PID control for a singlestage transcritical CO _{2} refrigeration cycle
M. Salazar, F. Méndez *
Facultad de Ingeniería, UNAM, México, D.F. 04510, Mexico
highlights
The PID control is used for a transcritical refrigeration cycle using CO _{2} as working ﬂuid. We derive two lumped energy balance equations for the evaporator and gas cooler in order to apply control theory. The nonlinear control is more difﬁcult to adopt for the present CO _{2} refrigeration system.
article info
Article history:
Received 29 September 2013 Accepted 22 March 2014 Available online 2 April 2014
Keywords:
CO _{2} transcritical cycle Lumped model
Thermal control
Refrigeration
Energy balance
abstract
In the present work, we develop a closedloop thermal control analysis of a transcritical refrigeration cycle, operating with CO _{2} as working ﬂuid. A compressor, a gas cooler, a throttling valve and an evap orator compose the elements of the cycle. We propose a lumped energy balance model to derive a set of nonlinear ﬁrst order differential equations for the gas cooler and the evaporator, which are the heat
exchangers where the output temperature controllability for each device is tested. The other compo nents, i.e., the compressor and the throttling valve are modeled by simpliﬁ ed relationships based on simple considerations. The resulting governing equations are written in dimensionless form and subject to two control’s criteria. First, we reduce the governing equations to a linear system and the wellknown ProportionaleIntegralDerivative (PID) control technique is used to ﬁnd the best scenarios of control. Second, the nonlinear system is analyzed by using a commercial numerical code to improve the general characteristics of the control. Comparing both methods, we conclude that is more difﬁcult to reach stable conditions with a linear technique because the overshoots of temperature are more pronounced. In addition and even when it is easier to control the evaporator, the stable operation of this system can be drastically modiﬁed by the thermal performance of the gas cooler. 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Due to the favorable environmental characteristics of CO _{2} and that, it is nontoxic, nonﬂammable and nonglobalwarming component, nowadays, this working ﬂuid considered as one of the most promising for replacing HCFCs and HFCs in some refrig eration systems. A rationale for exploring new working substances must take into account the imposed restrictions at conventional refrigerants due to their inﬂuence on climate change [1e3]. In addition, the use of carbon dioxide can reduce the pumping power due to low viscosity. Considering supercritical conditions with high compression rates, we can obtain smaller volumes conducting to the design of components of more compact size. In the past decade, important efforts have been developed for exploring multiple
*
Corresponding author. Tel.: þ52 55 56 22 81 03; fax: þ52 55 56 22 81 06. Email addresses: mendezlavielle@gmail.com, fmendez@unam.mx (F. Méndez).
13594311/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
aspects related with the operation and design of this type of tran scritical systems. However, the low efﬁciency for commercial refrigeration and heat pump applications even today is one of the major drawbacks of use CO _{2} . Therefore, special efforts are required in order to improve the efﬁciency of these systems including the analysis of each component. In this manner, many fundamental points and physical factors must be known to control the global performance of these systems and some of them have been widely discussed in the specialized literature. For instance, Pitla et al. [4] developed a new analytical correlation based on previous studies [5e7] to predict the Nusselt number during the intube cooling of turbulent supercritical CO _{2} and Ge and Cropper [8] performed a similar study. Sánchez et al. [9] analyzed the inﬂuence of the su perheated on the energy efﬁciency of a transcritical CO _{2} refrigera tion plant. Pfafferott and Schmitz [10] and Rigola et al. [11] carried out sophisticated modeling and transient simulation for refrigerant carbon dioxide exploring a detailed numerical investigation. In addition, the exergetic point of view for conventional and
430 M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429e438
Nomenclature 

A 
area [m ^{2} ] 
c _{p} 
speciﬁc heat [J/kg K] 
k 

k _{p} 

h 

m 
mass [kg] 
_ 
mass ﬂux [kg/s] 
m 

N 

P 
pressure [bar] 
_ 

Q _{R}_{e}_{j} _ 

Q _{R} 

R 
gas constant [J/kg K] 
s 

T 
temperature [K] 
t 
time [s] 
U 

V 
volume [m ^{3} ] 
v 
isentropic index [dimensionless]
constant [dimensionless]
speciﬁc enthalpy [kJ/kg]
number of revolutions [rpm]
rejected heat ﬂux at the gas cooler [W]
removed heat ﬂux from the refrigerated space [W]
speciﬁc entropy [kJ/kg K]
Global convective heat transfer coefﬁcient [W/m ^{2} K]
speciﬁc volume [m ^{3} /kg]
x 
vapor quality [dimensionless] 
Z 
compressibility factor [dimensionless] 
Greek symbols 
a 

b 
_{1} 

b 
_{2} 

b 
_{3} 

g 

g 
_{ε} 

r 

p 

h _{v} 

q 

s 
dimensionless time 

Abbreviations 

evap 
evaporator 

cool 
cooling 

refri 
refrigerated space 
dimensionless parameter given in Eq. (5)
dimensionless parameter given in Eq. (14)
dimensionless parameter given in Eq. (14)
dimensionless parameter given in Eq. (14)
dimensionless parameter given in Eq. (5)
dimensionless parameter given in Eq. (5)
working ﬂuid density [kg/m ^{3} ]
pressure ratio [dimensionless]
volumetric efﬁciency [dimensionless]
dimensionless temperature
transcritical vapor compression refrigeration cycles was developed
by Srinivasan et al. [12] obtaining the maximum possible exergetic
efﬁciencies for both cases. On the other hand, detailed studies for
estimating the optimum pressure of the compressor are very
important because the compressor discharge pressure affects
seriously the system performance [13,14]. The above point is critical
because the high values of the output pressure can conduct to
thermal and dynamic instabilities. It was illustrated by a CO _{2}
refrigeration system composed by two thermodynamic cycles ar
ranged in cascade, one of which is a CO _{2} transcritical cycle [15]. Just
for this reason, we conduct here a thermal control analysis of a CO _{2}
transcritical system. However, we can note that the specialized
literature is scarce in this direction. There are some important
studies related with other speciﬁc applications. For example, Lin
[16] carried out a thermal control analysis for a onedimensional
freezedrying process, which has numerous applications in the
food, chemical and medical industries for heatsensitive products.
In addition, in heating, ventilation and airconditioning (HVAC)
applications, the control theory recently has played an important
role to obtain an efﬁcient thermal comfort in residential and in
dustrial areas [17e22]. For the knowledge of the authors, only the
works of Alyousef et al. [23], and Ge and Tassou [24] in some
manner describe the difﬁculties associated with the thermal con
trol in CO _{2} transcritical cycles. However, in the two previous
studies, the control theory is not rigorously applied. Other control
strategies and applications in refrigeration cycles can be found
elsewhere [25e28,31,32].
Recognizing then the importance of this area, we claim the main
purpose of this work: to analyze in detail, with linear and non
linear control theory, the different options for that the gas cooler
and the evaporator reach an appropriate controllability in the
output temperatures for both devices.
2. Theory
In the present section, we derive the mathematical model based
on a lumped energy balance. However, we show ﬁrst as usual on
Fig. 1a and b, the Tes and Peh diagrams of the CO _{2} transcritical
refrigeration system because it permits us to use some simple hy
pothesis given lines below. The trajectories of the transcritical cycle
Fig. 1. a) Tes diagram of the transcritical refrigeration cycle using CO _{2} . b) Peh diagram of the transcritical refrigeration cycle using CO _{2} .
M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429e438
431
are given by an isentropic compression (1 / 2), an isobaric cooling
(2 / 3), an irreversible isenthalpic throttling (3 / 4) and ﬁnally
the isothermal and isobaric heating of the working ﬂuid (4 / 1),
needed for reaching the refrigeration effect. In addition, we assume
that the superheat at the outlet of evaporator is neglected. The
proposed cycle is too idealized and a more realistic point of view
must include a certain superheat at the outlet of evaporator as
occurs in practical cases. For this purpose, we can decompose the
term h _{4} h _{1} as h _{4} h _{1} ¼ ðh _{4} h _{4} _{s}_{v} Þþðh _{4} _{s}_{v} h _{1} Þ, where h _{4} _{s}_{v}
would be the enthalpy of the saturated vapor and h _{1} the enthalpy of
the superheated vapor. In this manner, the ﬁrst term of the right
hand side of the above difference h _{4} h _{1} is just the model
derived in the present work, while the resting difference h _{4} _{s}_{v} h _{1}
would be the part that would require an explicit thermodynamic
model. We can suggest, for instance, two simple linear regressions
for both enthalpies h _{4} _{s}_{v} and h _{1} as function of the temperature of the
evaporator. In this manner, we can derive in a simple form an
extension of the previous model. For this reason, the linear and
nonlinear PID control method used in this work can still be used to
this new situation without difﬁculty.
In addition, we consider that the step (2 / 3) is carried out
under transcritical conditions. Therefore, the thermal properties in
this region must be known to derive a realistic model [4]. In this
region, the thermal properties have a strong dependence on tem
perature and therefore, we can use the numerical and experimental
results of Pitla et al. [4e7] to deﬁne, in our range of interest, the
above relationships. On Table 1 we show the density and speciﬁc
heat of the ﬂuid as a function of temperature, properties which are
denoted by the symbols r and c _{p} , respectively. In addition, we have
included the global convective heat transfer coefﬁcient, U _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} , and
the latent heat, h _{f}_{g} for the trajectory (4 / 1), taken from Refs.
[35,36], respectively; together with the global convective heat
transfer coefﬁcient, U _{c}_{o}_{o}_{l} from Refs. [4e7]. It should be noted that
the above relationships were derived for a compressible and tur
bulent cooling ﬂow circulating in a gas cooler [4e7]. The global
convective heat transfer coefﬁcients U _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} and U _{c}_{o}_{o}_{l} for the trajec
tories (4 / 1) and (2 / 3) depends linearly on the temperature.
We assume that the residence times, when ﬂow passes through the
evaporator and the gas cooler, are larger than the corresponding
residence times in the throttling valve and the compressor. In this
manner, the last two devices operate in a quasistationary regime.
We present the lumped energy balances for the evaporator and gas
cooler considering that the temperature of the evaporator and the
output temperature of the gas cooler are subject to an adjustable
control.
2.1. Lumped energy balance at the evaporator
State 4 on Fig. 1 deﬁnes the coolant ﬂow coming from the
throttling valve. The valve reduces the pressure of the state 3 to the
state 4, where begins the refrigeration effect up to reach the state of
saturated vapor given by the state 1. From Fig. 1, the lumped energy
balance can write as,
:
mh _ _{4} þ Q
R
mh _ _{1} ¼ rVc _{p}
dT evap
dt
;
(1)
alternatively, in terms of the global convective heat transfer coef
ﬁcient (Table 1), Eq. (1) can be rewritten as,
rc p V evap
dT evap
dt
¼
:
mðx _ 1Þ ^{} L GT _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} ^{}
þ U evap A evap T _{r}_{e}_{f}_{r}_{i} T evap ;
(2)
where m _ represents the mass ﬂux of the CO _{2} refrigerant and x is the
vapor quality. T _{r}_{e}_{f}_{r}_{i} and T _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} are the temperatures of the refriger
ated physical space and evaporator, respectively. U _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} and A _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} are
the global convective heat transfer coefﬁcient and the area of the
evaporator, respectively. We use Table 1 for the correlation of the
latent heat h _{f}_{g} . Introducing the following dimensionless variables,
s ¼ A _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} aT _{r}_{e}_{f}_{r}_{i} þ b t . rc _{p} V and
q evap ¼ A evap aT _{r}_{e}_{f}_{r}_{i} þ b T _{r}_{e}_{f}_{r}_{i} T evap .
mL; _
(3)
Eq. (2) can be written in dimensionless form,
dq evap
ds
¼ ð1 xÞ ^{} 1 a ^{} 1 gq evap ^{}^{} ^{} 1 g _{ε} q evap ^{} q evap ;
(4)
where the dimensionless parameters are
g ¼ 

G


^{a}^{T} refri ^{þ} ^{b} ^{A} evap ^{T} refri 
; a ¼ 

¼ 
_ a mL 

g ε 
aT refri þ b 2 A evap 
: 
(5)
Considering that the compressor operates in a quasistationary
regime, the mass ﬂow rate of the cooling ﬂow, with aid
of Table 1, is given by [33],
Table 1
Physical correlations for CO _{2} . Eqs. a), b), c), d)ee) and f) were taken from Refs. [35],
[4e7], [29,30], [4e7] and [36], respectively.
Equation
Coefﬁcient values
a)
U _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} ¼ b þ aT _{r}_{e}_{f}_{r}_{i}
b)
2
U cool ¼ c y þ b y T cool þ a y T _{c}_{o}_{o}_{l}
c)
h _{v} ¼ a _{z} þ b _{z} T _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p}
d)
r _{c}_{o}_{o}_{l} ¼ r _{0} _{c}_{o}_{o}_{l} þ r _{0}_{1} _{c}_{o}_{o}_{l} T _{c}_{o}_{o}_{l}
^{e}^{)}
^{c} ^{p} cool ^{¼} ^{c} ^{p}^{0} cool ^{þ} ^{c} ^{p}^{0}^{1} cool ^{e} ðT cool T 0 Þ 2
2w ^{2}
a ¼ 258 W/m ^{2} K ^{2}
b ¼ 61469.4 W/m ^{2} K
a _{y} ¼ 6.4717 W/m ^{2} K ^{3}
b _{y} ¼ 5069 W/m ^{2} K ^{2}
c _{y} ¼ 937,715 W/m ^{2} K
a _{z} ¼ 1.9811
b _{z} ¼ 0.004945 K ^{} ^{1}
r _{0} _{e}_{n}_{f} ¼ 7196.273
kg/m ^{3}
r _{0}_{1} _{e}_{n}_{f} ¼ 20.986 kg/m ^{3} K
c _{p}_{0} _{e}_{n}_{f} ¼ 3613 J/kg K
c _{p}_{0}_{1} _{e}_{n}_{f} ¼ 4237 J/kg K
T _{0} ¼ 318.139 K
w ¼ 4.016 K
f)
h _{f}_{g} ¼ L GT _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p}
L ¼ 926,860 J/kg
G ¼ 2551.5 J/kg K
m ¼ NV p rh _{v} ¼ NV p r ^{} a z þ b z T evap ^{} ;
_
(6)
Here, we consider that the refrigerant density r is evaluated at
the pressure p _{1} of the saturated vapor. The same mass ﬂow rate m _
circulates by the throttling valve. Then, we can apply the Bernoulli
equation for obtaining that the mass ﬂow rate is,
_
m
¼ kr ^{1}^{=}^{2} p ^{1}^{=}^{2}
1
ðp 1Þ ^{1}^{=}^{2} ;
(7)
where the pressure ratio is p¼p _{2} /p _{1} ¼p _{3} /p _{4} (p _{1} and p _{2} are the input
and output pressures at the compressor). If equate Eqs. (6) and (7)
yields,
1 ^{} NV _{p}
r
p
k
^{} 2
^{} a _{z} þ b _{z} T _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} ^{} ^{2} ¼ ðp 1Þ:
(8)
We can introduce in the above equation, the generalized
compressibility
factor
Z ¼
p _{1} _{=}_{ð}_{r}_{R}_{T} _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} Þ ¼ p _{1} _{=}_{ð}_{r}_{R}_{Þ}_{f}_{T} _{r}_{e}_{f}_{r}_{i}
½ mL=A _ _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} ðaT _{r}_{e}_{f}_{r}_{i} þ bÞ q _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} g; in this manner, we obtain that
432 M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429e438
p ¼
1 þ
RZT refri NV p
1
k
^{} ^{2}
_{þ} 2a _{z} b _{z} ^{} NV _{p}
RZ
k
^{} 2
;
or
a
2
z refri ^{1} ^{} ^{g}^{q} evap !
T
2
gq evap þ b 2
z
^{} 1
(9)
p ¼
_{1} _{} _{g}_{q} evap þ ε _{3} ^{} 1 gq _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} ^{} þ ε _{4} ;
ε
2
(10)
where the dimensionless parameters ε _{2} , ε _{3} and ε _{4} are given by
ε
_{2}
¼
2
RZT refri NV p
a
z
k
^{} 2
;
ε _{3}
ε _{4} ¼ 1 þ ^{2}^{a} ^{z} ^{b} ^{z}
RZ
^{} NV _{p}
k
^{} 2
:
¼
b ^{2}
z ^{T} refri
^{} NV _{p}
k
RZ
^{} 2
and
(11)
The pressure ratio, Eq. (9), is used in the next subsection to
derive the lumped energy equation for the gas cooler.
2.2. Lumped energy balance for the gas cooler
In the transcritical region, the cooling process for the working
ﬂuid (trajectory 2 / 3) is carried out with the aid of the gas cooler.
The global convective heat transfer coefﬁcient is taken from Table 1,
considering that the physical properties are functions of the tem
perature. The lumped energy balance is similar to that used to
derive Eq. (4) for the evaporator. Therefore, we obtain that,
^{r} cool ^{c} p cool ^{V} dT ^{c}^{o}^{o}^{l}
dt
¼
^{m}^{h} 2 ^{} ^{U} cool ^{A} cool ^{ð}^{T} cool ^{} ^{T} N ^{Þ} ^{}
_
mh _ _{3} ;
(12)
or in terms of the s ¼ A _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} (aT _{r}_{e}_{f}_{r}_{i} þ b)t/rc _{p} V and
q _{c}_{o}_{o}_{l} ¼ A _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} ðaT _{r}_{e}_{f}_{r}_{i} þ bÞðT _{c}_{o}_{o}_{l} T _{N} Þ=
mL _ and using the speciﬁc heat
and density from Table 1 for the transcritical region, we obtain a
nonlinear equation to predict the temperature of the gas cooler
given by,
Table 2
Physical parameters for the CO _{2} transcritical refrigeration cycle. The data were taken
from Refs. [1,8,9,11,14,36].
CO _{2} mass ﬂow rate
Area ratio, A _{c}_{o}_{o}_{l} /A _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p}
Number of revolutions, N
Displacement volume at the compressor, V
Characteristic expansion constant, K
Density at the evaporator zone, r
Compressibility factor, Z
CO _{2} gas constant, R
Average speciﬁc heat at subcritical region, c _{p}
Constant for CO _{2} , k
0.0286 kg/s
1.3
350 rpm
6.194 10 ^{} ^{5} m ^{3} /rev
1.636 10 ^{} ^{5} m ^{2}
983.76 kg/m ^{3}
0.5
0.1889 kJ/kg K
Gas: 0.846 kJ/kg K
Liquid: 2.43 kJ/kg K
1.289
e
_{0}_{1}
¼
y 03 ¼
y 06 ¼
y 08 ¼
exp h T _{N} ^{2} 2T _{0} T _{N} þ T . 2w ^{2} i ;
2
0
DT _{C} ðT _{N} T _{0} Þ
w ^{2}
; y _{0}_{4} ¼
DT
C
2
2w
_{2} ; y _{0}_{5} ¼
^{r} evap ^{c} p evap
^{r} ^{0}^{1} cool ^{D}^{T} ^{C} ^{c} ^{p}^{0} cool
;
^{c} ^{p}^{0} cool ^{r} ^{0} cool ^{þ} ^{r} ^{0}^{1} cool ^{T} ^{N} ^{r} ^{0}^{1} cool ^{D}^{T} ^{C} ^{c} ^{p}^{0} cool
; y _{0}_{7} ¼
^{c} p _{0} ^{T} refri
L
and y _{0}_{9} ¼
^{c} p _{0}_{1} ^{T} refri
L
^{:}
^{c} ^{p}^{0}^{1} cool
^{c} ^{p}^{0} cool
;
(14)
On Tables 2 and 3, we show some physical parameters and
typical operation conditions for the refrigeration cycle.
In the present analysis, we must distinguish between two
classes of parameters: those which are directly associated with the
method and use of the partialintegrativederivative control and
given by k _{p} , k _{i} and k _{d} and those dimensionless parameters which
are related with the thermodynamic states and trajectories of the
present refrigeration cycle and given by the set x, _{g}_{,} _{a}_{,} _{g} _{ε} , ε _{2} , ε _{3} , ε _{4} ,
b _{1} , b _{2} , b _{3} , e _{0}_{1} , y _{0}_{3} , y _{0}_{4} , y _{0}_{5} , y _{0}_{6} , y _{0}_{7} , y _{0}_{8} and y _{0}_{9} . Taking into account
the considerable number of these last parameters, we arbitrarily
select as key parameters those that are related with the temperature
of the refrigerated space, with the vapor quality, with the charac
teristic area of the evaporator, with the global convective coefﬁ
cient of the evaporator, etc. because they can seriously affect the
^{d}^{q} cool
ds
¼
^{y} 05
cool i
ðy _{0}_{6} þ q _{c}_{o}_{o}_{l} Þ h 1 þ y _{0}_{7} e _{0}_{1} e ^{} ^{y} 03 ^{q} cool e ^{} ^{y} ^{0}^{4} ^{q} ^{2}
0
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
@
k 1
1
^{} 1 gq evap ^{} ^{þ} ^{ε} ^{3} ^{1} ^{} ^{g}^{q} ^{e}^{v}^{a}^{p} ^{þ} ^{ε} ^{4} !
ε
2
^{} ^{y} 08 ^{þ} ^{y} 09 ^{e} 01 ^{e} ^{} ^{y} ^{0}^{3} ^{q} ^{c}^{o}^{o}^{l} ^{e} ^{} ^{y} ^{0}^{4} ^{q} 2
cool þ
_{} b _{1} _{þ} b _{2} q _{c}_{o}_{o}_{l} _{þ} b _{3} q ^{2} cool ^{q} cool
^{k} 1 ! ^{} 1 gq evap ^{} C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
A
ð1 xÞ ^{} 1 a ^{} 1 gq _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} ^{}^{}
(13)
From Eq. (13) the temperature of the gas cooler depends on the
evaporator temperature. Therefore, the control for the cooler is
even more sensible to small variations of the evaporator. In Eq. (13),
the dimensionless parameters are
b 1 ¼
b 3 ¼
a y T ^{2} _{N} þ b _{y} T _{N} þ c _{y} A _{c}_{o}_{o}_{l} 

^{a}^{T} refri ^{þ} ^{b} ^{A} evap 

: 

^{a} y ^{A} cool ^{m} ^{2} 
L 
^{2} 

aT refri þ b 3 A ^{3} evap 
; b _{2} ¼
m L 2a _{y} T ^{2}
:
_{N} ^{þ} ^{b} y ^{A} cool
aT refri þ b 2 A ^{2}
evap
;
stability and control of the system. Adopting the above criterion, we
choose basically to x, g, a and b _{1} as key parameters and Figs. 5e14
given in Section 4 were plotted taking into account the inﬂuence of
these key parameters. Occasionally in some ﬁgures, we show also
the inﬂuence of the parameter g _{ε} . In addition, these key parameters
are independently between them and therefore the inﬂuence of
each one can be predicted without difﬁculty.
3. PID thermal control
In this section, we present ﬁrst the linear control analysis. In
general, there are many control techniques to analyze the stability
of dynamic systems. Here, we apply the wellknown Proportionale
M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429e438
433
Table 3
Values of the thermodynamic states for the speciﬁc volume, enthalpy, entropy and
vapor quality taken from Ref. [37].
Fig. 2. Block diagram for the evaporator for the present refrigeration cycle.
IntegralDerivative (PID) technique. This method evaluates the
solution of the linear differential equation with the aid of Laplace
transform technique. We obtain the solution of Eqs. (4) and (13) in
the domain of the complex variable s. We anticipate that the
transfer functions or solutions by the evaporator and gas cooler are
denoted by q _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} _{0} ð sÞ and q _{c}_{o}_{o}_{l} _{0} ðsÞ, respectively. After, we apply PID
control. A PID controller calculates an error value as the difference
between a process variable and a desired set point. The controller
attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the inputs for the
control process. The algorithm for the PID controller involves the
use of three separate constant parameters, called threeterm con
trol. These constants are k _{p} , k _{i} and k _{d} ; whose subscripts p, i and
d denote proportionality, integrative and derivative control,
respectively. The above constants are evaluated by using the pole
assignment method to guarantee the stability of the control.
Therefore, we can assure that the roots of the transfer functions are
found in a stability region. Speciﬁc details can be found
elsewhere [34].
Therefore, we use linearized versions of Eqs. (4) and (13)
considering that g _{E} 1 for the evaporator equation, Eq. (4) and
b _{2} 1, b _{3} 1 and e _{0}_{1} 1 for Eq. (13). The procedure is the
following: for the linearized version of Eqs. (4) and (13), we can
apply the Laplace transform technique for obtaining the corre
sponding transfer functions for the evaporator and cooler. For the
evaporator we have that,
dq evap _{0}
ds
þ ½agðx 1Þ þ 1 q _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} _{0}
¼ ð1 xÞð1 aÞ;
(15)
and applying the Laplace transform to the above equation, we
obtain the transfer function is given by,
sq _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} _{0} ðsÞ þ q _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} _{0} ð0Þ þ ½ðx 1Þag þ 1 q _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} _{0} ðsÞ
¼ ð1 xÞð1 aÞ=s;
(16)
moreover, taking into account the initial condition q _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} _{0} ð0Þ ¼ 0,
the transfer function for the evaporator is reduced to,
q evap _{0} ðsÞ ¼
ð1 xÞð1 aÞ 

s½s þ ððx 1Þag 
_{þ} _{1}_{Þ} _{} : 
(17)
In the above Eqs. (16) and (17), the variable s denotes the
complex variable for the Laplace transform. We can obtain based on
Control Theory, a relationship between the input and output vari
ables. For the case of the evaporator, we propose as input signal a
unitary step, given by
G _{0} ðsÞ ¼ k _{p} 1 þ 
_{s} þ t _{d} s q _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} _{0} ðsÞ; 1 t i 

(18) 

and the inputeoutput function for the evaporator as, 

U ðsÞ 
¼ 
G _{0} ðsÞ 

E ðsÞ 
1 
þ G _{0} ðsÞ 

_{k} p ^{} t _{i} s þ 1 þ t _{i} t _{d} s ^{2} t _{i} s 

ð1 xÞð1 aÞ 

^{} s ^{2} þ ððx 1Þag þ 1Þs ^{} 
(19) 

¼ 
_{1} 
_{þ} _{k} p ^{} t _{i} s þ 1 þ t _{i} t _{d} s ^{2} 

ð1 xÞð1 aÞ 
; 

t _{i} s 
^{} s ^{2} þ ððx 1Þag þ 1Þs ^{} 
and represents the ratio between the input signal U(s), which acts
on the parameters of the same signal, and the response E( s). This
relationship deﬁnes the feedback of the system. Following the
RoutheHurwitz criterion [34], the polynomial of the denominator
Fig. 3. Block diagram for the PID nonlinear control of the evaporator.
434 M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429e438
Fig. 4. Block diagram for the PID nonlinear control of the gas cooler.
of the above equation is equal to the polynomial with negative
roots that yields the stability zone to ﬁnd the constants k _{p} , k _{i} and k _{d} .
In this manner, the above constants together with the transfer
function for the evaporator are evaluated to closed loop control or
feedback PID control system for the control diagram (Fig. 2). The
above procedure is generated with Simulink subroutine from
MATLAB software. In this form, the proposed input signal is a unit
step function and easy to generate. Fig. 2 is also used for the gas
cooler.
Fig. 5. Linear responses of the PID control for the temperature of the evaporator for
different values of the constants k _{p} , k _{i} and k _{d} .
Therefore, the pole assignment of the transfer function for the
evaporator is written as,
s ^{3} þ ^{} ððx 1Þag þ 1Þ þ k _{p} ð1 xÞð1 aÞt _{d} ^{} s ^{2}
Fig. 6. Linear responses of the PID control for the temperature of the evaporator for
different CO _{2} vapor qualities x and k _{p} ¼ 25.47, k _{i} ¼ 8.49 and k _{d} ¼ 17.02.
M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429e438
435
Fig. 7. Linear responses of the PID control for the temperature of the evaporator with
different values of the parameter a and k _{p} ¼ 25.47, k _{i} ¼ 8.49 and k _{d} ¼ 17.02.
Fig. 9. Linear responses of the PID control for the temperature of the gas cooler for
different CO _{2} vapor qualities x and k _{p} ¼ 30.87, k _{i} ¼ 10.29 and k _{d} ¼ 23.57.
from which we can obtain easily that k _{p} , k _{i} and k _{d} are given by,
k _{p} ¼
3
ð1 xÞð1 aÞ ^{;}
k i ¼
k p
t i
¼
1
ð1 xÞð1 aÞ
and
k _{d} ¼ t _{d} k _{p} ¼
1
3ððx 1Þag þ 1Þ
ð1 xÞð1 aÞ
ð1 xÞð1 aÞ
:
^{(}^{2}^{1}^{)}
^{(}^{2}^{2}^{)}
(23)
In the Results and discussion section, for the numerical tests, i.e.,
for each triad k _{p} , k _{i} and k _{d} , the values of x, a and g correspond to
values which are not deviate very much from those values used on
Table 4. The above procedure can also apply to the gas cooler and
the main results are given lines below. Considering then that for the
gas cooler b _{2} 1, b _{3} 1 and e _{0}_{1} 1 , the linearized version of Eq.
(13) for the temperature _{q} _{c}_{o}_{o}_{l} can be written as,
^{d}^{q} cool
ds
¼ A _{1} A _{2} q _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} A _{3} q _{c}_{o}_{o}_{l} ;
(24)
In the above equation, the constants A _{1} , A _{2} andA _{3} are deﬁned
respectively by,
A _{1} ¼ h ðε _{2} þ ε _{3} þ ε _{4} Þ ^{ð}^{k} ^{} ^{1}^{Þ}^{=}^{k} 1 þ ð1 xÞð1 aÞ i ^{y} ^{0}^{5} ;
^{y}
06
A
_{2}
¼ "( ðε _{2} þ ε _{3} þ ε _{4} Þ ^{ð}^{k} ^{} ^{1}^{Þ}^{=}^{k}
1
ðk 1Þ
ðε _{2} ε _{3} Þ
_{ε} _{4} _{Þ} 1=k ) ^{y} ^{0}^{8} ^{} ^{a}^{ð}^{1} ^{} ^{x}^{Þ} #
k
ðε _{2} þ ε _{3} þ
y
^{0}^{5}
^{y}
06
g
and
(25)
A _{3} ¼ h ðε _{2} þ ε _{3} þ ε _{4} Þ ^{ð}^{k} ^{} ^{1}^{Þ}^{=}^{k} 1 þ ð1 xÞð1 aÞ þ y _{0}_{6} b _{1} i ^{y} ^{0}^{5} :
y
^{2}
06
(26)
Fig. 8. Linear responses of the PID control for the temperature of the gas cooler for
different values of the constants k _{p} , k _{i} and k _{d} .
Fig. 10. Linear responses of the PID control for the temperature of the gas cooler for
different values of the parameter a and k _{p} ¼ 30.87, k _{i} ¼ 10.29 and k _{d} ¼ 23.57.
436 M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429e438
Fig. 11. Linear responses of the PID control for the temperature of the gas cooler for
different values of the parameter b _{1} and k _{p} ¼ 30.87, k _{i} ¼ 10.29 and k _{d} ¼ 23.57.
Fig. 13. Nonlinear responses of the PID control for the temperature of the gas cooler
for different values of the constants k _{p} , k _{i} and k _{d} .
for different values of the parameter _{b} _{1} .
M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429e438
437
dq evap 
_{} g _{ε} q ^{2} 
ds 

k p q evap k _{d} 
_{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} þ ððx 1Þag þ 1Þq _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} þ ðx 1Þð1 aÞ
dq evap
ds
k _{i} Z q _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} ds ¼ 0
moreover, for the gas cooler, we suggest:
respect to the reference state. According with data provided by
(31)
Tables 2 and 3, the vapor quality to the entrance of the evaporator
must be x ¼ 0.52. For this value of x and others, on Fig. 6 we show
the response of the PID control for the temperature of the evapo
rator taking into account the best values of Fig. 7, i.e., k _{p} ¼ 25.47,
k _{i} ¼ 8.49 and k _{d} ¼ 17.02. Here, for increasing values of the vapor
^{d}^{q} enf
ds
^{y} 05
^{y} 06
^{þ} ^{q} _{e}_{n}_{f} h ^{1} ^{þ} ^{y} 07 ^{e} 01 ^{e} ^{} ^{y} ^{0}^{3} ^{q} ^{e}^{n}^{f} ^{e} ^{} ^{y} ^{0}^{4} ^{q} 2
enf i
0
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
@
k 1
^{k}
1
^{} 1 gq evap ^{} ^{þ} ^{ε} ^{3} ^{1} ^{} ^{g}^{q} ^{e}^{v}^{a}^{p} ^{þ} ^{ε} ^{4} !
ε
2
^{y} 08 ^{þ} ^{y} 09 ^{e} 01 ^{e} ^{} ^{y} ^{0}^{3} ^{q} ^{e}^{n}^{f} ^{e} ^{} ^{y} ^{0}^{4} ^{q} 2
enf þ
^{} ^{b} x1 ^{þ} ^{b} x2 ^{q} _{e}_{n}_{f} ^{þ} ^{b} x3 ^{q} enf ^{2} ^{q} enf
1 ! ^{} 1 gq evap ^{} C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
A
ð1 xÞ ^{} 1 a ^{} 1 gq _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} ^{}^{}
k _{d}
^{d}^{q} enf
ds
k _{i} Z q _{e}_{n}_{f} ds ¼ 0
^{} ^{k} p ^{q} enf
(32)
On Fig. 3, we show the nonlinear control diagram for the
evaporator, generated with Simulink. The block ODE represents the
sum of terms included in Eq. (31) together with the PID compen
sation, this last is given by the last three terms of the lefthand side
of Eq. (31). The term u ^{2} is the order of the nonlinear terms. On the
other hand, Fig. 4 shows the nonlinear control diagram for the gas
cooler. The terms of Eq. (32) is a ratio of two functions, which are
deﬁned in the diagram of Fig. 4 as u(1) and u(2). In addition, the
cubic term is represented by the function u * u * u and the expo
nential terms are grouped in the blocks f(u). The PID control stands
on the superior part of Fig. 4. With the aid of the above Figs. 3 and 4,
we can appreciate that Eq. (32) is transformed to a second ordinary
differential equation due to the fact that two integrators act on the
variables q _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} and q _{c}_{o}_{o}_{l} . In this manner, the increment of order for
the ordinary differential equation generates an additional acceler
ation effect on the response.
4. Results and discussion
The present numerical simulations and thermal responses for the
evaporator and gas cooler were carried out by considering the data
given on Tables 2e4. It should be noted that the control of temper
ature for the gas cooler is performed on the output temperature of
this equipment. Therefore, the temperature for the reference state
corresponds just to this temperature. Meanwhile, the control of the
temperature for the reference state for the evaporator is not
restricted to a speciﬁc site of the evaporator, recognizing that the
thermodynamic trajectory 4 / 1 is isothermal. The set of Figs. 5e11
correspond to the PID linear control, while the remaining Figs.12e14
correspond to the PID nonlinear control analysis.
On Fig. 5, we appreciate that the better response of the evapo
rator temperature, q _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p} is reached with the control set parameters
k _{p} ¼ 25.47, k _{i} ¼ 8.49 and k _{d} ¼ 17.02. The corresponding curve is
obtained with an overshoot about 20% with respect to the reference
state and a settling time of s w 12, for which the oscillations are
completely attenuated. In the above Fig. 5, we use x ¼ 0.52,
a ¼ 0.752 and g ¼ 0.011. On the other hand, for the extreme case of
k _{p} ¼ 8.49, k _{i} ¼ 8.49 and k _{d} ¼ 8.49, the system is more unstable with
an overshoot of 48% larger than the best response. The intermediate
curve for the parametric set k _{p} ¼ 8.49, k _{i} ¼ 2.83 and k _{d} ¼ 5.67,
values that represent a third part of the corresponding values for
the extreme case, reaches a stable condition for larger times
(practically for s w 15). In this case, the overshoot is 40% larger with
quality x, the responses are more unstable. The above is mainly due
to the decrease in cooling capacity of the evaporator. On Fig. 7, we
present now the inﬂuence of the dimensionless parameter a.
Selecting again the values k _{p} ¼ 25.47, k _{i} ¼ 8.49 and k _{d} ¼ 17.02, we
show the PID response of the evaporator temperature. Under the
operation conditions given on Tables 2 and 3, the most represen
tative value of a is just a ¼ 0.752. For larger or smaller values than
this one, the response of the temperature is slightly lengthened or
shortened with the time. The above is an expected result because
the dimensionless parameter a is directly related with the tem
perature of the refrigerated space.
The next four ﬁgures correspond to the dynamic responses of
the output temperature of the gas cooler. On Fig. 8, we show the
responses of the temperature of the gas cooler for three different
sets of control parameters k _{p} , k _{i} and k _{d} . The best response of the
system is obtained with k _{p} ¼ 30.87, k _{i} ¼ 10.29 and k _{d} ¼ 23.57. We
appreciate in comparison with the control of the evaporator that
the control constants for the gas cooler are drastically increased.
The above implies a major control effort because in all cases, the
settling times are larger than for the evaporator cases; however, we
obtain similar behaviors.
On Fig. 9, we show the PID linear control for the gas cooler
temperature with four different vapor qualities and k _{p} ¼ 30.87,
k _{i} ¼ 10.29 and k _{d} ¼ 23.57. The results show a similar behavior with
the evaporator (see Fig. 8). The above result is a direct consequence
of that the variations of the vapor quality is determined by the
operation temperature of the gas cooler. Additionally, Fig. 10 shows
the inﬂuence of three different values of dimensionless parameter
a for the case of k _{p} ¼ 30.87, k _{i} ¼ 10.29 and k _{d} ¼ 23.57. For decreasing
values of a, the overshoot of the temperature is decreased; how
ever, the settling times are practically the same. On the other hand,
the inﬂuence of the dimensionless parameter _{b} _{1} on the response of
the cooler temperature is direct: in Fig. 11, the overshoot of the
temperature and the settling times remain practically unaltered.
Finally, on Figs. 12e14, we show the PID nonlinear control analysis
for the temperatures of the evaporator and gas cooler.
5. Conclusions
From the above results, we can conclude that the evaporator has
better stability conditions due to its operation characteristics;
however, the thermal control of the evaporator depends also on the
control of the gas cooler. The comparison between the linear and
438 M. Salazar, F. Méndez / Applied Thermal Engineering 67 (2014) 429e438
nonlinear cases shows a similar behavior; however, it is easier to
reach stable conditions with the second method because the
overshoots of temperature are less pronounced. In addition, the
comparison between both techniques shows that settling times are
increased by around 20%. On the other hand, the inclusion of
transient terms in governing Eqs. (15), (24), (31) and (32) offer an
opportunity to establish a tradeoff between system stability and
performance. However, in the present work, we have not explicitly
evaluated the coefﬁcient of performance (COP). We presume to
make it for the near future.
References
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