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NETWORK CODING

Fundamentals and
Applications

Edited by

MURIEL MEDARD
Massachusetts Institute ofTechnology, Cambridge, MA, USA

ALEX SPRINTSON
Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

AMSTERDAM
BOSTON
HEIDELBERG
LONDON
NEW YORK
OXFORD
PARIS
SAN DIEGO
SAN FRANCISCO
SINGAPORE
SYDNEY TOKYO

ELSEVIER Academic Press is ;in imprint of Elsevier


Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xvii
About the Editors xix

List of Contributors xxi

List ofFigures xxiii


List of Tables xxxi

1. An Introduction to Network Coding 1

Frank R. Kschischang

1. The Butterfly Networks 2

2. Graphs and Networks 6

2.1. Combinational Packet Networks 6

2.2, Network Information Flow Problems 8

3. The Single-Source Multicast Problem 9


3.1. Multicast Capacity 9
3.2. Linear Network Coding 10
3.3. Linear Network Coding Achieves Multicast Capacity 13
4. Construction of Network Codes for Multicasting 16
4.1. The Linear Information Flow Algorithm 16
4.2. Random Construction 20
5. Coding versus Routing 21
6. Noncoherent Network Coding 24
6.1. Transmission with Packet Headers 24
6.2. Subspace Transmission 25
7. On Alphabets and Nonlinearlty 26
8. Conclusions 29
Acknowledgments 29

Appendix 29
A. Finite Fields
29
B. Zeros and Nonzeros of Polynomials 32
C. The Degree of det(G,) 35
References 36

v
vi Contents

2. Harnessing Network Coding in Wireless Systems 39


Dina Katabi, Sachin Katti, and Hariharan Rahul

1. Introduction
40
2. Network Coding Background: The Practitioner's Perspective 41
3. Applications of Network Coding in Wireless Networks 44
3.1. COPE: Network Coding for Increased Throughput 44
3.1.1. The Protocol
45
3.1.2. Performance Results 48
3.2. MORE: Network
Coding for Increased Reliability 49
3.2.1. Example I:DeadSpots SO
3.2.2. Example 2: Multicast 52
3.2.3. The Protocol
52
3.2.4. Empirical Results 53
3.3. Analog Network Coding: Embracing Wireless Inference 54
3.3.1. The ANC Decoder
58
4. Conclusion
59
References
59

3. Network Coding for Content Distribution and


Multimedia
Streaming in Peer-to-Peer Networks 61
Chen Feng and Baochun Li

1. P2P Content Distribution with Network


Coding 62
1.1. How can Network
Coding be Applied to P2P Content Distribution? 62
1.2. Why is Network Coding Helpful in P2P Content Distribution?
64
1.3. Theoretical Results on P2P Content Distribution with Network
Coding 65
1.4. Practical Aspects of P2P Content Distribution with Network
Coding 70
2. P2P Multimedia
Streaming with Network Coding 71
2.1. How Network Coding be Applied to P2P Multimedia
can
Streaming? 72
2.1.1. Random Push on a Random Mesh
Structure 74
2.1.2. Timely Feedback from Downstream Peers 75
2.1.3. Synchronized
Playback and Initial Buffering Delays 76
2.2. Why is Network Coding Helpful in Multimedia Streaming? 77
2.3. Theoretical Results on
P2P Multimedia Streaming with Network
Coding
78
2.4. Practical Aspects of P2P Multimedia
Streaming with Network Coding 82
3. Conclusion
84
References
84
Contents vii

4. Network Coding in the Real World 87


Janus Heide, Morten V. Pedersen, Frank H.P. Fitzek, and Torben Larsen

1. Introduction: It's not Rocket Science 87


2. Network Coding for Mobile Phones 88
3. System Components and Design Choices 93
4. Practical Problems
97
5. A Binary Deterministic Approach 99
6. Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC)
100
7. Speeding up RLNC through Optimizations 102
8. Speeding up RLNC through Design 105
9. A Mobile Phone Application with Network
Coding 107
10. Pitfalls and Parameters
110
References
113

5. Network Coding and User Cooperation for Streaming and


Download Services in LTE Networks 115
Ql Zhang, Janus Heide, Morten V, Pedersen, Frank H.P. Fitzek,
Jorma Lilleberg, and Kari Rikkinen

1. Introduction 116
2. Raptor Code in eMBMS 120
3. Packet Erasure Pattern 124
4. User Cooperation For Erasure Recovery 126
5. Network Coding Applied in User Cooperation 131
6. Simulation Results 135
7. Conclusion 138
References 139

6. CONCERTO: Experiences with Real-World MANET


a
System
Based on Network Coding 141
Victor Firoiu, Greg Lauer, Brian DeCleene, and Soumendra Nanda

1. Introduction 143
1.1. Challenges in Wireless MANETs 143
1.2. The CONCERTO Approach 145
2. CONCERTO Overview 146
3. Network Coding 148
3.1. CONCERTO Network Coding 149
viii Contents

4. Subgraph Construction 151

4.1. Algorithm 151

4.2. implementation 152

5. Network Coding Transport Protocols 154

5.1. Reliable Transport in MANETs 154

5.2. Forwarding Protocol Architecture 155

5.3. The Master/Slave Architecture of the Net Coding Transport Protocols 157

5.4. The Semi-Reliable Slave Forwarder Algorithm 158

5.5. The Fully-Reliable Slave Forwarder Algorithm 159

6. Network Coding Benefits 160

6.1. Unified Broadcast, Multicast, and Unicast 160


6.2. Robustness to Routing Loops 160
6.3. Robust to Link and Node Failures 162

6.4. Provides Low-Latency Link Layer Coding 162


6.5. Extremely Opportunistic Routing (ExOR) 163
6.5.1. Long Hops 164
6.5.2. Lots ofLossy Links 164
7. Field Experiment Infrastructure 165
7.1. Hardware 166
7.2. Baseline System 166
7.3. Scenario Traffic 168
7.4. Evaluation Methodology 168
8. Experimental Results and Analysis 169
8.1. Experiment Scenarios 169
8.2. Experimental Results 173
8.2.1. GroundTacticalScenario 173

8.2.2. Air Tactical Scenario Results 178

8.2.3. Tactical Scenario File Transfer Results 179

9. Conclusion and Future Work 180


9.1. Summary 180

9.2. Future Work 181

Acknowledgments 181
References 182

7. Secure Network Coding: Bounds and Algorithms for Secret


and Reliable Communications 183

Sidharth Jaggi and Michael Langberg

1. Introduction 184

1.1. Overview of Chapter 185


Contents ix

2- Model 186
2.1. Threat Model 186

2.2. Network and Code Model 186


3.
Eavesdropping Security 188

3.1. The Coherent Case 188

3.2. The Non-Coherent Case 192


4.
Jamming Security 194
4.1. The Coherent Case 194

4.2. The Non-Coherent Case 197


4.3. The Cryptographic Setting 202
5 Secret Transmission in Presence of and Jamming
-

Eavesdropping
Adversaries 206

5.1. The Coherent Case 206

5.2. The Non-Coherent Case 207


& Some other Variants 209
7. Discussion 210

Acknowledgments 210

References 210

8. Network Coding and Data Compression 217

Mayank Bakshi, Michelle Effros,Tracey Ho, and Muriel Medard

1. Introduction 218

2. Model and Notation 221

3. Rate Region Properties for General Joint Source-Network Coding 223

4. Capacity Results for Lossless Multicast 225

4.1. No Side Information Scenario 225

4.2. Side Information at Sinks 226

5. Practical Approaches 227

Appendix 228

References 233

9. Scaling Laws with Network Coding 235

Attlla Eryilmazand Lei Ying

1. I introduction and Basic Setup 236

2. Wireless Broadcast over Lossy Links 237

2.1. Delay Scaling Gains 237

2.2. Extensions 242

2.2). Topological Extensions 242


X Contents

2.2.2. Arrival Dynamics 244

2.2.3. Accounting for Delay Sensitivities ofIncoming Traffic 246

2.3. Throughput and Delay Trade-off 248


3. Coding in Large-Scale Mobile ad hoc Networks 253

3.1. An Example: Delay-Throughput Trade-off under an i.i.d. Mobility

Model 254
3.2. Extension to Multicast Traffic Flows 259

3.3. Summary of Existing Results 261

4. Conclusion 263

References 264

10. Network Coding in Disruption Tolerant Networks 267

Xiaolan Zhang, Giovanni Neglia, and Jim Kurose

1. Introduction 268
2. Background on Disruption Tolerant Networks and Random Linear
Coding 270
2.1. Network Model
271
2.2. DTN Routing Schemes Overview 272
2.2.1. DTN Broadcast Routing Schemes 272
2.2.2. DTN Unicast Routing Schemes 273
2.3. Random Linear Coding 274
3. Design Space 276
4. Coding Benefits for Broadcast Communication 279
4.1. Coding Benefits in Energy Efficiency 280
4.2. Practical RLC Broadcast Scheme
281
5. Coding Benefits for Unicast Applications 283
5.1. Network Coding Reduces Block
Delivery Delay 284
5.1.1. Minimum Block Delivery Delay
284
5.1.2. Probability to Achieve Minimum Block Delivery Delay 287
5.1.3. Other Metrics
290
5.2. Network
Coding Improves Delay vs. Transmission Number Trade-off 291
5.3. Discussion about RLC Benefits
294
53.1. Impact of Different Bandwidth and Buffer Constraints
294
5.3.2. Impact ofGeneration
Management 296
5.3.3. Impact ofControl
Signaling 296
5.4. Modeling Studies of Network Coding Scheme 298
5.5. Other Works on an RLC Scheme in Unicast
Application 301
5.5.1. Priority Coding Protocol
301
Contents xi

5.5.2. Optimal Control of a Two-Hop Scheme 302

5.5.3. Network Coding Based Secure Communication for DTN 302


6. Open Issues 303
6.1. RLC Benefits for Application with 5hort Messages 303
6.2. An RLC Scheme for Multicast Communication 304
7. Summary and Conclusions 305
References 305

Index 309