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- Statistical Flaws in Excel -Hans Pottel
- Chapter 3 Answers to Questions and Probl (1)
- SPSS Introduction
- Tahoe Salt
- Dissertation Report 23
- E1448
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- Presentation (1)
- A MACHINABILITY EVALUATION OF CRYOGENICALLY TREATED BERYLLIUM COPPER IN A MAGNETIC FIELD ASSISTED BY ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING

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FINDINGS

4.1.1 Gender

Male 36 21.1

Female 135 78.9

Total 171 100

Table 4.1

According to our research project, there are 171 respondents i has contribute to our

questionnaire on mental stress well-being. There are 36 male respondents, which is 21.1%,

and 135 female respondents, which is 79.9%. The majority of the respondents were female.

4.1.2 Race

Malay 162 94.7

Chinese 2 1.2

Indian 1 .6

Others 6 3.5

Total 171 100.0

Table 4.2

Based on bar chart above, among of the 171 respondents, 162(94.7%) of them are Malay,

2(1.2%) are Chinese, only 1 (0.6%) are Indian and others are 6 (3.5%).

4.1.3 Age

Less than 18 years old 5 2.9

18-20 years old 28 16.4

21-23 years old 125 73.1

24-26 years old 11 6.4

More than 27 years old 2 1.2

Total 171 100.0

Table 4.3

Bar chart above showed that among the 171 respondents are between less than 18 years

old (2.9%), 18-20 years old (16.4%), 21-23 years old (73.1%), 24-26 years old (6.4%)

and more than 27 years old are (1.2%).

4.1.4 Nationality

Malaysian 171 100.0

Table 4.4

Pie chart above showed us that all 171 respondents are 100% Malaysian nationality.

4.1.5 University

UUM 76 44.4

UMK 26 15.2

KUIS 15 8.8

UPM 4 2.3

UNISZA 7 4.1

UITM 10 5.8

USIM 3 1.8

UNIKL 5 2.9

UNIMAP 4 2.3

UPSI 2 1.2

INSANIAH UNIVERSITY COLLEGE 1 .6

UIA 4 2.3

UM 2 1.2

UNIMAS 1 .6

UMS 1 .6

USM 1 .6

UTHM 1 .6

UTEM 1 .6

LIM KOK WENG COLLEGE 1 .6

UMP 1 .6

MSU 1 .6

KUISAS 1 .6

UKM 1 .6

Others 2 1.2

Total 171 100.0

Table 4.5

According to our research, there are 171 respondents take part in our questionnaire. Based on

the graph above, 76 of them are from UUM (44.4%), 26 students from UMK (15.2%), 15

students from KUIS (8.8%), 4 students from UPM (2.3%), 15 students from KUIS (8.8%), 7

students from UNISZA (4.1%), 10 students from UITM (5.8%), 3 students from USIM (1.8%),

students from UNIKL (2.9%), 4 students from UNIMAP (2.3%), 2 students from UPSI (1.2%), 1

student from Insaniah University College (0.6%), 4 students from UIA (2.3%), 2 students from UM

(1.2%), 1 students from UNIMAS(0.6%), 1 students from UMS(0.6%), 1 students from USM (0.6%),

1 students from UTHM (0.6%), 1 students from UTEM(0.6%), 1 students from Lim Kok Weng

College (0.6%), 1 students from UMP (0.6%), 1 students from MSU (0.6%), 1 students from KUISAS

(0.6%), 1 students from UKM(0.6%) and 2 students from other university (1.2%).

4.1.6 Study Year

1st year 35 20.5

2nd year 46 26.9

3rd year 77 45.0

4th year 3 1.8

More than 4 years 10 5.8

Total 171 100.0

Table 4.6

Bar chart above showed us that all 171 respondents 30 (20.5%) students are from 1st year, 46

(26.9%) students are from 2nd year, 77 (45.0%) students are from 3rd year, 3 (1.8%) students

are from 4th year and the rest 10 (5.8%) students are more than 4 years.

4.2 Normality Analysis

Statistic Std.

Error

Mental Mean 3.7713 .08343

Stress 95% Confidence Lower 3.6066

Interval for Mean Bound

Upper 3.9360

Bound

5% Trimmed Mean 3.7546

Median 3.8333

Variance 1.190

Std. Deviation 1.09104

Minimum 1.00

Maximum 7.00

Range 6.00

Interquartile Range 1.56

Skewness 0.123 0.186

Kurtosis 0.079 0.369

Table 4.7

From table 4.7, we can see that under the measurement of central tendency, the mean

of the mental stress is 3.7713. Furthermore, the median is 3.8333. On the other hand, under

the measurement of dispersion, the range of the mental stress is 6.00. However, the variance

is 1.190. Meanwhile, the standard deviation is 1.09104 and the interquartile range is 1.56.

Tests of Normality

Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk

Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.

*

Mental Stress 0.048 171 0.200 0.993 171 0.623

Table 4.8

*. This is a lower bound of the true significance.

a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

Refer to the Tests of Normality as above, the significant value is showing as 0.623 (greater

than 0.05). Thus, the test of normality is normal.

According to the graphical examination, the skewness of value, which considered as

normal distribution is within -1.96 to +1.96. From table 4.7, the skewness value is showing as

0.6613 (0.123/0.186) that implied a positive direction. Based on the histogram, the graph

show data is not normally distribution. Besides that, the graph also shows the positive

kurtosis with the value of 0.2141 (0.079/0.369), which has showed an obvious peak to the

graph.

Normal Q-Q Plot shows that the data are not normally distributed as data points stray from the line.

The Boxplot also show that the data are not normally distributed, with the median value of 3.8333

(minimum value = 1, maximum value = 7)

4.3 Reliability Analysis

18 Mental Stress 0.907

17 Academic 0.896

7 Environment 0.788

Table 4.9

Cronbachs alpha for each variable was computed in order to test the reliability.

Cronbachs alpha indicates how well the items in a set are positively correlated to one

another. The closer Cronbachs alpha to 1, the higher the internal consistency reliability. From

the table above, the dependent variable, which is mental stress, has a Cronbachs alpha of

0.907. Meanwhile, Cronbachs alpha for independent variables are 0.896 and 0.788, which is

academic, and environment respectively.

According to Nunnally (1978), the Cronbachs alpha of 0.9 and above is excellent. It

shows that a high level of internal consistency of the items and the items are highly

correlated. From the reliability analysis table, all the alpha showed that each variable is

higher that 0.70. Thus, it can be concluded that all variables are positively correlated to one

another.

between means between two unrelated group. Independent test is measure to know whether

two groups are different of each other.

Group Statistics

Gender N Mean Std. Std. Error

Deviation Mean

MentalStress Male 36 3.7994 .97899 .16317

Female 135 3.7638 1.12231 .09659

Table 4.10

Table 4.10 shows that there are 36 male and 135 female with mean of 3.7994 and 3.7638.

Independent Samples T-Test

Levene's

Test for

Equality of

Variances t-test for Equality of Means

95%

Confidence

Sig. Interval of the

(2- Mean Std. Error Difference

F Sig. t df tailed) Difference Difference Lower Upper

MentalS Equal 3.421 .066 .173 169 .863 .03560 .20524 -.36957 .44076

tress variances

assumed

Equal .188 61.846 .852 .03560 .18961 -.34345 .41465

variances

not

assumed

Table 4.11

H0: There is no mean difference of mental stress between male and female.

H1: There is a mean difference of mental stress between male and female.

In this test, we are using Dependent variable, which is mental stress, and nominal variable,

which is gender. This test shows that whether there is significant different in mental stress

among the female and male. Independent test also shows the Levenes test for equality of

variances. From table 4.11, the significant value of Levenes test is 0.066, it is not significant

(p<0.05). Therefore, this means equal variance assumed. The significant value (2-tailed) is 0.863

which is bigger than 0.005, it is not a significant value. Therefore, H0 is accepted and H1 is

rejected, there is a no mean difference of mental stress between male and female.

4.5 ANOVA

ANOVA test is used for comparing the mean between multi groups. We want to test whether

there are significant different in mental stress among study year.

MentalStress

Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

Total 202.363 170

Table 4.12

There is no significant effect of years of study on mental stress at p<0.05 level for three

conditions. [F (4,166) = 0.71, p=0.590]

H0: There is no mean differences of study year on mental stress.

H1: There is a mean difference of study year on mental stress.

From table 4.12, the significant level 0.590 is larger than 0.05, which is not significant.

Therefore, we accept null hypothesis HO, there is no mean difference in study year on mental

stress.

Multiple Comparisons

Dependent Variable: MentalStress

Tukey HSD

(I) StudyYear (J) StudyYear Mean Std. Sig. 95% Confidence Interval

Difference Error Lower Upper

(I-J) Bound Bound

1st year 2nd year -.06014 .24557 .999 -.7374 .6171

3rd year .07605 .22319 .997 -.5395 .6916

4th year .84444 .65865 .703 -.9721 2.6610

More than 4 -.26111 .39258 .964 -1.3438 .8216

years

2nd year 1st year .06014 .24557 .999 -.6171 .7374

3rd year .13619 .20402 .963 -.4265 .6989

4th year .90459 .65240 .637 -.8947 2.7039

More than 4 -.20097 .38201 .985 -1.2545 .8526

years

3rd year 1st year -.07605 .22319 .997 -.6916 .5395

2nd year -.13619 .20402 .963 -.6989 .4265

4th year .76840 .64431 .756 -1.0086 2.5454

More than 4 -.33716 .36802 .890 -1.3521 .6778

years

4th year 1st year -.84444 .65865 .703 -2.6610 .9721

2nd year -.90459 .65240 .637 -2.7039 .8947

3rd year -.76840 .64431 .756 -2.5454 1.0086

More than 4 -1.10556 .72072 .542 -3.0933 .8822

years

More than 4 1st year .26111 .39258 .964 -.8216 1.3438

years 2nd year .20097 .38201 .985 -.8526 1.2545

3rd year .33716 .36802 .890 -.6778 1.3521

4th year 1.10556 .72072 .542 -.8822 3.0933

Table 4.13

Table 4.13 show that there is no pair have significant difference because all sig value are p>

0.05.

4.6 Regression

Regression is when one independent variable is hypothesized to affect one dependent

variable. In the table of Model Summary, R square, R2 is the coefficient of determination

which provides the important information about the excellence in fit of the regression

model. R2 is defined by the percentage of variance in the dependent variable is explained

by the variation in independent variable.

Model Summaryb

Model R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of

Square the Estimate

1 . .133 .123 1.02179

36

5a

a. Predictors: (Constant), Environment, Academic

b. Dependent Variable: MentalStress

Table 4.14

The R-square is 0.133, which is a total of 1.3% of variance in mental stress is explained by

environment and academic.

ANOVAa

Model Sum of df Mean F Sig.

Squares Square

1 Regression 26.963 2 13.481 12.913 .000b

Residual 175.400 168 1.044

Total 202.363 170

a. Dependent Variable: MentalStress

b. Predictors: (Constant), Environment, Academic

Table 4.15

Based on the ANOVA table, the model is fit for regression analysis, which is the significant

value is 0.000 as p<0.05.

Coefficientsa

Model Unstandardized Standardized t Sig.

Coefficients Coefficients

B Std. Error Beta

1 (Constant) 1.648 .450 3.659 .000

Academic .108 .085 .092 1.274 .205

Environment .554 .113 .351 4.881 .000

a. Dependent Variable: MentalStress

Table 4.15

According to Coefficients Table, the significant value for academic is 0.205 which is

p>0.05. Therefore, academic has no significant relationship with mental stress.

Meanwhile, the significant value for environment is 0.000 which is p<0.05. Therefore,

environment has a significant and positive relationship on mental stress.

Hypothesis 1

H0: There is no relationship between academic and mental stress.

H1: There is a relationship between academic and mental stress.

From the table 4.15 above, the Beta value for academic is 0.092. The significant value for

academic is 0.205 which is not significant as p>0.05. Thus, the H0 is accepted and H1 is

rejected.

Hypothesis 2

H0: There is no relationship between environments to mental stress.

H1: There is a relationship between environments to mental stress.

From the table 4.15 above, the Beta value for environment is 0.351. The significant value

for environment is 0.000 which is significant as p<0.05. Thus, H1 is accepted and H0 is

rejected.

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