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A. Definition of Statistics

Statistics can be defined in two senses: plural (as Statistical Data) and singular (as Statistical

Methods).

Plural sense: Statistics are collection of facts (figures). This meaning of the word is widely used

when reference is made to facts and figures on sales, employment or unemployment, accident,

weather, death, education, etc. E.g.: Sales Statistics, Labor Statistics, Employment Statistics, etc.

In this sense the word Statistics serves simply as data. But not all numerical data are statistics.

Singular sense: Statistics is the science that deals with the methods of data collection,

organization, presentation, analysis and interpretation of data. It refers the subject area that is

concerned with extracting relevant information from available data with the aim to make sound

decisions. According to this meaning, statistics is concerned with the development and

application of methods and techniques for collecting, organizing, presenting, analyzing and

interpreting statistical data.

Classification of Statistics

Statistics can be classified in to two broad classes: Descriptive statistics and Inferential

Statistics.

Descriptive statistics:

This part of statistics deals only with describing some characteristics of the data collected

without going beyond the data. In other words, it deals with only describing the sample

data without going any further: that is without attempting to infer (conclude) anything

about the population.

Descriptive statistics deals with collection of data, its presentation in various forms, such

as tables, graphs and diagrams and findings averages and other measures which would

describe the data.

Descriptive statistics refers only to the actual data. That is, the data at hand.

Descriptive Statistics is basically a kind of Statistics which is used to describe the

features of the data that gathered by the researcher.

1

Examples:

Classification of students in DMU Campus according to their Department

The number of fe/male students in this class.

Inferential Statistics:

This type of statistics is concerned with drawing statistically valid conclusions about the

characteristics of the population (large group) based on information obtained from a

sample (small group). That is, this part of statistics is concerned with the generalizing the

results of a sample (small groups) to the entire population (large group) from which the

sample is drawn.

It is the part of statistics that is generalizing from sample to population using

probabilities, performing hypothesis testing, determining relationships between variables,

and making predictions.

Example: Of 50 randomly selected people in the town of Gondar, 10 people had the last name

Abebe. An example of inferential statistics is the following statement: "about 20% of

all people living in Ethiopia have the last name Abebe."

According to the definition of statistics, we have the following five stages of a statistical

investigation.

1. Collection of data: The first stage of statistical investigation. The data should be collected

with a specific and well defined purpose so that the conclusions drawn are not to be

misleading. Two methods of data collection: Primary and Secondary: Primary method of

data collection refers to obtaining original and first hand data and Secondary method of data

collection involves obtaining data from other sources.

2. Organization of data: This is a methodology for classification and describing the properties

of data in a summary form. Editing, coding and classification are the three steps in the

organization of data.

3. Presentation of data: In this stage the collected and organized data are presented with in

some systematic order to facilitate statistical analysis. The organized data are presented with

the help of tables, diagrams and graphs.

2

4. Analysis of data: Analysis of data involves extraction of relevant information from the

collected data using some mathematical and statistical tools.In other words, it involves

extracting relevant information from the data (like mean, median, mode, range, variance),

mainly through the use of elementary mathematical operation.

5. Interpretation of data: This stage involves drawing a valid conclusion from the analyzed

data. That is interpretation of data involves making inferences (drawing conclusions) based

on the analysis of data.

1.1.3 Definition of some Statistical terms

Sampling: - The process of selecting a sample from the population is called sampling.

Population: A population is a totality of things, objects, peoples, etc about which

information is being taken.

Sample: A sample is a subset or part of a population selected to draw conclusions about

the population.

Census survey: -It is the process of examining the entire population. It is the total count

of the population.

Parameter:- It is a descriptive measure (value) computed from the population. It is the

population measurement used to describe the population. Example: population mean and

population standard deviation

Statistic: - It is a measure used to describe the sample. It is a value computed from the

sample.

Sampling frame:-A list of people, items or units from which the sample is taken.

Data:- Data as a collection of related facts and figures from which conclusions may be

drawn.

Variable: A certain characteristic which changes from object to object and time to time.

Sample size: The number of elements or observation to be included in the sample.

1.1.4 Applications, Uses and Limitations of Statistics

Application: Statistics is applied in almost all fields of human endeavor. It has become the

scientific framework for including education, agriculture, business and economics, industry and

health.

3

Uses of Statistics

Simplifies complex data (data reduction)

Facilitates comparisons

Helps in estimating unknown population characteristics

Helps in studying the relationship between two or more variables

Helps in prediction and forecasting future values and formulating policies

In Scientific Research: Statistics is used as a tool in a scientific research. Statistical

formulas and concepts are applied on a data which are results of an experiment.

In Quality Control: Statistical methods help to check whether a product satisfies a given

standard.

Reliability Engineering : is the study of the ability of a system or component to perform

its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time

The application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing

with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of

particles or objects when subjected to a force.

The field of statistics deals with the collection, presentation, analysis, and use of data to:

Such as make decisions, Solve problems and Design products and processes. It is the

science of learning information from data.

Limitations of Statistics

Statistics deals with only aggregate of facts and not with individual data items

Statistics deals with only with quantitative data (information)

Statistical data are true only on average (approximately)

Statistics can be easily misused and therefore should be used be experts

Variable: It is a characteristics or an attribute that can assume different values. E.g.: Height,

Family size, Gender

Based on the values that variables assume, variables can be classified as

1. Qualitative variables: do not assume numeric values. E.g.: Gender

4

2. Quantitative variables: assume numeric values. These variables are numeric in nature. E.g.:

Height, Family size

Quantitative data can be further classified as discrete or continuous.

o Discrete variable: takes whole number values and consists of distinct recognizable

individual elements that can be counted. It is a variable that assumes a finite or countable

number of possible values. These values are obtained by counting (0, 1, 2, ,). E.g.:

Family size, Number of children in a family, number of cars at the traffic light

o Continuous variable: takes any value including decimals. Such a variable can

theoretically assume an infinite number of possible values. These values are obtained by

measuring.

E.g.: Height, Weight, Time, and Temperature

Generally the values of a variable can be obtained either by counting for discrete variables, by

measuring for continuous variables or by making categories for qualitative variables.

Ex: Classify each of the following as Qualitative and Quantitative and if it is quantitative classify

as Discrete and Continuous.

a. Color of automobiles in a dealers show room.

b. Number of seats in a movie theater.

c. Classification of patients based on nursing care needed (complete, partial or seafarer)

d. Number of tomatoes on each plant on a field.

e. Weight of newly born babies.

Scales of Measurements/Levels of Measurements

According to scale of measurement data can be classified as: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and

Ratio data.

Nominal Scales of variables are those qualitative variables which show category of

individuals. They reflect classification in to categories (name of groups) where there is no

particular order or qualitative difference to the labels. Numbers may be assigned to the

variables simply for coding purposes. It is not possible to compare individual basing on the

numbers assigned to them. The only mathematical operation permissible on these variables

is counting. These variables

Have mutually exclusive (non-overlapping) and exhaustive categories.

No ranking or order between (among) the values of the variable.

5

Example: Gender, Religion, ID No, Ethnicity, Color

Ordinal Scales of variables are also those qualitative variables whose values can be ordered

and ranked. Ranking and counting are the only mathematical operations to be done on the

values of the variables. But there is no precise difference between the values (categories) of

the variable. Eg: Academic qualifications (B.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.D), Strength (very weak, week,

strong, very strong), Health status (very sick, sick, cured)

Interval Scales of variables are those quantitative variables when the value of the variables

is zero it does not show absence of the characteristics i.e. there is no true zero. Zero indicates

low than empty. There is a precise difference between the units of measurement (levels)

Eg: temperature, 00c does not mean there is no temperature but to say it is too cold.

Ratio Scales of variables are those quantitative variables when the values of the variables are

zero it shows absence of the characteristics. Zero indicates absence of the characteristics. All

mathematical operations are allowed to be operated on the values of the variables.

Eg: Height, Weight, Income, Amount of yield, Expenditure, Consumption.

1.2 Methods of data collection and presentation

1.2.1 Methods of data collection

We have already explained what it means by statistical data. Numerical facts or measurements

obtained in the course of enquiry in to a phenomenon, marked by uncertainty, constitute

statistical data. The statistical data may be already available or may have to be collected by an

investigator or an agency. Data termed primary when the reference is to data collected for the

first time by the investigator and is termed secondary when the data are taken from records or

data already available.

Based on the source, data can be classified into two: Primary Data and Secondary Data.

Method of primary data collection

In primary data collection, you collect the data yourself using methods such as interviews,

observations, laboratory experiments and questionnaires. The key point here is that the data you

collect is unique to you and your research and, until you publish, no one else has access to it.

There are many methods of collecting primary data and the main methods include:

Questionnaire: It is a popular means of collecting data, but is difficult to design and often

require many rewrites before an acceptable questionnaire is produced.

6

Interviewing: is a technique that is primarily used to gain an understanding of the underlying

reasons and motivations for peoples attitudes, preferences or behavior. Interviews can be

undertaken on a personal one-to-one basis or in a group. They can be conducted at work, at

home, in the street or in a shopping center, or some other agreed location.

Observation: It involves recording the behavioral patterns of people, objects and events in a

systematic manner.

Diaries: A diary is a way of gathering information about the way individuals spend their time on

professional activities. They are not about records of engagements or personal journals of

thought! Diaries can record either quantitative or qualitative data, and in management research

can provide information about work patterns and activities.

Laboratory experiment: Conducting laboratory experiments on fields of chemical, biological

sciences and so on.

Methods of secondary data collection

Secondary data analysis can be literally defined as second-hand analysis and is the analysis of

data or information that was either gathered by someone else (e.g., researchers, institutions, other

NGOs, etc.) or for some other purpose than the one currently being considered, or often a

combination of the two. Some of the sources of secondary data are government document,

official statistics, technical report, scholarly journals, trade journals, review articles, reference

books, research institutes, universities, hospitals, libraries, library search engines and

computerized data base.

Having collected and edited the data, the next important step is to present it. That is to present

the data in a comprehensible, condensed and suitable form that helps in order to draw

interpretation from it. Data presentation is a statistical procedure of arranging and putting data in

a form of tables, graphs, charts and diagrams. The need for proper presentation arises because of

the fact that statistical data in their raw form are not easy to understand.

classification. Classification is a preliminary and it prepares the ground for proper presentation

of data.

7

Tabular presentation

A statistical table is an orderly and systematic presentation of numerical data in rows and

columns. Rows (stubs) are horizontal and columns (captions) are vertical arrangements. The use

of tables for organizing data involves grouping the data into mutually exclusive categories of the

variables and counting the number of occurrences (frequency) to each category.

groups of classes according to their similarities.

Eliminates unnecessary details.

Facilitates comparison.

Helps to have a birds eye-view of the significant features of the data.

Enables required figures to be local more quickly.

Enables comparisons between different classes to be made more easily.

Reveals patterns within the figures which cannot be seen in the narrative from.

In order to construct tables there are no hard and fast rules to follow, but the following general

principles should be addressed.

Definitions:

Raw data: When data are collected in original form, they are called raw data.

Frequency: is the number of times a certain value or class of values that fall in to a specific class

of the distribution.

Frequency distribution: is the organization of raw data in table form using classes and

frequencies. A frequency distribution (or frequency table) lists classes (or categories) of values,

along with frequencies. The table consists of two columns: one contains the list of possible

8

values and/or classes, and the other contains the number of times each of those values or classes

occurred in the data.

1) Categorical frequency Distribution: is a frequency distribution in which the data is only nominal

or ordinal.

Example: A social worker collected the following data on marital status for 25 persons.

(M=married, S=single, W=widowed, D=divorced)

M S D W D

S S M M M

W D S M M

W D D S S

S W W D D

Q. Construct a frequency distribution.

Solution:

Since the data are categorical, discrete classes can be used. There are four types of marital status M,

S, D, and W. These types will be used as class for the distribution. We follow the following

procedure to construct the frequency distribution.

(1) (2) (3) (4)

9

M

Step 2: Tally the data and place the result in column (2).

Step 3: Count the tally and place the result in column (3).

Step 4: Find the percentages of values in each class by using;

f

% *100 . Where f= frequency of the class, n=total number of value.

n

Percentages are not normally a part of frequency distribution but they can be added since they are

used in certain types diagrammatic such as pie charts.

Combing the entire steps one can construct the following frequency distribution.

(1) (2) (3) (4)

M //// 5 20

S //// // 7 28

D //// // 7 28

W //// / 6 24

the values are not grouped. It is a table of all the potential raw score values that could possible

occur in the data along with the number of times each actually occurred. It is often constructed

for small set or data on discrete variable.

10

Example: The following data represent the mark of 20 students.

80 76 90 85 80 65 60 63 74 75

70 60 62 70 85 76 70 70 80 85

Solution: Step 1: Arrange the data in the order of magnitude and make a table as shown below.

Step 2 and 3: Tally the data and Compute the frequency.

Mark 60 62 63 65 70 74 75 76 80 85 90

Frequency 2 1 1 1 4 1 2 1 3 3 1

Each individual value is presented separately, that is why it is named ungrouped frequency

distribution.

3) Grouped frequency Distribution: When the range of the data is large, the data must be grouped

in to classes that are more than one unit in width. Grouped frequency distribution is a frequency

distribution where several numbers are grouped into one class.

Definitions

grouped in one class.

Class limits: Separates one class in a grouped frequency distribution from another. The limits

could actually appear in the data and have gaps between the upper limits of one class and

lower limit of the next.

Units of measurement (U or d): the distance between two possible consecutive measures or

the gap between two successive classes. It is usually taken as 1, 0.1, 0.01, 0.001, -----.

Class boundaries: Separates one class in a grouped frequency distribution from another. The

boundaries have one more decimal places than the raw data and therefore do not appear in

the data. There is no gap between the upper boundary of one class and lower boundary of the

next class. The lower class boundary is found by subtracting U/2 from the corresponding

11

lower class limit and the upper class boundary is found by adding U/2 to the corresponding

upper class limit.

Class width: the difference between the upper and lower class boundaries of any class. It is

also the difference between the lower limits of any two consecutive classes or the difference

between any two consecutive class marks.

Class mark (Mid points):it is the average of the lower and upper class limits or the average

of upper and lower class boundary.

specific value.

Cumulative frequency above: it is the total frequency of all values greater than or equal to

the lower class boundary of a given class.

Cumulative frequency below: it is the total frequency of all values less than or equal to the

upper class boundary of a given class.

together with their corresponding cumulative frequencies. It can be more than or less than

type, depending on the type of cumulative frequency used.

Relative cumulative frequency (rcf): it is the cumulative frequency divided by the total

frequency.

1. Choosing the number of classes to use, preferably between 5 and 20.

2. The classes must be mutually exclusive. This means that no data value can fall into two

different classes.

3. The classes must be all inclusive or exhaustive. This means that all data values must be

included.

4. The classes must be continuous. There are no gaps in a frequency distribution.

5. The classes must be equal in width. The exception here is the first or last class when we

have a "below ..." or "... above" class. This is often used with ages.

12

Steps for constructing Grouped frequency Distribution

1. Find the largest and smallest values and compute the Range(R) = Maximum Minimum

2. Select the number of classes desired, usually between 5 and 20 or use Sturges rule

k 1 3.332 log n where k is number of classes desired and n is total number of

observation.

R

3. Find the class width dividing the range by the number of classes w . It is also the

k

difference between the upper and lower class boundaries of the class, that is, w = UCB

LCB.

4. Pick a suitable starting point less than or equal to the minimum value. The starting point

is called the lower limit of the first class. Continue to add the class width to this lower

limit to get the rest of the lower limits.

5. To find the upper limit of the first class, subtract U from the lower limit of the second

class. Then continue to add the class width to this upper limit to find the rest of the upper

limits.

6. Find the boundaries by subtracting U/2 units from the lower limits and adding U/2 units

from the upper limits.

7. Tally the data.

8. Find the frequencies.

9. Find the cumulative frequencies. Depending on what you're trying to accomplish, it may

not be necessary to find the cumulative frequencies.

10. If necessary, find the relative frequencies and/or relative cumulative frequencies

Example:Q.Construct a frequency distribution for the following data.

11 29 6 33 14 31 22 27 19 20

18 17 22 38 23 21 26 34 39 27

Solutions:

Step 1: Find the highest and the lowest value H=39, L=6 and find the range; R=H-L=39-6=33.

Step 2: Find the number of classes using Sturges formula; which is given by k 1 3.332 log n

=1+3.32log (20) =5.32=6(rounding up)

R

Step 3: Find the class width; w =33/6=5.5=6 (rounding up)

k

Step 4: Select the starting point, let it be the minimum observation.

6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 are the lower class limits.

Step 5: Find the upper class limit; e.g. the first upper class=12-U=12-1=11

11, 17, 23, 29, 35, 41 are the upper class limits.

So combining step 5 and step 6, one can construct the following classes.

13

Class limits 6 11 12 17 18 23 24 29 30 35 36 41

E.g. for class 1 Lower class boundary=6-U/2=5.5

Upper class boundary =11+U/2=11.5

Then continue adding w on both boundaries to obtain the rest boundaries. By doing so, one can

obtain the following classes.

Class 5.5 11.5 11.5 17.5 17.5 23.5 23.5 29.5 29.5 35.5 35.5 41.5

boundary

Step 7 & 8: Tally the data& write the numeric values for the tallies in the frequency column.

Step 9 & 10: Find cumulative, relative and/or relative cumulative frequencies.

The complete frequency distribution is given below.

Class limit Class boundary Class Tally Fre Cf (less Cf (more rf. rcf (less

Mark q. than type) than type) than type

These are techniques for presenting data in visual displays using geometric and pictures.

Importance:

They have greater attraction.

They facilitate comparison.

They are easily understandable.

14

Diagrams are appropriate for presenting discrete data. The choice of the particular form among

the different possibilities will depend on personal choices and/or the type of the data.

The most commonly used diagrammatic presentation for discrete as well as qualitative data are:

Pie charts, Bar charts and Pictogram.

Pie chart:A pie chart is a circle that is divided in to sections or wedges according to the

percentage of frequencies in each category of the distribution. A circular chart is showing the

distribution of values of a variable (absolute or relative). Pie chart is a diagrammatic depiction of

data as slices of a pie. The frequency determines the size of the slice.

The proportion of the category can express either by percentages or by angles. That is degree of

central angle of a category = (amount of the category / total amount)*360 0. The proportion of a

category = (frequency of a category / total frequency)* 100%.

2500 2000 4000 1500

Solutions:

Step 1: Find the percentage and/ or degree for each class.

Step 2: Using a protractor and compass, graph each section and write its name and the

corresponding percentage.

Men 2500 25 90

Women 2000 20 72

Boys 1500 15 54

15

Boys

15% Men

25%

Girls Women

40% 20%

Bar Charts: Bar charts are used to represent and compare the frequency distribution of discrete

variables and attributes or categorical series. When we represent data using bar chart, all the bars must

have equal width and the distance between bars must be equal, but length varying in proportion to the

size(frequency) to the item. The height of the bars represents frequencies and the base represents the

categories. Bars can be drawn either vertically or horizontally. There are different types of bar charts.

The most common being:

i. Simple Bar Chart: It is a one-dimensional chart in which the bar represents the whole of the

magnitude. The height or length of each bar indicates the size (frequency) of the figure represented.

They are thick lines (narrow rectangles) having the same breadth. The magnitude of a quantity is

represented by the height /length of the bar.

Example:The following data represent sale by product, 1957- 1959 of a given company for three

products A, B, C.

Product Sales ($) Sales($) Sales($)

In 1957 In 1958 In 1959 Total

A 12 14 18 44

B 24 21 18 63

C 24 35 54 113

Total 58 70 90218

Solution:

16

Sales by Product Type

120 113

100

80

63

Sales

60

44

40

20

0

A B C

Product

Sales by Year

100 90

80 70

Sales

58

60

s

40

20

0

1957 1958 1959

Year

ii. Component Bar chart: When there is a desire to show how a total (or aggregate) is divided in

to its component parts, we use component bar chart. The bars represent total value of a variable

with each total broken in to its component parts and different colors or designs are used for

identifications. This is done by dividing the bars into parts representing the components and

shading them accordingly.

Example: Draw a component bar chart to represent sales in dollar by product type from 1957 to

1959.

Solutions:

17

iii. Multiple Bar charts: In this type of chart the component figures are shown as separate bars adjoining

each other. The height of each bar represents the actual value of the component figure. It depicts

distributional pattern of more than one variable and comparisons of each component are desired.

Example: Draw a component bar chart to represent the sales by product from 1957 to 1959.

Solutions:

A graphic presentation of the data found in table is more likely to get attention of the casual

observer and shows trends or relationships that might be overlooked in a table and are the most

commonly used devices for presenting statistical data. The histogram, frequency polygon and

cumulative frequency graph or Ogive are most commonly applied graphical representation for

continuous data.

18

Choose a suitable scale for the frequencies or cumulative freq. and label it on the Y axes.

Represent the class boundaries for the histogram or Ogive or the mid points for the frequency

polygon on the X axes.

Plot the points and Draw the bars or lines to connect the points.

Histogram: A graph which displays the data by using vertical bars of various heights to

represent frequencies. Class boundaries are placed along the horizontal axes.The horizontal axis

can be the class boundaries.The heights of the bars correspond to the frequency values, and the

bars are drawn adjacent to each other (without gaps).It differs from a bar chart in that there is a

numerical scaling on the horizontal axis.

Example: Construct a histogram to represent the following data.

Class limit Class boundary Class Tally Freq Cf (less Cf (more rf. rcf (less

Mark . than type) than type) than type

//////

18 23 17.5 23.5 20.5 7 11 16 0.35 0.55

Histogram

19

Frequency Polygon:A line graph of class frequencies against midpoints of the classes. The

frequency is placed along the vertical axis and classes mid points are placed along the horizontal

axis and these points are connected with lines.

Example: Draw a frequency polygon for the above data.

Frequency Polygon

8

7 7

Freq.

Frequency

6

5

4 4

3 3

2 2 2 2

1

0

8.5 14.5 20.5 26.5 32.5 38.5

Class Midpoint

Ogive (cumulative frequency polygon): A line graph that represents the cumulative frequencies

(less than or more than type) plotted against upper or lower class boundaries respectively. That is

class boundaries are plotted along the horizontal axis and the corresponding cumulative

frequencies are plotted along the vertical axis. The points are joined by a free hand curve.

To construct an Ogive curve:

Compute the less than and more than cumulative frequency of the distribution.

Prepare a graph with the cumulative frequency on the vertical axis and the true class

limits (class boundaries) of the interval scaled along the X-axis (horizontal axis).

Mark the intersection points of the class boundaries of the cumulative frequencies with a

dot.

Connect the intersection points using a line (curve).

20

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