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<a href=Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429 e 438 Contents lists available at S c i e n c e D i r e c t Applied Thermal Engineering journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apthermeng PID control for a single-stage transcritical CO refrigeration cycle M. Salazar, F. Méndez * Facultad de Ingeniería, UNAM, México, D.F. 04510, Mexico highlights The PID control is used for a transcritical refrigeration cycle using CO as working fl uid. We derive two lumped energy balance equations for the evaporator and gas cooler in order to apply control theory. The non-linear control is more dif fi cult to adopt for the present CO refrigeration system. article info Article history: Received 29 September 2013 Accepted 22 March 2014 Available online 2 April 2014 Keywords: CO transcritical cycle Lumped model Thermal control Refrigeration Energy balance abstract In the present work, we develop a closed-loop thermal control analysis of a transcritical refrigeration cycle, operating with CO as working fl uid. A compressor, a gas cooler, a throttling valve and an evap- orator compose the elements of the cycle. We propose a lumped energy balance model to derive a set of non-linear fi rst order differential equations for the gas cooler and the evaporator, which are the heat exchangers where the output temperature controllability for each device is tested. The other compo- nents, i.e., the compressor and the throttling valve are modeled by simpli fi ed relationships based on simple considerations. The resulting governing equations are written in dimensionless form and subject to two control ’ s criteria. First, we reduce the governing equations to a linear system and the well-known Proportional e Integral-Derivative (PID) control technique is used to fi nd the best scenarios of control. Second, the non-linear system is analyzed by using a commercial numerical code to improve the general characteristics of the control. Comparing both methods, we conclude that is more dif fi cult to reach stable conditions with a linear technique because the overshoots of temperature are more pronounced. In addition and even when it is easier to control the evaporator, the stable operation of this system can be drastically modi fi ed by the thermal performance of the gas cooler. 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Due to the favorable environmental characteristics of CO and that, it is non-toxic, non- fl ammable and non-global-warming component, nowadays, this working fl uid considered as one of the most promising for replacing HCFCs and HFCs in some refrig- eration systems. A rationale for exploring new working substances must take into account the imposed restrictions at conventional refrigerants due to their in fl uence on climate change [1 e 3] . In addition, the use of carbon dioxide can reduce the pumping power due to low viscosity. Considering supercritical conditions with high compression rates, we can obtain smaller volumes conducting to the design of components of more compact size. In the past decade, important efforts have been developed for exploring multiple * Corresponding author. Tel.: þ 52 55 56 22 81 03; fax: þ 52 55 56 22 81 06. E-mail addresses: mendezlavielle@gmail.com , fmendez@unam.mx (F. Méndez). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2014.03.052 1359-4311/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. aspects related with the operation and design of this type of tran- scritical systems. However, the low ef fi ciency for commercial refrigeration and heat pump applications even today is one of the major drawbacks of use CO . Therefore, special efforts are required in order to improve the ef fi ciency of these systems including the analysis of each component. In this manner, many fundamental points and physical factors must be known to control the global performance of these systems and some of them have been widely discussed in the specialized literature. For instance, Pitla et al. [4] developed a new analytical correlation based on previous studies [5 e 7] to predict the Nusselt number during the in-tube cooling of turbulent supercritical CO and Ge and Cropper [8] performed a similar study. Sánchez et al. [9] analyzed the in fl uence of the su- perheated on the energy ef fi ciency of a transcritical CO refrigera- tion plant. Pfafferott and Schmitz [10] and Rigola et al. [11] carried out sophisticated modeling and transient simulation for refrigerant carbon dioxide exploring a detailed numerical investigation. In addition, the exergetic point of view for conventional and " id="pdf-obj-0-7" src="pdf-obj-0-7.jpg">

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Applied Thermal Engineering

<a href=Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429 e 438 Contents lists available at S c i e n c e D i r e c t Applied Thermal Engineering journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apthermeng PID control for a single-stage transcritical CO refrigeration cycle M. Salazar, F. Méndez * Facultad de Ingeniería, UNAM, México, D.F. 04510, Mexico highlights The PID control is used for a transcritical refrigeration cycle using CO as working fl uid. We derive two lumped energy balance equations for the evaporator and gas cooler in order to apply control theory. The non-linear control is more dif fi cult to adopt for the present CO refrigeration system. article info Article history: Received 29 September 2013 Accepted 22 March 2014 Available online 2 April 2014 Keywords: CO transcritical cycle Lumped model Thermal control Refrigeration Energy balance abstract In the present work, we develop a closed-loop thermal control analysis of a transcritical refrigeration cycle, operating with CO as working fl uid. A compressor, a gas cooler, a throttling valve and an evap- orator compose the elements of the cycle. We propose a lumped energy balance model to derive a set of non-linear fi rst order differential equations for the gas cooler and the evaporator, which are the heat exchangers where the output temperature controllability for each device is tested. The other compo- nents, i.e., the compressor and the throttling valve are modeled by simpli fi ed relationships based on simple considerations. The resulting governing equations are written in dimensionless form and subject to two control ’ s criteria. First, we reduce the governing equations to a linear system and the well-known Proportional e Integral-Derivative (PID) control technique is used to fi nd the best scenarios of control. Second, the non-linear system is analyzed by using a commercial numerical code to improve the general characteristics of the control. Comparing both methods, we conclude that is more dif fi cult to reach stable conditions with a linear technique because the overshoots of temperature are more pronounced. In addition and even when it is easier to control the evaporator, the stable operation of this system can be drastically modi fi ed by the thermal performance of the gas cooler. 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Due to the favorable environmental characteristics of CO and that, it is non-toxic, non- fl ammable and non-global-warming component, nowadays, this working fl uid considered as one of the most promising for replacing HCFCs and HFCs in some refrig- eration systems. A rationale for exploring new working substances must take into account the imposed restrictions at conventional refrigerants due to their in fl uence on climate change [1 e 3] . In addition, the use of carbon dioxide can reduce the pumping power due to low viscosity. Considering supercritical conditions with high compression rates, we can obtain smaller volumes conducting to the design of components of more compact size. In the past decade, important efforts have been developed for exploring multiple * Corresponding author. Tel.: þ 52 55 56 22 81 03; fax: þ 52 55 56 22 81 06. E-mail addresses: mendezlavielle@gmail.com , fmendez@unam.mx (F. Méndez). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2014.03.052 1359-4311/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. aspects related with the operation and design of this type of tran- scritical systems. However, the low ef fi ciency for commercial refrigeration and heat pump applications even today is one of the major drawbacks of use CO . Therefore, special efforts are required in order to improve the ef fi ciency of these systems including the analysis of each component. In this manner, many fundamental points and physical factors must be known to control the global performance of these systems and some of them have been widely discussed in the specialized literature. For instance, Pitla et al. [4] developed a new analytical correlation based on previous studies [5 e 7] to predict the Nusselt number during the in-tube cooling of turbulent supercritical CO and Ge and Cropper [8] performed a similar study. Sánchez et al. [9] analyzed the in fl uence of the su- perheated on the energy ef fi ciency of a transcritical CO refrigera- tion plant. Pfafferott and Schmitz [10] and Rigola et al. [11] carried out sophisticated modeling and transient simulation for refrigerant carbon dioxide exploring a detailed numerical investigation. In addition, the exergetic point of view for conventional and " id="pdf-obj-0-30" src="pdf-obj-0-30.jpg">

PID control for a single-stage transcritical CO 2 refrigeration cycle

M. Salazar, F. Méndez *

Facultad de Ingeniería, UNAM, México, D.F. 04510, Mexico

<a href=Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429 e 438 Contents lists available at S c i e n c e D i r e c t Applied Thermal Engineering journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apthermeng PID control for a single-stage transcritical CO refrigeration cycle M. Salazar, F. Méndez * Facultad de Ingeniería, UNAM, México, D.F. 04510, Mexico highlights The PID control is used for a transcritical refrigeration cycle using CO as working fl uid. We derive two lumped energy balance equations for the evaporator and gas cooler in order to apply control theory. The non-linear control is more dif fi cult to adopt for the present CO refrigeration system. article info Article history: Received 29 September 2013 Accepted 22 March 2014 Available online 2 April 2014 Keywords: CO transcritical cycle Lumped model Thermal control Refrigeration Energy balance abstract In the present work, we develop a closed-loop thermal control analysis of a transcritical refrigeration cycle, operating with CO as working fl uid. A compressor, a gas cooler, a throttling valve and an evap- orator compose the elements of the cycle. We propose a lumped energy balance model to derive a set of non-linear fi rst order differential equations for the gas cooler and the evaporator, which are the heat exchangers where the output temperature controllability for each device is tested. The other compo- nents, i.e., the compressor and the throttling valve are modeled by simpli fi ed relationships based on simple considerations. The resulting governing equations are written in dimensionless form and subject to two control ’ s criteria. First, we reduce the governing equations to a linear system and the well-known Proportional e Integral-Derivative (PID) control technique is used to fi nd the best scenarios of control. Second, the non-linear system is analyzed by using a commercial numerical code to improve the general characteristics of the control. Comparing both methods, we conclude that is more dif fi cult to reach stable conditions with a linear technique because the overshoots of temperature are more pronounced. In addition and even when it is easier to control the evaporator, the stable operation of this system can be drastically modi fi ed by the thermal performance of the gas cooler. 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Due to the favorable environmental characteristics of CO and that, it is non-toxic, non- fl ammable and non-global-warming component, nowadays, this working fl uid considered as one of the most promising for replacing HCFCs and HFCs in some refrig- eration systems. A rationale for exploring new working substances must take into account the imposed restrictions at conventional refrigerants due to their in fl uence on climate change [1 e 3] . In addition, the use of carbon dioxide can reduce the pumping power due to low viscosity. Considering supercritical conditions with high compression rates, we can obtain smaller volumes conducting to the design of components of more compact size. In the past decade, important efforts have been developed for exploring multiple * Corresponding author. Tel.: þ 52 55 56 22 81 03; fax: þ 52 55 56 22 81 06. E-mail addresses: mendezlavielle@gmail.com , fmendez@unam.mx (F. Méndez). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2014.03.052 1359-4311/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. aspects related with the operation and design of this type of tran- scritical systems. However, the low ef fi ciency for commercial refrigeration and heat pump applications even today is one of the major drawbacks of use CO . Therefore, special efforts are required in order to improve the ef fi ciency of these systems including the analysis of each component. In this manner, many fundamental points and physical factors must be known to control the global performance of these systems and some of them have been widely discussed in the specialized literature. For instance, Pitla et al. [4] developed a new analytical correlation based on previous studies [5 e 7] to predict the Nusselt number during the in-tube cooling of turbulent supercritical CO and Ge and Cropper [8] performed a similar study. Sánchez et al. [9] analyzed the in fl uence of the su- perheated on the energy ef fi ciency of a transcritical CO refrigera- tion plant. Pfafferott and Schmitz [10] and Rigola et al. [11] carried out sophisticated modeling and transient simulation for refrigerant carbon dioxide exploring a detailed numerical investigation. In addition, the exergetic point of view for conventional and " id="pdf-obj-0-42" src="pdf-obj-0-42.jpg">

highlights

The PID control is used for a transcritical refrigeration cycle using CO 2 as working uid. We derive two lumped energy balance equations for the evaporator and gas cooler in order to apply control theory. The non-linear control is more difcult to adopt for the present CO 2 refrigeration system.

article info

Article history:

Received 29 September 2013 Accepted 22 March 2014 Available online 2 April 2014

Keywords:

CO 2 transcritical cycle Lumped model

Thermal control

Refrigeration

Energy balance

abstract

In the present work, we develop a closed-loop thermal control analysis of a transcritical refrigeration cycle, operating with CO 2 as working uid. A compressor, a gas cooler, a throttling valve and an evap- orator compose the elements of the cycle. We propose a lumped energy balance model to derive a set of non-linear rst order differential equations for the gas cooler and the evaporator, which are the heat

exchangers where the output temperature controllability for each device is tested. The other compo- nents, i.e., the compressor and the throttling valve are modeled by simplied relationships based on simple considerations. The resulting governing equations are written in dimensionless form and subject to two controls criteria. First, we reduce the governing equations to a linear system and the well-known ProportionaleIntegral-Derivative (PID) control technique is used to nd the best scenarios of control. Second, the non-linear system is analyzed by using a commercial numerical code to improve the general characteristics of the control. Comparing both methods, we conclude that is more difcult to reach stable conditions with a linear technique because the overshoots of temperature are more pronounced. In addition and even when it is easier to control the evaporator, the stable operation of this system can be drastically modied by the thermal performance of the gas cooler. 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Due to the favorable environmental characteristics of CO 2 and that, it is non-toxic, non-ammable and non-global-warming component, nowadays, this working uid considered as one of the most promising for replacing HCFCs and HFCs in some refrig- eration systems. A rationale for exploring new working substances must take into account the imposed restrictions at conventional refrigerants due to their inuence on climate change [1e3]. In addition, the use of carbon dioxide can reduce the pumping power due to low viscosity. Considering supercritical conditions with high compression rates, we can obtain smaller volumes conducting to the design of components of more compact size. In the past decade, important efforts have been developed for exploring multiple

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: þ52 55 56 22 81 03; fax: þ52 55 56 22 81 06. E-mail addresses: mendezlavielle@gmail.com, fmendez@unam.mx (F. Méndez).

1359-4311/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

aspects related with the operation and design of this type of tran- scritical systems. However, the low efciency for commercial refrigeration and heat pump applications even today is one of the major drawbacks of use CO 2 . Therefore, special efforts are required in order to improve the efciency of these systems including the analysis of each component. In this manner, many fundamental points and physical factors must be known to control the global performance of these systems and some of them have been widely discussed in the specialized literature. For instance, Pitla et al. [4] developed a new analytical correlation based on previous studies [5e7] to predict the Nusselt number during the in-tube cooling of turbulent supercritical CO 2 and Ge and Cropper [8] performed a similar study. Sánchez et al. [9] analyzed the inuence of the su- perheated on the energy efciency of a transcritical CO 2 refrigera- tion plant. Pfafferott and Schmitz [10] and Rigola et al. [11] carried out sophisticated modeling and transient simulation for refrigerant carbon dioxide exploring a detailed numerical investigation. In addition, the exergetic point of view for conventional and

  • 430 M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429e438

Nomenclature

A

area [m 2 ]

c p

specic heat [J/kg K]

k

k p

h

m

mass [kg]

_

mass ux [kg/s]

m

N

P

pressure [bar]

_

Q Rej

_

Q R

R

gas constant [J/kg K]

s

T

temperature [K]

t

time [s]

U

V

volume [m 3 ]

v

isentropic index [dimensionless]

constant [dimensionless]

specic enthalpy [kJ/kg]

number of revolutions [rpm]

rejected heat ux at the gas cooler [W]

removed heat ux from the refrigerated space [W]

specic entropy [kJ/kg K]

Global convective heat transfer coefcient [W/m 2 K]

specic volume [m 3 /kg]

x

vapor quality [dimensionless]

Z

compressibility factor [dimensionless]

Greek symbols

a

b

1

b

2

b

3

g

g

ε

r

p

h v

q

s

dimensionless time

Abbreviations

evap

evaporator

cool

cooling

refri

refrigerated space

dimensionless parameter given in Eq. (5)

dimensionless parameter given in Eq. (14)

dimensionless parameter given in Eq. (14)

dimensionless parameter given in Eq. (14)

dimensionless parameter given in Eq. (5)

dimensionless parameter given in Eq. (5)

working uid density [kg/m 3 ]

pressure ratio [dimensionless]

volumetric efciency [dimensionless]

dimensionless temperature

transcritical vapor compression refrigeration cycles was developed

by Srinivasan et al. [12] obtaining the maximum possible exergetic

efciencies for both cases. On the other hand, detailed studies for

estimating the optimum pressure of the compressor are very

important because the compressor discharge pressure affects

seriously the system performance [13,14]. The above point is critical

because the high values of the output pressure can conduct to

thermal and dynamic instabilities. It was illustrated by a CO 2

refrigeration system composed by two thermodynamic cycles ar-

ranged in cascade, one of which is a CO 2 transcritical cycle [15]. Just

for this reason, we conduct here a thermal control analysis of a CO 2

transcritical system. However, we can note that the specialized

literature is scarce in this direction. There are some important

studies related with other specic applications. For example, Lin

[16] carried out a thermal control analysis for a one-dimensional

freeze-drying process, which has numerous applications in the

food, chemical and medical industries for heat-sensitive products.

In addition, in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC)

applications, the control theory recently has played an important

role to obtain an efcient thermal comfort in residential and in-

dustrial areas [17e22]. For the knowledge of the authors, only the

works of Alyousef et al. [23], and Ge and Tassou [24] in some

manner describe the difculties associated with the thermal con-

trol in CO 2 transcritical cycles. However, in the two previous

studies, the control theory is not rigorously applied. Other control

strategies and applications in refrigeration cycles can be found

elsewhere [25e28,31,32].

Recognizing then the importance of this area, we claim the main

purpose of this work: to analyze in detail, with linear and non-

linear control theory, the different options for that the gas cooler

and the evaporator reach an appropriate controllability in the

output temperatures for both devices.

2. Theory

In the present section, we derive the mathematical model based

on a lumped energy balance. However, we show rst as usual on

Fig. 1a and b, the Tes and Peh diagrams of the CO 2 transcritical

refrigeration system because it permits us to use some simple hy-

pothesis given lines below. The trajectories of the transcritical cycle

430 M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429 e 438 Nomenclature A

Fig. 1. a) Tes diagram of the transcritical refrigeration cycle using CO 2 . b) Peh diagram of the transcritical refrigeration cycle using CO 2 .

M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429e438

431

are given by an isentropic compression (1 / 2), an isobaric cooling

(2 / 3), an irreversible isenthalpic throttling (3 / 4) and nally

the isothermal and isobaric heating of the working uid (4 / 1),

needed for reaching the refrigeration effect. In addition, we assume

that the superheat at the outlet of evaporator is neglected. The

proposed cycle is too idealized and a more realistic point of view

must include a certain superheat at the outlet of evaporator as

occurs in practical cases. For this purpose, we can decompose the

term h 4 h 1 as h 4 h 1 ¼ ðh 4 h 4 sv Þþðh 4 sv h 1 Þ, where h 4 sv

would be the enthalpy of the saturated vapor and h 1 the enthalpy of

the superheated vapor. In this manner, the rst term of the right-

hand side of the above difference h 4 h 1 is just the model

derived in the present work, while the resting difference h 4 sv h 1

would be the part that would require an explicit thermodynamic

model. We can suggest, for instance, two simple linear regressions

for both enthalpies h 4 sv and h 1 as function of the temperature of the

evaporator. In this manner, we can derive in a simple form an

extension of the previous model. For this reason, the linear and

non-linear PID control method used in this work can still be used to

this new situation without difculty.

In addition, we consider that the step (2 / 3) is carried out

under transcritical conditions. Therefore, the thermal properties in

this region must be known to derive a realistic model [4]. In this

region, the thermal properties have a strong dependence on tem-

perature and therefore, we can use the numerical and experimental

results of Pitla et al. [4e7] to dene, in our range of interest, the

above relationships. On Table 1 we show the density and specic

heat of the uid as a function of temperature, properties which are

denoted by the symbols r and c p , respectively. In addition, we have

included the global convective heat transfer coefcient, U evap , and

the latent heat, h fg for the trajectory (4 / 1), taken from Refs.

[35,36], respectively; together with the global convective heat

transfer coefcient, U cool from Refs. [4e7]. It should be noted that

the above relationships were derived for a compressible and tur-

bulent cooling ow circulating in a gas cooler [4e7]. The global

convective heat transfer coefcients U evap and U cool for the trajec-

tories (4 / 1) and (2 / 3) depends linearly on the temperature.

We assume that the residence times, when ow passes through the

evaporator and the gas cooler, are larger than the corresponding

residence times in the throttling valve and the compressor. In this

manner, the last two devices operate in a quasi-stationary regime.

We present the lumped energy balances for the evaporator and gas

cooler considering that the temperature of the evaporator and the

output temperature of the gas cooler are subject to an adjustable

control.

2.1. Lumped energy balance at the evaporator

State 4 on Fig. 1 denes the coolant ow coming from the

throttling valve. The valve reduces the pressure of the state 3 to the

state 4, where begins the refrigeration effect up to reach the state of

saturated vapor given by the state 1. From Fig. 1, the lumped energy

balance can write as,

:

mh _ 4 þ Q

R

mh _ 1 ¼ rVc p

dT evap

dt

;

(1)

alternatively, in terms of the global convective heat transfer coef-

cient (Table 1), Eq. (1) can be rewritten as,

rc p V evap

dT evap

dt

¼

:

mðx _ 1Þ L GT evap

þ U evap A evap T refri T evap ;

(2)

where m _ represents the mass ux of the CO 2 refrigerant and x is the

vapor quality. T refri and T evap are the temperatures of the refriger-

ated physical space and evaporator, respectively. U evap and A evap are

the global convective heat transfer coefcient and the area of the

evaporator, respectively. We use Table 1 for the correlation of the

latent heat h fg . Introducing the following dimensionless variables,

s ¼ A evap aT refri þ b t . rc p V and

q evap ¼ A evap aT refri þ b T refri T evap .

mL; _

(3)

Eq. (2) can be written in dimensionless form,

dq evap

ds

¼ ð1 xÞ 1 a 1 gq evap 1 g ε q evap q evap ;

(4)

where the dimensionless parameters are

g ¼

  • mL _

G

  • L T refri and

aT refri þ b A evap T refri

;

a ¼

¼

_

a mL

g ε

aT refri þ b 2

A evap

:

(5)

Considering that the compressor operates in a quasi-stationary

regime, the mass ow rate of the cooling ow, with aid

of Table 1, is given by [33],

Table 1

Physical correlations for CO 2 . Eqs. a), b), c), d)ee) and f) were taken from Refs. [35],

[4e7], [29,30], [4e7] and [36], respectively.

Equation

Coefcient values

a)

U evap ¼ b þ aT refri

b)

2

U cool ¼ c y þ b y T cool þ a y T cool

c)

h v ¼ a z þ b z T evap

d)

r cool ¼ r 0 cool þ r 01 cool T cool

e)

c p cool ¼ c p0 cool þ c p01 cool e ðT cool T 0 Þ 2

2w 2

a ¼ 258 W/m 2 K 2

b ¼ 61469.4 W/m 2 K

a y ¼ 6.4717 W/m 2 K 3

b y ¼ 5069 W/m 2 K 2

c y ¼ 937,715 W/m 2 K

a z ¼ 1.9811

b z ¼ 0.004945 K 1

r 0 enf ¼ 7196.273

kg/m 3

r 01 enf ¼ 20.986 kg/m 3 K

c p0 enf ¼ 3613 J/kg K

c p01 enf ¼ 4237 J/kg K

T 0 ¼ 318.139 K

w ¼ 4.016 K

f)

h fg ¼ L GT evap

L ¼ 926,860 J/kg

G ¼ 2551.5 J/kg K

m ¼ NV p rh v ¼ NV p r a z þ b z T evap ;

_

(6)

Here, we consider that the refrigerant density r is evaluated at

the pressure p 1 of the saturated vapor. The same mass ow rate m _

circulates by the throttling valve. Then, we can apply the Bernoulli

equation for obtaining that the mass ow rate is,

_

m

¼ kr 1=2 p 1=2

1

ðp 1Þ 1=2 ;

(7)

where the pressure ratio is p¼p 2 /p 1 ¼p 3 /p 4 (p 1 and p 2 are the input

and output pressures at the compressor). If equate Eqs. (6) and (7)

yields,

1 NV p

r

p

k

2

a z þ b z T evap 2 ¼ ðp 1Þ:

(8)

We can introduce in the above equation, the generalized

compressibility

factor

Z ¼

p 1 =ðrRT evap Þ ¼ p 1 =ðrRÞfT refri

½ mL=A _ evap ðaT refri þ bÞ q evap g; in this manner, we obtain that

  • 432 M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429e438

p ¼

1 þ

RZT refri NV p

1

k

2

þ 2a z b z NV p

RZ

k

2

;

or

a

2

z refri 1 gq evap !

T

2

gq evap þ b 2

z

1

(9)

p ¼

1 gq evap þ ε 3 1 gq evap þ ε 4 ;

ε

2

(10)

where the dimensionless parameters ε 2 , ε 3 and ε 4 are given by

ε

2

¼

2

RZT refri NV p

a

z

k

2

;

ε 3

ε 4 ¼ 1 þ 2a z b z

RZ

NV p

k

2

:

¼

b 2

z T refri

NV p

k

RZ

2

and

(11)

The pressure ratio, Eq. (9), is used in the next subsection to

derive the lumped energy equation for the gas cooler.

2.2. Lumped energy balance for the gas cooler

In the transcritical region, the cooling process for the working

uid (trajectory 2 / 3) is carried out with the aid of the gas cooler.

The global convective heat transfer coefcient is taken from Table 1,

considering that the physical properties are functions of the tem-

perature. The lumped energy balance is similar to that used to

derive Eq. (4) for the evaporator. Therefore, we obtain that,

r cool c p cool V dT cool

dt

¼

mh 2 U cool A cool ðT cool T N Þ

_

mh _ 3 ;

(12)

or in terms of the s ¼ A evap (aT refri þ b)t/rc p V and

q cool ¼ A evap ðaT refri þ bÞðT cool T N Þ=

mL _ and using the specic heat

and density from Table 1 for the transcritical region, we obtain a

nonlinear equation to predict the temperature of the gas cooler

given by,

Table 2

Physical parameters for the CO 2 transcritical refrigeration cycle. The data were taken

from Refs. [1,8,9,11,14,36].

CO 2 mass ow rate

Area ratio, A cool /A evap

Number of revolutions, N

Displacement volume at the compressor, V

Characteristic expansion constant, K

Density at the evaporator zone, r

Compressibility factor, Z

CO 2 gas constant, R

Average specic heat at subcritical region, c p

Constant for CO 2 , k

0.0286 kg/s

1.3

350 rpm

6.194 10 5 m 3 /rev

1.636 10 5 m 2

983.76 kg/m 3

0.5

0.1889 kJ/kg K

Gas: 0.846 kJ/kg K

Liquid: 2.43 kJ/kg K

1.289

e

01

¼

y 03 ¼

y 06 ¼

y 08 ¼

exp h T N 2 2T 0 T N þ T . 2w 2 i ;

2

0

DT C ðT N T 0 Þ

w 2

; y 04 ¼

DT

C

2

2w

2 ; y 05 ¼

r evap c p evap

r 01 cool DT C c p0 cool

;

c p0 cool r 0 cool þ r 01 cool T N r 01 cool DT C c p0 cool

; y 07 ¼

c p 0 T refri

L

and y 09 ¼

c p 01 T refri

L

:

  • c p01 cool

    • c p0 cool

;

(14)

On Tables 2 and 3, we show some physical parameters and

typical operation conditions for the refrigeration cycle.

In the present analysis, we must distinguish between two

classes of parameters: those which are directly associated with the

method and use of the partial-integrative-derivative control and

given by k p , k i and k d and those dimensionless parameters which

are related with the thermodynamic states and trajectories of the

present refrigeration cycle and given by the set x, g, a, g ε , ε 2 , ε 3 , ε 4 ,

b 1 , b 2 , b 3 , e 01 , y 03 , y 04 , y 05 , y 06 , y 07 , y 08 and y 09 . Taking into account

the considerable number of these last parameters, we arbitrarily

select as key parameters those that are related with the temperature

of the refrigerated space, with the vapor quality, with the charac-

teristic area of the evaporator, with the global convective coef-

cient of the evaporator, etc. because they can seriously affect the

dq cool

ds

¼

y 05

cool i

ðy 06 þ q cool Þ h 1 þ y 07 e 01 e y 03 q cool e y 04 q 2

0

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

@

k 1

1

1 gq evap þ ε 3 1 gq evap þ ε 4 !

ε

2

y 08 þ y 09 e 01 e y 03 q cool e y 04 q 2

cool þ

b 1 þ b 2 q cool þ b 3 q 2 cool q cool

k 1 ! 1 gq evap C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

A

ð1 xÞ 1 a 1 gq evap

(13)

From Eq. (13) the temperature of the gas cooler depends on the

evaporator temperature. Therefore, the control for the cooler is

even more sensible to small variations of the evaporator. In Eq. (13),

the dimensionless parameters are

b 1 ¼

b 3 ¼

a y T 2

N þ b y T N þ c y A cool

aT refri þ b A evap

 

:

a y A cool m 2

L

2

aT refri þ b 3 A 3

evap

 

; b 2 ¼

m L 2a y T 2

:

N þ b y A cool

aT refri þ b 2 A 2

evap

;

stability and control of the system. Adopting the above criterion, we

choose basically to x, g, a and b 1 as key parameters and Figs. 5e14

given in Section 4 were plotted taking into account the inuence of

these key parameters. Occasionally in some gures, we show also

the inuence of the parameter g ε . In addition, these key parameters

are independently between them and therefore the inuence of

each one can be predicted without difculty.

3. PID thermal control

In this section, we present rst the linear control analysis. In

general, there are many control techniques to analyze the stability

of dynamic systems. Here, we apply the well-known Proportionale

M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429e438

433

Table 3

Values of the thermodynamic states for the specic volume, enthalpy, entropy and

vapor quality taken from Ref. [37].

States T (K) P (bar) v (m 3 /kg) h (kJ/kg) s (kJ/kg K) X (L)
States
T (K)
P (bar)
v (m 3 /kg)
h (kJ/kg)
s (kJ/kg K)
X (L)
1
263
26.4
0.014115
435.18
1.8992
1
2
370.88
100
0.005219
500.59
1.9206
VSC
3
313
100
0.001582
312.20
1.3536
e
4
263
26.4
0.007895
312.20
1.4316
0.525

Fig. 2. Block diagram for the evaporator for the present refrigeration cycle.

Integral-Derivative (PID) technique. This method evaluates the

solution of the linear differential equation with the aid of Laplace

transform technique. We obtain the solution of Eqs. (4) and (13) in

the domain of the complex variable s. We anticipate that the

transfer functions or solutions by the evaporator and gas cooler are

denoted by q evap 0 ð sÞ and q cool 0 ðsÞ, respectively. After, we apply PID

control. A PID controller calculates an error value as the difference

between a process variable and a desired set point. The controller

attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the inputs for the

control process. The algorithm for the PID controller involves the

use of three separate constant parameters, called three-term con-

trol. These constants are k p , k i and k d ; whose subscripts p, i and

d denote proportionality, integrative and derivative control,

respectively. The above constants are evaluated by using the pole

assignment method to guarantee the stability of the control.

Therefore, we can assure that the roots of the transfer functions are

found in a stability region. Specic details can be found

elsewhere [34].

Therefore, we use linearized versions of Eqs. (4) and (13)

considering that g E 1 for the evaporator equation, Eq. (4) and

b 2 1, b 3 1 and e 01 1 for Eq. (13). The procedure is the

following: for the linearized version of Eqs. (4) and (13), we can

apply the Laplace transform technique for obtaining the corre-

sponding transfer functions for the evaporator and cooler. For the

evaporator we have that,

dq evap 0

ds

þ ½agðx 1Þ þ 1 q evap 0

¼ ð1 xÞð1 aÞ;

(15)

and applying the Laplace transform to the above equation, we

obtain the transfer function is given by,

sq evap 0 ðsÞ þ q evap 0 ð0Þ þ ½ðx 1Þag þ 1 q evap 0 ðsÞ

¼ ð1 xÞð1 aÞ=s;

(16)

moreover, taking into account the initial condition q evap 0 ð0Þ ¼ 0,

the transfer function for the evaporator is reduced to,

q evap 0 ðsÞ ¼

ð1 xÞð1 aÞ

s½s þ ððx 1Þag

þ 1Þ :

(17)

In the above Eqs. (16) and (17), the variable s denotes the

complex variable for the Laplace transform. We can obtain based on

Control Theory, a relationship between the input and output vari-

ables. For the case of the evaporator, we propose as input signal a

unitary step, given by

G 0 ðsÞ ¼ k p 1 þ

s þ t d s q evap 0 ðsÞ;

1

t i

   
 

(18)

and the inputeoutput function for the evaporator as,

 

U ðsÞ

¼

G 0 ðsÞ

 

E ðsÞ

1

þ G 0 ðsÞ

 
 

k p t i s þ 1 þ t i t d s 2

t i s

 

ð1 xÞð1 aÞ

s 2 þ ððx 1Þag þ 1Þs

 

(19)

 

¼

1

þ k p t i s þ 1 þ t i t d s 2

ð1 xÞð1 aÞ

;

   
 

t i s

s 2 þ ððx 1Þag þ 1Þs

 

and represents the ratio between the input signal U(s), which acts

on the parameters of the same signal, and the response E( s). This

relationship denes the feedback of the system. Following the

RoutheHurwitz criterion [34], the polynomial of the denominator

M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429 e 438 433 Table 3

Fig. 3. Block diagram for the PID non-linear control of the evaporator.

  • 434 M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429e438

434 M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429 e 438 Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Block diagram for the PID non-linear control of the gas cooler.

of the above equation is equal to the polynomial with negative

roots that yields the stability zone to nd the constants k p , k i and k d .

In this manner, the above constants together with the transfer

function for the evaporator are evaluated to closed loop control or

feedback PID control system for the control diagram (Fig. 2). The

above procedure is generated with Simulink subroutine from

MATLAB software. In this form, the proposed input signal is a unit-

step function and easy to generate. Fig. 2 is also used for the gas

cooler.

434 M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429 e 438 Fig. 4.

Fig. 5. Linear responses of the PID control for the temperature of the evaporator for

different values of the constants k p , k i and k d .

Therefore, the pole assignment of the transfer function for the

evaporator is written as,

s 3 þ ððx 1Þag þ 1Þ þ k p ð1 xÞð1 aÞt d s 2

þ k p ð1 xÞð1 aÞs þ k p ð1 xÞð1 aÞ t i ¼ s
þ k p ð1 xÞð1 aÞs þ k p ð1 xÞð1 aÞ
t i
¼ s 3 þ 3s 2 þ 3s þ 1;
(20)

Fig. 6. Linear responses of the PID control for the temperature of the evaporator for

different CO 2 vapor qualities x and k p ¼ 25.47, k i ¼ 8.49 and k d ¼ 17.02.

M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429e438

435

M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429 e 438 435 Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. Linear responses of the PID control for the temperature of the evaporator with

different values of the parameter a and k p ¼ 25.47, k i ¼ 8.49 and k d ¼ 17.02.

M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429 e 438 435 Fig. 7.

Fig. 9. Linear responses of the PID control for the temperature of the gas cooler for

different CO 2 vapor qualities x and k p ¼ 30.87, k i ¼ 10.29 and k d ¼ 23.57.

from which we can obtain easily that k p , k i and k d are given by,

k p ¼

3

ð1 xÞð1 aÞ ;

k i ¼

k p

t i

¼

1

ð1 xÞð1 aÞ

and

k d ¼ t d k p ¼

1

3ððx 1Þag þ 1Þ

ð1 xÞð1 aÞ

ð1 xÞð1 aÞ

:

(21)

(22)

(23)

In the Results and discussion section, for the numerical tests, i.e.,

for each triad k p , k i and k d , the values of x, a and g correspond to

values which are not deviate very much from those values used on

Table 4. The above procedure can also apply to the gas cooler and

the main results are given lines below. Considering then that for the

gas cooler b 2 1, b 3 1 and e 01 1 , the linearized version of Eq.

(13) for the temperature q cool can be written as,

dq cool

ds

¼ A 1 A 2 q evap A 3 q cool ;

(24)

In the above equation, the constants A 1 , A 2 andA 3 are dened

respectively by,

A 1 ¼ h ðε 2 þ ε 3 þ ε 4 Þ ðk 1Þ=k 1 þ ð1 xÞð1 aÞ i y 05 ;

y

06

A

2

¼ "( ðε 2 þ ε 3 þ ε 4 Þ ðk 1Þ=k

1

ðk 1Þ

ðε 2 ε 3 Þ

ε 4 Þ 1=k ) y 08 að1 xÞ #

k

ðε 2 þ ε 3 þ

y

05

y

06

g

and

(25)

A 3 ¼ h ðε 2 þ ε 3 þ ε 4 Þ ðk 1Þ=k 1 þ ð1 xÞð1 aÞ þ y 06 b 1 i y 05 :

y

2

06

(26)

M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429 e 438 435 Fig. 7.

Fig. 8. Linear responses of the PID control for the temperature of the gas cooler for

different values of the constants k p , k i and k d .

M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429 e 438 435 Fig. 7.

Fig. 10. Linear responses of the PID control for the temperature of the gas cooler for

different values of the parameter a and k p ¼ 30.87, k i ¼ 10.29 and k d ¼ 23.57.

  • 436 M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429e438

436 M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429 e 438 Fig. 11.

Fig. 11. Linear responses of the PID control for the temperature of the gas cooler for

different values of the parameter b 1 and k p ¼ 30.87, k i ¼ 10.29 and k d ¼ 23.57.

436 M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429 e 438 Fig. 11.

Fig. 13. Non-linear responses of the PID control for the temperature of the gas cooler

for different values of the constants k p , k i and k d .

For this case and omitting the details, the transfer function for the cooler can be written
For this case and omitting the details, the transfer function for
the cooler can be written as,
A 1 ððx 1Þag þ 1Þ þ A 2 ðx 1Þð1 aÞ þ A 1 s
:
(27)
q cool ðsÞ ¼
sðs þ A 3 Þðs þ ððx 1Þag þ 1ÞÞ
In addition, the constants for the gas cooler are
A 1
4
A 1 ððx 1Þag þ 1Þ þ A 2 ðx 1Þð1 aÞ
k p ¼
;
(28)
A 1 ððx 1Þag þ 1Þ þ A 2 ðx 1Þð1 aÞ
1
(29)
k i ¼
A 1 ððx 1Þag þ 1Þ þ A 2 ðx 1Þð1 aÞ
and
4 ððð1 xÞag þ 1Þ þ A 3 Þ
k d ¼
:
(30)
A 1
Fig. 14. Non-linear responses of the PID control for the temperature of the gas cooler

for different values of the parameter b 1 .

The above linear control can be completed with a nonlinear analysis, taking into account the presence
The above linear control can be completed with a nonlinear
analysis, taking into account the presence of non-linear terms of
Eqs. (4) and (13). For this, we use the PID feed forward compen-
sation technique [34]. We use the same k p , k i and k d in order to
compare non-linear with linear results. We propose for the evap-
orator Eq. (4), the following PID feed forward compensation,
Table 4
Dimensionless parameters.
Parameter
Value
Parameter y 04
Value 0.306
x
0.52
y
10.032
05
a
0.752
y
12.332
06
g
0.011
y
0.866
07
g
0.103
y
1.065
ε
08
b
0.89
y
1.248
1
09
b
0.59
ε
0.0742
2
2
b
0.01
ε
0.0344
3
3
e
0.002
ε
0.8988
01
4
Fig. 12. Non-linear responses of the PID control for the temperature of the evaporator
y
2.72
0.306
03
y 04
for different values of the constants k p , k i and k d .

M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429e438

437

dq evap

g ε q 2

ds

k p q evap k d

evap þ ððx 1Þag þ 1Þq evap þ ðx 1Þð1 aÞ

dq evap

ds

k i Z q evap ds ¼ 0

moreover, for the gas cooler, we suggest:

respect to the reference state. According with data provided by

(31)

Tables 2 and 3, the vapor quality to the entrance of the evaporator

must be x ¼ 0.52. For this value of x and others, on Fig. 6 we show

the response of the PID control for the temperature of the evapo-

rator taking into account the best values of Fig. 7, i.e., k p ¼ 25.47,

k i ¼ 8.49 and k d ¼ 17.02. Here, for increasing values of the vapor

dq enf

ds

y 05

y 06

þ q enf h 1 þ y 07 e 01 e y 03 q enf e y 04 q 2

enf i

0

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

@

k 1

k

1

1 gq evap þ ε 3 1 gq evap þ ε 4 !

ε

2

y 08 þ y 09 e 01 e y 03 q enf e y 04 q 2

enf þ

b x1 þ b x2 q enf þ b x3 q enf 2 q enf

1 ! 1 gq evap C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

A

ð1 xÞ 1 a 1 gq evap

k d

dq enf

ds

k i Z q enf ds ¼ 0

k p q enf

(32)

On Fig. 3, we show the non-linear control diagram for the

evaporator, generated with Simulink. The block ODE represents the

sum of terms included in Eq. (31) together with the PID compen-

sation, this last is given by the last three terms of the left-hand side

of Eq. (31). The term u 2 is the order of the non-linear terms. On the

other hand, Fig. 4 shows the non-linear control diagram for the gas

cooler. The terms of Eq. (32) is a ratio of two functions, which are

dened in the diagram of Fig. 4 as u(1) and u(2). In addition, the

cubic term is represented by the function u * u * u and the expo-

nential terms are grouped in the blocks f(u). The PID control stands

on the superior part of Fig. 4. With the aid of the above Figs. 3 and 4,

we can appreciate that Eq. (32) is transformed to a second ordinary

differential equation due to the fact that two integrators act on the

variables q evap and q cool . In this manner, the increment of order for

the ordinary differential equation generates an additional acceler-

ation effect on the response.

4. Results and discussion

The present numerical simulations and thermal responses for the

evaporator and gas cooler were carried out by considering the data

given on Tables 2e4. It should be noted that the control of temper-

ature for the gas cooler is performed on the output temperature of

this equipment. Therefore, the temperature for the reference state

corresponds just to this temperature. Meanwhile, the control of the

temperature for the reference state for the evaporator is not

restricted to a specic site of the evaporator, recognizing that the

thermodynamic trajectory 4 / 1 is isothermal. The set of Figs. 5e11

correspond to the PID linear control, while the remaining Figs.12e14

correspond to the PID non-linear control analysis.

On Fig. 5, we appreciate that the better response of the evapo-

rator temperature, q evap is reached with the control set parameters

k p ¼ 25.47, k i ¼ 8.49 and k d ¼ 17.02. The corresponding curve is

obtained with an overshoot about 20% with respect to the reference

state and a settling time of s w 12, for which the oscillations are

completely attenuated. In the above Fig. 5, we use x ¼ 0.52,

a ¼ 0.752 and g ¼ 0.011. On the other hand, for the extreme case of

k p ¼ 8.49, k i ¼ 8.49 and k d ¼ 8.49, the system is more unstable with

an overshoot of 48% larger than the best response. The intermediate

curve for the parametric set k p ¼ 8.49, k i ¼ 2.83 and k d ¼ 5.67,

values that represent a third part of the corresponding values for

the extreme case, reaches a stable condition for larger times

(practically for s w 15). In this case, the overshoot is 40% larger with

quality x, the responses are more unstable. The above is mainly due

to the decrease in cooling capacity of the evaporator. On Fig. 7, we

present now the inuence of the dimensionless parameter a.

Selecting again the values k p ¼ 25.47, k i ¼ 8.49 and k d ¼ 17.02, we

show the PID response of the evaporator temperature. Under the

operation conditions given on Tables 2 and 3, the most represen-

tative value of a is just a ¼ 0.752. For larger or smaller values than

this one, the response of the temperature is slightly lengthened or

shortened with the time. The above is an expected result because

the dimensionless parameter a is directly related with the tem-

perature of the refrigerated space.

The next four gures correspond to the dynamic responses of

the output temperature of the gas cooler. On Fig. 8, we show the

responses of the temperature of the gas cooler for three different

sets of control parameters k p , k i and k d . The best response of the

system is obtained with k p ¼ 30.87, k i ¼ 10.29 and k d ¼ 23.57. We

appreciate in comparison with the control of the evaporator that

the control constants for the gas cooler are drastically increased.

The above implies a major control effort because in all cases, the

settling times are larger than for the evaporator cases; however, we

obtain similar behaviors.

On Fig. 9, we show the PID linear control for the gas cooler

temperature with four different vapor qualities and k p ¼ 30.87,

k i ¼ 10.29 and k d ¼ 23.57. The results show a similar behavior with

the evaporator (see Fig. 8). The above result is a direct consequence

of that the variations of the vapor quality is determined by the

operation temperature of the gas cooler. Additionally, Fig. 10 shows

the inuence of three different values of dimensionless parameter

a for the case of k p ¼ 30.87, k i ¼ 10.29 and k d ¼ 23.57. For decreasing

values of a, the overshoot of the temperature is decreased; how-

ever, the settling times are practically the same. On the other hand,

the inuence of the dimensionless parameter b 1 on the response of

the cooler temperature is direct: in Fig. 11, the overshoot of the

temperature and the settling times remain practically unaltered.

Finally, on Figs. 12e14, we show the PID non-linear control analysis

for the temperatures of the evaporator and gas cooler.

5. Conclusions

From the above results, we can conclude that the evaporator has

better stability conditions due to its operation characteristics;

however, the thermal control of the evaporator depends also on the

control of the gas cooler. The comparison between the linear and

  • 438 M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429e438

non-linear cases shows a similar behavior; however, it is easier to

reach stable conditions with the second method because the

overshoots of temperature are less pronounced. In addition, the

comparison between both techniques shows that settling times are

increased by around 20%. On the other hand, the inclusion of

transient terms in governing Eqs. (15), (24), (31) and (32) offer an

opportunity to establish a trade-off between system stability and

performance. However, in the present work, we have not explicitly

evaluated the coefcient of performance (COP). We presume to

make it for the near future.

References

119e174.