edition
2 Industrial Microbiology By Casida L. E.
3 A text book of industrial microbiology, 2nd edition By Wulf Crueger & Anneliese Crueger
4 Industrial Microbiology By A.H. Patel
Unit V: Studies of Selective Fermentation Processes
5.1 Production of organic solvents: Ethyl alcohol
5.2 Production of enzymes: Amylases and Proteases
5.3 Production of antibiotics: Penicillin and Streptomycin
5.4 Production of amino acids: Lysine
5.5 Production of organic acids: Citric acid
5.6 Production of vitamins: Riboflavin
5.7 Overview of Immobilization in fermentation process
Reference Books
1 Industrial Microbiology By Casida L. E.
2 A text book of industrial microbiology, 2nd edition By Wulf Crueger & Anneliese Crueger
3 Industrial Microbiology By A.H. Patel
4 Biotechnology: Food Fermentation Microbiology, Biochemistry & Technology Vol. 1 & 2 By V.K. Joshi &
Ashok Pandey
5 Biotechnology By M.D.Trevan
MB-502: Bioprocess Technology
Practical
1 Primary screening of industrially important microorganisms capable of producing: Antibiotics, Organic
acids, amylases
2 Bioassay of penicillin using B. subtilis
3 Laboratory fermentation & estimation of Ethyl Alcohol by Saccharomyces.
4 Laboratory fermentation & estimation of amylase by B. subtilis.
5 Sterility testing of fermentation products (Demo)
6 Immobilization of yeast cells by Ca- alginate entrapment method & Determination of viability of
immobilized cells by invertase activity. (Demo)
Reference Books
1 International student edition: Microbiology- A laboratory Manual 4th edition. By James G. Chappuccino &
Natalie Sherman
2 Bacteriological Techniques By F.J. Baker
3 Introduction to Microbial Techniques By Gunasekaran.
MB-503- Prokaryotic Metabolism
Theory
Unit I: Introduction to Metabolism, Bioenergetics and Enzyme Kinetics
1.1 Bioenergetics : The concept of free energy, Determination of G & Energy rich compounds
1.2 Energy metabolism: Role of ATP in metabolism, Role of reducing power in metabolism, Role of
precursor metabolites in metabolism
1.3 Non Regulatory Enzymes : Derivation of the Michaelis Menten Equation
1.4 Regulatory Enzymes : Conformational changes in Regulatory Enzymes
Reference Books
1 The physiology and Biochemistry of Prokaryotes, 2nd edition By David white
2 Outlines of biochemistry By- Conn E.E. and Stumpt P.K.: 4th Ed.
3 General microbiology by Stanier R.Y.: 5th Ed
4 Principles of Biochemistry By Lehninger
Unit II: Heterotrophic Mode of Metabolism
A. Catabolism of Carbohydrates :
2.1 Glycolysis and its regulation

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BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Microbiology

## 2.2 The Pentose phosphate pathway

2.3 The Entner - Doudroff pathway
2.4 The Citric acid cycle and its regulation
2.5 The Glyoxylate cycle
B. Catabolism of protein and amino acids:
2.6 General reactions of amino acids catabolism, Stickland Reactions
C. Catabolism of lipids:
2.7 Oxidation of Fatty Acids, Beta- Oxidation of Fatty Acids
Reference Books
1 The physiology and Biochemistry of prokaryotes, 2nd edition By. David white
2 Outlines of biochemistry by Conn E. E. and Stumpf P. K. 4th Ed.
3 General microbiology by Stanier R.Y.: 5th Ed.
4 General microbiology by Powar and Daginawala Vol-1
5 Principles of Biochemistry By Lehninger
Unit III: Bioenergetics
3.1 Different modes of ATP generation
3.2 Electron transport chain : Introduction, Components of ETC and energy yield
3.3 Anaerobic Respiration
3.4 Methods of studying biosynthesis : Strategy of Biosynthesis, Use of Biochemical Mutants, Use of
Isotopic Labeling
3.5 Bacterial photosynthesis
3.6 Biosynthesis of peptidoglycan
Reference books
1 The physiology and Biochemistry of prokaryotes, 2nd edition By. David White
2 Outlines of biochemistry by Conn E.E. and Stumpt P.K. 4th Ed.
3 General microbiology by Stanier R.Y.: 5th Ed.
4 General microbiology by Powar and Daginawala Vol-1
Unit IV: Some Selected Aspects of Metabolism in Specific Microbial Systems
4.1 Chemo - autotrophs: Nitrifying Bacteria, Sulfur Oxidizers, The Iron bacteria, The Hydrogen Bacteria
4.2 The lactic acid bacteria: Patterns of carbohydrate fermentation in lactic acid bacteria
4.3 The Enteric group and related Eubacteria: Fermentative patterns of Gram negative Eubacteria
4.4 Archaebacteria: Energy metabolism and Carbon- Assimilation in Methanogens, photophosphorylation
in Halo bacterium
Reference Books
1 General Microbiology By Stanier R.Y.: 5th Ed.
2 The physiology and Biochemistry of prokaryotes, 2nd edition By. David
Unit V: Bacterial Membrane
5.1 Membrane lipids, Membrane carbohydrates, Membrane proteins, Membrane transport of small
molecules.
5.2 Specific Transport Systems : Mechanosensitive channels, ATP-binding cassette Transport family,
Chemiosmotic-driven transport, Establishing Ion gradients, Iron transport
5.3 The phosphotransferase system
5.4 Quorum sensing
5.5 Signal Transduction
Reference Books
1 General Microbiology By Stanier R.Y.: 5th Ed.
2 The physiology and Biochemistry of prokaryotes, 2nd edition by Devid

## MB-503- Prokaryotic Metabolism

Practical
1 Determination of Vmax and Km for amylase enzyme by performing substrate curve with line weaver
Burk plot.
2 Determination of Vmax and Km for alkaline phosphatase by performing substrate curve with line
weaver Burk plot.
Reference Books

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BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Microbiology

1 International student edition: Microbiology- A laboratory Manual 4th edition. By James G. Chappuccino &
Natalie Sherman
2 Bacteriological Techniques By F.J. Baker
3 Introduction to Microbial Techniques By Gunasekaran.

SEMESTER - VI
MB-601: Immunology and Clinical Microbiology
Theory
Unit: I: Immunity and Immunogen
1.1 Types of immunity: Natural, Acquired, herd, Innate, specific
1.2 Cells and organs of immune system: An overview
1.3 Primary response and generation of memory
1.4 Antigen
a. Immunogenicity versus antigenicity
b. Factors influencing Immunogenicity
d. Antigen processing and presentation
Reference books
1. Immunology 5th edition J.Kuby, R. A. Goldsby , .J.Kindt , B.A. Osborne W.H. Freeman and
Company , New York
2. Principles of Microbiology- 2nd edition R.M.Atlas Wm.C.Brown Publishers
3. Microbiology 5th edition Prescott , Harley , Klein McGraw-Hill Publishers
4. Instant Notes in Microbiology P.M. Lyolyard , A. Whelan, M.W. Fanger
Unit II: Antigen and Antibody
2.1 Antibody
a. Basic structure of Antibody
b. Immunoglobulin classes and their Biological activities
c. Epitopes and Receptors on immunoglobulin molecule
d. Antibody Diversity and Clonal Selection Theory
e. Overview of Monoclonal Antibody
2.2 Strength of antigen antibody reaction: Antibody affinity and avidity
Reference books
1. Immunology 5th edition J.Kuby, R. A. Goldsby , T.J.Kindt , B.A. Osborne W.H. Freeman and
Company , New York
2. Principles of Microbiology- 2nd edition R.M.Atlas Wm.C.Brown Publishers
3. Microbiology 5th edition Prescott , Harley , Klein McGraw-Hill Publishers
4. Instant Notes in Microbiology P.M. Lyolyard , A. Whelan, M.W. Fanger
Unit III: Dysfunctional Immunity
3.1 Immunodeficiency Diseases
3.2 Hypersensitivity
3.3 Autoimmune diseases
3.4 Overview of Tumor immunity
3.5 Overview of Transplantation immunity
Reference books
1. Immunology 5th edition J.Kuby, R. A. Goldsby , T.J.Kindt , B.A. Osborne W.H. Freeman and
Company , New York
2. Principles of Microbiology- 2nd edition R.M.Atlas Wm.C.Brown Publishers
3. Microbiology 5th edition Prescott , Harley , Klein McGraw-Hill Publishers
4. Instant Notes in Microbiology P.M. Lyolyard , A. Whelan, M.W. Fanger
Unit IV: Infection and Prophylaxis
4.1 Introduction to the normal flora of healthy human host
4.2 Host microbe interactions
a. Process of Infection,
b. Pathogenicity

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BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Microbiology

## c. Virulence and infection

e. Penetratation of epithelial cell layers,
f. Events in infection following penetration
g. Microbial virulence factors
4.3 Epidemiology of infectious disease: Markers, concepts and tools
4.4 Vaccines: Conventional and Modern
4.5 Microbial agent of Disease
a. Gram negative Bacteria Treponema, Salmonella, Shigella, E.coli ,Neisseria
b. Gram positive Bacteria Clostridium, Mycobacterium, Streptococci
c. Protozoa Amoebiosis, Malaria
Reference books
1. Immunology 5th edition J.Kuby, R. A. Goldsby , T.J.Kindt , B.A. Osborne W.H. Freeman and
Company , New York
2. Principles of Microbiology- 2nd edition R.M.Atlas Wm.C.Brown Publishers
3. Microbiology 5th edition Prescott , Harley , Klein McGraw-Hill Publishers
4. Instant Notes in Microbiology P.M. Lyolyard , A. Whelan, M.W. Fanger

## Unit - V: Hematology and Serology

1. Hematology
a. Discovery of human blood group system
b. Blood coagulation
c. Principle, significance and procedure of blood transfusion
2. Serology
A) In vitro antigen: antibody reaction
a. Precipitation (in fluid and gel, immunoelectrophoresis)
b. Agglutination (Haemagglutination , Bacterial Agglutination, Passive Agglutination and
agglutination inhibition)
d. ELISA
e. Western Blot
f. Immunofluoroscence
B) a. Methods of specimen collection
b. Identification of microbes from specimen
1) Microscopy
2) Rapid methods of identification
3) Molecular methods
Reference books
1 Immunology 5th edition J.Kuby, R. A. Goldsby , T.J.Kindt , B.A. Osborne W.H. Freeman and
Company , New York
2 Principles of Microbiology- 2nd edition R.M.Atlas Wm.C.Brown Publishers
3 Microbiology 5th edition Prescott , Harley , Klein McGraw-Hill Publishers
4 Instant Notes in Microbiology P.M. Lyolyard , A. Whelan, M.W. Fanger

## MB-601: Immunology and Clinical Microbiology

Practical
1. Medical problem: Understanding of the problem and isolation & identification of microbes form clinical
specimen ( blood, urine, sputum, skin scraping, swabs, stool samples)
2. Antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogens isolated from the clinical specimen
3. Study of serological and hematological reactions
a. Agglutination ( blood grouping, serodiagnosis of enteric fever by Widal test)
b. Serodiagnosis of syphilis by RPR Test
c. Total count of RBC and WBC
d. Differential count of WBC
e. Haemoglobin estimation by Sahlis method
f. Bleeding time by filter paper technique and clotting time by capillary method

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BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Microbiology

## g. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR-demonstration)

4. Blood Chemistry
a. Blood sugar estimation by GOD / POD method
b. Blood urea by DAM method
c. Serum bilirubin (demonstration)
d. Cholesterol (demonstration)
5. Physical, chemical and microscopic analysis of urine
6. Microscopic study of pathogens ( permanent slides); Acid Fast Bacilli, Treponema, Malarial Parasite,
Entamoeba histolytic Clostridium tetanii, Neisseria species
Reference books
1 A Handbook of Practical and Clinical Immunology G.P.Talwar and S. K. Gupta CBS Publication
2 Medical Laboratory Technology Vol I , II , III Mukherji K.L.
3 A Text Book in Medical Laboratory Technology P.B.Godkar
4 Medical Bacteriology, Mycology and AIDS N.C. Dey, T.K. Dey, D.Sinha

## MB-602 - Molecular Biology and Bio-engineering

Theory
Unit I: The History and Concept of Genetics
1.1 History of genetics and molecular biology
1.2 Mendelian Laws of inheritance The gene concept
1.3 Units of genetic structure and genetic function
1.4 Gene Cistron relationship in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
1.5 Gene structure and architecture
1.6 DNA is the universal genetic material
1.7 DNA Replication Mechanism and models
Reference Books
1 Advanced Molecular Biology, Twyman R. M.
2 Genes VII, Benjamin Lewin
3 Microbiology, Atlas R. M.
Unit II: Gene Expression and Regulation
2.1 Transcription and post transcriptional modifications
2.2 Genetic code and Ribosome
2.3 Translation and post translational modifications
2.4 Levels of gene expression and regulation
2.5 Types and principles of gene regulation
2.6 Transcriptional regulation
2.7 The Operon Model :Regulation of lactose utilization The lac operon
2.8 The Operon Model :Regulation of arabinose utilization The ara operon
2.9 The Operon Model :Regulation of tryptophan biosynthesis The trp operon
2.10 Post transcription control
Reference Books
1 Essential of Molecular Biology Malacinski G. M.
2 Advanced Molecular Biology Twyman R. M.
3 Molecular Genetics of Bacteria Synder L. & Champness
4 Microbial Genetics R. Maloy
5 Microbiology Prescott L. M.
6 Microbiology Atlas R. M.
Unit III: Gene Transfer and Recombination
3.1 Types of Recombination : Homologous recombination, Site specific recombination, Illegitimate
recombination,
3.2 Transformation: Natural transformation, competence, DNA uptake, role of natural transformation,
Artificial induced competence, electroporation
3.3 Transduction: Generalized transduction, specialized transduction and abortive transduction
3.4 Conjugation: Mechanism of DNA transfer in Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria
3.5 Transposable genetic elements

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BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Microbiology

Reference Books
1 Essential of Molecular biology Malacinski.G.M.
2 Advanced Molecular Biology Twyman R.M.
3 Molecular genetics of bacteria Synder L. & Champness
4 Microbial Genetics R. Maloy
5 Microbiology Prescott L.M.
6 Microbiology Atlas R.M.
Unit IV: Mutation and DNA Repair
4.1 Fluctuation analysis
4.2 Mutation and Mutation rate
4.3 Phenotypic effects of mutation, Phenotypic and Phenomic lag
4.4 Types of mutation :Spontaneous mutations and Induced mutations
4.5 Biochemical basis of mutation
4.6 Mutagenesis
4.7 Reversion and Ames test
4.8 DNA repair mechanisms - Mismatch repair, excision repair, photo reactivation,
Recombinational repair and SOS repair
Reference Books
1 Essential of Molecular biology Malacinski.G.M.
2 Advanced Molecular Biology Twyman R.M.
3 Molecular genetics of bacteria Synder L. & Champness
4 Microbial Genetics R. Maloy
5 Microbiology Prescott L.M.
6 Microbiology Atlas R.M.
Unit V: Genetic Engineering and Protein Engineering
5.1 Genetic engineering: aims and applications
5.2 Genetic manipulations of prokaryotes:
a. Isolation of DNA
b. Vectors of Recombinant-DNA Technology pBR 322, pUC, Bacteriophages, Cosmid, Phagmid,
BACs, YACs
c. Insertion of DNA molecules into a vector
d. Transformation and Growth
e. Detection of Recombinant molecules Colony Hybridization
f. Expression of foreign DNA
5.3 Genetic manipulations of eukaryotes: Genetic manipulation of plant cells, animal cells and yeasts
5.4 Site directed mutagenesis
5.5 Molecular Chaperons
5.6 Directed Evolution
Reference Books
1 Biotechnology Trevan M.D.
2 Advanced Molecular Biology Twyman R.M.
3 Microbiology Atlas R.M.
4 Microbiology Prescott L.M.
5 Microbial Genetics Freifilder. D
6 Principles of Gene Manipulation Old and Primrose

## MB - 602: Molecular Biology and Bio-engineering

Practical
1 Isolation of DNA (only demonstration experiment)
2 Estimation of DNA
3 Conjugation in E.coli by plate method
4 Isolation of plasmid (Only demonstration experiment)
5 Transformation of plasmid
6 Isolation of RNA (only demonstration experiment)
7 Estimation of RNA

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BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Microbiology

## 8 Isolation of Lactose non fermenter mutant of E.coli by physical mutagenesis

9 Isolation of auxotrophic mutants by chemical mutagenesis (only demonstration experiment)
10 Isolation of antibiotic resistant bacterial population by gradient-plate method.
11 Isolation of streptomycin resistant mutants by Replica plating technique.
12 The Ames test: For detecting potential carcinogen (only demonstration experiment)
13 GFP cloning experiment ( Only demonstration experiment, Commercial teaching kits may be used to
demonstrate this experiment)
MB-603: Environmental Science
Theory
Unit I: Natural Resource
1.1 Introductions: Definition, Scope. Importance
1.2 Renewable and non-renewable resources
1.2.1 Natural resources and associated problems
1.2.2 Non-renewable resources
1.2.3 Renewable resources:
a. Forest Resources
b. Water Resources
c. Mineral Resources
d. Food Resources
e. Energy Resources
f. Land resources
Unit II: Ecosystems
2.1 Concept of an ecosystem
2.1.1 Understanding ecosystems
2.1.3 Resource utilisation
2.2 Structure and functions of an ecosystem
2.3 Producers, consumers and decomposers
2.4 Energy flow in the ecosystem
2.5 Ecological succession
2.6 Food chains, Food webs and Ecological pyramids
Unit III: Biodiversity and Its Conservation
3.1 Introduction Definition: genetic, species, ecosystem diversity
3.1.1 Genetic diversity
3.1.2 Species diversity
3.1.3 Ecosystem diversity
3.2 Threats to biodiversity
3.3 Conservation of biodiversity: in-situ and ex-situ
3.4 Biodiversity at global, national and local levels
3.5 India as a mega diversity nation
Unit: IV: Environmental Pollution
4.1 Definitions
4.2 Causes, effects and control measures of:
4.2.1 Air Pollution
4.2.2 Water Pollution
4.2.3 Soil Pollution
4.2.4 Marine Pollution
4.2.5 Noise Pollution
4.2.6 Thermal Pollution
4.2.7 Nuclear hazards
4.3 Solid waste management: causes, effects and control measures of urban and Industrial waste
4.4 Roles of individuals in pollution prevention
Unit V: Social Issues and the Environments
5.1 Climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents and nuclear
holocaust.
5.2 Environment protection act

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BSc Syllabus 2017-18 Semester V&VI Microbiology

## 5.3 Wildlife protection act

5.4 Forest conservation act
5.5 Issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation and public awareness
5.6 Environment Impact Assessment (EIA)
5.7 What can I do?
Reference Books
1 Textbook for Environmental Studies For Undergraduate Courses of all Branches of Higher Education -
Erach Bharucha, for University Grants Commission
2 Agarwal KC, 2001. Environmental Biology, Nidi Publishers Ltd. Bikaner
3 Jadhav H and Bhosale VM, 1995. Environmental Protection and Laws. Himalaya Publishing House,
Delhi
4 Ecology and Environment P.D.Sharma
5 Odum EP, 1971. Fundamentals of Ecology. WB Saunders Co. USA,
MB-603: Environmental Science
Practical:
1 Chemical analysis of water: Chloride, Hardness, Nitrite Nitrogen, Alkalinity, Acidity, TDS, TSS, TS
2 Determination of air flora and air density from indoor & outdoor sources
3 Field Visit to Sewage treatment plant/Forest/Sanctuary/Soil Research Laboratory/GPCB Station and
preparation of report
4 Model Preparation as guided by faculty