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ScienceDirect

Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000000

Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000000

Availableonline

Available onlineatatwww.sciencedirect.com

www.sciencedirect.com www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

ScienceDirect

ScienceDirect

Energy

EnergyProcedia 129

Procedia 00(2017)

(2017)10551062

000000

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

IV International

IV International Seminar

Seminar on

on ORC

ORC Power

Power Systems,

Systems, ORC2017

ORC2017

13-15 September 2017, Milano, Italy

13-15 September 2017, Milano, Italy

A

A revised

revised Tesla

Tesla

The 15th Turbine

Turbine

International Concept

Concept

Symposium for

for ORC Heatingapplications

ORC

on District applications

and Cooling

a a a

Giampaolo

Assessing

Giampaolo Manfrida

Manfridaa*,

the feasibility Leonardo

of usingPacini

*, Leonardo Pacini ,, Lorenzo

the aheat Talluri

demand-outdoor

Lorenzo Talluria

temperature

Department function for aUniversity

long-term district heat40-44,

demand50134, Italy forecast

a

Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Florence, Florence, Viale Morgagni 40-44, 50134, Italy

a

of Industrial Engineering, of Florence, Florence, Viale Morgagni

Abstract

Abstract I. Andria,b,c*, A. Pinaa, P. Ferroa, J. Fournierb., B. Lacarrirec, O. Le Correc

The

The TESLA

TESLA turbine

turbine is

is an

an original

original expander

expander working on on the

the -principle of

of torque transmission by

by wall shear stress. The

The principle

a

IN+ Center

demonstrated forforairInnovation,

expanders Technology

at lab andworking

scale Policy

- has Research

some

principle

attractive

torqueTcnico,

Institutofeatures

Superior transmission

when Av. Rovisco

applied to

wall

ORC

shear stress.Lisbon,

Pais expanders:

1, 1049-001 it is

principle

Portugal

suitable for

demonstrated for air expanders b at Recherche

Veolia lab scale &- has some attractive

Innovation, 291 Avenuefeatures

Dreyfouswhen

Daniel,applied to ORC

78520 Limay, expanders: it is suitable for

France

handling

handling limited

limited

c

flow

flow rates (as

(as is

is the

ratesSystmes the case

case for

for machines

machines in

in the

the range

range from

from 500W

500W to 55 kW),

to Alfred it

it can

kW),Kastler, be

be developed

can44300developed to

to aa reasonable

reasonable

Dpartement nergtiques et Environnement - IMT Atlantique, 4 rue Nantes, France

size

size (rotor of 0.1 to 0.3 m diameters), with possible rotational speeds (which range from 1000 to 12000 rpm). The

(rotor of 0.1 to 0.3 m diameters), with possible rotational speeds (which range from 1000 to 12000 rpm). The original

original

concept

concept waswas revisited,

revisited, improving

improving the the stator

stator layout

layout (which

(which is is the

the main

main responsible

responsible for for poor

poor performance)

performance) and

and developing

developing aa

modular

modular design

design allowing

allowing to to cover

cover aa wide

wide power

power range,

range, as as well

well as as aa perfectly

perfectly sealed

sealed operation

operation andand other

other fluid

fluid dynamics

dynamics

improvements.

improvements. The flow model was developed using complete real fluid assumptions, and includes several new concepts such

Abstract The flow model was developed using complete real fluid assumptions, and includes several new concepts such as

as

bladed channels for the stator and detailed treatment of losses. Preliminary design sketches are presented

bladed channels for the stator and detailed treatment of losses. Preliminary design sketches are presented and results discussed and results discussed

and

and evaluated.

District heating networks are commonly addressed in the literature as one of the most effective solutions for decreasing the

evaluated.

greenhouse

2017 gas emissions

The Authors. frombythe

Published building

Elsevier sector. These systems require high investments which are returned through the heat

Ltd.

2017

2017 The

sales. The Authors.

Due Authors. Published

Published

to theresponsibility

changed by

by Elsevier

Elsevier

climate Ltd.

Ltd. and building renovation policies, heat demand in the future could decrease,

conditions

Peer-review

Peer-review

Peer-review under

under responsibility of the scientific

scientific committee

ofperiod.

the scientific committee of of the

the IV

IV International

International Seminar

Seminar on on ORC

ORC Power

Power Systems.

Systems.

prolongingunder responsibility

the investment returnof the committee of the IV International Seminar Power Systems.

The main scope

Keywords:Tesla of this

Turbine; paper is to assess

Micro-Expander; ORCthe feasibility of using the heat demand outdoor temperature function for heat demand

Keywords:Tesla Turbine; Micro-Expander; ORC

forecast. The district of Alvalade, located in Lisbon (Portugal), was used as a case study. The district is consisted of 665

buildings that vary in both construction period and typology. Three weather scenarios (low, medium, high) and three district

1.

1. Introduction

renovation scenarios were developed (shallow, intermediate, deep). To estimate the error, obtained heat demand values were

Introduction

compared with results from a dynamic heat demand model, previously developed and validated by the authors.

In

The recent

In results years,

years, energy

recent showed that when

energy systems research

only weather

systems research has

has been

change focused

is considered,

been focused the on small,

on margin distributed

small, of error couldsystems

distributed for

for cogeneration,

be acceptable

systems which

for some applications

cogeneration, which

(the error

cover in annual demand was lower than 20% for all weather scenarios considered). However, after introducing renovation

cover the requirements of heat and power generation both in domestic buildings and industrial facilities, with an

the requirements of heat and power generation both in domestic buildings and industrial facilities, with an

scenarios,on

emphasis the smart

error value

grid increased

solutions upwhich

to 59.5%can(depending

effectively on deal

the weather

with and renovation

problems of scenarios combination

load/generation considered).

mismatch and

emphasis

The value of

on smart grid

of slope coefficient

solutions which

increased

can

on average

effectively deal

within the range

with problems

of 3.8% up to 8%

of load/generation

per decade,

mismatch and

that corresponds to the

integration

integration oftheenergy

energy storage.

storage. When

When applied

applied to

to intermediate

intermediate and

and low

low temperature

temperature resources,

resources, aa recurrent

recurrentoftechnology

technology

isdecrease

the in number of heating hours of 22-139h during the heating season (depending on the combination weather and

the Organic

isrenovation

Organic Rankine

Rankine

scenarios

Cycle,

Cycle, whose

considered). whose

On the

applications

applications being extended

other hand,being extended

function

to small

small size

intercepttoincreasedsizefor(5-50

(5-50 kWe).

kWe).per decade (depending on the

7.8-12.7%

coupled scenarios). The values suggested could be used to modify the function parameters for the scenarios considered, and

improve the accuracy of heat demand estimations.

*Corresponding

2017 The Authors.

author. Published by2758676;

Tel.:+39 055 Elsevierfax:

Ltd.+39 055 2758755.

* Corresponding author. Tel.:+39 055 2758676; fax: +39 055 2758755.

E-mail address:

Peer-review undergiampaolo.manfrida@unifi.it

responsibility of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and

E-mail address: giampaolo.manfrida@unifi.it

Cooling.

1876-6102 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

1876-6102 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Peer-review

Keywords:under responsibility

Heat demand; of the

Forecast; scientific

Climate committee of the IV International Seminar on ORC Power Systems.

change

Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the IV International Seminar on ORC Power Systems.

Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling.

1876-6102 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the IV International Seminar on ORC Power Systems.

10.1016/j.egypro.2017.09.115

1056 Giampaolo Manfrida et al. / Energy Procedia 129 (2017) 10551062

2 Manfrida, Pacini, Talluri / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000000

One of the main problems with micro Organic Rankine Cycles is linked to the expander, as this component often

involves high manufacturing costs and offers low reliability. The Tesla turbine, with its relatively simple structure,

appears to be a reliable and low-cost expander, which could find its market in the low-power range.

Nomenclature

Ds Specific diameter [-]

m Channel mass flow rate [kg/s]

ns Specific speed [-]

0,1,2 Referred to section 0,1,2 (fig. 1b)

h Enthalpy [kJ/kg]

ORC Organic Rankine Cycle

p Pressure [Pa]

r Radius [m]

u Peripheral velocity [m/s]

v Absolute velocity [m/s]

V Volumetric flow rate [m3/s]

w Relative velocity [m/s]

Loss coefficient [-]

Dynamic viscosity, [kg/(ms)]

Velocity coefficient

density, [kg/m3]

Flow coefficient [-]

Work coefficient [-]

Rotational Speed [rad/s]

The first description of the Tesla turbine, also known as friction turbine, was given in the patent, which was

registered by Tesla in 1913 [1].

The Tesla turbine is characterized by a bladeless rotor configuration. Indeed, the rotor is composed of multiple

parallel flat disks. The gap between the disks is a fundamental design parameter for this expander. The size of the

gap influences the pressure drop produced by friction forces and the exchange of momentum. A very tight gap is

required in order to improve work exchange with attractive rotor-only efficiencies (75-90%) [2].

After the pioneer Tesla work, it was only in the 1950s that further study on the bladeless turbine was developed

[3]. Another 15 years passed before Rice [4] developed a sound analytic/numerical model of the flow in the Tesla

turbine, and performed a full set of experimental investigations.

More recently, several works have been published on the Tesla turbine, both with numerical [5; 6] and

experimental contents [7]. Almost all numerical simulations consider the working fluid as incompressible [2; 8]. In

experimental tests, the working fluids are generally air or water [7; 9].

Only in very recent times the Tesla turbine has been considered at as a suitable expander for ORC [10; 11].

The main scope of this study is to enrich the mathematical model developed in [12] with a detailed stator model

and with non-rotoric components loss correlations; the model (compressible real fluid assumptions) is then applied

to organic working fluids in order to assess the performance of the Tesla turbine within this context. A main

objective is also to introduce a modular design of the machine so that it can be easily adapted to the specific

application.

2. Flow modeling

The Tesla turbine is a viscous turbine, with similar characteristics to drag turbines. The position of the Tesla turbine

on the Balje diagram is in the same location of drag turbine and volumetric expanders (very low specific speed,

relatively high specific diameter) [13].

Giampaolo Manfrida et al. / Energy Procedia 129 (2017) 10551062 1057

Manfrida, Pacini, Talluri / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000000 3

Compared to traditional drag turbines and volumetric expanders the main advantage of the Tesla turbine is its

relatively simple structure, which results in a low-cost expander. According to simulations, the thermodynamic

efficiency of the Tesla turbine appears to be potentially above that of traditional drag turbines and in line with that of

volumetric expanders (50-60% when designed for optimal ORC efficiency).

2.1. Stator Flow

As the most original component of a Tesla turbine is the bladeless rotor, simple nozzles are commonly used to

generate the necessary highly tangential flow stream at rotor inlet; however, as recognized by [3, 9, 14], the large

total pressure loss at stator exit represents a major contribution to the expander inefficiency. Consequently, it was

decided to apply to the Tesla turbine stator a design approach derived from radial turbo expanders vaned stator [15,

16, 17], modified with partial admission in order to deal with considerably reduced flow rates. The preliminary

sizing of the nozzle starts from the selection of the non-dimensional parameters [15]. Not only fundamental non-

dimensional parameters, but also the total thermodynamic conditions at stator inlet represent required inputs (Table

1). Further input geometric parameters are the height and number of stator vanes, which depends on the selected

rotor inlet diameter, as well as on the width of the rotor channels.

Table 1. Input parameter for Stator model.

Parameter Unit Parameter Unit

Inlet Total Pressure [Pa] Nozzle Throat Mach number [-]

rpm V2

Inlet Total Temperature [K] Specific speed ns = 60 h0s

[-]

A relevant feature implemented in the flow model is that the working fluid is treated as a real fluid (that is,

neither incompressible nor ideal gas); thermodynamic properties are evaluated locally with real fluid assumption, at

present using the Engineering Equation Solver library data[18]. Figure 1 (a) displays the iterative design process as

it was implemented in the stator: the output of the process are two loss coefficients, D and R, whose values are

equaled iteratively until convergence is reached for a given geometry. The first loss coefficient (D) is expressed in

equation 1 as suggested in [15,17] and it is only dependent on , which is the ratio between the real and isentropic

velocity at stator exit. The range of this parameter is between 0.9 and 0.97. The second loss coefficient (R) [17] is

on the other hand dependent on geometry values, such as chord, pitch, stator height and stator exit angle, as well as

on the Reynolds number of the flow, as displayed in equation 2.

h1 h1s 1

D = 1 2 = 1 (1)

v 2

2 1

R = ( + ) (2)

Re0.2 / b1

Where:

1 - Blade height at stator outlet [m]; 1 - Absolute angle at stator outlet [];

s- Blade spacing [m]; x- Chord [m];

Re - Reynolds number (based on blade height and absolute velocity at stator outlet)

Fig. 1 (a) Flow Diagram of Stator model; (b) Enthalpy-Entropy Diagram of Tesla turbine

1058 Giampaolo Manfrida et al. / Energy Procedia 129 (2017) 10551062

4 Manfrida, Pacini, Talluri / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000000

The model for the rotor flow is derived from [2; 4; 6] with some notable changes; specifically, in line with the stator

flow model, the hypothesis of incompressible flow with constant density is removed. Density and viscosity as well

as all other thermodynamic functions are taken as fluid properties depending on the local variables (typically, p

and T), applying a real fluid model. This excludes the possibility of an analytical solution [8].

The complete set of equations applied are reported in [12]; only the main equations of the two-dimensional flow

model are here recalled.

Continuity:

1 (rvr )

= 0

r r

p 12 m m 2

( )= ( )+ ( ) + v 2 (4)

r b2 2rb r 2rb r

v 24 r w v

=

r b m c r

The model was validated with respect to published (incompressible flow) results (figure 2a); the effect of variable

density is shown in figure 2b.

Fig. 2 (a) Validation of model respect to published literature; (b) Variable density influence on relative tangential velocity

A total pressure loss - accounting for enlargement at stator exit and contraction at rotor inlet, was introduced:

1 1

= + = 12 + 12 (6)

2 2

Where:

is the pressure loss which occurs immediately after the throat section(abrupt enlargement);

is the pressure loss encountered when the flow enters the rotor micro-channels (relative flow contraction).

The loss coefficient for abrupt enlargement (ke) is modeled as an incompressible Borda-Carnot coefficient [19]

using the velocity immediately before the enlargement. The loss coefficient for contraction (ki) is obtained through a

polynomial fitting of empirical data [19] using the velocity immediately after the contraction.

Giampaolo Manfrida et al. / Energy Procedia 129 (2017) 10551062 1059

Manfrida, Pacini, Talluri / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000000 5

3. Conceptual Design

In the proposed design, the external carter forms the plenum chamber, which ensures an even flow distribution at

a limited number (typically, 4 to 6) of radial nozzle inlets (fig. 3a). The modular design of the machine assembles

the stator as a number of stacked disks with machined nozzles, each feeding a larger number of rotor disks (fig. 3b).

The stator compartment is designed to supply the fluid annularly to the rotor. The original shape of the flow

channels derives from a one-dimensional design procedure, as described in [15]. After this, partial admission is

introduced blocking evenly a number of flow passages in order to realize the required overall flow rate. This evenly

applied partial admission solution is a substantial improvement with respect to the common single-nozzle

arrangement encountered in lab-scale prototypes of Tesla turbines.

The concept retains some ideas from the original Tesla Patent, which were apparently lost in the following

developments. An axial section of the machine is shown in figure 4, showing the possibility of modular adjustment

augmenting the axial length and the number of stator/rotor disks; as there is only one shaft exit (although the

mechanical design is a sound double-supported shaft), a sealed machine design with magnetic generator couplings

also possible, thus allowing the possibility of application with flammable working fluids (hydrocarbons).

a) b)

Fig. 3 (a) Tesla turbine, red highlight is the configuration of the plenum chamber; (b) Modularity of the expander

The modularity of the machine allows to cover potentially a wide power range with the same fundamental design,

from very small-power applications (the channel power varies between 5-40 W/channel) to a few kWs. In the

following, we are referring to the first prototype developed for demonstrating operation on an available test rig

operating on a closed-loop with refrigerant fluids; this imposed some restrictions on flow rate, RPM and torque,

which are reflected in the final design which is summarized in table 2.

1060 Giampaolo Manfrida et al. / Energy Procedia 129 (2017) 10551062

6 Manfrida, Pacini, Talluri / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000000

Parameter Section Unit

Stator inlet diameter 0.25 [m]

Stator outlet/Rotor inlet diameters 0.2 [m]

Effective stator channels 8 [-]

Inlet Stator angle (radial direction) 0 []

Outlet Stator angle (radial direction) 85 []

Stator Vane Height 0.001 [m]

Rotor outlet diameter 0.08 [m]

Channel Height 0.00012 [m]

At the present stage of development, it was important to assess the power and efficiency, which could be reached

by the prototype to be tested, depending on working fluid selection. This assessment was carried out on the

geometry resumed in Table 2.It is stressed that these constraints limit the actual potential performance: as was

shown in [12], the efficiency of the Tesla turbine could reach very high efficiency at the expense of a low power

production per channel. At present. the purpose is to demonstrate the concept of the revised Tesla turbine as an ORC

expander, and to perform in the future an experimental validation of the flow models.

The fluids here analyzed are R245fa and n-hexane. As low-temperature resource applications are the most likely

for this expander, a reference total temperature T00 = 100C was taken as the inlet. The total pressure is different for

the two fluids and it was selected in order to have superheated vapor 10C above saturation temperature (pressure at

which the saturation temperature is 90C).The main parameters evaluated for all simulations are the power per

channel, as well as the expander total to static efficiency. The calculations were performed varying the specific

speed and the stator outlet Mach number, which was considered a fundamental parameter for the Tesla turbine [9].

4.1. R245fa

As expected, the power of the Tesla turbine increases as the flow coefficient is increased, which is reflected by

the nozzle throat Mach number. Higher Mach numbers correspond to large flow coefficients and high mass flow

rates. This on one hand increases power, but on the other decreases the total-to-static efficiency.

Another expected feature is the increase in power when Specific Speed ns is increased. Nonetheless, due to the

nature of the machine, the specific speed cannot reach exceedingly high values, due to the increase in the absolute

velocity at rotor exit, which after a certain rotational speed would be higher than the value at rotor inlet, with

considerable kinetic energy losses at exhaust.

Table 3. Parametric analysis R245fa for Total inlet temperature of 100 [C] and Inlet Total pressure of 1.009 [MPA]

ns = 0.001

Parameter Ma1 = 0.4 Ma1 = 0.6 Ma1 = 0.8 Ma1 = 1

Ma2 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.78

5.65 5.69 6.31 7.58

0.26 0.31 0.40 0.54

Ds 85.5 77.8 67.9 57.9

RPM 1455 2010 2330 2455

p2/p0 0.83 0.63 0.42 0.26

ns = 0.002

Ma2 0.31 0.54 0.75 0.94

2.33 2.49 2.92 3.68

0.12 0.16 0.21 0.29

Ds 85.2 75.5 64.5 54.2

RPM 3010 3970 4466 4597

p2/p0 0.80 0.58 0.38 0.23

Manfrida, Pacini,Manfrida

Giampaolo Talluri / et

Energy Procedia

al. / Energy 00 (2017)

Procedia 129000000

(2017) 10551062 7

1061

Fig. 5 Efficiency and Power vs. Stator Outlet Mach number for (a) R245fa, (b) n-Hexane

4.2. n-Hexane

Similar results were found for n-Hexane. In particular, the trends for power (increasing with Ma and ns) and total

to static efficiency (increasing with ns, decreasing with Ma) are the same. However, the values of the total to static

efficiency - as well as that of power were considerably different. Higher efficiencies and lower power production

are reached with n-Hexane. This is mainly due to the different inlet pressure of the turbine. Indeed, a total inlet

pressure of about 1 MPa was selected for R245fa; on the other hand, the inlet pressure for n-Hexane was much

lower (0.18 MPa). Lower pressures mean lower densities; therefore, sonic conditions are reached at the nozzle throat

for lower mass flow rates. As shown in [12], low mass flow rates are beneficial for the turbine efficiency, but on the

other hand are adverse for power production.

Table 4. Parametric analysis n-Hexane for Total inlet temperature of 100 [C] and Inlet Total pressure of 0.185 [MPA]

ns = 0.001

Parameter Ma1 = 0.4 Ma1 = 0.6 Ma1 = 0.8 Ma1 = 1

Ma2 0.10 0.16 0.24 0.35

6.48 7.02 7.73 8.77

0.26 0.30 0.37 0.47

Ds 34.42 32.18 29.44 26.01

RPM 2020 2790 3395 3770

p2/p0 0.83 0.66 0.48 0.31

ns = 0.002

Ma2 0.16 0.25 0.34 0.46

2.81 3.11 3.53 4.14

0.12 0.15 0.18 0.24

Ds 34.81 32.05 28.85 25.08

RPM 4285 5795 6885 7475

p2/p0 0.81 0.63 0.44 0.28

5. Conclusions

A revised Tesla turbine design was developed in this project and was demonstrated evaluating the performance of

two working fluids with a specific prototype size (rotor diameter 0.2 m), referred to the prototype testing on an

available test loop. A pivotal point of this research is the conceptual modular design applied for the design of low-

power (500W - 5kW) expanders. The key results may be summarised as follows:

8 Manfrida, Pacini, Talluri / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000000

1062 Giampaolo Manfrida et al. / Energy Procedia 129 (2017) 10551062

An improved design concept was introduced, tackling stator inefficiency and simplifying the shaft/rotor

assembly with a modular, robust construction principle and possibility of sealed operation.

Due to its intrinsic working principle work transmitted by friction - the Tesla turbine can be

competitive with conventional expanders for lowpower application, but it could not become an

antagonist for medium to high power as the several losses involved, such as the high kinetic energy at

exhaust, increase with the power output per channel. Indeed, the power per channel increases for high

inlet Mach number, causing however considerable velocities at discharge and consequently a large

kinetic energy loss at exhaust.

The Tesla turbine rotor performs well with low mass flow rates. Low mass flow rates, for a fixed

geometry of the nozzle and fixed velocity at the throat, are obtained for low density at nozzle exit (from

continuity equation); therefore, high temperatures and low pressures are necessary for a proper design of

the Tesla turbine rotor.

The results indicate that the Tesla turbine appears potentially competitive with other expanders for low

ns (0.001-0.01) and high Ds (20-80) (typical range for volumetric expanders or drag turbines) with

special reference to efficiency. The right range of the flow coefficient for optimum rotor efficiency is

very low ( = 0.01-0.1). Nonetheless, higher flow coefficients are attractive to increase power output (

= 0.05-0.3). On the other hand, the work coefficient can be very high (over 2). The rotational speed

has a strong influence the expander power and efficiency, but generally, the turbine can be sized to work

properly within 4000-6000 rpm.

References

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[2] Carey, V.P., Assessment of Tesla Turbine Performance for Small Scale Rankine Combined Heat and Power Systems, Journal of Eng. for

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[3] Armstrong, J.H., An Investigation of the Performance of a Modified Tesla Turbine, M.S. Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, 1952.

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1, pp. 29-36, 1965.

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Slovenia, 2016.

[13] Balje, O.E., Turbomachines, a guide to design, selection and theory, John Wiley and sons, New York, 1981.

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Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 99, 25, pp 402-410, 2016.

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[17] Whitfield, A., Baines, N.C., Design of Radial Turbomachines, Longman Scientific and Technical, 1990.

[18] Klein, S.A. and Nellis, G.F., Mastering EES, f-Chart software, 2012.

[19] Idelchik, I.E., Handbook of hydraulic resistance coefficients of Local Resistance and of Friction, Springfield: National technical

information Service, 1966.

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