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CHAPTER 4

FINDINGS

4.1 Descriptive Analysis

4.1.1 Gender

Frequency Percentage (%)


Male 36 21.1
Female 135 78.9
Total 171 100
Table 4.1
According to our research project, there are 171 respondents i has contribute to our
questionnaire on mental stress well-being. There are 36 male respondents, which is 21.1%,
and 135 female respondents, which is 79.9%. The majority of the respondents were female.

4.1.2 Race

Frequency Percentage (%)


Malay 162 94.7
Chinese 2 1.2
Indian 1 .6
Others 6 3.5
Total 171 100.0
Table 4.2

Based on bar chart above, among of the 171 respondents, 162(94.7%) of them are Malay,
2(1.2%) are Chinese, only 1 (0.6%) are Indian and others are 6 (3.5%).
4.1.3 Age

Frequency Percentage (%)


Less than 18 years old 5 2.9
18-20 years old 28 16.4
21-23 years old 125 73.1
24-26 years old 11 6.4
More than 27 years old 2 1.2
Total 171 100.0
Table 4.3

Bar chart above showed that among the 171 respondents are between less than 18 years
old (2.9%), 18-20 years old (16.4%), 21-23 years old (73.1%), 24-26 years old (6.4%)
and more than 27 years old are (1.2%).
4.1.4 Nationality

Frequency Percentage (%)


Malaysian 171 100.0

Table 4.4

Pie chart above showed us that all 171 respondents are 100% Malaysian nationality.
4.1.5 University

Frequency Percent (%)

UUM 76 44.4
UMK 26 15.2
KUIS 15 8.8
UPM 4 2.3
UNISZA 7 4.1
UITM 10 5.8
USIM 3 1.8
UNIKL 5 2.9
UNIMAP 4 2.3
UPSI 2 1.2
INSANIAH UNIVERSITY COLLEGE 1 .6
UIA 4 2.3
UM 2 1.2
UNIMAS 1 .6
UMS 1 .6
USM 1 .6
UTHM 1 .6
UTEM 1 .6
LIM KOK WENG COLLEGE 1 .6
UMP 1 .6
MSU 1 .6
KUISAS 1 .6
UKM 1 .6
Others 2 1.2
Total 171 100.0
Table 4.5
According to our research, there are 171 respondents take part in our questionnaire. Based on
the graph above, 76 of them are from UUM (44.4%), 26 students from UMK (15.2%), 15
students from KUIS (8.8%), 4 students from UPM (2.3%), 15 students from KUIS (8.8%), 7
students from UNISZA (4.1%), 10 students from UITM (5.8%), 3 students from USIM (1.8%),
students from UNIKL (2.9%), 4 students from UNIMAP (2.3%), 2 students from UPSI (1.2%), 1
student from Insaniah University College (0.6%), 4 students from UIA (2.3%), 2 students from UM
(1.2%), 1 students from UNIMAS(0.6%), 1 students from UMS(0.6%), 1 students from USM (0.6%),
1 students from UTHM (0.6%), 1 students from UTEM(0.6%), 1 students from Lim Kok Weng
College (0.6%), 1 students from UMP (0.6%), 1 students from MSU (0.6%), 1 students from KUISAS
(0.6%), 1 students from UKM(0.6%) and 2 students from other university (1.2%).
4.1.6 Study Year

Frequency Percent (%)


1st year 35 20.5
2nd year 46 26.9
3rd year 77 45.0
4th year 3 1.8
More than 4 years 10 5.8
Total 171 100.0
Table 4.6

Bar chart above showed us that all 171 respondents 30 (20.5%) students are from 1st year, 46
(26.9%) students are from 2nd year, 77 (45.0%) students are from 3rd year, 3 (1.8%) students
are from 4th year and the rest 10 (5.8%) students are more than 4 years.
4.2 Normality Analysis

Statistic Std.
Error
Mental Mean 3.7713 .08343
Stress 95% Confidence Lower 3.6066
Interval for Mean Bound
Upper 3.9360
Bound
5% Trimmed Mean 3.7546
Median 3.8333
Variance 1.190
Std. Deviation 1.09104
Minimum 1.00
Maximum 7.00
Range 6.00
Interquartile Range 1.56
Skewness 0.123 0.186
Kurtosis 0.079 0.369
Table 4.7

From table 4.7, we can see that under the measurement of central tendency, the mean
of the mental stress is 3.7713. Furthermore, the median is 3.8333. On the other hand, under
the measurement of dispersion, the range of the mental stress is 6.00. However, the variance
is 1.190. Meanwhile, the standard deviation is 1.09104 and the interquartile range is 1.56.

Tests of Normality
Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk
Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.
*
Mental Stress 0.048 171 0.200 0.993 171 0.623
Table 4.8
*. This is a lower bound of the true significance.
a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

Refer to the Tests of Normality as above, the significant value is showing as 0.623 (greater
than 0.05). Thus, the test of normality is normal.
According to the graphical examination, the skewness of value, which considered as
normal distribution is within -1.96 to +1.96. From table 4.7, the skewness value is showing as
0.6613 (0.123/0.186) that implied a positive direction. Based on the histogram, the graph
show data is not normally distribution. Besides that, the graph also shows the positive
kurtosis with the value of 0.2141 (0.079/0.369), which has showed an obvious peak to the
graph.
Normal Q-Q Plot shows that the data are not normally distributed as data points stray from the line.

The Boxplot also show that the data are not normally distributed, with the median value of 3.8333
(minimum value = 1, maximum value = 7)
4.3 Reliability Analysis

Number of items Variables Alpha


18 Mental Stress 0.907
17 Academic 0.896
7 Environment 0.788
Table 4.9

The Cornbachs Alpha is 0.907.

Cronbachs alpha for each variable was computed in order to test the reliability.
Cronbachs alpha indicates how well the items in a set are positively correlated to one
another. The closer Cronbachs alpha to 1, the higher the internal consistency reliability. From
the table above, the dependent variable, which is mental stress, has a Cronbachs alpha of
0.907. Meanwhile, Cronbachs alpha for independent variables are 0.896 and 0.788, which is
academic, and environment respectively.
According to Nunnally (1978), the Cronbachs alpha of 0.9 and above is excellent. It
shows that a high level of internal consistency of the items and the items are highly
correlated. From the reliability analysis table, all the alpha showed that each variable is
higher that 0.70. Thus, it can be concluded that all variables are positively correlated to one
another.

4.4 Independent T-test

Independent T-Test is inferential statistical to determine whether have significant different


between means between two unrelated group. Independent test is measure to know whether
two groups are different of each other.

Group Statistics
Gender N Mean Std. Std. Error
Deviation Mean
MentalStress Male 36 3.7994 .97899 .16317
Female 135 3.7638 1.12231 .09659
Table 4.10

Table 4.10 shows that there are 36 male and 135 female with mean of 3.7994 and 3.7638.
Independent Samples T-Test
Levene's
Test for
Equality of
Variances t-test for Equality of Means
95%
Confidence
Sig. Interval of the
(2- Mean Std. Error Difference
F Sig. t df tailed) Difference Difference Lower Upper
MentalS Equal 3.421 .066 .173 169 .863 .03560 .20524 -.36957 .44076
tress variances
assumed
Equal .188 61.846 .852 .03560 .18961 -.34345 .41465
variances
not
assumed
Table 4.11

Based on the table above we can conclude that:


H0: There is no mean difference of mental stress between male and female.
H1: There is a mean difference of mental stress between male and female.

In this test, we are using Dependent variable, which is mental stress, and nominal variable,
which is gender. This test shows that whether there is significant different in mental stress
among the female and male. Independent test also shows the Levenes test for equality of
variances. From table 4.11, the significant value of Levenes test is 0.066, it is not significant
(p<0.05). Therefore, this means equal variance assumed. The significant value (2-tailed) is 0.863
which is bigger than 0.005, it is not a significant value. Therefore, H0 is accepted and H1 is
rejected, there is a no mean difference of mental stress between male and female.

4.5 ANOVA
ANOVA test is used for comparing the mean between multi groups. We want to test whether
there are significant different in mental stress among study year.

MentalStress
Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

Between Groups 3.380 4 .845 .705 .590

Within Groups 198.983 166 1.199


Total 202.363 170
Table 4.12

There is no significant effect of years of study on mental stress at p<0.05 level for three
conditions. [F (4,166) = 0.71, p=0.590]

The hypothesis for ANOVA:


H0: There is no mean differences of study year on mental stress.
H1: There is a mean difference of study year on mental stress.

From table 4.12, the significant level 0.590 is larger than 0.05, which is not significant.
Therefore, we accept null hypothesis HO, there is no mean difference in study year on mental
stress.

Post Hoc Test


Multiple Comparisons
Dependent Variable: MentalStress
Tukey HSD
(I) StudyYear (J) StudyYear Mean Std. Sig. 95% Confidence Interval
Difference Error Lower Upper
(I-J) Bound Bound
1st year 2nd year -.06014 .24557 .999 -.7374 .6171
3rd year .07605 .22319 .997 -.5395 .6916
4th year .84444 .65865 .703 -.9721 2.6610
More than 4 -.26111 .39258 .964 -1.3438 .8216
years
2nd year 1st year .06014 .24557 .999 -.6171 .7374
3rd year .13619 .20402 .963 -.4265 .6989
4th year .90459 .65240 .637 -.8947 2.7039
More than 4 -.20097 .38201 .985 -1.2545 .8526
years
3rd year 1st year -.07605 .22319 .997 -.6916 .5395
2nd year -.13619 .20402 .963 -.6989 .4265
4th year .76840 .64431 .756 -1.0086 2.5454
More than 4 -.33716 .36802 .890 -1.3521 .6778
years
4th year 1st year -.84444 .65865 .703 -2.6610 .9721
2nd year -.90459 .65240 .637 -2.7039 .8947
3rd year -.76840 .64431 .756 -2.5454 1.0086
More than 4 -1.10556 .72072 .542 -3.0933 .8822
years
More than 4 1st year .26111 .39258 .964 -.8216 1.3438
years 2nd year .20097 .38201 .985 -.8526 1.2545
3rd year .33716 .36802 .890 -.6778 1.3521
4th year 1.10556 .72072 .542 -.8822 3.0933
Table 4.13
Table 4.13 show that there is no pair have significant difference because all sig value are p>
0.05.
4.6 Regression
Regression is when one independent variable is hypothesized to affect one dependent
variable. In the table of Model Summary, R square, R2 is the coefficient of determination
which provides the important information about the excellence in fit of the regression
model. R2 is defined by the percentage of variance in the dependent variable is explained
by the variation in independent variable.

Model Summaryb
Model R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of
Square the Estimate
1 . .133 .123 1.02179
36
5a
a. Predictors: (Constant), Environment, Academic
b. Dependent Variable: MentalStress
Table 4.14

The R-square is 0.133, which is a total of 1.3% of variance in mental stress is explained by
environment and academic.

ANOVAa
Model Sum of df Mean F Sig.
Squares Square
1 Regression 26.963 2 13.481 12.913 .000b
Residual 175.400 168 1.044
Total 202.363 170
a. Dependent Variable: MentalStress
b. Predictors: (Constant), Environment, Academic
Table 4.15

Based on the ANOVA table, the model is fit for regression analysis, which is the significant
value is 0.000 as p<0.05.
Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Standardized t Sig.
Coefficients Coefficients
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 1.648 .450 3.659 .000
Academic .108 .085 .092 1.274 .205
Environment .554 .113 .351 4.881 .000
a. Dependent Variable: MentalStress
Table 4.15

According to Coefficients Table, the significant value for academic is 0.205 which is
p>0.05. Therefore, academic has no significant relationship with mental stress.
Meanwhile, the significant value for environment is 0.000 which is p<0.05. Therefore,
environment has a significant and positive relationship on mental stress.

The hypothesis results for regression are as below:

Hypothesis 1
H0: There is no relationship between academic and mental stress.
H1: There is a relationship between academic and mental stress.
From the table 4.15 above, the Beta value for academic is 0.092. The significant value for
academic is 0.205 which is not significant as p>0.05. Thus, the H0 is accepted and H1 is
rejected.

Hypothesis 2
H0: There is no relationship between environments to mental stress.
H1: There is a relationship between environments to mental stress.
From the table 4.15 above, the Beta value for environment is 0.351. The significant value
for environment is 0.000 which is significant as p<0.05. Thus, H1 is accepted and H0 is
rejected.