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Extreme care has been taken in preparation of this work.

However, the editors, authors and publisher make no warranty or representation, expressed or
implied, with respect to accuracy, completeness, or utility of the information contained in this document; nor do the editors, authors or publisher assume any
liability with respect to the use of or reliance upon, or for damages resulting from the use of or reliance upon, any information, procedure, conclusion, or
opinion contained in this document.
Edited by

JOHNO. BICKEL
THOMAS R. KUESEL
ELWYN H. KING

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication

Tunnel engineering handbook 1 edited by John O. Bickel. Thomas R.


Kuesel and Elwyn H. King. -- 2nd ed.
p. cm.

ISBN-13: 978-1-4613-8053-5 e-ISBN-13: 978-1-4613-0449-4


DOl: 10.1007/978-1-4613-0449-4

I. Tunneling. I. Kuesel, T.R. II. King, Elwyn H.


TA805.T82 1996 96-17571
624.1 '93--dc20 CIP

Copyright 1996 by Chapman & Hall


Fifth printing 2004 by Kluwer Academic Publishers
Softcover reprint of the hardcover 2nd edition 1996
Cover photo of Glenwood Canyon Tunnels, Colorado:
David Sailors, courtesy of Parsons Brinckerhoff
Cover design: Curtis Tow Graphics

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system or transmitted in any form or by any means, mechanical, photo-copying, recording,
or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher, Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 101 Philip Drive, Assinippi Park, Norwell, Massachusetts 02061

Printed on acid-free paper.

This printing is a digital duplication of the original edition.


Dedicated in memory of

John o. Bickel
1896-1991
Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc.
Partner 1954-1968
Associated Consultant 1968 -1991
Principal Tunnel Engineer 1932-1991
Contents

Preface .......................................................................................... xiii

Chapter 1 An Introduction to Thnnel Engineering ...................................................... 1


Elwyn H. King and Thomas R. Kuesel
Tunnel elements 1
Details 2

Chapter 2 Thnnel Layout ........................................................................... 4


Elwyn H. King and Thomas R. Kuesel
Clearances for highway tunnels 4
Alignment and grades for highway tunnels 4
Clearances for railroad tunnels 5
Alignment and grades for railroad tunnels 5
Clearances for rapid transit tunnels 6
Alignment and grades for rapid transit tunnels 6
Controls on layout of underwater transportation tunnels 8

Chapter 3 Thnnel Surveys and Alignment Control ..................................................... 13


William S. Robinson
Current state of surveying technology 13
General surveying requirements and procedures 16
Tunnel geometry 23
Survey work during construction 25
Survey for construction of immersed tubes 34
Tunnel monitoring surveys 36
Representative projects 40

Chapter 4 Geotechnical Investigations ............................................................... 46


Harvey W. Parker
Geotechnical approach to tunnel design 46
Geotechnical challenges of the underground 47
Importance of geology 48
Phasing and timing 48
Teamwork, communications, and training 50
Soil classification for tunnels 51
Rock classification 54
Description of investigation techniques 59
Developing the investigation program 65
Tunnel monitoring and instrumentation 69
Guidelines for level of geotechnical effort 69
Geotechnical Reports 74

Chapter 5 Thnnel Stabilization and Lining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 80


Thomas R. Kuesel
Classifications 80
Principles of ground-structure interaction 84
Design considerations 86
Lining behavior under ground loads 87
Performance criteria for flexible ring design 87
Behavior of two-stage linings 89
Lining analysis 90
Behavior of rock reinforcement systems 91

vii
vin Contents

Tandem linings 94
Relation of design and analysis 95
Principles of tunnel stabilization and lining design 95

Chapter 6 Soft Ground "funneling ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 97


James E. Monsees
Geotechnical investigations 97
Anticipated ground behavior 97
Soil stabilization and groundwater control 98
Grouting 10 1
Soft ground tunneling machines 107
Selection of soft ground tunneling machine 108
Soft ground tunnel support and lining 111
Surface effects of tunnel construction 111
Building protection methods 115
Practicalities of tunnel engineering 116
Seismic design of soft ground tunnels 118

Chapter 7 Rock "funnels 122


Elwyn H. King
Classical concept 122
Changing concepts 125
Rock discontinuities 126
Rock movement 127
Water 128
Formation grouting 129
Rock reinforcement 130
Current concepts 131
Rock mass rating (rrnr) 134
Excavation methods 139
Effect of excavation method on design 141
Seismic effects 142
Use of explosives 143
Cast-in-place linings 145
Caverns 148
Leakage 151

Chapter 8 "funneling in Difficult Ground ............................................................ 153


Terrence G. McCusker
Instability 153
Heavy loading 164
Drill-and-blast tunneling 166
TBM tunneling 168
Swelling 172
Obstacles and constraints 172
Physical conditions 174
Observations 175

Chapter 9 Shafts ................................................................................ 177


Robert J. Jenny
Shaft excavation in soft ground 177
Excavation in soft, wet ground 181
Shaft excavation in rock 184
Lining of shafts 185

Chapter 10 Deep Shafts . .......................................................................... 187


Maurice Grieves
Shafts for tunnels and caverns 187
Alternatives to conventional drill-and-blast methods 188
Construction sequence 188
Conventional sinking equipment 191
The shaft sinking cycle 193
Contents ix

Shaft equipping 196


Ground stabilization 198
Blast design and the use of explosives 201
Raise drilling, blind drilling, and other alternatives 202

Chapter 11 Thnnel Boring Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 203


Harry Sutcliffe
Historical development 203
Excavation under external water pressure 205
Components of a modem TBM 205
Operation of the TBM 207
The TBM, temporary support, and pennanent lining 209
The decision to use a TBM 209
Selecting a soft ground TBM 210
Measuring TBM perfonnance 210
The learning curve 212
Variability in ground 213
Noncircular tunnels 214

Chapter 12 Shotcrete............................................................................. 220


Elwyn H. King
History 220
Quality assurance 223
Materials 223
Engineering properties 225
Wet or dry? 226
Preparation, mix, shoot, and cure 227
Testing 228
Design considerations 229

Chapter 13 Materials Handling and Construction Plant . ............................................... 231


A. A. Mathews
Basic transportation systems 231
Special muck transporting systems 239
Supplemental material handling systems 244
Vertical transport 248
Hoisting 252
Vertical conveyors 254
Utilities 255
Surface plant 262
Concrete plant 264
Shotcrete plant 266

Chapter 14 Immersed Thbe Thnnels ................................................................ 268


Ahmet Gursoy
General description 268
Conceptual considerations 269
Steel shell tubes 273
Concrete tubes 279
Weight control of tubes 280
Preparation of trench 281
Tube foundations 282
Joints between tubes 285
Backfill 289
Design of tubes 289

Chapter 15 Water Conveyance Thnnels ............................................................. 298


David E. Westfall
Friction losses 298
Drop shafts for vertical conveyance 298
Air removal 302
Gas buildups in sewer tunnels 304
x Contents

Control of infiltration and exfiltration 304


Lake taps and connections to live tunnels 308
Tunnel maintenance 309

Chapter 16 Small-Diameter 'funnels ................................................................ 311


David E. Westfall and Glenn M. Boyce
Basic procedure 311
Site investigations 313
Pits and shafts 313
Leading edge 314
Jacking pipes 316
Applications 318

Chapter 17 Cut-and-Cover Thonel Stmctures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 320


James L Wilton
Tunnel design-structural 322
Shoring systems 329
Common types of shoring walls 329
Common types of shoring wall support 332
Design of shoring systems 335
Performance of shoring systems 346
Decking 348
Excavation and groundwater control 349
Permanent shoring walls and support 352
Reinforced concrete materials and construction 353
Watertightness 357

Chapter 18 Safety Provisions ............................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 360


Robert J. Jenny
General safety rules 360
Localized operational hazards 361
First aid station 362
Fire hazards 363
Ventilation during construction 363
Handling and storage of explosives 364
Inactive headings 364
Compressed-air work 364
Decompression table explanation 367

Chapter 19 Fire Life Safety ....................................................................... 369


Norman H. Danziger
Background 369
BART 369
Highway tunnels 372
Rapid transit tunnels 378
Mainline railroad tunnels 381
Fire suppression systems 382
Sprinkler systems 382

Chapter 20 Thonel Ventilation ................................................................... " 384


Arthur G. Bendelius
Highway tunnels 384
Railroad tunnels 406
Rapid transit systems 414
Simulation 421
Test program 422
Equipment and facilities 424
Control and monitoring systems 435
Ventilation during construction 436
Contents xi

Chapter 21 Thnnel Lighting ...................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 439


Peter A. Mowczan
Lighting of highway tunnels 439
Definition of terms 439
Tunnel lighting nomenclature 440
Tunnel classification 441
Physiological considerations in tunnel lighting design 441
Entrance lighting 443
Luminance level in the tunnel interior 444
Exit lighting 445
Lighting of short tunnels 445
Lighting of long tunnels 446
Tunnellining 451
Tunnel lighting luminaires 451
Maintenance 452
Emergency lighting 453
Lighting of transit tunnels 453
Lighting of railway tunnels 453
Design computations 454

Chapter 22 Power Supply and Distribution .......................................................... 455


Elies Elvove
Peculiar electrical requirements of tunnels 455
Types of tunnels 456
Electrical loads 456
Lighting load 456
Power load 457
Tunnel ventilation fan load 457
Miscellaneous loads 457
Voltage selection 457
Distribution voltage 458
Primary distribution systems 458
Service bus arrangements 459
Secondary distribution system 460
Standby power supply 460
Un interruptible power systems (UPS) 461
Standby power distribution system 461
Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) 461
Data transmission system (DTS) 462
Auxiliary systems 462
Grounding and bonding 462
System grounding 462
Equipment grounding 462
Grounding electrodes 463
Stray current and cathodic protection 463
Raceway systems 463
Design 463
Materials 463
Major equipment 464

Chapter 23 Water Supply and Drainage Systems ..................................................... 467


Arthur G. Bendelius
Water supply system 467
Water supply design criteria 467
Water source 467
Water mains 468
Hose stations 470
Protection of exhaust fans 470
Fire pumps 471
Drainage system 473
Drainage design criteria 474
xii Contents

Open approach drainage 475


Tunnel drainage 476
Drainage pump stations 476
Drainage pumps 477
Water treatment 480
Flood protection 481
Drainage of rail tunnels 482

Chapter 24 SurveiUance and Control Systems for Highway Thnnels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 485


Richard J. Naish
Surveillance and control systems 485
Overview of available technology 485
Traffic control concepts 487
Field hardware 490
Control center 493
System selection 496
Design and implementation 496
Operation and maintenance 497

Chapter 25 Thnnel Finish .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 499


Stanley Lorch
Suspended ceiling systems 500
Ceiling veneers 504
Tunnel sidewall finishes 505
Sidewalks 506
Equipment niches and doors 508
Roadway design 508
Tunnel finish materials 508

Chapter 26 Service Buildings and Ancillary Spaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 512


Stanley Lorch and Hanan Kivett
Ventilation buildings for ducted tunnels 512
Program requirements 514
Underground rail transit stations 517

Chapter 27 Thnnel Rehabilitation .................................................................. 520


Henry A. Russell
Tunnel rehabilitation inspection methods 520
Tunnel rehabilitation repairs 528
Concrete repair 528
Crack repair 534
Metal repairs 536
Brick masonry repair 537
Segmental tunnel liners 537
Construction costs 538

Chapter 28 'funnel Construction Contracting . ....................................................... 541


Thomas R. Kuesel
Differing site conditions clause 542
Preface

The first edition of the Tunnel Engineering Handbook was how old tunnels may be rejuvenated, and how their useful
conceived and personally guided by John O. Bickel. It was a lives may be extended.
labor of love and perseverance, distilling the experience of a Finally, although this book is not about tunnel construc-
50-year career in tunnel engineering. When it was published tion contracting, a short chapter has been added to explain
in 1984, John was keenly aware of its deficiencies and im- the evolution and philosophic basis for some unique provi-
perfections. Nonetheless, he was impelled to release it for sions of modem tunnel construction contracts.
publication by the knowledge that it filled a vacuum in engi- This book was written for a broad spectrum of readers,
neering literature. At that time, no text covered planning, de- ranging from engineers seeking technical guidance to owners
sign, construction, and operation of all types of tunnels- and other decision makers hoping to glean a better under-
soft ground, hard rock, cut-and-cover, and immersed tubes standing of alternatives. To serve this audience better, we
(or "sunken tubes" in the convention of the time). have opted not to include an index in the second edition. In-
Almost from the time of original publication, John set out stead, we have prepared an annotated table of contents, which
to organize a second edition, which could correct the defi- provides a detailed guide to the many subjects contained
ciencies of the first. In the 10 years that this project has ges- herein. In the text itself, the authors have included cross-
tated, there have been many advances in tunneling. It is the references to others chapters as appropriate. It is out hope that
intent of this edition to reflect these advances, as well as to this combination will help readers locate information more
amplify the coverage of areas that were omitted or slighted quickly than a traditional, keyword-based index would.
in the first edition and to update the previous material that The preparation of this book has involved the dedication
remains pertinent. and perseverance of many individuals. It could not have
Accordingly, the second edition includes eight completely been completed without the unflagging support of Parsons
new chapters-Tunnel Stabilization and Lining, Tunneling Brinckerhoff, and especially the encouragement and pa-
in Difficult Ground, Deep Shafts, Water Conveyance Tun- tience of its president, James L. Lammie, who stuck with the
nels, Small-Diameter Tunnels, Fire Life Safety, Tunnel Re- enterprise when it seemed becalmed or lost. We appreciate
habilitation, and Tunnel Construction Contracting. The origi- his generating the wind that filled our sails and finally
nal two chapters on soft ground tunneling and shield tunnels brought us into port. But we would never have made it with-
have been merged into one, as have the two on cut-and-cover out the tireless and skillful production editing of Nellie Ne-
and subway construction. All the remaining chapters have grin Finnegan and Karen Tongish, who corralled our dis-
been updated, and most have been extensively rewritten. tracted and procrastinating chapter authors, coaxed and
The title remains Tunnel Engineering Handbook, but badgered their manuscripts, and converted a huge pile of
John always recognized that you could not "engineer" a tun- raw drafts into a coherent, readable text.
nel properly without considering how it might be con- John Bickel did not survive to complete the work on the
structed and for what purpose it was intended. So the first second edition, but he left a strong beacon that has lighted
five chapters cover matters that are primarily the concern of the way for his successors. All of us who have labored on
the tunnel designer. The next twelve treat the wide spectrum John's legacy have striven to uphold the high standards to
of tunnel construction methods, but all with relevance to the which he held us. This book is a memorial to his inspiration,
matters a tunnel engineer needs to understand and consider and a tribute to his vision.
in the layout and design of a tunnel project. The next seven
chapters deal with the operating systems for transportation Tunneling brings man into confrontation with the infinite
tunnels-all the things needed to transform a hole in the variety and complexity of nature. A professional career in
ground into a useful, convenient, and safe public facility. tunneling leads to appreciation of several aphorisms:
Tunnels age, even as do tunnel engineers. But the life of a
tunnel frequently extends beyond a human life span, and so Nature is always smarter than some of us, and sometimes
a chapter has been added on tunnel rehabilitation, to discuss smarter than all of us.

xiii
xiv Preface

A little learning is a dangerous thing. publishers assume any liability for application or misappli-
cation of any material in this book to any public or private
and, from a Chinese fortune cookie: undertaking, nor do they warrant or guarantee the "correct-
ness" of any statements or opinions expressed herein, in any
Listen to advice, but make your own decisions. specific situation.
Caveat emptor.
This handbook endeavors to collect the best advice cur-
rently available from the most experienced professionals in
Thomas R. Kuesel
the field of tunneling. It is in no sense to be treated as a
Charlottesville, Virginia
cookbook or to replace the judgment of knowledgeable
engineers with regard to specific applications to specific Elwyn H. King
projects. Neither the editors, the chapter authors, nor the San Francisco, California