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N A’ VI - E NGLISH D ICTIONARY v. 11.

293
Compiled by Taronyu (Richard Littauer)
www.LearnNavi.org

Last updated: August 13th , 2010

This is the definitive dictionary for Na’vi, the language created by Dr. Paul Frommer for
the film Avatar. The words within come directly from, or are derived from, Frommer. Thanks
are certainly to be given to the following people for their monumental efforts: Dr. Frommer,
Tuiq, and everyone on the IRC, Skype, TeamSpeak, and the Learn Na’vi site who uses this
document.
Some notes: The traditional Na’vi transcription in use by Frommer has been maintained
throughout: the IPA transcription is given as well. Compound non-inflected words and loan
words from English have been noted. Some lenited words have been included if in the official
corpus. Some inflected words are included here, if their inclusion is deemed particularly use-
ful. Note that adpositions are free if before their modifier, but are bound as a suffix if situated
after it.
Bold indicates Na’vi word. Italics indicate English definition. Plain text indicates gramma-
tical categorisation: parentheses indicate «x» represents an infix, where t«pre-first»«1»ar«2»on
are the positions: I have included periods in the IPA to mark syllable divisions, and mid-dots
to show infix positions (for beginners), as in [t·a.R·on]. Irregular infixes are marked with (ii).
Transitivity is marked if known: words marked v. are either unattested or ambitransitive, or
their transitivity is unable to be deduced. Knowledge of lenition and other sound changes will
be assumed. Note also that allomorphs, where specified, are subject only to personal prefe-
rence, and not syntactic or morphological rules. There are several useful appendices that hold
further information.

Abbreviations:

– = morpheme boundary inter. = interrogative


+ = leniting morpheme boundary n. = noun
« » = infix morpheme num. = number
adj. = adjective part. = particle
adp. = adposition pn. = pronoun
adv. = adverb prop. n. = proper noun
conj. = conjunction v. = verb
c.w. = compound word svin. = stative intransitive verb
dem. = demonstrative vtr. = transitive verb
intj. = interjection vin. = intransitive verb

An English - Na’vi dictionary, and a Dictionary Categorised by Parts of Speech are pro-
vided, and may be helpful when searching fails. Translations are also available in Estonian,
German, Hungarian, Português and Swedish. There are also other, unfinished translations in
other languages available.

1
Sources
I have sourced every word as best as I could. This sourcing is placed in a subscript after the IPA
transcription, and tells where I, or the source from which I received a word, initially got their
word from Frommer. In early March, Frommer sent us a list of words which he had: these are
the definitive source now, and not the ASG. Some words are not present in that list, but have
been confirmed by Frommer if they are here. Words that are modified by unproductive affixes
are included here if Frommer has used them: words that have a modified semantic meaning
due to a productive affix have also been included likewise. In order of canonicity, from most
to least:

• PF = Paul Frommer
• M = The Movie
• JC = James Cameron
• G = the Avatar Games
• ASG = The Survival Guide

The Activists Survival Guide, a key early source of words, contained many words which
are illegal - these are in the appendix. However, the plant names and songs are distinctly From-
merian, and are thus included in the dictionary proper. James Cameron himself made up many
words, which Frommer then legalised. Frommer legalised some pronounciation errors made
during filming: these, like oìsss, are now canon regardless. Finally, Frommer has deigned so-
me constructions made by learners as good words, and so, occasionally there are extra sources.
These sources are as follows: CP for CCH Pounder, LA for Laz Alonso, Prr for Prrton, RL for
Richard Littauer, SW for Sigourney Weaver, ZS for Zoë Saldana, and CM and Skxawng. LN is
for LearnNavi, where the original sourcing has been lost or is ambiguous.

Regarding the IPA, there are some other possible interpretations. Open syllables always
use a tense [u] pronunciation, but closed syllables can be either tense [u] or lax [U]. There is no
> >
rule for which to use in closed syllables. So tsun, for example, can be either [tsun] or [tsUn],
but lu is always [lu], never [lU]. Also, an alternate method of transcribing the diphthongs [Ej],
[aj], [Ew], and [aw], not used here (for Frommer prefers the former), is [EI], [aI], [EU], and [aU].
Concerning syllables, where not made clear by Frommer, the divisions have ˆ ˆbeenˆ split in ac-ˆ
cordance with the Maximum Onset Principle.

I have edited this dictionary too many times not to assume that it will have errors. Rutxe, if
you note any, let me know here, and I will change them. As for version number, I’ll change the
first digit when there is a big change. I’ll update .0x0 when I make a significant, but not large
change. Finally, I’ll edit the .00x number when I’ve made tiny edits. Refer to the Change Log
for explanation.
Many, many thanks are to be given to Tuiq, who took the time and had the skill to put this
dictionary into an online database, to help other translators and make the process of changing
this dictionary much easier.

2
P

’a’aw: ["Pa.Paw] P F adj. a few, several (Used ’ewan: ["PE.wan] P F adj. young
with countable nouns in the singular form) ’ewll: ["PE.wl] P F n. plant
’ampi: ["P·am.p·i] P F v. touch "
’eylan: ["PEj.lan] P F n. friend
’ango: ["Pa.No] P F adj. soft (of a sound) ’eyng: [P·EjN] P F v. answer, respond
’aw: [Paw] P F num. one ’eyt: [PEjt^] P F n. the symbol 8 (not the value
’awkx: [Pawk’] P F n. cliff eight)
’awlie: [Paw."li.E] P F adv. once (in the past) ’i’a: ["P·iP.·a] P F vin. end, conclude
’awlo: ["Paw.lo] P F adv. once ’ia: ["P·i.·a] P F vin. lose oneself (spiritual sense)
’awm: [Pawm] P F n. camp ’it: [Pit^] P F n. bit, a small amount
’awpo: ["Paw.po] P F pn. one individual ’itan: ["Pi.tan] JC,P F n. son
’awsiteng: [Paw.si."tEN] P F adv. together (c.w. ’ite: ["Pi.tE] JC,P F n. daughter
>
from ’aw one and teng same, equal) ’itetsyìp: ["Pi.tE.tsjIp^] P F n. little daughter (term
’awstengyem: [Paw.stEN."j·Em] P F vtr. join two of endearment) (derived from ’ite daughter)
things together (ii) (c.w. from ’awsiteng to- ’ì’awn: [P·I."P·awn] P F vin. remain, stay
gether and yem put) ’ìheyu: [PI."hE.ju] P F n. spiral
’awve: ["Paw.vE] P F adj. first (ordinal) (derived ’ok: [Pok^] P F n. remembrance
from ’aw one) ’okrol: [Pok."Rol] P F n. history (ancient) (deri-
’änsyem: [Pæn."sjEm] P F adj. complete ved from ’ok remembrance and rol sing)
’ärìp: ["P·æ.R·Ip^] P F vtr. move ’okvur: [Pok."vuR] P F n. history (non-ancient)
’e’al: ["PE.Pal] P F adj. worst (derived from ’ok remembrance and vur sto-
’efu: ["P·E.f·u] P F vtr. feel, sense, perceive ry)
’eko: ["P·E.k·o] P F v. attack ’ong: [P·oN] P F v. unfold, blossom
’ekong: ["PE.koN] P F n. beat (rhythmic) ’opin: ["Po.pin] P F n. color, colour
’em: [P·Em] P F vtr. cook ’ora: ["Po.Ra] P F n. lake
’engeng: ["PEN.EN] P F adj. level ’u: [Pu] P F n. thing (object, fact, abstraction)
’eoio: ["PE.o.i.o] P F adj. ceremonious ’uo: ["Pu.o] P F pn. something
’eveng: ["PE.vEN] P F n. child ’upe: ["Pu.pE] P F inter. what (thing) (c.w. from
’evi: ["PE.vi] P F n. kid (affectionate form of ’u thing and pe inter. marker)
’eveng child) ’upxare: [Pu."p’a.RE] P F n. message

–a–: [a] P F adjectival attributive marker atan: [a."tan] JC n. light


a: [a] P F pn. which, that atanvi: [a."tan.vi] P F n. ray (derived from atan
alaksi: [a."lak.si] P F adj. ready light)
alìm: [a."lIm] P F adv. far away, at a distance (de- atokirina’: [a.to.ki."Ri.naP^] JC n. seeds of the
rived from lìm far, be far) great tree
alo: [a."lo] P F n. time, turn, instance, one of a atxkxe: [at’."k’E] P F n. land
number of repeated or recurring actions au: ["a.u] JC n. drum (made of skin)
alu: ["a.lu] P F conj. that is, in other words (de- au: [a."u] LA intj. exclamation of consternation
rived from a attributive marker and lu be) aungia: [a."u.Ni.a] P F n. sign, omen
(Used for adpositions) awnga: [aw."Na] P F pn. we (derived from ayo-
alunta: [a."lun.ta] P F conj. because, from the rea- eng we)
son ayfo: [aj."fo] or ["aj.fo] P F pn. they (derived
apxa: [a."p’a] P F adj. large from po he, she)
asim: [a."sim] P F adv. nearby, at close range (de- aylaru: [aj."la.Ru] P F pn. to the others (contrac-
rived from sim near, be near) tion of ay+lahe–ru)

3
aynga: [aj."Na] P F pn. you all, you (pl.) (derived ayoeng: [aj."wEN] P F pn. we, us (inclusive) (de-
from nga you) rived from oe I) (ayoenga– base for suffix-
es)
ayoe: [aj."o.E] P F pn. we, us (exclusive) (derived ayu: [a."ju] P F n. things (derived from ’u thing)
from oe I) (never plural u)

äie: [æ."i.E] P F n. vision (spiritual) ätxäle si: [æ."t’æ.lE s·i] P F vin. request (with
äo–: ["æ.o] P F adp. below tsnì clause for object) (c.w. from ätxäle re-
ätxäle: [æ."t’æ.lE] P F n. request quest and si make)

ean: ["E.an] P F adj. blue, green emza’u: [Em."z·a.P·u] P F v. pass (a test), over-
ekxan: [E."k’an] P F n. barricade, obstruction come (c.w. from za’u come)
eltu: ["El.tu] P F n. brain eo–: ["E.o] P F adp. before, in front of (place)
eltu lefngap: ["El.tu lE."fNap^] P rr n. computer etrìp: ["Et.RIp^] P F adj. favourable, favorable,
(c.w. from eltu brain and lefngap metallic) auspicious
eltur tìtxen si: ["El.tuR tI."t’En s·i] P F vin. be
interesting, intriguing (c.w. from eltu-r brain eyawr: [Ej."awR] P F adj. correct, right
(dative) and tìtxen awakeness) eyk: [·Ejk^] JC,P F v. lead
eltu si: ["El.tu s·i] P F vin. pay attention, quit goo- eyktan: ["Ejk.tan] JC n. leader (derived from
fing off (c.w. from eltu brain and si do, make) eyk lead)

fa–: [fa] P F adp. with, by means of fkay: [fkaj] P F adj. hateful


fahew: [fa."hEw] P F n. smell fkew: [fkEw] P F adj. mighty
fay+: [faj] P F prefix these (c.w. from fì this and fkip–: [fkip^] P F adp. up among
ay+ plural) fko: [fko] P F pn. one, they (singular usage) (un-
fäpa: ["fæ.pa] P F n. top specified agent)
fewi: ["f·E.w·i] P F vtr. chase fkxake: ["fk’·a.k·E] P F v. itch
fì–: [fI] P F prefix this fkxen: [fk’En] P F n. vegetable (food)
fì’u: [fI."Pu] P F pn. this (thing) (derived from ’u flä: [fl·æ] P F vin. succeed
thing) flew: [flEw] P F n. throat
fìfya: [fI."fja] P F adv. this way, like this (derived fmal: [fm·al] P F vtr. sustain
from fya’o path) fmawn: [fmawn] P F n. news, something to report
fìkem: [fI."kEm] P F pn. this (action) (derived fmetok: ["fm·E.t·ok^] P F v. test
from kem action, deed) fmi: [fm·i] P F vtr. try, attempt (with the subjun-
fìpo: ["fI.po] P F pn. this one (person or thing) ctive)
(derived from po he, she) fnawe’: [fna."wEP^] P F adj. cowardly
fìtrr: [fI."tr] P F adv. today (derived from trr day) fnawe’tu: [fna."wEP.tu] P F n. coward (derived
>
fìtseng(e):" [fI."tsEN(E)] P F adv. here, this place from fnawe’ cowardly)
(derived from tseng place) fne–: [fnE] P F prefix kind, type (derived from
fìtxan: [fI."t’an] P F adv. so, to such an extent (de- fnel kind, type)
rived from txan great, much) fnel: [fnEl] P F n. kind, type
fìtxon: [fI."t’on] P F adv. tonight (derived from fnepe: ["fnE.pE] P F inter. which kind allomorph
txon night) of pefnel
fkarut: ["fk·a.R·ut^] P F v. peel fngap: [fNap^] P F n. metal

4
fnu: [fn·u] P F v. quiet, be quiet fte: [ftE] P F conj. so that, in order to (with
fo: [fo] P F pn. they (derived from ay+ deleted subjunctive verb in dependant clause)
plural leniting morpheme and po he/she) fteke: ["ftE.kE] P F conj. so that not, lest (c.w.
fpak: [fp·ak^] P F v. hold off, suspend action from fte so that and ke not) (with subjun-
fpe’: [fp·EP^] P F vtr. send ctive verb in dependant clause)
fpeio: [fpE."i.o] P F n. challenge (ceremonial) ftem: [ft·Em] P F vtr. pass by (something)
fpi+: [fpi] P F adp. for the sake of, for the benefit ftia: [ft·i.·"a] P F v. study
of ftu–: [ftu] P F adp. from (direction)
fpìl: [fp·Il] P F vtr. think ftue: ["ftu.E] P F adj. easy, simple
fpìlfya: ["fpIl.fja] P F n. thought pattern, way of ftxavang: ["ft’a.vaN] P F adj. passionate
thinking (c.w. from fpìl think and fya’o path) ftxey: [ft’·Ej] P F vtr. choose
fpom: [fpom] P F n. well-being, peace, happiness ftxey: [ft’Ej] P F conj. whether, or
fpomtokx: [fpom."tok’] P F n. health (physical) ftxì: [ft’I] P F n. tongue
(c.w. from fpom well-being and tokx body) ftxìlor: [ft’I."loR] P F adj. delicious, good tasting
fpxäkìm: ["fp’·æ.k·Im] P F v. enter (c.w. from ftxì tongue and lor beautiful)
ftxìvä’: [ft’I."væP^] P F adj. bad tasting (c.w. from
fra’u: ["fRa.Pu] P F pn. everything (derived from
ftxì tongue and vä’ noisome)
’u thing)
ftxozä: [ft’o."zæ] P F n. celebration, happy occa-
frakrr: ["fRa.kr] P F adv. always, all the time (de-
sion
rived from" krr time)
fu: [fu] P F conj. or
fralo: [fRa."lo] P F n. every time, every instance,
fuke: [fu."kE] P F conj. or not (c.w. from fu or
each time (derived from alo time)
and ke not)
frapo: ["fRa.po] P F pn. everyone (derived from
furia: ["fu.Ri.a] P F conj. that (subordinate clause
po he/she)
marker) (c.w. from fì’uri this (topical) and a
frato: ["fRa.to] P F superlative marker than all relative clause marker)
fratrr: [fRa."tr] P F adv. daily, every day (derived futa: ["fu.ta] P F conj. that (subordinate clause
from trr day)"
> marker) (c.w. from fì’u-t this (accusative) and
fratseng: ["fRa.tsEN] P F adv. everywhere (deri- a relative clause marker)
ved from tseng place) fwa: [fwa] P F conj. that (subordinate clause mar-
fratxon: [fRa."t’on] P F adv. every night (derived ker) (c.w. from fì’u this (nominative) and a
from txon night) relative clause marker)
frawzo: [fRaw."zo] P F intj. all is well, everything fwel: [fwEl] P F adj. broken
is fine or OK (derived from fra’u everything fwew: [fw·Ew] P F vtr. look for, seek, search
and zo be well) fya’o: ["fja.Po] P F n. path, way, manner
frìp: [fR·Ip^] P F vtr. bite fyape: ["fja.pE] P F inter. how allomorph of pe-
frrfen: ["f·r.f·En] P F vtr. visit fya
"
frrtu: ["fr.tu] P F n. guest, visitor fyawìntxu: [fja.w·In."t’·u] P F vin. guide (with
"
ftang: [ft·aN] P F v. stop dative of thing guided) (c.w. from fya’o path
ftawnemkrr: [ftaw."nEm.kr] P F n. past (c.w. and wìntxu show)
from ft«awn»em pass by " (passive participle
fyeyn: [fjEjn] P F adj. ripe, mature, adult
form) and krr time) fyeyntu: ["fjEjn.tu] P F n. adult person (derived
ftär: [ftæR] P F adj. left (not right) from fyeyn ripe, mature)

ha: [ha] P F adv. so, in that case hamalo: [ha."ma.lo] P F adv. last time (c.w. from
ha’ngir: [haP."NiR] P F n. afternoon ham previous and alo time)
hahaw: ["h·a.h·aw] P F vin. sleep hangham: ["h·aN.h·am] P F vin. laugh
ham: [ham] P F adj. previous hapxì: [ha."p’I] P F n. part

5
hapxìtu: [ha."p’I.tu] P F n. member (c.w. from hì’i: ["hI.Pi] P F adj. small, little (in size)
hapxì part) hìkrr: ["hI.kr] P F n. second, very short time (c.w.
hasey: [ha."sEj] P F adj. done, finished from hì’i" little, small and krr time)
hawl: [h·awl] P F v. prepare hìm: [hIm] P F adj. small (in quantity)
hawng: [hawN] P F n. overabundance hìmtxampe: [hIm."t’am.pE] P F inter. how much
hawngkrr: ["hawN.kr] P F adv. late (c.w. from allomorph of pìmtxan
hawng overabundance " and krr time) hìmtxan: [hIm."t’an] P F n. amount (c.w. from
hawnu: ["h·aw.n·u] P F v. protect, shelter hìm small and txan much)
hay: [haj] P F adj. next hol: [hol] P F adj. few
hayalo: [ha."ja.lo] P F adv. next time (c.w. from holpxay: [hol."p’aj] P F n. number (c.w. from
hay next and alo time) hol few and pxay many)
hek: [h·Ek^] P F vin. be curious, odd, strange, un- holpxaype: [hol."p’aj.pE] P F inter. how many
expected (c.w. from holpxay number and pe how)
hewne: ["hEw.nE] P F adj. soft (of an object) hrrap: ["hr.ap^] P F n. danger
heyn: [h·Ejn] P F vin. sit hu–: [hu] "P F adp. with (accompaniment)
hiyìk: ["hi.jIk^] P F adj. funny, strange hufwa: [hu."fwa] P F conj. although
hì’ang: ["hI.PaN] P F n. insect (c.w. from hì’i hufwe: [hu."fwE] P F n. wind
small and ioang animal) hum: [h·um] P F v. leave, depart

i’en: ["iP.En] JC n. stringed instrument irayo: [i."Raj.o] JC n., intj. thank you, thanks
io–: ["i.o] P F adp. above irayo si: [i."Raj.o s·i] P F vin. thank, give thanks
ioang: [i."o.aN] P F n. animal, beast (c.w. from irayo thanks and si make)

ìlä+: ["I.læ] or [I."læ] P F adp. by, via, following ìley: [I."lEj] LA intj. war cry

ka–: [ka] P F adp. across kaw’it: [kaw."Pit^] P F adv. at all, not at all (see
kakrel: [kak."REl] P F adj. blind (derived from ke...kaw’it not...at all) (c.w. from ke ’aw not
rel image, picture) one and ’it bit)
kalin: [ka."lin] P F adj. sweet kawkrr: ["kaw.kr] P F adv. never (c.w. from ke
’aw not one and" krr time)
kaltxì: [kal."t’I] P F intj. hello
kame: ["k·a.m·E] P F vtr. see, see into, understand, kawng: [kawN] P F adj. bad, evil
know (spiritual sense) kawtu: ["kaw.tu] P F pn. no-one (c.w. from ke
kan: [k·an] P F v. aim ’aw not one and tute person)
kangay: [ka."Naj] P F adj. valid (cognate with kaym: [kajm] P F n. evening (before twilight), late
ngay true) afternoon
kanu: ["ka.nu] P F adj. smart, intelligent (for a kä: [k·æ] P F vin. go
person) kä’ärìp: [kæ."P·æ.R·Ip^] P F vtr. push (c.w. from
kar: [k·aR] P F v. teach kä go and ’ärìp move)
karyu: ["kaR.ju] P F n. teacher (derived from kar kämakto: [kæ."m·ak.t·o] P F v. ride out (c.w.
teach) from kä go and makto ride)
kato: ["ka.to] P F n. rhythm käpxì: [kæ."p’I] P F n. rear (part or section) (c.w.
kavuk: [ka."vuk^] P F n. treachery from kä go and hapxì part)
>
kavuk si: [ka."vuk^ s·i] P F vin. betray (c.w. from käsatseng: [kæ."sa.tsEN] P F adv. out there (c.w.
kavuk treachery and si make) from kä go and tseng place)

6
ke: [kE] P F adv. not key: [kEj] P F n. face
ke’aw: [kE."Paw] P F adj. divided, torn apart, keyawr: [kE."jawR] P F adj. incorrect, not right
strife-ridden (c.w. from ke not and ’aw one) (c.w. from ke not and eyawr correct)
ke’u: ["kE.Pu] P F pn., adv. nothing, nothing at keye’ung: [kE."jE.PuN] P F n. insanity
all, not at all (c.w. from ke not and ’u thing) ki: [ki] P F conj. but rather, but instead
kea: ["kE.a] P F adj. no (before a noun) kifkey: [ki."fkEj] P F n. world (physical, solid)
keftxo: [kE."ft’o] P F adj., intj. unhappy, upset, kilvan: [kil."van] P F n. river
’How sad!’ kin: [k·in] P F v. need
kefyak: [kE."fjak^] P F,P rr part. isn’t it?, right? kinam: [ki."nam] P F n. leg
(c.w. from kefya not the way and srak ques- kinamtil: [ki."nam.til] P F n. knee (c.w. from ki-
tion marker) nam leg and til joint)
kehe: ["kE.hE] P F adv. no kinä: ["ki.næ] P F num. seven
kelfpomtokx: [kEl."fpom.tok’] P F adj. unhealt- kip–: [kip^] P F adp. among
hy (c.w. from ke not and fpomtokx health) kive: ["ki.vE] P F adj. seventh (ordinal) (derived
kelku: ["kEl.ku] P F n. home, house from kinä seven)
kelku si: ["kEl.ku s·i] P F vin. live, dwell (c.w. kì’ong: [kI."PoN] P F adj. slow
from kelku home and si make) kìm: [k·Im] P F v. spin
>
keltsun: [kEl."tsun] P F adj. impossible (c.w. kìng: [kIN] P F n. thread
from ke not and tsun be able) kìte’e: [kI.tE."PE] P F n. service
kem: [kEm] P F n. thing (action), deed kllfro’: [kl."fR·oP^] P F v. be responsible
kemlì’u: ["kEm.lI.Pu] P F n. verb (c.w. from kem "
kllkä: [kl."k·æ] P F v. descend (c.w. from kä go)
action and lì’u word) "
kllkulat: [kl."k·u.l·at^] P F v. dig up
kemlì’uvi: ["kEm.lI.Pu.vi] P F n. infix (derived kllkxem: [kl" ."k’·Em] P F v. stand
from kemlì’u verb) "
kllpa: ["kl.pa] P F n. bottom
kempe: ["kEm.pE] P F inter. what (action) allo- "
kllpxìltu: [kl."p’Il.tu] P F n. territory
morph of pehem (c.w. from kem action, kllte: ["kl.tE]" P F n. ground
>
deed) klltseng:" ["kl.tsEN] P F n. position (c.w. from
kem si: [kEm s·i] P F vin. do (c.w. from kem ac- tseng place) "
tion, deed and si do) ko: [ko] P F part. solicit agreement
keng: [kEN] P F adv. even, so much as koak: ["ko.ak^] P F adj. old, aged (for living
kenong: ["k·E.n·oN] or ["kE.n·oN] P F v. model, re- things)
present, exemplify (ii) (c.w. from ke not and kop: [kop^] P F adv. too, also
nong follow) koren: [ko."REn] P F n. rule, guideline
kerusey: ["kE.Ru.sEj] P F adj. dead (c.w. from ke krr: [kr] P F n. time
not and r«us»ey alive (participial infix)) " [kr."n·Ek’]
krrnekx: P F v. take/consume time (ii)
keteng: ["kE.tEN] P F adj. different (c.w. from ke "
(c.w. from krr time and nekx consume)
not and teng same, equal) krrpe: ["kr.pE] P F inter. when allomorph of pe-
ketuwong: ["kE.tu.woN] P F n. alien hrr (c.w. " from krr time)
kew: [kEw] P F num. zero ku’up: ["ku.Pup^] P F adj. heavy (physical weight)
kewong: ["kE.woN] P F adj. alien kurakx: [k·u."R·ak’] P F v. drive out

Kx

kxa: [k’a] P F n. mouth kxamtrrmaw: ["k’am.tr.maw] P F n. the time


" early afternoon (c.w.
immediately after noon,
kxam: [k’am] P F n. middle, midpoint
from kxamtrr noon and maw after)
kxamlä–: ["k’am.læ] P F adp. through (via the
middle of) (derived from kxam middle) >
kxamtseng: ["k’am.tsEN] P F n. center, place in
kxamtrr: ["k’am.tr] P F n. mid-day, noon (c.w. the middle (c.w. from kxam middle and tseng
"
from kxam middle and trr day) place)

7
>
kxamtxomaw: ["k’am.t’o.maw] P F n. after mid- kxetse: ["k’E.tsE] P F n. tail
night (c.w. from kxamtxon midnight and kxeyey: ["k’E.jEj] P F n. error, mistake
maw after) kxitx: [k’it’] P F n. death
kxamtxon: ["k’am.t’on] P F n. midnight (c.w. kxll: [k’l] P F n. charge, running attack
from kxam middle and txon night) kxll si: "[k’l s·i] P F vin. charge (c.w. from kxll
kxangangang: ["k’aN.aN.aN] P F intj. boom (ono- charge and" si make)
matopoeic) kxu: [k’u] P F n. harm
kxanì: ["k’a.nI] P F adj. forbidden kxuke: ["k’u.kE] P F adj. safe (c.w. from kxu
kxawm: [k’awm] P F adv. perhaps, maybe harm and ke not)
kxayl: [k’ajl] P F adj. high kxutu: ["k’u.tu] P F n. enemy (derived from kxu
kxener: ["k’E.nER] P F n. smoke harm)

lahe: ["la.hE] P F adj. other, else len: [l·En] P F vin. happen, occur
lam: [l·am] P F vin. seem, appear leNa’vi: [lE."naP.vi] P F adj. having to do with the
lapo: ["la.po] P F pn. other one (person or thing) Na’vi, the People (derived from Na’vi the Pe-
(c.w. from lahe other, else and po he, she) ople)
laro: ["la.Ro] P F adj. clean lenomum: [lE."no.mum] P F adj. curious (deri-
latem: ["l·a.t·Em] P F vin. change (l«eyk»atem ved from newomum be curious)
vtr. change) lerìk: [lE."RIk^] P F adj. leafy (derived from rìk
>
latsi: [l·a."ts·i] LA v. keep up with someone leaf )
law: [law] P F adj. clear, certain lertu: ["lER.tu] P F n. colleague
layon: [la."jon] P F adj. black lesar: [lE."saR] P F adj. useful (derived from sar
le–: [lE] P F adjective deriving affix use)
lefkrr: [lEf."kr] P F adj. current (derived from letam: [lE."tam] P F adj. sufficient (derived from
"
fìkrr this time) tam suffice)
lefngap: [lE."fNap^] P F adj. metallic (derived letrr: [lE."tr] RL adj. daily (derived from trr day)
"
from fngap metal) letrrtrr: [lE."tr.tr] P F adj. ordinary (derived
from trr day) " "
lefpom: [lE."fpom] P F adj. happy, peaceful, joy-
>
ous (not for people) (derived from fpom hap- letsranten: [lE."tsRan.tEn] P F adj. important
piness, peace) (derived from tsranten matter)
>
lefpomtokx: [lE."fpom.tok’] P F adj. healthy (de- letsunslu: [lE."tsun.slu] P F adj. possible (deri-
rived from fpomtokx health) ved from tsunslu may, be possible)
lehawng: [lE."hawN] P F adj. excessive (derived lew: [lEw] P F n. cover, lid
from hawng overabundance) lew si: [lEw s·i] P F vin. cover (c.w. from lew
lehawngkrr: [lE."hawN.kr] P F adj. late (derived cover and si make)
from hawngkrr late) " leye’krr: [lE."jEP.kr] P F adj. early (derived from
lehrrap: [lE."hr.ap^] P F adj. dangerous (derived ye’krr early) "
from hrrap" danger) lì’fya: ["lIP.fja] P F n. language (c.w. from lì’u
lek: [l·Ek^] P F v. heed, obey word and fya’o way)
lekin: [lE."kin] P F adj. necessary (derived from lì’fyaolo’: ["lIP.fja.o."loP^] P F n. language group,
kin need) language users (c.w. from lì’fya language and
lekoren: [lE.ko."REn] P F adj. lawlike (derived olo’ clan)
from koren rule) lì’fyavi: ["lIP.fja.vi] P F n. expression, bit of lan-
lekye’ung: [lEk."jE.PuN] P F adj. insane, crazy guage (derived from lì’fya language)
(derived from keye’ung insanity) lì’u: ["lI.Pu] P F n. word
lemweypey: [lEm."wEj.pEj] P F adj. patient (de- lì’upam: ["lI.Pu.pam] P F n. accent (c.w. from
rived from maweypey be patient) lì’u word and pam sound)

8
lì’upe: [lI."Pu.pE] P F inter. what (word, utteran- lrrtok si: ["lr.tok^ s·i] P F vin. smile (c.w. from
ce) allomorph of pelì’u " and si make)
lrrtok smile
lìm: [l·Im] P F svin. far, be far lu: [l·u] P F vin., svin. be, am, is, are (predica-
lìng: [l·IN] P F vin. float in the air, hover tive copula, existential verb) (signifies pos-
lok: [l·ok^] P F v. approach session with dative of possessor)
lok–: [l·ok^] P F adp. close to
luke–: ["lu.kE] P F adp. without
lonu: [l·o."n·u] P F vtr. release, let go
lor: [loR] P F adj. beautiful, pleasant to the senses lumpe: ["lum.pE] PF inter. why allomorph of
(non-human) pelun
lrrtok: ["lr.tok^] P F n. smile lun: [lun] P F n. reason
"
M

ma: [ma] P F part. O (vocative marker) mìso: [mI."so] P F adv. away (position) (derived
makto: ["m·ak.t·o] P F v. ride from mì in)
maw–: [maw] P F adp. after (time) mllte: [m·l."t·E] P F v. agree
mawey: [ma."wEj] CM adj. calm "
moe: ["mo.E] P F pn. we two, us two (exclusive)
maweypey: [ma."wEj.p·Ej] P F svin. be patient (derived from me+ dual and oe I)
(ii) (c.w. from mawey calm and pey wait) mokri: ["mok.Ri] P F n. voice
mawkrr: ["maw.kr] P F adv. after, afterwards mowan: [mo."wan] P F adj. pleasing, enjoyable
(c.w. from maw" after and krr time) (physically, sexually)
me’em: [mE."PEm] P F adj. harmonious mrr: [mr] P F num. five
mefo: ["mE.fo] P F pn. they, those two (derived " .vE]
mrrve: ["mr P F adj. fifth (ordinal) (derived
from me+ dual marker and po he/she) from mrr " five)
mekre: ["mEk.RE] P F n. supplies muiä: [mu."i.æ] P F adj. proper, fair, right, justifi-
melo: ["mE.lo] P F adv. twice (derived from me+ ed
dual marker and alo time) mun’i: [m·un."P·i] P F v. cut
menari: [mE."na.Ri] P F n. eyes (two) (derived mune: ["mu.nE] P F num. two
from me+ dual and nari eye) munge: ["m·u.N·E] P F vtr. take, bring
meoauniaea: [­mE.o.a.u.ni.a."E.a] P F n. harmo- mungwrr–: [muN."wr] P F adp. except
ny, living at one with nature muntxa: [mun."t’a] P" F adj. mated, married
meuia: [mE."u.i.a] P F n. honor (honour) muntxa si: [mun."t’a s·i] P F vin. mate (with so-
meyp: [mEjp^] P F adj. weak meone), marry (c.w. from muntxa mated and
mi: [mi] P F adv. yet, still, as before si do, make)
mikyun: ["mik.jun] JC n. ear muntxatan: [mun."t’a.tan] P F n. husband, male
mip: [mip^] P F adj. new spouse (derived from muntxatu spouse)
mì+: [mI] P F adp. in, on muntxate: [mun."t’a.tE] P F n. wife, female
mìfa: ["mI.fa] or [mI."fa] P F n., adv. inside spouse (derived from muntxatu spouse)
mìkam–: [mI."kam] P F adp. between muntxatu: [mun."t’a.tu] P F n. spouse (derived
mìn: [m·In] P F v. turn from muntxa mated)
mìnyu: ["mIn.ju] P F n. turner (derived from muve: ["mu.vE] P F adj. second (ordinal) (deri-
mìn turn) ved from mune two)

na–: [na] P F adp. like, as nang: [naN] P F part. surprise, exclamation, en-
couragement
na’rìng: ["naP.RIN] P F n. forest
nafì’u: [na.fI."Pu] P F adj. such (c.w. from na as
and fì’u this) nari: ["na.Ri] P F n. eye

9
nari si: ["na.Ri s·i] P F vin. watch out, be careful nìawnomum: [nI.aw."no.mum] P F adv. as you
(c.w. from nari eye and si make) know, as is known (derived from «awn» pas-
natkenong: [nat."kE.noN] na conj. for example, as sive participle infix and omum know)
an example nìayoeng: [naj."wEN] P F adv. like us, as we do
nawm: [nawm] P F adj. great, noble (derived from ayoeng us (inclusive))
nawmtu: ["nawm.tu] P F n. great person (deri- nìftue: [nI."ftu.E] P F adv. easily (derived from
ved from nawm great) ftue easy)
nayn: [najn] P F n. the symbol 9 (not the value nìftxavang: [nI."ft’a.vaN] P F adv. passionately,
nine) with all heart (derived from ftxavang passio-
näk: [n·æk^] P F vtr. drink nate)
nìfya’o: [nI."fja.Po] P F adv. in a manner (deri-
ne–: [nE] P F adp. to, towards (direction)
ved from fya’o way)
ne’ìm: [nE."PIm] P F adv. back (direction)
nìfyeyntu: [nI."fjEjn.tu] P F adv. like an adult,
nefä: [nE."fæ] P F adv. up (direction)
maturely (derived from fyeyntu adult)
nekll: [nE."kl] P F adv. down (direction) nìhawng: [nI."hawN] P F adv. too, excessively
"
ne kllte: [nE "kl.tE] P F intj. get down (c.w. from (derived from hawng overabundance)
ne to and kllte " ground)
nìhek: [nI."hEk^] P F adv. strangely, oddly (deri-
nekx: [n·Ek’] P F vtr. burn, consume ved from hek be curious, odd) (sentence, not
nemfa–: ["nEm.fa] P F adp. into, inside (c.w. manner, adverbial)
from ne towards and mìfa inside) nìk’ong: [nIk."PoN] P F adv. slowly (derived
neto: [nE."to] P F adv. away (direction) (derived from kì’ong slow)
from ne to) nìkanu: [nI."ka.nu] P F adv. intelligently, in a
netrìp: ["nEt.RIp^] P F adv. luckily, happily smart way (derived from kanu smart)
new: [n·Ew] P F vtr. want (with subjunctive verb) nìkeftxo: [nI.kE."ft’o] P F adv. unfortunately,
newomum: [n·Ew."o.mum] P F vin. be curious, sadly (derived from keftxo unhappy)
want to know (c.w. from new want and nìlaw: [nI."law] P F adv. clearly (derived from
omum know) law clear)
niä: [n·i.·"æ] P F vtr. grab nìlkeftang: [nIl.kE."ftaN] P F adv. continuously,
nikre: ["nik.RE] P F n. hair incessantly, without stopping (c.w. from luke
nitram: [nit."Ram] P F adj. happy (of people) without and ftang stop)
>
nìltsan: [nIl."tsan] P F adv. well (derived from
nì–: [nI] P F adverbial deriving affix
sìltsan good)
nì’aw: [nI."Paw] P F adv. only (derived from ’aw
nìmun: [nI."mun] P F adv. again
one)
nìmwey: [nIm."wEj] P F adv. calmly, peacefully
nì’awtu: [nI."Paw.tu] P F adv. alone (as one per-
(derived from mawey calm)
son) (c.w. from ’aw one and tute person)
nìmweypey: [nIm."wEj.pEj] P F adv. patiently
nì’awve: [nI."Paw.vE] P F adv. first (derived (derived from maweypey be patient)
from ’awve first)
nìn: [n·In] P F vtr. look at
nì’eoio: [nI."PE.o.i.o] P F adv. ceremoniously (de- nìNa’vi: [nI."naP.vi] P F adv. like the Na’vi,
rived from ’eoio ceremonious) Na’vi-ly (derived from Na’vi the People)
nì’eveng: [nI."PE.vEN] P F adv. like a child, imma- nìngay: [nI."Naj] P F adv. truly (derived from
turely (derived from ’eveng child) ngay true)
nì’eyng: [nI."PEjN] P F adv. back, in response, in nìprrte’: [nI."pr.tEP^] P F adv. pleasurably, wel-
answer (derived from ’eyng answer) come (assumed " zola’u), gladly, with pleasure
nì’i’a: [nI."PiP.a] P F adv. finally, at long last (de- (derived from prrte’ pleasurable)
rived from ’i’a end) nìpxi: [nI."p’i] P F adv. especially, pointedly, un-
nì’it: [nI."Pit^] P F adv. a bit, a small amount (ab- ambiguously (derived from pxi sharp)
stract) (derived from ’it bit, a small amount) nìpxim: [nI."p’im] P F adv. erectly, rightly (deri-
nì’ul: [nI."Pul] P F adv. more ved from pxim erect, upright)

10
nìrangal: [nI."Ra.Nal] P F adv. wish (contrary to nìwin: [nI."win] P F adv. fast (derived from win
fact, with perfect or imperfective subjunctive) fast)
(derived from rangal wish) nìwotx: [nI."wot’] P F adv. all (of), in toto, com-
nìsti: [nI."sti] P F adv. angrily (derived from sti pletely (derived from wotx totality, whole)
be angry) nìzawnong: [nI."zaw.noN] P F adv. safely (deri-
nìsung: [nI."suN] P F adv. besides, additionally, ved from «awn» passive participle infix and
furthermore (derived from sung add) zong save)
nìswey: [nI."swEj] P F adv. optimally, best (deri- nong: [n·oN] P F v. follow, proceed after
ved from swey best)
nulkrr: [nul."kr] P F adv. longer (time) (derived
nìsyayvi: [nI."sjaj.vi] P F adv. by chance or coin- "
from krr time)
cidence (derived from syayvi luck)
nulnew: [nul."n·Ew] P F v. prefer (ii) (derived
nìsyen: [nI."sjEn] P F adv. lastly (derived from
from new want)
syen last)
nìtam: [nI."tam] P F adv. enough (after an adjecti- nume: ["n·u.m·E] P F v. learn
ve) (derived from tam suffice) numeyu: ["nu.mE.ju] P F n. student (derived
nìteng: [nI."tEN] P F adv. too, also, as well, likewi- from nume learn)
>
se (derived from teng same, equal) numtseng: ["num.tsEN] P F n. school (c.w. from
nìtut: [nI."tut^] P F adv. continually (derived nume learn and tseng place)
>
from tut continuation marker) numtsengvi: ["num.tsEN.vi] P F n. classroom, di-
nìtxan: [nI."t’an] P F adv. much (abstract), very vision of a school (derived from numtseng
(derived from txan much) school)

Ng

nga: [Na] P F pn. you ngenga: [NE."Na] P F pn. you (honorific (honouri-
> fic) form) (derived from nga you)
ngatsyìp: ["Na.tsjIp^] P F pn. little you, you little
(derived from nga you) ngeyn: [NEjn] P F adj. tired
ngawng: [NawN] P F n. worm ngian: [Ni."an] P F,SW adv. however
ngim: [Nim] P F adj. long (physical length)
ngay: [Naj] P F adj. true
ngop: [N·op^] P F v. create
ngaytxoa: [Naj."t’o.a] P F intj. sorry, my apologi- ngopyu: ["Nop.ju] P F n. creator (derived from
es (acknowledgment of guilt and regret) (c.w. ngop create)
from ngeyä your and txoa forgiveness) ngrr: [Nr] P F n. root
ngäng: [NæN] P F n. stomach " ["Nu.waj]
nguway: P F n. howl, viperwolf cry (de-
ngäzìk: ["Næ.zIk^] P F adj. difficult, hard rived from way song)

oe: ["o.E] P F pn. I, me ohe: ["o.hE] P F pn. I (deferential or ceremonial


oeng: ["wEN] P F pn. we two, us two (dual inclu- form)
sive), you and I (derived from oe I) oìsss: [o.I"s:] LA intj. angry snarl, ’watch it!’
>
oetsyìp: ["wE.tsjIp^] P F pn. little me, little I (de- olo’: [o."loP^] P F n. clan
rived from oe I)
oeyk: [o."Ejk^] P F n. cause olo’eyktan: [o.lo."PEjk.tan] JC n. clan leader
oeyktìng: [o."Ejk.t·IN] P F v. explain (why) (ii) (c.w. from olo’ clan and eyktan leader)
(c.w. from oeyk cause and tìng give) omum: [·"o.m·um] P F vtr. know (note infix)
ohakx: [o."hak’] P F adj. hungry ontu: ["on.tu] JC n. nose

11
P

pa’o: ["pa.Po] P F n. side pelun: [pE."lun] P F inter. why allomorph of


pak: [pak^] P F part. disparagement lumpe
pam: [pam] P F n. sound peng: [p·EN] P F vtr. tell
pamrel: [pam."REl] P F n. writing (c.w. from peseng: [pE."sEN] P F inter. where allomorph of
pam sound and rel image) tsengpe
pamrel si: [pam."REl s·i] P F vin. write (c.w. from pesu: [pE."su] P F inter. who allomorph of tupe
pamrel writing and si make) peu: [pE."u] P F inter. what (thing) allomorph of
>
pamtseo: ["pam.tsE.o] P F n. music (c.w. from ’upe
pam sound and tseo art) pewn: [pEwn] P F n. neck
>
pamtseotu: ["pam.tsE.o.tu] P F n. musician (de- pey: [p·Ej] P F v. wait, wait for
rived from pamtseo music) piak: [pi."ak^] P F adj. open
pate: ["p·a.t·E] ZS v. get to a place, arrive piak si: [pi."ak^ s·i] P F vin. open (c.w. from piak
pawm: [p·awm] P F v. ask open and si make)
pay: [paj] P F n. water, liquid pizayu: ["pi.za.ju] P F n. ancestor
payfya: ["paj.fja] P F n. stream (c.w. from pay pìmtxan: [pIm."t’an] P F inter. how much allo-
water and fya’o way) morph of hìmtxampe
payoang: [paj."o.aN] P F n. fish (c.w. from pay
plltxe: [p·l."t’·E] P F v. speak
water and ioang animal) "
po: [po] P F pn. he, she
pähem: ["p·æ.h·Em] P F vin. arrive
poan: [po."an] P F pn. he (derived from po he,
pängkxo: [p·æN."k’·o] P F vin. chat, converse, ha-
she)
ve a conversation
poe: [po."E] P F pn. she (derived from po he, she)
pängkxoyu: [pæN."k’o.ju] P F n. chatter, conver-
ser (derived from pängkxo chat) polpxay: [pol."p’aj] P F inter. how many (c.w.
pängkxoyu lekoren: [pæN."k’o.ju lE.ko."REn] from holpxay number and pe how)
pom: [p·om] P F v. kiss
P F n. lawyer (c.w. from pängkxoyu chatter
and lekoren lawlike) pongu: ["po.Nu] P F n. group of people, party (de-
pänu: ["pæ.nu] P F n. promise rived from po he/she)
pänutìng: ["pæ.nu.t·IN] P F vtr. promise (a thing prrkxentrrkrr: [pr.k’En.tr.kr] Skxawng n. day ti-
"
me smoking pleasure, " "
vibrating tongue (Na’vi
to someone) (ii) (c.w. from pänu promise and
tìng give) idiom) (c.w. from prrte’ pleasure, kxener
> smoke, trr day and krr time)
pätsì: ["pæ.tsI] P F n. badge
pe+: [pE] P F affix inter. marker prrnen: ["pr.nEn] P F n. infant, baby
"
pe’un: ["p·E.P·un] P F vtr. decide prrnesyul: ["pr.nE.sjul] P F n. bud (c.w. from
pefnel: [pE."fnEl] P F inter. which kind allo- prrnen baby" and syulang flower)
morph of fnepe prrte’: ["pr.tEP^] P F adj. pleasurable (of an activi-
ty) "
pefya: [pE."fja] P F inter. how allomorph of fy-
ape prrwll: ["pr.wl] P rr n. moss (c.w. from prrnen
pehem: [pE."hEm] P F inter. what (action) allo- baby and" ’ewll
" plant)
morph of kempe (c.w. from kem action, pukap: ["pu.kap^] P F num. six
deed) pum: [pum] P F pn. possession, thing possessed
pehrr: [pE."hr] P F inter. when allomorph of krr- (dummy pronoun for modified nouns or pro-
"
pe (c.w. from krr time) nouns)
pelì’u: [pE."lI.Pu] P F inter. what (word, utteran- puve: ["pu.vE] P F adj. sixth (ordinal) (derived
ce) allomorph of lì’upe from pukap six)

12
Px

pxan: [p’an] P F adj. worthy pxiset: [p’i."sEt^] P F adv. right now (c.w. from
pxasìk: ["p’a.sIk^] P F intj. screw that!, no way! set now and pxi sharp)
(vulgar) pxisre+: [p’i."sRE] P F adp. right before (c.w. from
pxasul: ["p’a.sul] P F adj. fresh, appealing as food sre before (time) and pxi sharp)
pxaw–: [p’aw] P F adp. around pxiswawam: [p’i.swaw."am] P F adv. just a mo-
pxawpa: ["p’aw.pa] P F n. perimeter, circumfe- ment ago (c.w. from swaw moment and –am
rence, border (c.w. from pxaw around and past)
pa’o side) pxiswaway: [p’i.swaw."aj] P F adv. in just a se-
pxay: [p’aj] P F adj. many (used with singular cond from now (c.w. from swaw moment and
or plural noun forms) ay future marker)
pxel–: [p’El] P F adp. like, as pxiye’rìn: [p’i."jEP.RIn] P F adv. immediately (not
pxey: [p’Ej] P F num. three as soon as pxiswaway) (c.w. from ye’rìn soon
pxeyve: ["p’Ej.vE] P F adj. third (ordinal) (deri- and pxi sharp)
ved from pxey three) pxìm: [p’Im] P F adv. often
pxi: [p’i] P F adj. sharp pxor: [p’·oR] P F vin. explode
pxim: [p’im] P F adj. erect, upright pxun: [p’un] P F n. arm
pximaw–: [p’i."maw] P F adp. right after (c.w. pxuntil: ["p’un.til] P F n. elbow (c.w. from pxun
from maw after (time) and pxi sharp) arm and til joint)

ral: [Ral] P F n. meaning rey’eng: [REj."PEN] P F n. the Balance of Life (de-


ralpeng: [Ral."p·EN] P F v. interpret (ii) (c.w. from rived from rey live)
ral meaning and peng tell) reypay: ["REj.paj] P F n. blood (c.w. from rey live
ram: [Ram] P F n. mountain and pay water)
ramunong: [Ra."mu.noN] P F n. well rikx: [R·ik’] P F vin. move, shift position
rangal: ["R·a.N·al] P F v. wish rim: [Rim] P F adj. yellow
rawke: ["Raw.kE] P F intj. alarm cry, call to defen- rina’: [Ri."naP^] P F n. seed (derived from atoki-
se rina’ seeds of the great tree)
rä’ä: [Ræ."Pæ] P F part. do not (for negative impe- rìk: [RIk^] P F n. leaf
ratives, commands only) ro+: [Ro] P F adp. at (locative)
re’o: ["RE.Po] P F n. head rofa–: ["Ro.fa] P F adp. beside, alongside
rel: [REl] P F n. image, picture rol: [R·ol] P F v. sing
>
reltseo: ["REl.tsE.o] P F n. visual art (c.w. from rolun: [Ro."lun] P F intj. Eureka! I’ve found it!
rel image and tseo art) ronsem: ["Ron.sEm] P F n. mind
>
reltseotu: ["REl.tsE.o.tu] P F n. artist (derived rum: [Rum] P F n. ball
from reltseo art) run: [R·un] P F vtr. find, discover
reng: [REN] P F adj. shallow (physically) rusey: [Ru."sEj] P F adj., n. alive, living, living
renu: ["RE.nu] P F n. pattern thing (c.w. from rey live and «us» active par-
rewon: ["RE.won] P F n. morning ticiple infix)
rey: [R·Ej] P F vin. live rutxe: [Ru."t’E] P F intj. please

S
>
sa’nok: ["saP.nok^] P F n. mother(from sa’nutsyìp: ["saP.nu.tsjIp^] P F n. little mommy
sa’atenuk C ) (used for young girls) (derived from sa’nu
sa’nu: ["saP.nu] P F n. mum, mommy (affectiona- mommy)
te form of sa’nok mother)

13
sa’sem: ["saP.sEm] P F n. parent (derived from skxakep: ["sk’a.kEp^] P F adj., adv. probable, pro-
sa’nok mother and sempul father) bably
saa: ["sa:] LA intj. threatening cry skxawng: [sk’awN] P F n. moron, idiot
salew: [s·a."l·Ew] P F v. proceed, go skxom: [sk’om] P F n. chance, opportunity
san: [san] P F adv. saying, quote slä: [slæ] P F conj. but
sar: [s·aR] P F vtr. use sleyku: [slEj."k·u] P F vtr. produce (derived from
sat: [sat^] P F pn. that (lenited form of tsat, irre- slu become and «eyk» causative infix)
gularly lenited after ftu from) slu: [sl·u] P F v. become
sau: [sa."u] LA intj. exclamation upon exertion, smar: [smaR] P F n. prey, hunted thing
urgh sngap: [sN·ap^] P F vtr. sting
sä–: [sæ] P F prefix instrumental noun (c.w. from sngä’i: ["sN·æ.P·i] P F vin. begin, start (with
sänume teaching and säspxin disease) subjunctive)
säfpìl: [sæ."fpIl] P F n. idea sngä’ikrr: ["sNæ.Pi.kr] P F n. beginning, starting
"
time (c.w. from sngä’i begin and krr time)
sänume: [sæ."nu.mE] P F n. teaching, instruction
(derived from nume learn) sngä’iyu: ["sNæ.Pi.ju] P F n. beginner (derived
sänumvi: [sæ."num.vi] P F n. lesson (derived from sngä’i begin)
from sänume teaching) sngel: [sNEl] P F n. garbage, trash, rubbish
>
säspxin: [sæ."sp’in] P F n. disease, sickness, ill- sngeltseng: ["sNEl.tsEN] P F n. rubbish place, gar-
ness (derived from spxin sick) bage dump (c.w. from sngel garbage and
> tseng place)
säspxintsyìp: [sæ."sp’in.tsjIp^] P F n. minor ail-
snumìna: ["snu.mI.na] CP adj. dim (of a person)
ment (derived from säspxin illness)
soaia: [so."a.i.a] P F n. family
sekrr: ["sE.kr] P F adv. present (c.w. from set now
" sok: [sok^] P F adj. recent
and krr time)
som: [som] P F adj. hot
sempu: ["sEm.pu] P F n. daddy (affectionate
sop: [s·op^] P F vin. travel
form of sempul father)
spaw: [sp·aw] P F v. believe
sempul: ["sEm.pul] P F n. father
spä: [sp·æ] P F v. jump
set: [sEt^] P F adv. now
spe’e: [sp·E."P·E] P F vtr. capture
sevin: [sE."vin] P F adj. pretty (of people)
spe’etu: [spE."PE.tu] P F n. captive (derived
seykxel: [sEj."k’El] P F adj. strong (emotionally,
from spe’e capture)
spiritually, not physical), confident
speng: [sp·EN] P F v. restore
seyri: ["sEj.Ri] JC n. lip spule: ["sp·u.l·E] P F vtr. propel
si: [s·i] P F auxiliary verb, postpositional non- spuwin: ["spu.win] P F adj. old (not for people),
bound verb do, make deriving affix former
sim: [s·im] P F svin. near, be near spxam: [sp’am] P F n. mushroom, fungus
sì: [sI] P F conj. and (connects two things, can spxin: [sp’in] P F adj. sick
be attached as –sì: for clauses use ulte and) srak(e): ["sRak(E)] P F part. inter. marker for yes
sìk: [sIk^] P F adv. unquote or no questions
sìlpey: [sIl."p·Ej] P F vin. hope (with tsnì for thing sran: [sRan] P F adv., intj. yes (colloquial)
hoped, unless in independent clause) (ii) (c.w. srane: ["sRa.nE] P F adv., intj. yes
from sìltsan good and pey wait) sraw: [sRaw] P F adj. painful
sìlronsem: [sIl."Ron.sEm] P F adj. clever, smart sre+: [sRE] P F adp. before (time)
(thing) (c.w. from sìltsan good and ronsem sre’: [sREP^] P F n. tooth
mind) srekamtrr: [sRE."kam.tr] P F n. the time before
>
sìltsan: [sIl."tsan] P F adj. good noon (c.w. from sre "before and kxamtrr mid-
sìn–: [sIn] P F adp. on, onto day)
ska’a: [sk·a."P·a] P F vtr. destroy srekamtxon: [sRE."kam.t’on] P F n. before mid-
skepek: ["skE.pEk^] M adj. formal night (c.w. from sre before and kxamtxon
skien: ["ski.En] P F adj. right (not left) midnight)

14
srekrr: [sRE."kr] P F adv. before, already, ahead of stxong: [st’oN] P F adj. strange, unfamiliar, unk-
"
time (c.w. from sre before and krr time) nown
srese’a: [sRE.s·E."P·a] P F v. prophetize, prophesi- sung: [s·uN] P F vtr. add
ze, prophesy (c.w. from sre+ before and tse’a sunu: ["s·u.n·u] P F vin. be pleasing or likeable,
see) bring enjoyment
sresrr’ong: [sRE.sr."PoN] P F n. before dawn (c.w. sutx: [s·ut’] P F vtr. track, follow, lock up
from sre before" and trr’ong dawn) swaw: [swaw] P F n. moment
sreton’ong: [sRE.ton."PoN] P F n. dusk, evening swey: [swEj] P F adj. best
before sunset (c.w. from sre before and tx- swirä: [swi."Ræ] P F n. creature
on’ong night-fall) swizaw: [swi."zaw] P F n. arrow
srew: [sR·Ew] P F vin. dance
swok: [swok^] P F adj. sacred
srung: [sRuN] P F n. help, assistance
swotu: ["swo.tu] P F n. sacred place
srung si: [sRuN s·i] P F vin. help (c.w. from
syaw: [sj·aw] P F vin. call, name
srung help and si make, do)
starsìm: ["st·aR.s·Im] P F vtr. gather, collect syay: [sjaj] P F n. fate
stawm: [st·awm] P F vtr. hear syayvi: ["sjaj.vi] P F n. luck, chance (derived
stä’nì: ["st·æP.n·I] P F vtr. catch from syay fate)
steftxaw: [st·E."ft’·aw] P F vtr. examine, check syä’ä: ["sjæ.Pæ] P F adj. bitter
steyki: [stEj."k·i] P F vtr. anger, make someone an- syen: [sjEn] P F adj. last, final
gry (derived from sti be angry and «eyk» syep: [sj·Ep^] P F vtr. trap
causative infix) syo: [sjo] P F adj. light (physical weight),
sti: [st·i] P F vin. anger (intransitive), be angry lightweight
sto: [st·o] P F v. refuse (to do something) syulang: ["sju.laN] P F n. flower
stum: [stum] P F adv. almost syuve: ["sju.vE] P F n. food

ta–: [ta] P F adp. from (various uses) tatep: ["t·a.t·Ep^] P F vtr. lose track, lose aware-
ta’em: [ta."PEm] P F adv. from above ness of something
ta’leng: ["taP.lEN] P F n. skin tatlam: [tat."lam] P F adv. apparently (derived
tafkip–: [ta."fkip^] P F adp. from up among (c.w. from lam seem)
from ta from and fkip– up among) taw: [taw] P F n. sky
tafral: [ta."fRal] P F adv. therefore, because of that taweyk(a): [ta."wEjk(a)] P F conj. because, based
takip: [ta."kip^] P F adp. from among (c.w. from on the cause
ta from and kip– among) tawng: [t·awN] P F vin. duck, dive
takuk: ["t·a.k·uk^] P F vtr. strike täftxu: [t·æ."ft’·u] P F vtr. weave
talun(a): [ta."lun(a)] P F conj. because, from the täftxuyu: [tæ."ft’u.ju] P F n. weaver (derived
reason (c.w. from ta from and lun reason) from täftxu weave and –yu agent suffix)
tam: [t·am] P F vin., intj. that will suffice, that tätxaw: [t·æ."t’·aw] P F vin. return
will do, OK te: [tE] JC part. used in full names
tam tam: [tam tam] M intj. calm, be content, the- tei: [tE.i] G n. plain
re there tel: [t·El] P F vtr. receive
tangek: ["ta.NEk^] P F n. trunk (of a tree) telem: [tE."lEm] P F n. cord
tanhì: [tan."hI] P F n. star, bioluminescent freckle tem: [t·Em] P F vin. shoot
taron: ["t·a.R·on] JC,P F vtr. hunt teng: [tEN] P F adj. same, equal
taronyu: ["ta.Ron.ju] JC,P F n. hunter (c.w. from tengfya: ["tEN.fja] P F conj. as, same way as (c.w.
taron hunt and –yu agent suffix) from teng same, equal and fya’o path)
>
taronyutsyìp: ["ta.Ron.ju.tsjIp^] P F n. little hun- tengkrr: [tEN."kr] P F conj. while, same time as
ter (derived from taronyu hunter) (c.w. from teng " same, equal and krr time)

15
teri–: [tE."Ri] P F adp. about, concerning tìfyawìntxu: [tI.fja.wIn."t’u] P F n. guidance
terkup: ["t·ER.k·up^] P F vin. die (derived from fyawìntxu guide)
teswotìng: [tE."swo.t·IN] P F v. grant (ii) (c.w. tìfyeyn: [tI."fjEjn] P F n. ripeness, maturity, full
from tìng give) fruition (derived from fyeyn ripe, mature)
tete: ["tE.tE] P F adj. dull (as a blade) tìhawl: [tI."hawl] P F n. preparations, plan (deri-
tewti: ["tEw.ti] P F intj. wow, expression of surpri- ved from hawl prepare)
se and pleasure tìhawnu: [tI."haw.nu] P F n. protection (derived
teya: [tE."ja] P F adj. full from hawnu protect, shelter)
teya si: [tE."ja s·i] P F vin. fill (with dative of thing tìkan: [tI."kan] P F n. aim, goal, purpose, target
filled) (c.w. from teya full and si do, make) (derived from kan aim)
teyr: [tEjR] P F adj. white tìkangkem: [tI."kaN.kEm] P F n. work (derived
til: [til] P F n. joint, hinge from kem action, deed)
tirea: [ti."RE.a] P F n. spirit tìkangkem si: [tI."kaN.kEm s·i] P F vin. work
(c.w. from tìkangkem work and si do, make)
tireafya’o: [ti."RE.a.­fja.Po] P F n. spirit path (c.w.
tìkangkemvi: [tI."kaN.kEm.vi] P F n. project, pie-
from tirea spirit and fya’o path)
ce of work (derived from tìkangkem work)
tireaioang: [ti."RE.a.i.­o.aN] P F n. spirit animal
tìkanu: [tI."ka.nu] P F n. intelligence (derived
(c.w. from tirea spirit and ioang animal)
from kanu smart)
tireapängkxo: [ti."RE.a.p·æN.­k’·o] P F v. commu-
tìkawng: [tI."kawN] P F n. evil (derived from
ne (c.w. from tirea spirit and pängkxo chat)
kawng bad)
tì–: [tI] LN noun. deriving affix
tìkenong: [tI."kE.noN] P F n. example (derived
tì’awm: [tI."Pawm] P F n. camping (derived from kenong model)
from ’awm camp)
tìketeng: [tI."kE.tEN] P F n. difference (c.w. from
tì’awm si: [tI."Pawm s·i] P F vin. camp (c.w. ke not and teng same)
from ’awm camp and si make) tìkin: [tI."kin] P F n. need (derived from kin
tì’awpo: [tI."Paw.po] P F n. individuality (nega- need)
tive connotation), selfishness (derived from tìkusar: [tI.ku."saR] P F n. teaching (the act) (de-
’awpo one individual) rived from kar teach)
tì’efu: [tI."PE.fu] P F n. feeling (derived from tìkxey: [tI."k’Ej] P F n. incorrectness, mistakeness
’efu feel) (derived from kxeyey mistake)
tì’eylan: [tI."PEj.lan] P F n. friendship (derived tìkxey si: [tI."k’Ej s·i] P F vin. mess up, foul, do
from ’eylan friend) wrong (c.w. from tìkxey incorrectness and si
tì’eyng: [tI."PEjN] P F n. answer, response (deri- make)
ved from ’eyng answer) tìlam: [tI."lam] P F n. appearance (derived from
tì’i’avay: [tI."PiP.a.vaj] P F adv. until the end lam seem)
(c.w. from ’i’a end and vay until) tìlor: [tI."loR] P F n. beauty (derived from lor
tìfmetok: [tI."fmE.tok^] P F n. test (derived from beautiful)
fmetok test) tìm: [tIm] P F adj. low
tìfnu: [tI."fnu] P F n. quiet, silence (derived from tìme’em: [tI."mE.PEm] P F n. harmony (general
fnu quiet) sense) (derived from me’em harmonious)
tìftang: [tI."ftaN] P F n. stopping (derived from tìmuntxa: [tI.mun."t’a] P F n. mating, marriage
ftang stop) (derived from muntxa mated)
tìftia: [tI."fti.a] P F n. study (derived from ftia tìmweypey: [tIm."wEj.pEj] P F n. patience (deri-
study) ved from maweypey be patient)
tìftia kifkeyä: [tI."fti.a ki."fkE.jæ] P F n. science, tìng: [t·IN] P F v. give
the study of the physical world (c.w. from tìf- tìngay: [tI."Naj] P F n. truth (derived from ngay
tia study and kifkey world) true)
tìftxey: [tI."ft’Ej] P F n. choice (derived from ftx- tìngäzìk: [tI."Næ.zIk^] P F n. difficulty, problem
ey choose) (derived from ngäzìk difficult)

16
tìng mikyun: [t·Im "mik.jun] P F vin. listen (de- tìtakuk: [tI."ta.kuk^] G n. strike (derived from
rived from tìng give and mikyun ear) takuk strike)
>
tìng nari: [t·In "na.Ri] P F vin. look (derived tìtslam: [tI."tslam] P F n. understanding, intelli-
from tìng give and nari eye) gence (derived from tslam understand)
tìngop: [tI."Nop^] P F n. creation (derived from tìtusaron: [tI.tu."sa.Ron] P F n. hunting (derived
ngop create) from taron hunt)
>
tìng tseng: [t·IN tsEN] P F vin. back down, give tìtxanew: [tI."t’a.nEw] P F n. greed (derived
ground (derived from tìng give and tseng from txanew greedy)
ground) tìtxen: [tI."t’En] P F n. awakeness, the state of wa-
tìnomum: [tI."no.mum] P F n. curiosity (derived king (derived from txen awake)
from newomum be curious) tìtxula: [tI."t’u.la] P F n. construction, construc-
tìoeyktìng: [tI."o.Ejk.tIN] P F n. explanation (de- ted thing (derived from txula build)
rived from «eyk» cause (root)) (Casual tìtxur: [tI."t’uR] P F n. strength, power (derived
speech [tI."o.Ejk.tIN) from txur strong)
tìohakx: [tI.o."hak’] P F n. hunger (derived from tì– –us–: [tI us] P F gerund (verbal noun) de-
ohakx hungry) riving affix (Productive)
tìpawm: [tI."pawm] P F n. question (derived tìvawm: [tI."vawm] P F n. darkness (derived
from pawm ask) from vawm dark)
tìpähem: [tI."pæ.hEm] P F n. arrival (derived tìve’kì: [tI.vEP."kI] P F n. hatred (derived from
from pähem arrive) ve’kì hate)
tìpängkxo: [tI.pæN."k’o] P F n. conversation, di- tìyawn: [tI."jawn] P F n. love (derived from
scussion (derived from pängkxo chat) yawne beloved)
>
tìpängkxotsyìp: [tI.pæN."k’o.tsjIp^] P F n. little tìyawr: [tI."jawR] P F n. correctness (derived
conversation (derived from tìpängkxo con- from eyawr correct)
versation) tìyusom: [tI.ju."som] P F n. eating (the act) (de-
tìpe’un: [tI."pE.Pun] P F n. decision (derived rived from yom eat)
from pe’un decide) to: [to] P F superlative marker than (behaves li-
tìprrte’: [tI."pr.tEP^] P F n. pleasure (derived ke an adp.)
from prrte’" pleasurable) tok: [t·ok^] P F vtr. be at, occupy a space
tìran: [t·I."R·an] P F vin. walk tokx: [tok’] P F n. body
tìrey: [tI."REj] P F n. life (derived from rey live) tolel: [to."lEl] P F intj. Eureka! I found it! I un-
tìrol: [tI."Rol] P F n. song (derived from rol sing) derstand! (synonym: tslolam)
tìska’a: [tI.ska."Pa] P F n. destruction (derived toltem: [t·ol."t·Em] P F vtr. shoot
from ska’a destroy) tompa: ["tom.pa] P F n. rain
tìsop: [tI."sop^] P F n. journey (derived from sop toruk makto: ["to.Ruk^ "mak.to] JC n. toruk ri-
travel) der (c.w. from toruk leonopteryx and makto
tìspxin: [tI."sp’in] P F n. the state of being ill, sick- ride)
ness (derived from spxin sick) trr: [tr] P F n. day
tìsraw: [tI."sRaw] P F n. pain (derived from sraw "
trr’awve: [tr."Paw.vE] P F n. Sunday (c.w. from
painful) trr day and" ’awve first)
tìsraw seyki: [tI."sRaw sEj."k·i] P F vtr. hurt (so- trr’ong: [tr."PoN] P F n. dawn, sunrise (c.w. from
meone or something) (c.w. from tìsraw pain "
trr day and ’ong unfold)
and s«eyk»i make (causative)) trr’ongmaw: [tr."PoN.maw] P F n. dawn after
tìsraw si: [tI."sRaw s·i] P F vin. hurt, be painful "
sunrise (c.w. from trr’ong dawn and maw af-
(c.w. from tìsraw pain and si make) ter)
tìsrese’a: [tI."sRE.sE.Pa] P F n. prophecy (derived trram: [tr."am] P F adv. yesterday (derived from
from srese’a prophetize) trr day" and ham previous)
tìsti: [tI."sti] P F n. anger (derived from sti be trray: [tr."aj] P F adv. tomorrow (derived from
angry) trr day" and hay next)

17
trrkive: [tr."ki.vE] P F n. Saturday (c.w. from trr son)
day and" kive seventh) tukru: [tuk."Ru] P F n. spear
trrmrrve: [tr."mr.vE] P F n. Thursday (c.w. from tul: [t·ul] P F vin. run
" mrrve
trr day and " fifth)
tung: [t·uN] P F v. allow
trrmuve: [tr."mu.vE] P F n. Monday (c.w. from
" muve second)
trr day and tungzup: [tuN."z·up^] P F vtr. drop (ii) (c.w. from
trrpeve: [tr."pE.vE] P F inter. which day (derived tung allow and zup fall)
from trr" day and –pe interrogative marker tup: [tup^] P F conj. instead of, rather than
and –ve ordinal number marker) tupe: ["tu.pE] P F inter. who allomorph of pesu
trrpuve: [tr."pu.vE] P F n. Friday (c.w. from trr tut: [tut^] P F part. continuation marker
day and "puve sixth) tutan: [tu."tan] P F n. male (person) (derived
trrpxeyve: [tr."p’Ej.vE] P F n. Tuesday (c.w. from from tute person)
trr day and" pxeyve third)
> tute: ["tu.tE] P F n. person
trrtsìve: [tr."tsI.vE] P F n. Wednesday (c.w. from
"
trr day and tsìve fourth) tute: [tu."tE] P F n. female (person) (derived from
trrtxon: [tr.t’on] P F n. the day and night cycle of tute person)
Pandora" (c.w. from trr day and txon night) tuteo: ["tu.tE.o] P F pn. somebody, someone (de-
–tu: [tu] P F person noun from non-verbal rived from tute person)
stem deriving affix (derived from tute per- tuvon: ["t·u.v·on] P F v. lean

Ts
> >
tsa–: [tsa] P F prefix that tsamsiyu: ["tsam.si.ju] P F n. warrior (derived
> from tsam si make war and –yu agent suffix)
tsa’u: ["tsa.Pu] P F dem. that (thing) (c.w. from
>
tsa that and ’u thing) tsap’alute: [tsap."Pa.lu.tE] P F n. apology
> >
tsafya: [tsa."fja] P F pn. that way, like that (c.w. tsap’alute si: [tsap."Pa.lu.tE s·i] P F vin. apolo-
from tsa- that and fya’o way) gise (apologize) (c.w. from tsap’alute apology
> and si make)
tsa-hey: ["tsa."hEj] ZS intj. expression of warning
>
or frustration, ’crap!’, ’ah, hell!’ tsaria: ["tsa.Ri.a] P F conj. that (subordinate clau-
> se marker) (c.w. from tsa’u-ri that (topical)
tsaheyl si: [tsa."hEjl s·i] P F vin. bond with,
establish a neural connection (c.w. from tsa- and a relative clause marker)
>
heylu bond and si make) tsat: [tsat^] P F pn. that, it (as object)
> >
tsaheylu: [tsa."hEj.lu] JC,P F n. bond (neural con- tsata: ["tsa.ta] P F conj. that (subordinate clau-
nection) se marker) (c.w. from tsa’u-t that (accusative)
> > and a relative clause marker)
tsakem: ["tsa.kEm] or [tsa."kEm] P F dem. that
> > > >
(action) (derived from tsa- that and kem ac- tsatseng: [tsa."tsEN] or ["tsa.tsEN] P F dem. there,
tion) that place (c.w. from tsa that and tseng place)
> >
tsakrr: [tsa."kr] P F dem. then, at that time (deri- tsatu: ["tsa.tu] P F dem. that person (c.w. from
ved from tsa-" that and krr time) tsa that and tute person)
> >
tsakrrvay: [tsa."kr.vaj] P F adv. until then, in the tsaw: [tsaw] P F dem., pn. that, it (as intransitive
meantime (c.w." from tsakrr then and vay up subject)
to) >
tsawa: ["tsa.wa] P F conj. that (subordinate mar-
>
tsal: [tsal] P F pn. that, it (transitive subject) ker) (c.w. from tsa’u that (nominative) and a
> relative clause marker)
tsalsungay: [tsal.su."Naj] P F adv. nevertheless,
>
even so tsawke: ["tsaw.kE] P F n. sun
> >
tsam: [tsam] P F n. war tsawl: [tsawl] P F adj. big (in size), tall
> >
tsampongu: ["tsam.po.Nu] P F n. war party (c.w. tsawlhì’: [tsawl."hIP^] P F n. size (c.w. from
from tsam war and pongu party) tsawl big (in size) and hì’i small (in size))

18
> >
tsawl slu: [tsawl sl·u] P F vin. grow (c.w. from tsopì: ["tso.pI] P F n. lung
>
tsawl big and slu become) tspang: [tsp·aN] P F vtr. kill
> >
tsä’: [ts·æP^] P F v. squirt tsranten: ["tsR·an.t·En] P F vin. matter, be of im-
>
tse: [tsE] P F part. well (conversation starter) port
> >
tse’a: [ts·E."P·a] P F vtr. see (physical sense) tsray: [tsRaj] P F n. village
> >
tseng(e): ["tsEN(E)] P F n. place tsre’i: ["tsR·E.P·i] P F vtr. throw
> >
tsengo: ["tsE.No] P F pn. somewhere (derived tstal: [tstal] P F n. knife
from tseng place) >
> tstew: [tstEw] P F adj. brave
tsengpe: ["tsEN.pE] P F inter. where allomorph >
tstu: [tstu] P F adj. closed, shut
of peseng >
> tstunwi: ["tstun.wi] P F adj. kind, thoughtful,
tseo: ["tsE.o] P F n. art considerate
> >
tsewtx: [tsEwt’] P F adj. dirty tstu si: [tstu s·i] P F vin. close (c.w. from tstu
>
tsim: [tsim] P F n. source closed and si make)
> >
tsìng: [tsIN] P F num. four tstxo: [tst’o] P F n. name
>
tsìve: ["tsI.vE] P F adj. fourth (ordinal) (derived >
tstxolì’u: ["tst’o.lI.Pu] P F n. noun (c.w. from
from tsìng four)
> tstxo name and lì’u word)
tskalep: ["tska.lEp^] P F n. crossbow >
> tsuksìm: ["tsuk.sIm] P F n. chin
tsko: [tsko] P F n. bow (weapon) >
> tsulfä: [tsul."fæ] P F n. mastery
tsko swizaw: [tsko swi."zaw] P F n. bow and ar- >
tsulfä si: [tsul."fæ s·i] P F vin. master (c.w. from
row (c.w. from tsko bow and swizaw arrow)
> tsulfä mastery and si do, make)
tskxe: [tsk’E] P F n. rock, stone >
> tsulfätu: [tsul."fæ.tu] P F n. master of an art,
tskxekeng: ["tsk’E.kEN] P F n. training, exercise
> craft, or skill, expert (derived from tsulfä
tslam: [tsl·am] P F vtr. understand
> mastery)
tsleng: [tslEN] P F adj. false >
> tsun: [ts·un] P F vin. can, be able (with subjuncti-
tslolam: [tslo."lam] P F intj. get it, I understand
(derived from tslam understand and «ol» ve)
>
perfect aspect infix) tsunslu: ["ts·un.sl·u] P F vin. may, be possible
> (c.w. from tsun be able and slu become)
tsmuk: [tsmuk^] P F n. sibling >
> tsurokx: [ts·u."R·ok’] P F v. rest
tsmukan: ["tsmu.kan] P F n. brother (derived >
from tsmuk sibling) tswa’: [tsw·aP^] P F v. forget
> >
tsmuke: ["tsmu.kE] P F n. sister (derived from tswayon: ["tsw·aj.·on] P F vin. fly
>
tsmuk sibling) tswin: [tswin] P F n. queue, braid
> > >
tsmuktu: ["tsmuk.tu] P F n. sibling (derived tswintsyìp: ["tswin.tsjIp^] P F n. little queue (de-
from tsmuk sibling) rived from tswin queue)
> >
tsngal: [tsNal] P F n. cup tsyal: [tsjal] P F n. wing
> >
tsngan: [tsNan] P F n. meat tsyo: [tsjo] P F n. flour
> >
tsngawvìk: ["tsN·aw.v·Ik^] P F vin. cry, weep tsyokx: [tsjok’] P F n. hand
> >
tsnì: [tsnI] P F conj. that (function word) (with tsyosyu: ["tsjo.sju] P F n. food made from flour
subjunctive verb in dependant clause) (c.w. from tsyo flour and syuve food)

Tx

txa’: [t’aP^] P F adj. hard txan: [t’an] P F adj. great, much, many (in quan-
tity)
txal: [t’al] P F n. back (of the body)
txanew: ["t’a.nEw] P F adj. greedy (c.w. from tx-
txampay: [t’am."paj] P F n. sea, ocean (c.w. from an much and new want)
txan great and pay water) >
txantsan: ["t’an.tsan] P F adj. excellent
>
txampxì: [t’am."p’I] P F n. majority, most, large txantslusam: ["t’an.tslu.sam] P F adj. wise (c.w.
part (derived from txan much) from txan much and tsl«us»am understand)

19
>
txantstew: ["t’an.tstEw] P F n. hero (c.w. from one path)
txan very and tstew brave) txon: [t’on] P F n. night
txantur: ["t’an.tuR] P F adj. powerful (c.w. from txon’ong: [t’on."PoN] P F,P rr n. night-fall, sun-
txan much and txur strong) set, dusk, gloaming (c.w. from txon night and
txayo: ["t’a.jo] P F n. field, open terrain ’ong unfold)
txe’lan: [t’EP."lan] P F n. heart
txon’ongmaw: [t’on."PoN.maw] P F n. twilight,
txele: ["t’E.lE] P F n. matter (subject)
the time before dark, after sunset (c.w. from tx-
txen: [t’En] P F adj. awake
on’ong sunset and maw after)
txep: [t’Ep^] P F n. fire
> txonam: [t’o."nam] P F adv. last night (derived
txeptsyìp: ["t’Ep.tsjIp^] P F n. dear or cute little
fire (derived from txep fire) from txon night and ham previous)
txepvi: ["t’Ep.vi] P F n. spark (derived from txep txonay: [t’o."naj] P F adv. tomorrow night (deri-
fire) ved from txon night and hay next)
txewk: [t’Ewk^] P F n. club (weapon) txopu: ["t’o.pu] P F n. fear
txey: [t’·Ej] P F v. halt txopu si: ["t’o.pu s·i] P F vin. be afraid (c.w. from
txìm: [t’Im] P F n. butt, rear end, ass txopu fear and si do, make)
txìng: [t’·IN] P F v. leave, abandon
txukx: [t’uk’] P F adj. deep (physically)
txo: [t’o] P F conj. if
txoa: ["t’o.a] P F n. forgiveness txula: ["t’·u.l·a] P F v. build, construct
txokefyaw: ["t’o.kE.fjaw] P F conj. if not, or else, txum: [t’um] P F n. poison
otherwise (c.w. from txo-ke-fya’o-’aw if not txur: [t’uR] P F adj. strong (physically)

u’imi: [u.Pi.mi] ASG n. streamer, pendant dreamwalker and tokx body)


ukxo: [u."k’o] P F adj. dry uniltìranyu: [u.nil.tI."Ran.ju] P F n. dreamwalker
ulte: ["ul.tE] P F conj. and (clausal conjunction) (c.w. from unil dream and tìranyu walker)
ultxa: [ul."t’a] P F n. meeting
ultxarun: [ul."t’a.R·un] P F v. encounter, meet by uo–: ["u.o] P F adp. behind
chance (ii) (c.w. from ultxa meeting and run utral: ["ut.Ral] P F n. tree
find) >
utraltsyìp: ["ut.Ral.tsjIp^] PF n. bush (derived
ultxa si: [ul."t’a s·i] P F vin. meet with someone from utral tree)
intentionally (use with)
unil: ["u.nil] JC n. dream uvan: [u."van] P F n. game
uniltìrantokx: [u.nil.tI."Ran.tok’] JC,P F n. ava- uvan si: [u."van s·i] P F vin. play (a game) (c.w.
tar, dreamwalker body (c.w. from uniltìranyu from uvan game and si make, do)

vawm: [vawm] P F adj. dark virä: [v·i."R·æ] P F v. spread, proliferate


vay–: [vaj] P F adp. up to vitra: [vit."Ra] P F n. soul
vaykrr: [vaj."kr] P F conj. until (c.w. from vay– vol: [vol] P F num. eight
up to and krr" time)
volve: ["vol.vE] P F adj. eighth (ordinal) (derived
vä’: [væP^] P F adj. unpleasant to the senses, no-
from vol eight)
isome
vrrtep: ["vr.tEp^] P F n. demon
ve’kì: [v·EP."k·I] P F vtr. hate "
venu: ["vE.nu] P F n. foot vul: [vul] P F n. branch (of a tree)
venzek: ["vEn.zEk^] P F n. toe (c.w. from venu vur: [vuR] P F n. story
foot and zekwä finger) vurvi: ["vuR.vi] P F n. summary, synopsis (deri-
vey: [vEj] P F n. food made from animal origin, ved from vur story)
flesh
20
W

way: [waj] P F n. song win säpi: [win sæ."p·i] P F vin. hurry (c.w. from
waytelem: ["waj.tE.lEm] P F n. song chord (c.w. win fast and s«äp»i do (reflexive))
from way song and telem cord) win si: [win s·i] P F vin. rush something, make
wä+: [wæ] P F adp. against (as in: fight against) something fast (c.w. from win fast and si do)
wem: [w·Em] P F vin. fight wiya: ["wi.ja] ZS intj. expression of warning or
wempongu: ["wEm.po.Nu] P F n. squad, milita- frustration, ’damn!’
ry clan, battle party (c.w. from wem fight and wìntxu: [w·In."t’·u] P F v. show
pongu group) wok: [wok^] P F adj. loud
wew: [wEw] P F adj. cold wotx: [wot’] P F n. totality, whole
weyn: [w·Ejn] P F v. draw, illustrate wrrpa: ["wr.pa] P F n., adv. outside
>
" tso]
win: [win] P F adj. fast wutso: ["wu. P F n. dinner, served meal

ya: [ja] P F n. air yemfpay: [jEm."fpaj] P F n. dipping, immersion


yawne: ["jaw.nE] P F adj. beloved (into liquid) (c.w. from yem put)
yawnetu: ["jaw.nE.tu] P F n. loved one (derived yemfpay si: [jEm."fpaj s·i] P F vin. dip into liquid
from yawne beloved) (c.w. from yemfpay dipping and si make, do)
yawntu: ["jawn.tu] P F n. loved one (derived yey: [jEj] P F adj. straight
from yawne beloved) yìm: [j·Im] P F vtr. bind
yaymak: ["jaj.mak^] P F adj. foolish, ignorant
yol: [jol] P F adj. short (of time)
yayo: ["ja.jo] P F n. bird (c.w. from ya air and
ioang animal) yom: [j·om] P F vtr. eat
yän: [j·æn] P F vtr. fasten, tie down yomtìng: ["jom.t·IN] P F vin. feed (with dative ob-
ye’krr: ["jEP.kr] P F adv. early (derived from ject) (ii) (c.w. from yom eat and tìng give)
ye’rìn soon "and krr time) –yu: [ju] LN nominative agent noun deriving
ye’rìn: ["jEP.RIn] P F adv. soon affix, as in taron-yu hunter
yem: [j·Em] P F vtr. put, place yur: [j·uR] P F v. wash

za’ärìp: [za."P·æ.R·Ip^] P F vtr. pull (derived zìsìkrr: ["zI.sI.kr] P F n. season (derived from
from ’ärìp move) zìsìt year and" krr time)
za’u: ["z·a.P·u] P F vin. come zìsìt: ["zI.sIt^] P F n. year
zam: [zam] P F num. sixty four
zo: [z·o] P F vin. be well, be intact, be as it should
zamunge: [za."m·u.N·E] P F vtr. bring (derived
be, work correctly or as nature intended
from munge bring)
zapxì: [za."p’I] P F n. front (part or section) (deri- zong: [z·oN] P F v. save, defend
>
ved from hapxì part) zongtseng: ["zoN.tsEN] P F n. safe place, refuge
zawng: [z·awN] P F vin. scream (c.w. from zong save and tseng place)
zekwä: ["zEk.wæ] P F n. finger zoplo: [zop."lo] P F n. offence, insult
zene: ["z·E.n·E] P F vin. must (with subjunctive)
zoslu: ["zo.sl·u] P F vin. heal, become well, get fix-
zenke: ["z·EN.k·E] P F vin. must not (with subjun-
ed (c.w. from zo be well and slu become)
ctive) (ii) (c.w. from zene must and ke not)
zerok: ["z·E.R·ok^] P F v. remember zup: [z·up^] P F vin. fall
zeyko: [zEj."k·o] P F vtr. heal, fix (derived from zusawkrr: [zu."saw.kr] P F n. future (c.w. from
zo be well and «eyk» causative infix) " krr time)
z«us»a’u coming and

21
A The Number System
The following are charts of Na’vi numbers, which are adjectives that modify nouns in their
singular form, like ’awa tute. Note that it is not a decimal, but an octal system. Underlining
indicates where the stress ought to fall. The numbers 8 and 9 are included for terrestrial number
reference, such as in phone numbers. They do not signify the value of 8 or 9.

Na’vi Numbers: 0 – 39
0 1 2 3 4
0 kew vol mevol pxevol tsìvol
1 ’aw volaw mevolaw pxevolaw tsìvolaw
2 mune vomun mevomun pxevomun tsìvomun
3 pxey vopey mevopey pxevopey tsìvopey
4 tsìng vosìng mevosìng pxevosìng tsìvosìng
5 mrr vomrr mevomrr pxevomrr tsìvomrr
6 pukap vofu mevofu pxevofu tsìvofu
7 kinä vohin mevohin pxevohin tsìvohin

Na’vi Numbers: 40 – 63 Ordinal Numbers


5 6 7 Number + -ve
0 mrrvol puvol kivol 1 ’awve
1 mrrvolaw puvolaw kivolaw 2 muve
2 mrrvomun puvomun kivomun 3 pxeyve
3 mrrvopey puvopey kivopey 4 tsìve
4 mrrvosìng puvosìng kivosìng 5 mrrve
5 mrrvomrr puvomrr kivomrr 6 puve
6 mrrvofu puvofu kivofu 7 kive
7 mrrvohin puvohin kivohin 8 volve

More Na’vi Numbers:


x1 combining x8 x64 x512 x4096
1 ’aw -aw vol zam vozam zazam
2 mune -mun mevol mezam mevozam mezazam
3 pxey -pey pxevol pxezam pxevozam pxezazam
4 tsìng -sìng tsìvol tsìzam tsìvozam tsìzazam
5 mrr -mrr mrrvol mrrzam mrrvozam mrrzazam
6 pukap -fu puvol puzam puvozam puzazam
7 kinä -hin kivol kizam kivozam kizazam

Non-Na’vi Numbers
8 ’eyt 9 nayn

22
B Time
Here is a list of the Pandoran times of the day, as well as names made for the terrestrial week.
Stress is again shown with underlining.

Trrtxon
trr’ong dawn
trr’ongmaw after dawn
rewon morning
srekamtrr before noon
kxamtrr noon
Days of the Terrestrial Week
kxamtrrmaw after noon
Sunday trr’awve
ha’ngir early afternoon
Monday trrmuve
kaym late afternoon
Tuesday trrpxeyve
sreton’ong before nightfall
Wednesday trrtsìve
txon’ong nightfall
Thursday trrmrrve
txon’ongmaw after nightfall
Friday trrpuve
txon night
Saturday trrkive
srekamtxon before midnight
kxamtxon midnight
kxamtxomaw after midnight
txon night
sresrr’ong before dawn
trr’ong dawn

C Na’vi Loan Words


’Ìnglìsì: ["PIN.lI.sI] P F n. English language (loa- puk: [puk^] P F n. book (loaned from Eng. book)
ned from Eng. English) >
puktsyìp: ["puk.tsjIp^] P F n. pamphlet, booklet
’Rrta: ["Pr.ta] P F,P rr prop.n. Earth (loaned (derived from puk book)
" Earth)
from Eng. pxir: [p’iR] P F n. beer (loaned from Deutsch bi-
feyzrr: ["fEj.zr] LN n. phaser, ray-gun (loaned er)
from Eng. "phaser) tawsìp: ["taw.sIp^] P F n. sky-ship (loaned from
>
hametsì: [ha.mE.tsI] P F n. leavened bread (loa- Eng. ship)
ned from Hebrew chametz)
toktor: ["tok.toR] P F n. doctor (loaned from
jakesully: [ZEjk’su:li] M n. moron, toruk mak-
" Eng. Jake Sully) (not nor- Eng. doctor)
toyu (loaned from >
mally allowable under Na’vi phonotactic tsyänel: [tsjæ.nEl] P F n. TV channel (loaned
rules) from Eng. channel)
>
kunsìp: ["kun.sIp^] P F n. gunship (loaned from tsyìräfì: [tsjI.Ræ.fI] P F n. giraffe (loaned from
Eng. gunship) Eng. giraffe)
> wou: ["w·o.·u] P F svin. be amazing, fascinating
matsa: [ma.tsa] P F n. matsa, crackers (loaned
from Hebrew matsa) (slang) (loaned from Eng. whoa)
pìlok: [pI."lok^] P F n. blog (loaned from Eng. Yu.E.Sey: [ju.E.sEj] P F prop.n. USA (loaned
blog) from Eng. USA)

23
D Na’vi Proper Nouns
Akwey: [ak."wEj] JC prop.n. male Na’vi Maweytakuk: [ma.wEj.ta.kuk^] G prop.n. male
Amanti: [a.man.ti] G prop.n. female of the Tipa- Na’vi
ni Mekanei: [mE.ka.nE.i] G prop.n. male of the Ti-
Amhul: [am."hul] P F prop.n. female Na’vi pani
Änsìt: ["æn.sIt^] P F prop.n. male Na’vi Mo’at: ["mo.Pat^] JC prop.n. tsahìk of the Oma-
Anurai: [a.nu.Ra.i] G prop.n. clan name tikaya (also pronounced Moat)
Ateyitan: [a.tEj.i.tan] JC prop.n. son of Ateyo Mo’at’ite: [mo.Pat.Pi.tE] JC prop.n. daughter of
(derived from Ateyo male name and ’itan Mo’at (derived from Mo’at a woman and ’ite
son) daughter)
Ateyo: [a."tE.jo] JC prop.n. male Na’vi Mukata: [mu.ka.ta] G prop.n. male of the Taw-
ayRam aLusìng: [aj."Ram a.lu."sIN] P F prop.n. kami
the Floating Mountains (c.w. from ram Na’vi: ["naP.vi] P F prop.n. the People, indige-
mountain and lìng hover) nous Pandoran sentient race
ayVitrayä Ramunong: [aj.vit."Ra.jæ Ra."mu.noN] Nera’nak: [nE.RaP.nak^] G prop.n. female of the
JC prop.n. Well of Souls (c.w. from vitra soul Tawkami
and ramunong well) Newey: [nE."wEj] P F prop.n. female Na’vi
Entu: ["En.tu] P F prop.n. male Na’vi Neytiri: [nEj.ti.Ri] JC prop.n. female Na’vi of the
Eytukan: ["Ej.tu.kan] JC prop.n. male leader of Omatikaya
the Omatikaya Ninat: [ni.nat^] JC prop.n. female singer of the
Eywa: ["Ej.wa] JC prop.n. world spirit, Gaia (de- Omatikaya
rived from Proto-Indo-European *aiw) RL Nok: [nok^] G prop.n. male of the Tawkami
Eywa’eveng: [­Ej.wa."PE.vEN] JC,P F prop.n. Oloniwin: [o.lo.ni.win] G prop.n. male elder of
Pandora (c.w. from Eywa Gaia and ’eveng the Tipani
child) Omati: [o.ma.ti] G prop.n. male of the Tawkami
Fmilam: [fmi.lam] G prop.n. female of the Tipani Omatikaya: [o.ma.ti."ka.ja] JC prop.n. Blue
Hukato: [hu.ka.to] G prop.n. male of the Tipani Flute Clan
Ikalu: [i.ka.lu] G prop.n. male of the Tipani Onantu: [o.nan.tu] G prop.n. male of the Tawka-
Iknimaya: ["ik.ni."ma.ja] JC prop.n. Stairway to mi
Heaven, the rite of passage for young Na’vi Otamu: [o.ta.mu] G prop.n. male of the Tipani
Ìstaw: [I."staw] P F prop.n. male Na’vi Otranyu: [ot."Ran.ju] JC prop.n. name
Kamun: ["ka.mun] P F prop.n. male Na’vi (affec- Peyral: [pEj."Ral] P F prop.n. female of the Oma-
tionate form Kamtsyìp) tikaya
Kaoliä Tei: [ka.o.li.æ tE.i] G prop.n. the plains Rai’uk: [Ra.i.Puk^] G prop.n. male of the Anurai
of Goliath Raltaw: [Ral.taw] G prop.n. male hunter of the
Kelutral: ["kE.lut.Ral] P F prop.n. Hometree (c.w. Tipani
from kelku home and utral tree) Ralu: ["Ra.lu] P F prop.n. male Na’vi
Kusati: [ku.sa.ti] G prop.n. female warrior of the Rini: ["Ri.ni] P F prop.n. female Na’vi
Tipani Rongloa: ["RoN.lo.a] JC prop.n. a clan
Li’ona: [li.Po.na] G,P F prop.n. a clan Sänume: [sæ.nu.mE] G prop.n. tsahìk of the Ti-
Loak: ["lo.ak^] P F prop.n. male Na’vi pani (derived from sänume teaching)
Lompo: [lom.po] G prop.n. male of the Tawkami Seyvaro: [sEj.va.Ro] G prop.n. male of the Taw-
Lungoray: [lu.No.Raj] G prop.n. shaman of the kami
Tipani Seze: ["sE.zE] ZS prop.n. Neytiri’s banshee
Malimi: [ma.li.mi] G prop.n. male of the Tawka- Silwanin: [sil.wa.nin] JC prop.n. Neytiri’s sister
mi Sorewn: [so."REwn] P F prop.n. female Na’vi
Marali: [ma.Ra.li] G prop.n. female of the Tipani Swawta: [swaw.ta] G prop.n. male of the Tipani

24
>
Swotulu: ["swo.tu.lu] P F prop.n. sacred river Tsu’tey: [tsuP."tEj] JC prop.n. male of the Oma-
(derived from swotu sacred place) tikaya
>
Ta’antasi: [ta.Pan.ta.si] G prop.n. Tantalus, Tsumongwi: [tsu.moN.wi] JC prop.n. original
rocky place on Pandora name for the Omatikaya
Tasun: [ta.sun] G prop.n. male hunter of the Tuke: ["tu.kE] P F prop.n. female Na’vi
Lì’ona Txewì: ["t’E.wI] P F prop.n. male Na’vi
Tawkami: [taw.ka.mi] G prop.n. a clan (c.w. Txilte: ["t’il.tE] P F prop.n. female Na’vi
>
from taw sky and kame see) Ukamtsu: [u.kam.tsu] G prop.n. male of the Ti-
Tawtute: ["taw.tu.tE] P F prop.n. Sky-person, pani
human (c.w. from taw sky and tute person) Umkansa: [um.kan.sa] G prop.n. a Tipani vil-
lage
Tilikaru: [ti.li.ka.Ru] G prop.n. a Tipani village
Uniltaron: [­u.nil."ta.Ron] P F prop.n. Dream
Tipani: [ti.pa.ni] G prop.n. a clan
> Hunt (c.w. from unil dream and taron hunt)
Tsa’law: [tsaP.law] G prop.n. male of the Tawka-
Unipey: [u.ni.pEj] G prop.n. female of the Tipani
mi
> Utral Aymokriyä: ["ut.Ral aj."mok.Ri.jæ] JC,P F
Tsahìk: ["tsa.hIk^] JC prop.n. matriarch, high prop.n. Tree of Voices (c.w. from utral tree
priestess, interpreter and mokri voice)(from utraya mokri J C)
>
Tsaro: [tsa.Ro] G prop.n. male of the Tipani Va’erä Ramunong: [va.PE.Ræ Ra.mu.noN] G
>
Tsenu: ["tsE.nu] P F prop.n. female Na’vi prop.n. Vaderas Hollow
>
Tskaha: ["tska.ha] JC prop.n. a tribe or clan Va’ru: ["vaP.Ru] P F prop.n. male Na’vi
>
Tsmuke: [tsmu.kE] G prop.n. a Tipani village Vayaha: [va.ja.ha] G prop.n. a Tipani village

E Flora and Fauna


Flora

’ä’o: ["Pæ.Po] P F n. pitcher plant kllpxiwll: [kl."p’i.wl] P F n. lionberry (c.w. from


’ampirikx: ["Pam.pi.Rik’] P F n. leaf pitcher plant kllte ground" and" pxiwll sharp plant)
(c.w. from ’ampi touch and rikx move) kxaylte: ["k’ajl.tE] P F n. cillaphant (derived
’ele’wll: ["PE.lEP.wl] P F n. thorny paw, cactus from kxayl high)
(derived from ’ewll " plant) loreyu: [lo."RE.ju] P F n. helicoradian, beautiful
anìheyu: [a.nI."hE.ju] P F n. fibonacci, blue spiral spiral (c.w. from lor beautiful and ’ìheyu spi-
plant (c.w. from ean blue and ’ìheyu spiral) ral)
apxangrr: [a."p’a.Nr] P F n. delta tree (c.w. from mìnyu: ["mIn.ju] P F n. turner, twisted lily (deri-
apxa large and ngrr " root) ved from mìn turn)
awaiei: [a.wa.i."E.i] P F n. banshee of paradise
mulpxar: [mul."p’aR] P F n. roosterhead plant
eanean: ["E.an."E.an] P F n. cheadle, herbaceous
pa’liwll: ["paP.li.wl] P F n. direhorse pitcher plant
plant (c.w. from ean blue)
(c.w. from pa’li" direhorse and ’ewll plant)
eyaye: [E."ja.jE] P F n. warbonnet >
fkxakewll: ["fk’a.kE.wl] P F n. itch plant (c.w. pamtseowll: ["pam.tsE.o.wl] P F n. cat ear, mu-
" ’ewll plant) sic plant (c.w. from pamtseo" music and ’ewll
from fkxake itch and
flefle: ["flE.flE] P F n. Sol’s delight, magnetotrophic plant)
plant paywll: ["paj.wl] P F n. water plant, dapophet
(c.w. from pay " water and ’ewll plant)
fngapsutxwll: ["fNap.sut’.wl] P F n. metal-
following plant (c.w. from" fngap metal and penghrrap: [pEN."hr.ap^] P F n. binary sunshine,
sutx follow) fringed lamp (c.w." from peng tell and hrrap
fwäkìwll: ["fwæ.kI.wl] P F n. mantis orchid (c.w. danger)
from fwäkì mantis" and ’ewll plant) pxayzekwä: [p’aj."zEk.wæ] P F n. spiny whips
hìrumwll: [hI."Rum.wl] P F n. puffer plant (c.w. from pxay many and zekwä finger)
"
25
>
pxiut: ["p’i.ut^] P F n. razor palm, sharp tree (c.w. tsawlapxangrr: ["tsawl.a.p’a.Nr] P F n. unidelta
from pxi sharp and utral tree) tree, lit. tall large root (c.w." from tsawl big
pxiwll: ["p’i.wl] P F n. hermit bud plant (c.w. and ngrr root)(for short, tsawlapx)
from pxi sharp" and ’ewll plant) >
tstxa’a: ["tst’a.Pa] P F n. canalyd
pxorna’: ["p’oR.naP^] P F n. episoth, exploding >
tsyorina’wll: [tsjo.Ri."naP.wl] P F n. cycad, flour
seed (c.w. from pxor explode and rina’ seed) seed plant (c.w. from rina’ " seed and ’ewll
pxorna’lor: ["p’oR.naP."loR] P F n. sari, beautiful plant)
exploding seed plant (c.w. from pxorna’ ex- txll’u: ["t’l.Pu] P F n. hookagourd
ploding seed and lor beautiful) "
txumpaywll: ["t’um.paj.wl] P F n. scorpion
rawp: [Rawp^] P F n. bladder polyp thistle, poison water plant " (c.w. from txum
rumut: ["Rum.ut^] P F n. ball tree (c.w. from rum poison and paywll water plant)
ball and utral tree) >
txumtsä’wll: [t’um."tsæP.wl] P F n. Baja tickler,
seze: ["sE.zE] P F,ZS n. blue flower " from tsä’ squirt
poison-squirting plant (c.w.
smaoe: [sma."o.E] P F n. phalanxia, heavily thor-
and ’ewll plant)
ned plant
utral utu mauti: [ut.Ral u.tu ma.u.ti] ASG n.
sngukx: [sNuk’] P F n. grub plant
push fruit tree (c.w. from utral tree and utu
somtìlor: ["som.tI.loR] P F n. popsicle, hot beauty
mauti push fruit)
(c.w. from som hot and tìlor beauty)
utu mauti: [u.tu ma.u.ti] ASG n. banana fruit,
syeptute: ["sjEp.tu.tE] P F n. hyneman, person
push fruit
trapper (c.w. from syep trap and tute person)
tautral: ["ta.ut.Ral] P F n. sky tree (c.w. from taw väfewll: ["væ.fE.wl] P F n. Centipede, bad-smell
sky and utral tree) plant (c.w. from" vä’ unpleasant and fahew
> smell)
tawtsngal: ["taw.tsNal] P F n. panopyra, sky cup
(c.w. from taw sky and tsngal cup) värumut: ["væ.Ru.mut^] P F n. vein pod (c.w.
tìhawnuwll: [tI."haw.nu.wl] P F n. spartan, pro- from vä’ unpleasant and rum ball)
tection plant (c.w. from" tìhawnu protection Vitrautral: [vit."Ra.ut.Ral] P F prop.n. Tree of
and ’ewll plant) Souls (c.w. from vitra soul and utral tree)
tompawll: ["tom.pa.wl] P F n. geode, rain plant yomhì’ang: [jom."hIP.aN] P F n. small ani-
(c.w. from tompa rain " and ’ewll plant) mal/insect eater, dakteron (c.w. from yom eat
torukspxam: ["to.Ruk.sp’am] P F n. octoshroom, and hì’ang insect)
great leonopteryx fungus (c.w. from toruk yomioang: [jom.i."o.aN] P F n. chalice plant (c.w.
great leonopteryx and spxam mushroom) from yom eat and ioang animal)

Fauna
>
’angtsìk: ["PaN.tsIk^] P F n. hammerhead ratus costatus, striped armored wolf
eltungawng: ["El.tu.NawN] P F n. brainworm pa’li: ["paP.li] P F n. direhorse
(c.w. from eltu brain and ngawng worm) palulukan: [­pa.lu."lu.kan] JC n. thanator (col-
fpxafaw: ["fp’a.faw] P F n. medusa loquial [pa."lu.kan])
fwäkì: ["fwæ.kI] P F n. mantis riti: ["Ri.ti] JC n. stingbat
ikran: ["ik.Ran] JC n. banshee talioang: ["tal.­i.o.aN] JC n. sturmbeest (derived
ikranay: ["ik.Ra.naj] ASG n. forest banshee (Not from ioang animal)
PF) teylu: ["tEj.lu] JC n. beetle larva
kali’weya: [ka.liP.wE.ja] ASG n. species of poiso- toruk: ["to.Ruk^] JC n. great leonopteryx, last sha-
nous arachnid dow
lonataya: [lo.na.ta.ja] ASG n. medusa yerik: ["jE.Rik^] P F n. hexapede
nantang: ["nan.taN] JC,P F n. viperwolf Canifer- zize’: [zi."zEP^] P F n. hellfire wasp

26
F Useful Phrases
These are some useful idiomatic phrases. Often the word order can be changed, although the
morphemes are probably invariable. I’ve included these not only to show instances where a
phrase encapsulates a single semantic meaning, but also to illustrate set common construc-
tions. For this reason I have also included some single words again here.

’efu ohakx: ["P·E.f·u o."hak’] P F phrase be hungry (derived from ’efu feel and ohakx hungry)
ätxäle pa(lu)lukanur: [æ."t’æ.lE pa."lu.ka.nuR] P F phrase ’Ask a thanator to release it’s prey’, ’it’s a
foregone conclusion’ (from Na’vi idiom Ätxäle si palulukanur tsnì smarit livonu)
etrìpa syayvi: ["Et.RI.pa "sjaj.vi] P F phrase good luck (derived from etrìp favourable and syayvi
luck)
Eywa ngahu: ["Ej.wa "Na.hu] JC,P F phrase goodbye, Eywa (be) with you (derived from Eywa Gaia
and ngahu with you)
ftxey...fuke: [ft’Ej fu."kE] P F phrase whether...or (derived from ftxey whether and fuke or not)
fyape fko syaw ngar?: ["fja.pE fko sj·aw NaR] P F phrase what are you called, what is your name
hakuna matata: [ha."ku.na ma."ta.ta] RL(N otP F ) phrase there are no worries (I lost a bet.)
hayalo ta oe (oeta): [ha."ja.lo ta "o.E ("wE.ta)] P F phrase next time from me (derived from hayalo
next time and oeta from me)
hayalovay: [ha."ja.lo.vaj] P F phrase until next time (c.w. from hayalo next time and vay- until)
irayo: [i."Raj.o] P F intj. thanks, thank you
kaltxì: [kal."t’I] P F intj. hello (casual)
ke pxan: [kE p’an] P F phrase I’m not worthy (derived from ke not and pxan worthy)
ke...kaw’it: [kE kaw."Pit^] P F phrase not...at all (derived from ke not and kaw’it at all)
kea tìkin: ["kE.a tI."kin] P F phrase no need (for thanks) (derived from kea no and tìkin need)
kefya srak: [kE."fja sRak^] P F phrase isn’t that so? right? no? (derived from fya’o way and srak
yes?)
kìyevame: [kI.jE."va.m·E] P F intj. good-bye, see you again soon (derived from kame see and «ìyev»
future subjunctive infix)
krro krro: ["kr.o "kr.o] P F phrase at times, on occasion (derived from krr time)
nga yawne lu" oer:"[Na "jaw.nE lu wER] P F phrase I love you, you are beloved to me
ngaru lu fpom srak?: ["Na.Ru lu fpom sRak^] P F phrase How are you? are you well?
>
ngaru tsulfä: ["Na.Ru tsul."fæ] P F phrase to your the mastery (derived from ngaru to you and
tsulfä mastery)
ngaru tut: ["Na.Ru tut^] P F phrase and to you? and you? (derived from nga you and tut continua-
tion marker) (After a question with a dative subject)
>
ngeyä kxetse lu oeru: ["NEj.æ "k’E.tsE l·u "wE.Ru] P F phrase your tail is mine, you’re going down
nìprrte’: [nI."pr.tEP^] P F adv. gladly, I did it with pleasure
"
oe irayo si ngaru: ["o.E i."Raj.o s·i "Na.Ru] P F phrase I give thanks to you, thank you
oel ngati kameie: [wEl "Na.ti "ka.mE.i.E] P F phrase I see you, hello (familiar)
oeru meuia: ["wE.Ru mE."u.i.a] P F phrase an honor to me, it was an honour (derived from oeru to
me and meuia honor)
oeru teya si: ["wE.Ru tE."ja s·i] P F phrase fills me with satisfaction, joy (derived from oeru to me
and teya si fill)
oeru txoa livu: ["wE.Ru "t’o.a li."vu] P F phrase please forgive me, may forgiveness be to me
pum ngeyä: [pum "NE.jæ] P F phrase yours, I should thank you (derived from pum possession
(dummy pronoun) and ngeyä your)
seykxel sì nitram: [sEj."k’El sI nit."Ram] P F phrase strong and happy!, congratulations (derived
from seykxel strong and nitram happy)

27
tì’efumì oeyä: [tI."PE.fu.mI "wE.jæ] P F phrase in my opinion (derived from tì’efu feeling and oeyä
my)
tì’i’avay krrä: [tI."PiP.a.vaj "kr.æ] P F phrase forever, until the end of time (derived from tì’i’avay
until the end and krr time) "
tìkxey ngaru: [tI."k’Ej "Na.Ru] P F phrase you’re wrong (derived from tìkxey incorrectness and
ngaru to you)
tìyawr ngaru: [tI."jawR "Na.Ru] P F phrase you’re right (derived from tìyawr correctness and ngaru
to you)
>
tstunwi: ["tstun.wi] P F adj. kind, that was kind of you to say
txon lefpom: [t’on lE."fpom] P F phrase good night, peaceful night (derived from txon night and
lefpom happy)
zola’u nìprrte’: [zol."a.P·u nI."pr.tEP^] P F phrase come pleasurably, welcome (derived from z«ol»a’u
come and nìprrte’ pleasurably) "

28
G Illegal Words
These are illegal words that are not from Frommer: I have included them as they are in the
corpus, but they are not to be regarded as Na’vi words. The following words, or their roots,
either break syllable rules that Frommer set forth, or have at least one of the following illegal
sounds, spellings, or digraphs:

’h [Ph], b [b], c [k], ch [tS], d [d], g [g], h’ [hP], ii [i:], j [Z], sh [S], uu [u:]

ar’lek: [arPlEk^] G n. a seed-bearing plant bola, lit. nothing to see


Beyda’amo: [bEjdaPamo] G prop.n. male warri- mreki u’lito: [mREki uPlito] ASG n. fire pit
or of the Tipani na’hla buk’ne: [naPhla bukPnE] ASG n. direhor-
chan’tu gor’ek nuuto: [tSanPtu gorPEk^nuuto] se lead, lit. face pull
ASG n. stone jar Naalot: [na:.lot^] G prop.n. male of the Tipani
chey: [tSEj] ASG n. possesions rack (derived from >
nikt’chey: [niktPtshEj] or [niktPtSEj] ASG n.
P’ah s’ivil chey rack) small bit of food, packed lunch
Eywa k’sey nivi’bri’sta: [Ejwa kPsEj niviP- nivi: [ni.vi] ASG n. hammock (informal), us (de-
briPsta] ASG n. hammock, from Eywa cradles rived from Eywa k’sey nivi’bri’sta Ewya
everyone cradles everyone)
Eywa s’ilivi mas’kit nivi: [Ejwa sPilivi masP- omati s’ampta: [omati sPampta] ASG n. blue
kit^nivi] ASG Ewya’s wisdom is revealed to all flute
of us P’ah s’ivil chey: [pPah sPivil tSEj] ASG n. perso-
Eywa te’ _ tan’sey mak’ta: [Ejwa tEP tanP- nal belongings rack
sEJ makPta] ASG n. ikran queue harness, lit.
pxtxawng: [p’t’awN] JC n. douchebag
the love of Eywa’s embrace is gifted to (personal
shah-tell: [Sah.tEl] ASG n. shuttle (loaned from
name)
Eng. shuttle) (not normally allowable under
feru m’predu’k: [fEru mPpREduPk^] ASG n. bas-
Na’vi phonotactic rules)
ket
su’shiri t’acto sa: [suPshiri tPacto sa] or
Gro’lryc: [gRoPlRjc] G prop.n. a series of caves
[suPshiri tPacto sa] ASG n. toy ikran
iveh k’nivi s’dir: [ivEh kPnivi sPdir] ASG n. ba-
by sling sumin jiit’luy: [sumin ZiitPluy] ASG n. leaf plate
k’sey nivi: [kPsEj nivi] ASG n. group sleep sumin’sey hulleh: [suminPsEj hulEh] ASG slee-
> ping outside of the group "
Koo Tsura: [ko: tsu.Ra] G prop.n. a Tipani vil-
lage t’riti so jahmka: [tPRiti so Zahmka] ASG n. pen-
Kyuna: [kjuna] G prop.n. female of the Anurai dulum drum
lenay’ga: [lEnajPga] ASG n. slinger, predatory Tan Jala: [tan jala] G prop.n. male of the Tipani
animal tmi nat’sey: [tmi natPsEj] ASG n. bladder lan-
m’resh’tuyu: [mPRESPtuju] or [mPREshPtuju] tern, from food here
ASG n. shield U’imi huyuticaya: [uPimi hujutikaja] ASG
malmoks: [malmoks] G n. rings of stone prop.n. a clan
>
mas’kit nivi sa’nok: [masPkit^nivi saPnok^] ulivi mari’tsey mak’dini’to: [Ulivi mariPtsEj
ASG mother loom makPdiniPto] ASG loom, lit. branches of the
Mendala: [mEn.da.la] G prop.n. male of the Ti- tree look to each other for strength, or many
pani branches together are strong
meresh’ti cau’pla: [mERESPti kauPpla] or ulu’tah inib’sey mulsi: [uluPtah inibPsEy mul-
[meReshPti kauPpla] ASG n. banshee catcher, si] ASG n. leaf plate

29
H Inflections
Verbal Infixes

alm: [al.m] LN perfective past tense verbal infix in position 1 (PERF. PAST), derived from am +
ol: Oe tsng«alm»awvìk. I wept.
aly: [al.j] LN perfective future tense verbal infix in position 1 (PERF. FUT.), derived from ay + ol:
Oe h«aly»angham. I will have laughed.
am: [am] LN past tense verbal infix in position 1 (PAST.): Oe tsw«am»ayon. I flew.
äng: [æN] LN pejorative affect verbal infix in position 2 (PEJ .): Oe sr«äng»ew. I dance (ugh!).
äp: [æp] P F reflexive verbal infix in the pre-first position (REFL .): Oe st«äp»eftxaw. I check
myself.
arm: [aRm] LN imperfective past tense verbal infix in position 1 (IMPF. PAST.), derived from am
+ er: Oe tsng«arm»awvìk. I was weeping.
ary: [aR.j] LN imperfective future tense verbal infix in position 1 (IMPF. FUT.), derived from ay
+ er: Oe h«ary»angham. I will be laughing.
asy: [asj] P F future tense with determination verbal infix in position 1 (FUT. D .): Oel tspam«asy»ang
palulukanit. I will definately kill the thanator.
>
ats: [ats] LN inferential, indicating uncertainty or indirect knowledge verbal infix in position 2
(INFR .): Oel tsp«ats»ang poanit. I killed him (I think.)
awn: [awn] P F passive participle verbal infix in the pre-first position (P. PART.): Oe t«awn»aron-
a túte lu. I am a hunted person.
ay: [aj] LN future tense verbal infix in position 1 (FUT.): Oel yerikit t«ay»aron. I will hunt the
yerik.
ei: [Ei] LN laudative affect verbal infix in position 2 (LAUD .): Oe sr«ei»ew. I dance (hooray!).
er: [ER] P F imperfective aspect verbal infix in position 1 (IMPF.): Oe t«er»ìran. I am walking.
eyk: [Ejk] P F causative verbal infix in the pre-first position (CAUS .): Oel t«eyk»erkup pot. I
caused him to die.
ìlm: [Il.m] LN perfective recent past tense verbal infix in position 1 (PERF. REC . PAST.), derived
from ìm + ol: Oe t«ìlm»ätxaw. I just now returned.
ilv: [il.v] P F present perfective subjunctive verbal infix in position 1 (PRES . PER . SUBJ .): Oe new
tsl«ilv»am. I want to understand.
ìly: [Il.j] LN perfective immediate future tense verbal infix in position 1 (PERF. IMM . FUT.), deri-
ved from ìy + ol: Oe h«ìly»ahaw. I will have slept soon.
ìm: [Im] LN recent past verbal infix in position 1 (REC . PAST.): Oe tsw«ìm»ayon. I just flew.
imv: [im.v] P F past subjunctive verbal infix in position 1 (PAST. SUBJ .): Oe namew tsl«imv»am
I wanted to understand.
ìrm: [IRm] LN imperfective recent past tense verbal infix in position 1 (IMPF. REC . PAST.), derived
from ìm + er: Oe t«ìrm»ätxaw. I was just now returning.
irv: [iR.v] P F present imperfective subjunctive verbal infix in position 1 (PRES . IMPF. SUBJ .): Oe
new tsl«irv»am. I want to be understanding.
ìry: [IR.j] LN imperfective immediate future tense verbal infix in position 1 (IMPF. IMM . FUT.),
derived from ìy + er: Oe h«ìry»ahaw. I will be sleeping soon.
ìsy: [Isj] P F immediate future tense with determination verbal infix in position 1 (IMM . FUT. D .):
Oel tsp«ìsy»ang palulukanit. I will definately kill the thanator soon.
iv: [iv] LN subjunctive mood verbal infix in position 1 (SUBJ .): Ngal new futa oe w«iv»em. You
want this thing: for me to fight.
ìy: [Ij] LN immediate future tense verbal infix in position 1 (IMM . FUT.): Oel yerikit t«ìy»aron. I
will hunt the yerik soon.

30
ìyev: [I.jEv] P F future subjunctive verbal infix in position 1 (FUT. SUBJ .): Oel k«ìyev»ame ngati.
I will see you soon.
iyev: [i.jEv] P F future subjunctive verbal infix in position 1 (FUT. SUBJ .): Oel k«iyev»ame ngati.
I will see you soon.
ol: [ol] P F perfective aspect verbal infix in position 1 (PERF.): Oe t«ol»ìran. I walked (finished
action).
us: [us] LN active participle verbal infix in the pre-first position (A . PART.): Oe t«us»aron-a túte
lu. I am a hunting person.
uy: [u.j] P F honorific (honourific) or ceremonial verbal infix in position 2 (HON .): Na’viyä,
l«uy»u hapxì. You are part of The People.

Noun Case and Plurality Inflections

–ä: [æ] P F genitive suffix for nouns ending in a everything but a, ä, e, i and ì (allomorph of yä)
(GEN .): Oel yom ikranä yerikit. I eat the ikran’s yerik.
–ìl: [Il] P F ergative case suffix for nouns ending in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel
(allomorph of l) (ERG .): Ikranìl taron yerikit. The ikran hunts the yerik.
–ìri: [IRi] P F topical suffix for nouns ending in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel (allo-
morph of ri) (TOP.): Fìskxawngìri tsap’alute sengi oe. I apologise for this moron.
–it: [it^] P F accusative suffix for nouns ending in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel
(allomorph of t, ti) (ACC .): Oel taron yerikit. I hunt the yerik.
–l: [l] LN ergative case for nouns ending in a vowel (ERG .): Oel taron yerikit. I hunt the yerik.
–ri: [Ri] P F topical for nouns ending in a vowel (TOP.): Ayngari zene hivum You must leave.
–ru: [Ru] LN dative suffix for nouns ending in a vowel (allomorph of –ur) (DAT.): Oel syuvet
ngaru tìng. I give food to you.
–t: [t^] LN accusative suffix for nouns ending in a vowel (allomorph of it, ti) (ACC .): Oel ngat
kame. I see you.
–ti: [ti] LN accusative for pronouns and nouns (ACC .): Ngati taron torukìl. The toruk hunts you.
–ur: [uR] P F dative suffix for nouns ending in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel (allo-
morph of –ru) (DAT.): Ayeylanur oeyä. To my friends.
–y: [j] P F genitive for pronouns ending in a or e (casual speech) (GEN .): Ngey toruk sìltsan lu.
Your toruk is good.
–yä: [jæ] LN genitive suffix for nouns ending in a a, ä, e, i and ì (allomorph of ä) (GEN .): Oel
yeiom Neytiriyä yerikit. I happily eat Neytiri’s yerik. (Causes vowel fronting of a in pronouns:
may look like –eyä)
–ya: [ya] P F,M vocative suffix for collective nouns: Mawey, Na’viya. Calm, you Na’vi.
ay+: [aj] P F plural for nouns (PL .): Ay+horen flä. The rules succeed.
me+: [mE] LN dual for nouns (DU .): Oel new me+olet. I want two lakes.
pxe+: [p’E] P F trial for nouns and pronouns (TRI .): Pxoeng Pxe+veng lu. We are three children.
(Note that e + e cannot be together, and so ellision occurs, and that oe is a pronoun which
often undergoes ellision)

Other Inflections

Not all Na’vi inflections are productive. Here (0) indicates unproductivity, which means
it cannot be freely applied and each Frommerian form is in the lexicon, while (4) indicates
complete productivity. All verbal infixes, case and plurality markers are entirely productive.

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–a–: [a] P F (4) adjectival attributive marker: Oel txantsana ikranit aean tswayon. I fly the excel-
lent blue ikran.
–an: [an] LN (1) masculine suffix for certain nouns: Oe poan lu. I am a dude.
–e: [E] P F (1) feminine suffix for certain nouns: Oe poe ke lu. I am not a girl.
–lo: [lo] P F (3) multiplicative number suffix for nouns: ’Awlo oe ramol. Once I sang.
–ng: [N] LN (0) clusivity for pronouns (CLUS .): Ayoeng rol. We all sing.
–o: [o] P F (4) indefinite suffix: Oel tspamang tuteot. I killed someone.
>
–tsyìp: [tsjIp^] P F (4) diminutive suffix for nouns, pronouns: Za’u fìtseng, ma ’itetsyìp. Come
here, little daughter.
–tu: [tu] P F (3) person noun from non-verbal stem deriving affix Oe reltseotu lu. I am an artist.
–ve: [vE] P F (4) ordinal suffix for numbers (irregular but predictable from the ordinals from
one to eight): Koren a’awve tìruseyä ’awsiteng. The first rule of living together.
–vi: [vi] P F (2) partitive relationship marker: Oe nume mì numtsengvi. I learn in the classroom.
–yu: [ju] LN (4) agent noun deriving affix Oe ska’ayu ke lu. I am not a destroyer.
le–: [lE] P F (0) adjective deriving affix Poan lehrrap lu. He is dangerous.
nì–: [nI] LN (0) adverbial deriving affix Oe nìNa’vi plltxe. I speak na’vi-ly. (Like a Na’vi.) ((4)
Productive for adjectives only - otherwise modify nìfya’o with appropriate adjective or
relative clause)
pe+: [pE] LN (4) affix inter. marker what: pe+hrr nga lrrtok sayi. What time (when) will you smile?
sä–: [sæ] P F (0) instrumental noun deriving affix Oel sänumet nume. I learn the teaching.
si: [s·i] LN (0) postpositional verb deriving affix Oe kelku si Kelutralmì. I live in Hometree. (lit.
I home make in Hometree.)
tì–: [tI] LN (0) noun deriving affix Tìngay sìltsan lu. The truth is good.

I The Changelog
This is the changelog. I’ve kept it in, not for translators, who should contact Tuiq, but for the
reader, who would presumably like to know what I’ve done.

• 11.293 Added 15 proper nouns from Frommer. Changed tstu to an adj. Moved Entu, ad-
ded ne + mìfa to nemfa, edited reypay. Added in a table for ordinal numbers, days of the
week, and times of the day. tìng mikyun, tìng nari now intransitive. Changed definition
of u’imi to singular streamer, pendant. Added lì’fyaolo’ language group. Added the rest
of the infix combinations, deleted the trilinear gloss appendix, edited to. Edited some
example sentences, changed some c.w. to derivations. Provided derivation for za’ärìp.
Added everything I could from the new blog post: dimunitives, phrases. Deleted –am,
–ay, changed all derivations to hay, ham. Added fuke, ftxey...fuke again. Deleted some
changelog, changed formatting for new phrase appendix. IPA error. IPA, derivation for
atanvi, txepvi, and pxe- example error. Edited prologue. Marked productivity for deri-
vational inflections. Fixed some errors. Added everything from the July 16th naviteri.org
update. Fixed error. Added kemlì’uvi infix. Added more to the phrases section. Added
link to Swedish dictionary (Irayo seiyi nìtxan, ma le’eylan!). Edited wou. Edited error in
-ru sentence. Added link to the Hungarian dictionary (woot!). Changed POS for fnawe’.
Changed -tu to reflect person-noun maker, not patientive noun. Added in order to for fte.
Added lefkrr. Added derivation for sa’sem. Edited definition of fko to include they the
singular use (As in, the applicant will be awesome: they will understand awesomeness"),
and not it. IPA for te. IPA. IPA. IPA. sngä’i now modal. IPA. Changed some sourcings
to correct ones, changed all W to LN for LearnNavi. Error checking. Keyey atxan. Edi-
ted definition of pum. IPA, moved oe irayo si ngaru to phrases. Added lì’upam accent.

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Added natkenong for example, as an example. Keyey. Added subjunctive note to nìrangal.
Keyey in an example.

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