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1) Computer Linked Air Conditioning Laboratory Unit (P.A Hilton)

Figure 5.1: AC575 Computer Linked Air Conditioning Unit

2) Computer and Printer

Figure 5.2: PC computer with printer

3) Measuring container

Figure 5.3: Container and pipe


1) The unit was started by having suction fan running and the screen displaying the Master
Menu. Programme 1 showed the process data displayed on a schematic layout on the
system. While, programme 2 displayed the properties of the treated air on the
psychrometric chart.
2) No Process data and psychometric chart were printed to read the initial properties of the
air as it entered the air-conditioning unit.
3) Sensible heating-
i) 1 kW pre-heater was switched on and held for 5 minutes. Data and psychometric
chart was printed out.
ii) 0.5 kW heater was then switched on and allowed for 5 minutes too. Data and
psychometric chart was printed out.
iii) For this process, temperature rise of the air was calculated at the exit.
4) Steam humidification All water heaters were switched on to boil the water. When steam
was produced, only 3 kW heater was switched on to maintain the steam and were allowed
for 5 minutes. Data and psychometric chart were printed out. Then, the amount of steam
produced, the change in relative humidity, and the corresponding rise of temperature were
5) Cooling and Dehumidification Compressor and refrigeration system were switched on.
The air inside were cooled until 18 to 20 (stable temperature). As soon as it reached
the stable, it was then left for 5 minutes. Data and psychometric chart were then printed
out. Heat rate and the amount of moisture removed from the air were also calculated.
During the experiment, time and the rate of condensation (100ml) were measured from the
beginning of the cooling process (stable temperature). It was then compared with analysis.


Experiment No process Sensible Steam Cooling and

Heating Humidification Dehumidification
Reading 1kW 1.5kW
1 (TA d), 28.8 29.8 29.7 30.8 32.0 32.4

2 (TA w), 24.9 25.4 25.3 26.1 26.3 26.7

3 (TB d), 28.8 41.9 44.1 33.5 32.1 32.4

4 (TB w), 25.3 30.4 31.2 31.3 27.1 27.5

5 (TC d), 27.8 39.2 43.7 32.8 27.2 27.7

6 (TC w), 24.6 28.2 29.4 30.3 25.2 25.6

7 (TD d), 26.8 36.2 46.6 33.0 25.2 25.6

8 (TD w), 27.3 29.0 31.1 31.1 29.0 29.4

9 (T1), X X X 28.9 29.1

10 (T2), X X X 86.9 90.8

11 (T3), X X X 36.8 37.3

12 (T4), X X X -5.1 -4.0

, W X 1013.1 1017.3 X X

, W X 0.0 541.0 X X

, W X X 2814.8 X
X X X 94.8 104.2
(P1), 2
X X X 832.1 859.4

, 56.0 56.2 187.3 54.4 211.2 211.0

, X X X 0.0 0.0

Time X X X 16 min 32 sec

Drain Water, X X X 100 ml

Figure 7.1: Table of data and result

a) No Process
In Out
TAdry = 28.8C TDdry = 28.8C
TAwet = 24.9C TDwet = 25.3C

b) Sensible Heating
For 1kW pre-heater
State1 State 2
TAdry = 29.8 C TDdry = 36.2C
TAwet = 25.4C TDwet = 29.0C

Temperature rises at exit

Tdry = 36.2C - 29.8 C =6.4C
Twet = 29.0C - 25.4C =3.6C

For 1.5kW pre-heater

State 1 State 2
TAdry = 29.7 C TDdry = 46.6C
TAwet = 25.3C TDwet= 31.1C

Temperature rises at exit

TDry = 46.6C - 29.7 C = 16.9C
Twet= 31.1C - 25.3C =5.8C

c) Steam Humidification

State 2 State 3

Tdry = 30.8C Tdry =33.5C

Twet= 26.1C Twet= 31.3C

ma= 0.0544 kg/s ma= 0.0544 kg/s

From the psychometric chart:

2 = 72.5% 3= 90%

2=1= 18.0 x kgv/kga 3=33.00 x 103kgv/kga

Amount of steam

mw = ma(3-2)
= 0.0915 kg/s (33.00 x 103- 18.0 x 103) kgv/kg

=1.3725 x kg/s

Change in relative humidity

= 2- 1 = 0.90 0.725= 0.175 @ 17.5%

Temperature rises at exit

Tdry = 33.5C - 30.8C =2.7C
Twet= 31.3C - 26.1C =5.2C

d) Cooling and Dehumidification
State 1 State 2
Tdry = 32.1C Tdry = 27.2C
Twet= 27.1C Twet = 25.2 C

ma1= 0.0211 kg/s ma2= 0.0211 kg/s

From the psychometric chart:

1= 74% 2= 96.47%

1= 17 x103) kgv/kga 2= 11.95 x 103) kgv/kga

h1=95.0kJ/kg h2= 44.5kJ/kg
Amount of moisture

mw= ma(1-2)
= 0.0211kg/s (17 x 103 1 1.95 x 103) kgv/kga

=1.0655 104) kg/s

Amount of heat rate

hw= hf@ T2 = 17.2 from table A-4, therefore hw= ?

Hf (kJ/kG) Temperature (C)
104.83 25
Hw 27.2
125.74 30

104.83 27.2 25
125.74 104.83 30 25

hw=114.02 kJ/kg
Qout= ma(h h2) - mwhw
= 0.0211 (95.0 44.5) - (1.0655 x 104) (114.02)
= 10.643 KJ/s
Rate of condensation:
Rate of condensation = 0.1 liter / 512 sec =1.95 104/s


1. Answer all the problems in the experimental and discuss the results obtained by explaining
the factors that contributes to the air property changes for each process problems.

No process:

Based on the data for the first process, which is no process, we can see that there is no
changes in the temperature because it does not involve with any variable yet. Even though, there
is still a value for the first data but the value is just a reading taken from the surrounding condition.
So, at this moment we cannot make any assumption yet and we still need more data from other
variable to see clearly the relation between all the variables.

Sensible Heating:

During running the sensible heating experiment we discovered that the temperature reading
for both wet bulb and dry increased compare to no process experiment. The different between
these two experiments is because in sensible heating experiment we use the pre-heat and re-heat
to heat the air while in no process experiment there is nothing particular changes had been made.
Theoretically, the pre-heat and reheat both of them is actually increasing the temperature of the air
since both of them is provide heat to the air. Unfortunately, there is still some temperature drop
during the air flow to the outlet. In order to solve this problem the air must be reheat to a certain
temperature so that we can get the temperature that we want.

Steam humidification:

Based on the data we can see that after we switch the water heater to boil the water the
output temperature started to increase for both dry and wet temperature. Is obvious that the cause
of the temperature to increase is because of the steam that had been produced from the water that
had been boiled. It seem that the steam make the wet bulb temperature to increase more than the
other processes. By using these reactions, we can take advantages from it which is by adding the
air we can increase the humidity of the air whereas for the steam we can use it to increase the
temperature of the air.

Cooling and dehumidification:

For the last experiment which is cooling and dehumidification, we switch on the
compressor of the refrigeration system. From the data obtained we can see that the reading
temperatures for both dry and wet bulb are the lowest from the previous experiment. This explains
the idea where from the refrigeration system it will lower the temperature because there is cooling
process occur at that time. At the same time the refrigeration system will produce the water vapor
which we have to remove it by using the dehumidifier. So that is why the temperature drop drastic
all because the process of cooling and dehumidification happens at the same time at the same

2. Find the schematic of a modern air-conditioning system with advanced air treatment
processes and explain the function of the main devices.

The function of main device

The three main parts of an air conditioner unit are the compressor, the condenser and the
evaporator. The compressor and condenser are located on the outside of the air conditioner and the
evaporator is located on the inside. The basic functioning of the air conditioner is based on the
principle of successive heating and cooling of a highly volatile liquid, such as a Freon. The liquid
first will enters the compressor, where its function is to compress into a gas. This reaction will
releases heat and makes the liquid cooler. After that, the dissipated heat is radiated outwards with
the help of a fan. The liquid then enters the condenser, where its function is to absorb heat from
the surroundings to reconvert into a gas. Hence, the surroundings temperature will become cool.
The entire process continues and eventually causes of the cooling of the room

Besides the three main air conditioner parts, an air conditioner also has a hot coil on the
outside to dissipate heat, a cool coil on the inside to absorb heat, two fans (one outside and one
inside) and a control circuit to modify the temperature. This is done by changing the rotation speeds
of the fans using a potentiometer.

3. Explain with the suitable diagrams the operation and arrangements in an automotive air-
conditioning unit.

Components of Automotive Air Conditioning

In automotive air conditioning we have several main parts that have to be focuses which
are a compressor, a condenser, an evaporator, refrigeration lines and a couple of sensors. We will
go through it part by part.

Compressor: Compressor is like the heart of your a/c system where it takes the refrigerant
(the gas) and pressurizes it so it will cool the air surrounding. It's run by an engine belt.
The compressor also has an electrically operated clutch that turns the compressor on and
off as you demands more cool air
Condenser: The condenser is like a miniature radiator, usually mounted at the front of the
car right next to the big radiator. Sometimes the condenser will have its own electric
cooling fan, too. The hot, compressed air passes through the condenser and gets lots cooler.
As it cools, it becomes a liquid.
Evaporator: The evaporator is another little radiator that does just the opposite task as the
condenser. When the super-cool liquid is passed through its tubes, air is forced through and
gets really cold, right before it hits your face. As it warms up again, the refrigerant starts
turning back into a gas.
Thermal Expansion Valve: In order to prevent our toes from freeze off, we can control it
with thermal expansion valve so that we can control the flow of super cool refrigerant to
the evaporator. With this we can regulate how cold the air blowing on us. Even though,
there are a few types of valves in use these days, but they all do the same thing.
Drier or Accumulator: The drier or accumulator, also known as the receiver-drier, is sort
of the safety catch for our system. The compressor is only supposed to compress the gas
form of our refrigerant. But, there's always a chance that some liquid could make it back
that far. The drier catches this liquid before it can damage your compressor. Since even the
tiniest leak or careless installation can introduce water moisture to the system, the drier
absorbs this chemically, using what's called a desiccant. The drier also has a filter that
catches any gunk that might be in there.


Throughout of the experiment, we can conclude that the experiment is success since we manage
to achieve our goal which is to observe and understand the changes in air properties as it is treated
in a basic air-conditioning. We knew that the air properties are changes based on what types of
process that we running it. Each types of process which is the simple heating, steam humidification,
simple cooling and dehumidification have their own result and reason why it is occur like that.
With that data and result we can study throughout about the air-conditioning. But still an error
must be avoided in order to get the precise data.


1. Yunus A. Cengel, (2007), Heat and Mass Transfer: A Practical Approach, Third
Edition, Published by McGraw Hill.

2. Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A. Boles, (2007) Thermodynamics: An Engineering

Approach, Sixth Edition (SI Units), Published by McGraw Hill.
3. Bill Whitman, Bill Johnson, John Tomczyk, Eugene Silberstein, (2007), Refrigeration
and Air Conditioning Technology, Eighth Edition.
4. Thermal Physics (2nd Edition) by Charles Kittel
5. Bruce R. Munson, Ted H. Okishi, Wade W. Huebsch, Alric P. Rothmayer (2010),
Fluid Mechanics, Seventh Edition, Published by John Wiley & Sons.
6. Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics by Michael Moran
7. Lab sheet 3, Heat Transfer Laboratory Sheet, Provided by UITM Shah Alam.