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Trends in Food Science & Technology 12 (2001) 401413

Review

By-products of
Introduction
plant food Fruit juices and derived products such as nectars and
drinks have experienced growing popularity within the

processing as a last years. Grapes and apples are the most important
fruits in the temperate zone, while oranges, pineapples,
bananas, watermelons and mangos are the predominant
source of fruits of tropical and subtropical areas. Among other
reasons, the rise in consumption and export of pro-
cessed fruit juices, pulps and concentrates may be
functional attributed to better transportation and distribution sys-
tems, and improved cultivation and processing methods

compounds (Askar, 1998). Per capita consumption of juice is highest


in Germany, accounting to more than 40 l in 1999
(Horenburg, 2001).
recent Fruits from the temperate zone are usually character-
ized by a large edible portion and moderate amounts of
waste material such as peels, seeds and stones. In con-
developments trast, considerably higher ratios of by-products arise
from tropical and subtropical fruit processing. Due to
increasing production, disposal represents a growing
problem since the plant material is usually prone to
microbial spoilage, thus limiting further exploitation.
A. Schieber,* F.C. Stintzing and On the other hand, costs of drying, storage and ship-
ment of by-products are economically limiting factors.
R. Carle Therefore, agro-industrial waste is often utilized as feed
Hohenheim University, Institute of Food Technology, or as fertilizer. However, demand for feed may be
Section Plant Foodstu Technology, Garbenstrasse varying and dependent on agricultural yields. The pro-
25, D-70599 Stuttgart, Germany (tel.: +49-711-459- blem of disposing by-products is further aggravated by
3125; fax: +49-711-459-4110; e-mail: legal restrictions. Thus, ecient, inexpensive and envir-
schieber@uni-hohenheim.de) onmentally sound utilization of these materials is
becoming more important especially since protability
and jobs may suer (Lowe & Buckmaster, 1995).
There is a rapidly growing body of literature covering the Epidemiological studies have pointed out that con-
role of plant secondary metabolites in food and their sumption of fruits and vegetables imparts health bene-
potential eects on human health. Furthermore, consumers ts, e.g. reduced risk of coronary heart disease and
are increasingly aware of diet related health problems, stroke, as well as certain types of cancer. Apart from
therefore demanding natural ingredients which are expec- dietary ber, these health benets are mainly attributed
ted to be safe and health-promoting. By-products of plant to organic micronutrients such as carotenoids, poly-
food processing represent a major disposal problem for the phenolics, tocopherols, vitamin C, and others. There-
industry concerned, but they are also promising sources of fore, a minimum of ve servings a day of vegetables and
compounds which may be used because of their favourable fruits, especially of green and yellow vegetables and
technological or nutritional properties. The purpose of this citrus fruits, is recommended (Heimendinger & Cha-
review is to highlight the potential of selected by-products pelsky, 1996). Although consumers are increasingly
as a source of functional compounds. # 2002 Elsevier aware of diet related health problems (Gilbert, 1997), a
Science Ltd. All rights reserved. large group of the population lacks a generous intake of
fruits and vegetables. Thus, dietary supplements and
* Corresponding author. food fortication may be an alternative route to the
09242244/01/$ - see front matter # 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: S 0 92 4 - 2 24 4 ( 0 2 ) 0 0 01 2 - 2
402 A. Schieber et al. / Trends in Food Science & Technology 12 (2001) 401413

consumption of minor plant components that may have native approach at utilizing apple pomace (Will,
health benets. Since synthetic additives are more and Bauckhage, & Dietrich, 2000), but does not allow the
more rejected by consumers, functional ingredients recovery of pectin. Increasing eorts to improve juice
should preferably originate from natural sources. This is yields by enzymatic liquefaction might even lead to
particularly valid for phenolic compounds which, in shortages of apple pomace as a raw material. Further-
contrast to most carotenoids and vitamins, are not che- more, the use of cellulolytic enzymes for fruit juice pro-
mically synthesized and need to be extracted from plant duction is still restricted by law. Recently, a method for
material. the combined recovery of pectin and polyphenols from
The preparation of dietary ber from by-products has apple pomace was established (Carle et al., 2001). Gel-
already been summarized (Larrauri, 1999), and residual ling properties of colour-improved pectin were not
sources of natural antioxidants were the subject of a aected. Thus, removal especially of oxidized poly-
recent review (Moure et al., 2001). Therefore, the phenols provides rened pectin qualities with extended
objective of this review is to highlight the potential of elds of application. In addition, phenolic compounds
selected by-products of food processing as a source of may be obtained in good yields since the clean-up pro-
natural food additives and ingredients with particular cedure can easily be integrated in the technical pectin
reference to investigations on the characterization of production.
low-molecular components.
Grape
By-products of fruit processing Apart from oranges, grapes (Vitis sp., Vitaceae) are
Apple the worlds largest fruit crop with more than 60 million
The highly variable composition of apple (Malus sp., tons produced annually. About 80% of the total crop is
Rosaceae) pomace and possible strategies of utilization used in wine making (Mazza & Miniati, 1993), and
have recently been reviewed (Kennedy et al., 1999a). pomace represents approximately 20% of the weight of
According to the authors, the ongoing eort indicates grapes processed. From these data it can be calculated
that the ideal use has not yet been found. Production of that grape pomace amounts to more than 9 million tons
pectin is considered the most reasonable way of utilizing per year. Five to seven million tons are reported by
apple pomace both from an economical and from an other authors (Meyer, Jepsen, & Sorensen, 1998). Its
ecological point of view (Endre, 2000; Fox, Asmussen, composition varies considerably, depending on grape
Fischer, & Endre, 1991). In comparison to citrus pec- variety and technology of wine making.
tins, apple pectins are characterized by superior gelling A great range of products such as ethanol, tartrates,
properties. However, the slightly brown hue of apple citric acid, grape seed oil, hydrocolloids, and dietary
pectins caused by enzymatic browning may lead to lim- ber are recovered from grape pomace (Bravo & Saura-
itations with respect to their use in very light-coloured Calixto, 1998; Girdhar & Satyanarayana, 2000; Hang,
foods. Approaches at bleaching apple pomace by alka- 1988; Igartuburu, Pando, Rodriguez Luis, & Gil-Ser-
line peroxide treatment resulted in the loss of the poly- rano, 1997; Nurgel & Canbas, 1998; Valiente, Arrigoni,
phenols and in pectin degradation (Renard, Rohou, Esteban, & Amado, 1995). Anthocyanins, catechins,
Hubert, della Valle, Thibault, & Savina, 1997). avonol glycosides, phenolic acids and alcohols and
Apple pomace has been shown to be a good source of stilbenes are the principal phenolic constituents of grape
polyphenols which are predominantly localized in the pomace. Anthocyanins have been considered the most
peels and are extracted into the juice to a minor extent. valuable components, and methods for their extraction
Major compounds isolated and identied include cate- have been reported (Mazza, 1995; Mazza & Miniati,
chins, hydroxycinnamates, phloretin glycosides, querce- 1993). In Chardonnay grape pomace, 17 polyphenolic
tin glycosides, and procyanidins (Foo & Lu, 1999; constituents were identied by NMR spectroscopy (Lu
Lommen, Godejohann, Venema, Hollman, & Spraul, & Foo, 1999). Chardonnay pomace was also a source of
2000; Lu & Foo, 1997, 1998; Schieber, Keller, & Carle, two unusual dimeric avanols (Foo, Lu, & Wong,
2001). Since some phenolic constituents have been 1998). Catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate and
demonstrated to exhibit strong antioxidant activity in epigallocatechin were the major constitutive units of
vitro (Lu & Foo, 2000), commercial exploitation of grape skin tannins (Souquet, Cheynier, Brossaud, &
apple pomace for the recovery of these compounds Moutounet, 1996). A new class of compounds, ami-
seems promising. Inhibitory eects of apple polyphenols noethylthio-avan-3-ol conjugates, have been obtained
and related compounds on cariogenicity of streptococci from grape pomace by thiolysis of polymeric proantho-
suggest their possible application in dentifrices (Yana- cyanidins in the presence of cysteamine (Torres &
gida, Kanda, Tanabe, Matsudaira, & Oliveira Cordeiro, Bobet, 2001).
2000). Since grape and red wine phenolics have been
Enhanced release of phenolics by enzymatic liquefac- demonstrated to inhibit the oxidation of human low-
tion with pectinases and cellulases represents an alter- density lipoproteins (Frankel, Waterhouse, & Teissedre,
A. Schieber et al. / Trends in Food Science & Technology 12 (2001) 401413 403

1995; Teissedre, Frankel, Waterhouse, Peleg, & Ger- complete hydrolysis of cyanogenic glycosides, b-gluco-
man, 1996), a large number of investigations on the sidase had to be added in considerable amounts,
recovery of phenolic compounds from grape pomace whereas pectinase did not enhance amygdalin degrada-
has been initiated. From a nutritional point of view, tion (Tuncel et al., 1998). Pomace of wild apricot
these phenolics are highly valuable since they are proved to be a rich source of proteins but also contained
absorbed to a large extent (Martin-Carron, Garcia- low levels of amygdalin. Growth inhibition observed
Alonso, Goni, & Saura-Calixto, 1997). According to when rats were fed 30% wild apricot pomace as dry feed
Shrikhande (2000) who recently reviewed health-pro- was ameliorated by wetting of the meal (Gandhi,
moting wine by-products, patent disclosures and Mukerji, Iyer, & Cherian, 1997). No toxic eects were
research studies evolving from the French Paradox found when weanling rats were given a diet containing
observations (Renaud & De Lorgeril, 1992) have been 10% apricot seed oil as the sole source of dietary fat
instrumental in establishing a wine by-product phenol (Gandhi, Mulky, Mukerji, Iyer, & Cherian, 1997).
industry. Besides apricot seeds, peach (Prunus persica L.
The antioxidant activity of grape pomace (Larrauri, BATSCH, Rosaceae) seeds may also be used for the
Ruperez, & Saura-Calixto, 1996) has led to the devel- production of persipan. Recently, the recovery of pectin
opment of a new concept of antioxidant dietary ber from fresh peach pomace has been described (Pagan &
(Saura-Calixto, 1998). Drying of pomace at high tem- Ibarz, 1999). Quality evaluation revealed that peach
peratures, however, may cause a signicant reduction of pectin is highly methoxylated and has favourable gelling
extractable polyphenols and may also aect antioxidant properties (Pagan, Ibarz, Llorca, & Coll, 1999). While
activity and free radical scavenging capacity (Larrauri et storage of dry powdered pomace led to signicantly
al., 1997a, 1997b; Larrauri, Sanchez-Moreno, & Saura- higher pectin yields, quality parameters of the pectins
Calixto, 1998). Enzymatic treatment of grape pomace deteriorated (Pagan, Ibarz, Llorca, Pagan, & Barbosa-
enhanced release of phenolic compounds, as determined Canovas, 2001).
by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay (Meyer et al., 1998).
However, the eects of this treatment on individual Citrus fruits
phenolics were not investigated. Gamma irradiation Due to the large amounts being processed into juice, a
extended the shelf life of grape pomace and improved considerable by-product industry has evolved to utilize
anthocyanin yields (Ayed, Lu, &, Lacroix, 1999). the residual peels, membranes, seeds, and other com-
Extraction of crushed grape pomace with a mixture of pounds. For a review, we refer to Braddock (1995) and
ethyl acetate and water yielded phenolic compounds literature cited therein. Residues of citrus juice produc-
displaying antioxidant activities comparable to BHT in tion are a source of dried pulp and molasses, ber-pectin,
the Rancimat test (Bonilla, Mayen, Merida & Medina, cold-pressed oils, essences, d-limonene, juice pulps and
1999). The use of superheated solvents for the extrac- pulp wash, ethanol, seed oil, pectin, limonoids and avon-
tion of phenolics from grape pomace has also been oids (Askar, & Treptow, 1998; Braddock, 1995; Ozaki,
recently described (Palma & Taylor, 1999). Grape seeds Miyake, Inaba, Ayano, Ifuku, & Hasegawa, 2000;
are rich sources of polyphenolics, especially of procya- Siliha, El-Sahy, Sulieman, Carle, & El-Badawy, 2000).
nidins, which have been shown to act as strong anti- Fiber-pectins may easily be recovered from lime peels
oxidants and exert health-promoting eects (Fuleki & and are characterized by high ber contents (Askar &
Ricardo da Silva, 1997; Jayaprakasha, Singh, & Sakar- Treptow, 1998; Siliha et al., 1995). The main avonoids
iah, 2001; Kallithraka, Garcia-Viguera, Bridle, & Bak- found in citrus species are hesperidin, narirutin, nar-
ker, 1995; Saito, Hosoyama, Ariga, Kataoka, & ingin and eriocitrin (Mouly, Arzouyan, Gaydou, &
Yamaji, 1998). Addition of supplementary quantities of Estienne, 1994). Peel and other solid residues of lemon
grape seeds to grape juice increased catechin and pro- waste mainly contained hesperidin and eriocitrin, while
cyanidin contents of wines (Kovac, Alonso & Revilla, the latter was predominant in liquid residues (Coll, Coll,
1995). Laencine, & Tomas-Barberan, 1998). Citrus seeds and
peels were found to possess high antioxidant activity
Peach and apricot (Bocco, Cuvelier, Richard, & Berset, 1998). Both in vitro
Bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca L., Rosaceae) seeds and in vivo studies have recently demonstrated health-
are by-products of the apricot processing industry. protecting eects of certain citrus avonoids (Kuo,
Apart from the use of apricot seed oil in cosmetics, 1996; Manthey, Grohmann, & Guthrie, 2001; Tanaka et
peeled seeds serve as a raw material for the production al., 1997). These ndings may enhance their elds of
of persipan. This requires debittering by hydrolysis of application, thus making their recovery more protable.
amygdalin. Grinding, soaking and cooking considerably
reduced the total cyanogenic potential, however, the Mango
products obtained were not considered safe for human Mango (Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae) is one
consumption (Tuncel, Nout, & Brimer, 1995). For of the most important tropical fruits (Ramteke,
404 A. Schieber et al. / Trends in Food Science & Technology 12 (2001) 401413

Vijayalakshmi, & Eipeson, 1999). Mango and mango Pineapple


products experience worldwide popularity and have In 1997, 12.8106 tons of pineapples (Ananas comosus
gained increasing relevance also in the European market L. MERR., Bromeliaceae) were produced worldwide.
(Loeillet, 1994). Major waste of mango processing are The pulpy waste material resulting from juice produc-
peels and stones, amounting to 3560% of the total fruit tion still contains substantial amounts of sucrose, starch
weight (Larrauri, Ruperez, Borroto, & Saura-Calixto, and hemicellulose, and may therefore be used for etha-
1996). nol production (Nigam, 2000; Tanaka, Hilary, & Ishi-
Mango seed kernel fat is a promising source of edible zaki, 1999). In contrast to papain from papaya, the
oil and has attracted attention since its fatty acid and proteolytic enzyme bromelain may also be recovered
triglyceride prole is similar to that of cocoa butter. from the mature fruit. Enzymatic browning of fresh and
Therefore, legislation has recently allowed mango seed dried apple rings is inhibited by pineapple juice (Lozano
kernel fat to be used as a cocoa butter equivalent. de Gonzalez, Barrett, Wrolstad, & Durst, 1993). The
Mango seed kernels may also be used as a source of antioxidant principles have been structurally elucidated
natural antioxidants. The antioxidant principles were (Ling, Wrolstad, & Hsu, 1999), and methods for their
characterized as phenolic compounds and phospholi- recovery from pineapple juice and from pineapple pro-
pids (Puravankara, Boghra, & Sharma, 2000). The phe- cessing plant waste streams have been described (Wrol-
nolics were assumed to be mainly gallic and ellagic stad & Ling, 2001).
acids, and gallates. In another study, gallotannins and
condensed tannin-related polyphenols were reported in Banana
mango kernels (Arogba, 2000). Ethanolic extracts of Banana (Musaparadisiaca L., Musaceae) represents
mango seed kernels displayed a broad antimicrobial one of the most important fruit crops, with a global
spectrum and were more eective against Gram-positive annual production of more than 50 million tons.
than against Gram-negative bacteria. Their active com- Worldwide production of cooking bananas (plantains)
ponent was shown to be a polyphenolic-type structure, amounts to nearly 30 million tons per year (Franke,
however, its exact nature still remains to be elucidated 1997). Peels constitute up to 30% of the ripe fruit.
(Kabuki, Nakajima, Arai, Ueda, Kuwabara, & Dosako, About 1000 banana plants are estimated to yield 2025
2000). tons of pseudostems providing about 5% edible starch
A standardized method for the recovery of good (Anand & Maini, 1997). Attempts at utilization of
quality mango peel pectin with a degree of esterication banana waste include the biotechnological production
of about 75% has recently been developed (Sudhakar & of protein (Chung & Meyers, 1979), ethanol (Tewari,
Maini, 2000). Mango peels were also reported to be a Marwaha, & Rupal, 1986), a-amylase (Krishna &
good source of dietary ber containing high amounts of Chandrasekaran, 1996), hemicellulases (Medeiros et al.,
extractable polyphenolics (Larrauri et al., 1996). This 2000) and cellulases (Krishna, 1999). Very recently,
appreciable content was reected by high in vitro anti- anthocyanin pigments in banana bracts were evaluated
oxidant activity (Larrauri et al., 1997a,b). However, for their potential application as natural food colorants.
since polyphenolics were determined by the Folin-Cio- It was concluded that the bracts proved to be a good
calteu assay, no conclusions could be drawn as to their and abundant source of anthocyanins of attractive
chemical structures. Furthermore, owing to their lack of appearance, as well as being a useful tool in anthocya-
selectivity, spectrophotometric methods tend to over- nin identication since all six most common anthocya-
estimate the phenolic content (Escarpa & Gonzalez, nidins (delphinidin, cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin,
2001). The presence of a broad pattern of phenolic petunidin and malvidin) are present (Pazmino-Duran,
compounds, especially of avonol glycosides, in mango Giusti, Wrolstad, & Gloria, 2001). Most of the car-
puree concentrate was demonstrated by HPLC with otenoids found in banana peels were demonstrated to be
diode array and mass spectrometric detection (Schieber, xanthophylls esteried with myristate, and to a lesser
Ullrich, & Carle, 2000). It was hypothesized that these extent with laurate, palmitate or caprate (Subagio,
phenolics may partly originate from the peel since Morita, & Sawada, 1996).
mango puree is prepared both from peeled and from
unpeeled fruits. Our preliminary investigations on peel Guava
phenolics of dierent mango cultivars conrmed this Guava (Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae) is a rich
assumption (unpublished). The latex which is deposited source of relatively low methoxylated pectins (50%),
in fruit ducts and removed with the fruit at harvest has amounting to more than 10% of the dry weight (Mur-
been shown to be a source of monoterpenes (Saby John, oki & Saint-Hilaire, 1977). Since wastes constitute only
Jagan Mohan Rao, Bhat, & Prasada Rao, 1999). How- 1015% of the fruit, the use of guava for pectin pro-
ever, mango latex also contains alkyl resorcinols which duction is limited (Askar & Treptow, 1998). The seeds,
have been identied as a contact allergen (Cliord, usually discarded during processing of juice and pulp,
2000). contain about 513% oil rich in essential fatty acids
A. Schieber et al. / Trends in Food Science & Technology 12 (2001) 401413 405

(Adsule & Kadam, 1995). The results of very recent Tomato seed oil has attracted interest since it is rich in
investigations indicate that peel and pulp of guava fruits unsaturated fatty acids, especially in linoleic acid (Askar
could be used as a source of antioxidant dietary ber & Treptow, 1998; Roy, Goto, & Hirose, 1996).
(Jimenez-Escrig, Rincon, Pulido, & Saura-Calixto, Recently, the optimization of degumming, bleaching
2001). and steam deodorization was reported (Bhullar & Sogi,
2000). Sensory evaluation of products made with
Papaya tomato seed and sunower oil revealed no signicant
Papain, a proteolytic enzyme used as a meat tender- dierences (Sogi, Kiran, & Bawa, 1999).
izer and as a stabilizing agent in the brewing industry, is Lycopene is the principal carotenoid causing the
recovered from the latex of papaya fruit (Carica papaya characteristic red hue of tomatoes. Most of the lycopene
L., Caricaceae). Furthermore, papaya fruits may also be is associated with the water-insoluble fraction and the
used for the production of pectin. Owing to their spicy skin (Sharma & Maguer, 1996). Therefore, skin extracts
avour which is caused by glucosinolate degradation, are especially rich in lycopene. Baysal, Ersus, and Star-
the seeds are sometimes used as a substitute and even as mans (2000) clearly stated that a large quantity of car-
an adulterant for pepper. The seed oil is low in poly- otenoids is lost as waste in tomato processing.
unsaturated fatty acids, but defatted papaya seed meal Supercritical CO2 extraction of lycopene and b-carotene
contains high amounts of crude protein (40%) and from tomato paste waste resulted in recoveries of up
crude ber (50%) (Jagtiani, Chan, & Sakai, 1988). to 50% when ethanol was added (Baysal et al., 2000).
Enzymatic treatment of tomato marc enhanced lyco-
Passion fruit pene extractability (Bohm, Tiemeni, & Otto, 2000).
The waste resulting from passion fruit (Passiora Recently, saccharication to obtain biomass from
edulis SIMS, Passioraceae) processing consists of more tomato pomace has also been reported (Avelino et al.,
than 75% of the raw material. The rind constitutes 90% 1997). Haddadin, Abu-Resh, Haddadin, and Robinson
of the waste and is a source of pectin (20% of the dry (2001) described the utilization of tomato pomace as a
weight). Passion fruit seed oil is rich in linoleic acid substrate for the production of vitamin B12.
(65%) (Askar & Treptow, 1998).
Carrot
Kiwifruit Carrot (Daucus carota L., Apiaceae) juices and blends
Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis PLANCH., Actinidia- thereof are among the most popular non-alcoholic bev-
ceae) waste results from rejected kiwifruits which com- erages. From 1995 to 1999, German carrot juice pro-
prise up to 30% of the total kiwifruit crop, and from duction increased by 69%, now amounting to more
kiwifruit pomace after juice production. A comprehen- than 42 million liter. Steady increase of carrot juice
sive review of the components and potential uses of consumption has also been reported from other coun-
kiwifruit waste has recently been given (Kennedy et al., tries (Chen & Tang, 1998). Despite considerable
1999b), inferring that only little work has so far been improvements in processing techniques including the
conducted on nding uses for kiwifruit pomace. The use of depolymerizing enzymes, mash heating, and
total dietary ber content of kiwifruit pomace amounts decanter technology, a major part of valuable com-
to approximately 25% on a dry weight basis (Martin- pounds such as carotenes, uronic acids, and neutral
Cabrejas, Esteban, Lopez-Andreu, Waldron, & Selven- sugars is still retained in the pomace which is usually
dran, 1995). Phenolic acids, avanol monomers, dimers disposed as feed or as fertilizer. Juice yield is reported to
and oligomers, and avonol glycosides have recently be only 6070%, and up to 80% of carotene may be lost
been characterized in kiwifruit pulp (Dawes & Keene, with the pomace (Sims, Balaban, & Matthews, 1993).
1999). According to our own investigations, total carotene
content of pomace may be up to 2 g per kg dry matter,
By-products of vegetable and potato processing depending on processing conditions (Stoll, Schieber, &
Tomato Carle, 2001).
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum MILL., Solana- Various attempts were made at utilizing carrot
ceae) juice is the most important vegetable juice with pomace in food such as bread (Ohsawa, Chinen, Taka-
respect to per capita consumption, followed by carrot nami, Kuribayashi, & Kurokouchi, 1994), cake, dres-
juice. About 37% of the raw material is lost as waste sing and pickles (Ohsawa et al., 1995), and for the
during tomato juice pressing (Otto & Sulc, 2001). production of functional drinks (Henn & Kunz, 1996).
Tomato pomace consists of the dried and crushed skins However, consumer acceptance of such products still
and seeds of the fruit (Avelino, Avelino, Roseiro, & needs to be demonstrated, especially since sensory
Collaco, 1997). The seeds account for approximately quality may be adversely aected (Henn & Kunz, 1996).
10% of the fruit and 60% of the total waste, respec- Pigments of spray-dried carrot pulp waste proved to be
tively, and are a source of protein (35%) and fat (25%). prone to degradation during storage, depending on
406 A. Schieber et al. / Trends in Food Science & Technology 12 (2001) 401413

storage time and temperature. It was suggested that the stones. Depending on the processing conditions, 50110
stability of carotenoid powder can be greatly enhanced kg of water result from 100 kg of olives (Vitolo, Petarca,
by employing appropriate packaging methods and & Bresci, 1999). The husk can be reprocessed for the
storage conditions (Chen & Tang, 1998). Freeze-dried recovery of olive oil, or extracted with an organic sol-
powder showed a higher pigment stability during vent to yield husk oil. Dried husk is utilized as fuel or
storage than the spray-dried product (Tang & Chen, animal feed (Gasparrini, 1999). A process for the
2000). Signicant isomerization which can also contri- separation of the vegetation water from the solids by
bute to decolorization was not observed after 15 weeks evaporation has been recently described. The remaining
of storage of b-carotene encapsulated in a maltodextrin solid fraction representing 98% of the organic load
matrix (Desobry, Netto, & Labuza, 1997). could be mixed with the husk and used as a fuel (Vitolo et
Smokers were ocially recommended to refrain from al., 1999). Olive oil waste waters are rich in antioxidant
foods fortied with b-carotene (BgVV, 1998). Accord- compounds, particularly in hydroxytyrosol derivatives
ing to a recent recommendation, daily intake of isolated (Visioli et al., 1999). Hydroxytyrosol strongly inhibited
b-carotene should not exceed 2 mg (BgVV, 2001). LDL oxidation stimulated by 2,20 -azobis(2-aminopro-
Therefore, carrot pomace represents a valuable natural pane) hydrochloride (Aruoma et al., 1998). Further
source of a- and b-carotene which may be recovered investigations point out that hydroxytyrosol and oleur-
and applied as functional food ingredients in their gen- opein are potent scavengers of superoxide radicals
uine proportion. (Visioli, Bellomo, & Galli, 1998). Tyrosol and hydro-
xytyrosol are dose-dependently absorbed by humans
Onion and eliminated as their glucuronide conjugates, indicat-
The amount of onion (Allium cepa L., Alliaceae) ing a good bioavailability (Visioli et al., 2000, Galli et
waste produced annually in the European Union is al., 2000). An environmentally friendly synthesis of
estimated at approximately 450,000 tons. The major by- hydroxytyrosol using mushroom tyrosinase as a bio-
products resulting from industrial peeling of onion catalyst has recently been established and might facil-
bulbs are brown skin, the outer two eshy leaves and itate further metabolic studies (Espin, Soler-Rivas,
the top and bottom bulbs. Owing to their strong char- Cantos, Tomas-Barberan, & Wichers, 2001).
acteristic aroma and their susceptibility to phytopatho-
gens, onion wastes are not suitable as fodder. However, Red beet
they are a source of avour components and ber com- More than 200,000 tons of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.
pounds and particularly rich in quercetin glycosides ssp. vulgaris, Chenopodiaceae) are produced in Western
(Hertog, Hollman, & Katan, 1992; Waldron, 2001). The Europe annually, most of which (90%) is consumed as
major avonoids of mature onion bulbs are quercetin vegetable. The remainder is processed into juice, color-
3,40 -O-diglucoside and quercetin 40 -O-monoglucoside, ing foodstu and food colorant, the latter commonly
accounting for more than 85% of the total avonoids known as beetroot red (Henry, 1996). Though still rich
(Price & Rhodes, 1997). Since quercetin from onions is in betalains, the pomace from the juice industry
rapidly absorbed and slowly eliminated, it could con- accounting for 1530% of the raw material (Otto &
tribute signicantly to antioxidant defense (Hollman et Sulc, 2001) is disposed as feed or manure. The coloured
al., 1997). An overall processing scheme for exploiting portion of the beetroot ranges from 0.4 to 2.0% of the
onion waste has been given by Waldron (2001). dry matter, depending on intraspecic variability,
The eects of pressure-cooking, divalent cations and edaphic factors and postharvest treatments (Stintzing,
extrusion-cooking on cell-wall polymers of onion waste Schieber, & Carle, 2000). Beets are ranked among the 10
have been investigated in detail (Lecain, Ng, Parker, most potent vegetables with respect to antioxidant
Smith, & Waldron, 1999; Ng, Lecain, Parker, Smith, & capacity ascribed to a total phenolic content of 5060
Waldron, 1999; Ng, Parker, Smith, & Waldron, 1999). mmol/g dry weight (Cao, Soc, & Prior, 1996; Kahko-
With respect to the recovery of fructans and fructo- nen et al., 1999; Vinson, Hao, Su, & Zubik, 1998). A
oligosaccharides, the outer two eshy leaves have been more recent investigation showed that total phenolics
demonstrated to be the most suitable sources (Jaime et decreased in the order peel (50%), crown (37%) and
al., 2000). The production of alcohol and snacks from esh (13%). Epidermal and subepidermal tissues, i.e.
onion pomace has also been reported (Horiuchi, the peel, also carried the main portion of betalains with
Yamauchi, Osugi, Kanno, Kobayashi, & Kuriyama, up to 54%, being lower in crown (32%) and esh (14%)
2000; Kee, Ryu, & Park, 2000, 2001). (Kujala, Loponen, Kika, & Pihlaja, 2000). Whereas the
coloured fraction consisted of betacyanins and betax-
Olive anthins, the phenolic portion of the peel showed l-
The by-products resulting from olive oil extraction tryptophane, p-coumaric and ferulic acids, as well as
are the vegetation water, also called black water or cyclodopa glucoside derivatives (Kujala, Loponen, &
vegetable water, and the olive husk including skins and Pihlaja, 2001). Therefore, the exploitation of peel and
A. Schieber et al. / Trends in Food Science & Technology 12 (2001) 401413 407

pomace for phenolics and betalains is a real need. Tem- potato peels was comparable to that of butylated
perature- and pH-dependent in vitro antiradical activ- hydroxyanisole (Rodriguez de Sotillo et al., 1994b). The
ities have been reported for betanin and betanidin extracts displayed species-dependent antibacterial but
carrying phenolic hydroxyl groups (Escribano, Pedreno, no mutagenic activity, and concentrations of the gly-
Garcia-Carmona, & Munoz, 1998; Pedreno & Escri- coalkaloids solanine and chaconine were below toxic
bano, 2001), thus being more ecient than the betax- threshold levels if peel extracts were added at 200 ppm
anthins vulgaxanthin I and II (Escribano et al., 1998). to a food (Rodriguez de Sotillo, Hadley, & Wolf-Hall,
However, betaxanthins that bear phenolic structures in 1998). However, methods for the complete separation of
their amino acid moiety, e.g. portulacaxanthin II, mir- steroidal alkaloids from phenolic compounds prior to
axanthin III, miraxanthin V and dopaxanthin (Stintzing their use in foodstu would be desirable to avoid any
et al., 2001), may act in a similar way. Little is known risk for human health (Rodriguez-Saona, Giusti, &
about the in vivo absorption of betalains. In a recent Wrolstad, 1998; Rodriguez-Saona, Wrolstad, & Pereira,
study with betalains from a cactus fruit, a degradation 1999). Chemistry, biochemistry, and dietary role of
rate of 2429% was shown to occur in the stomach, of potato polyphenols have been recently reviewed by
2026% in the small intestine, and of 2629% in the Friedman (1997).
large intestine (Reynoso, Giner, & de Meijia, 1999).
Betacyanins were demonstrated to be strong anti- By-products of sugar production
oxidants in various model systems, and their positive Since the world sugar market is currently suering
charge may increase their anity to biological mem- from very high stocks and low prices, long-term options
branes which are the preferred targets of oxidation for the utilization of by-products are urgently required
(Kanner, Harel, & Granit, 2001). Literature data imply (Anonymous, 2000). Sugar cane (Saccharum ocinarum
a low rate of betalain absorption, and a critical con- L., Poaceae) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vul-
centration for the bioactivity of these compounds in garis var. altissima DOLL, Chenopodiaceae) are the
human plasma has yet to be established. Toxicological most important crops for the production of sugar.
studies revealed that betanin, the major compound from Molasses represents the runo syrup from the nal
red beet, did not exert allergic potential (Pourrat, stage of crystallization. It mainly consists of fermentable
Lejeune, Grand, Bastide, & Bastide, 1987), nor muta- carbohydrates (sucrose, glucose, fructose), and of non-
genic or hepatocarcinogenic eects (Schwartz, von Elbe, sugar compounds which were not precipitated during
Pariza, Goldsworthy, & Pitot, 1983; Von Elbe & juice purication. Furthermore, molasses contains sub-
Schwartz, 1981). High content in folic acid amounting stances formed chemically or enzymatically during pro-
to 15.8 mg/g dry matter is another nutritional feature of cessing and storage (betaine and other amino acids,
beets (Wang & Goldman, 1997). Folic acid is one of 10 Maillard products, Strecker decomposition products,
essential vitamins in human diet, and its value has been lactic acid, mineral and trace elements, and vitamins
recognized in recent years by an important increment in especially of the B-group). Molasses is used as feed and
governmentally recommended allowances from 400 to as a source of carbon in fermentation processes, e.g. for
800 mg for pregnant women in the US (Wang & Gold- the production of alcohol, citric acid, l-lysine and
man, 1996). Since red beet is often associated with an l-glutamic acid (Higginbotham & McCarthy, 1998).
earth-like avour of geosmin, high nitrate levels and In volume, bagasse is the by-product of highest rele-
microbial contamination, cactus fruits as alternative vance. The brous residue from the extraction process is
sources of betalains have attracted interest (Stintzing et utilized as fuel and as a source of pentosans, for the
al., 2001). production of furfural from pentosan-rich raw material,
and for the recovery of brous products (Delavier,
Potato 1998). Granulated activated carbon (GAC) produced
While consumption of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum from sugar cane bagasse showed some potential as a
L., Solanaceae) has decreased, processed products such sugar decolorizer (Ahmedna, Marshall, & Rao, 2000a)
as French fries, chips, and puree have experienced but was inferior to GAC produced from pecan shells
growing popularity (ZMP, 2000). Peels are the major (Ahmedna et al., 2000b).
waste of potato processing. According to Putz (1991), Depending on the process, exhausted beet pulp has a
losses caused by peeling range from 15 to 40%, their dry matter content of 815%. Therefore, its economic
amount depending on the procedure applied, i.e. steam, utilization requires dewatering which is mostly per-
abrasion or lye peeling. formed by mechanical pressing (pressed pulp), followed
Aqueous peel extracts were shown to be a source of by thermal drying. Pressed pulp is an energy-rich animal
phenolic acids, especially of chlorogenic, gallic, proto- feed the shelf-life of which can be extended by ensiling
catechuic and caeic acids (Onyeneho & Hettiarachchy, (Harland, 1998; Heller, 1998). Enzymatic release of
1993; Rodriguez de Sotillo, Hadley, & Holm, 1994a). ferulic acid from sugar beet pulp and subsequent bio-
The antioxidant activity of freeze-dried water extracts of conversion to vanillin in a two-step process has been
408 A. Schieber et al. / Trends in Food Science & Technology 12 (2001) 401413

demonstrated (Thibault et al., 1998). A freeze-dried anthropogenic toxins such as solanin, patulin, ochra-
arabinan substitute for gum arabicum and a fat replacer toxin, dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
based on linear arabinan were also obtained from sugar need to be excluded by ecient quality control systems.
beet pulp (Broughton, Dalton, Jones, & Williams, Minimization of potentially hazardous constituents, e.g.
1995). Addition of sugar beet ber to semolina solanin, amygdalin, and optimization of valuable com-
increased dietary ber content but adversely aected pounds such as carotenoids and betalains may also be
colour and cooking loss of spaghetti (Ozboy & Koksel, achieved by plant breeding. Fourth, there is a need for
2000). Owing to its high content of acetyl groups and its specic analytical methods for the characterization and
low molecular weight, beet pectin has poor gelling quantication of organic micronutrients and other
properties and is of very limited commercial value functional compounds. Fifth, the bioactivity, bioavail-
(Broughton et al., 1995). ability and toxicology of phytochemicals need to be
carefully assessed by in vitro and in vivo studies. This is
Concluding remarks possibly of greatest importance since the results of the
Far from claiming completeness, this review discusses ATBC study (ATBC Study Group, 1994) and the
the potential of the most important by-products of CARET trial (Omenn et al., 1996) surprisingly suggest
plant food processing as a source of valuable com- that high dosages of b-carotene achieved by formula-
pounds. The relevance of this topic is illustrated by a tions with high bioavailability might lead to harmful
number of related reviews that were published during eects. Also, in the case of phenolics, Parr and Bolwell
the past 5 years (Anand & Maini, 1997; Das, 2001; (2000) concluded that it still remains to be claried
Kennedy et al., 1999a,b; Larrauri, 1999; McKee & Lat- whether certain individual phenolics are particularly
ner, 2000; Moure et al., 2001; Shrikhande, 2000; Sud- active, or whether the consumption of a broad spectrum
hakar & Maini, 1995). For cereal and legume by- of phenolics is important. Under certain conditions, e.g.
products and spent grains from brewing, which are in the presence of some transition metal ions, anti-
mainly sources of dietary ber, we refer to the recent oxidants such as phenolics may behave as prooxidants
treatise of McKee and Latner (2000). Antioxidants from (Fukumoto & Mazza, 2000). Finally, Dillard and Ger-
cereals and legumes, among others, have also been con- man (2000) pointed out that the activity of many phy-
sidered by Moure et al. (2001). Particular attention to tochemicals has only been tested in in vitro models, and
bioactive compounds of cereals has been given by this may bear no relationship to the situation in vivo.
Andlauer and Furst (1998, 1999). Studies on the utili- Undoubtedly, functional foods represent an impor-
zation of Brassicaceae such as cauliower (Brassica tant, innovative and rapidly growing part of the overall
oleracea L.) (Femenia, Robertson, Waldron, & Selven- food market. However, their design, i.e. their complex
dran, 1998), of spent soluble coee waste (Regalado et matrix and their composition of bioactive principles,
al., 2000) and tea leaves (Zandi & Gordon, 1999) are requires careful assessment of potential risks which might
rather limited and deserve further attention. By-products arise from isolated compounds recovered from by-pro-
and the compounds recovered thereof may be broadly ducts. Furthermore, investigations on stability and inter-
classied into insoluble (bers etc.), water-soluble (e.g. actions of phytochemicals with other food ingredients
phenolics) and lipid-soluble (e.g. carotenoids) com- during processing and storage need to be initiated. Since
pounds. In the present review, a product-related cate- functional foods are on the boundary between foods and
gorization has been given preference since this has been drugs, their regulation still proves dicult. In any case,
considered more useful to the reader. consumer protection must have priority over economic
interests, and health claims need to be substantiated by
Future trends standardized, scientically sound and reliable studies.
The exploitation of by-products of fruit and vegetable
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