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17/11/2017 Music - Wikipedia

The phrase "the elements of music" is used in a number of different contexts. The two most common contexts can
be differentiated by describing them as the "rudimentary elements of music" and the "perceptual elements of
music".

Rudimentary elements
In the 1800s, the phrases "the elements of music" and "the rudiments of music" were used interchangeably . [13][14]
The elements described in these documents refer to aspects of music that are needed in order to become a
musician, Recent writers such as Estrella [15] seem to be using the phrase "elements of music" in a similar manner.
A definition which most accurately reflects this usage is: "the rudimentary principles of an art, science, etc.: the
elements of grammar."[16] The UK's curriculum switch to the "inter-related dimensions of music" seems to be a
mov e back to using the rudimentary elements of music.

Perceptual elements
Since the emergence of the study of psy choacoustics in the 1930s, most lists of elements of music hav e related
more to how we hear music than how we learn to play it or study it. C.E. Seashore, in his book Psychology of
Music, [17] identified four "psy chological attributes of sound". These were: "pitch, loudness, time, and timbre"
(p. 3). He did not call them the "elements of music" but referred to them as "elemental components" (p. 2).
Nonetheless these elemental components link precisely with four of the most common musical elements: "Pitch"
and "timbre" match exactly , "loudness" links with dy namics and "time" links with the time-based elements of
rhy thm, duration and tempo. This usage of the phrase "the elements of music" links more closely with Webster's
New 20th Century Dictionary definition of an element as: "a substance which cannot be div ided into a simpler
form by known methods"[18] and educational institutions' lists of elements align with this list as well.

Writers of lists of "rudimentary elements of music" v ary their lists depending on their personal priorities.
Howev er, in relation to the perceptual elements of music, it should be possible to identify a list of discrete
elements which can be independently manipulated to achiev e an intended musical effect. It seems at this stage
that there is still research to be done in this area.

Analysis of styles
Some sty les of music place an emphasis on certain of these fundamentals,
while others place less emphasis on certain elements. To giv e one example,
while Bebop-era jazz makes use of v ery complex chords, including altered
dominants and challenging chord progressions, with chords changing two
or more times per bar and key s changing sev eral times in a tune, funk
places most of its emphasis on rhy thm and groov e, with entire songs based
around a v amp on a single chord. While Romantic era classical music from
the mid- to late-1800s makes great use of dramatic changes of dy namics, Funk places most of its emphasis
on rhythm and groove, with entire
from whispering pianissimo sections to thunderous fortissimo sections,
songs based around a vamp on a
some entire Baroque dance suites for harpsichord from the early 17 00s
single chord. Pictured are the
may use a single dy namic. To giv e another example, while some art music influential funk musicians George
pieces, such as sy mphonies are v ery long, some pop songs are just a few Clinton and Parliament
minutes long. Funkadelic in 2006.

Description of elements

Pitch and melody

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