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In English, the verbs "make" and "let" are followed by an object and the infinitive without "to":

They can't make you work late.


She made him do the exercise again.

She lets the students sing in class.


His parents let him paint his room black.

Be careful: in the passive, "make" is followed by the infinitive with "to":

They were made to do the exercise again.

"Have" can also be used in this pattern:

Please have your secretary call me as soon as possible.

(Please ask your secretary to call me)

Other English verbs not followed by the infinitive + to

Modal verbs (can, will, would, etc) are followed by the infinitive without "to":

I can see him clearly.


They will leave early tomorrow.
If I were you, I would talk to her.

(Click here for more information on modals.)

See / hear / watch someone followed by the infinitive without "to":

She saw the girl steal the money. (She saw all the action of stealing.)
I heard him tell her about the party." (I heard all about the party.)
I watched them do the exercise. (I watched them complete the exercise.)

But remember:
If you follow these verbs with the gerund form (ing), you only see part of the action.

She saw him talking to the teacher. (She didn't see the whole conversation.)

See also How to use gerunds in English

In English, the ing form, for example swimming or smoking, is both a noun and a verb. You can
follow it by an object, smoking cigarettes, by a verb, swimming is good, or you can make it the
object of a sentence, I like swimming.

After verbs
You use the ing form after some verbs such as enjoy, admit, appreciate, can't stand / help / bear,
deny, avoid, mind, understand.

For example, "I can't stand doing nothing", or "she denied breaking the copier".

With 'from' and 'to' with some verbs

Prevent / stop someone from doing: "He prevented her from leaving."

Look forward to doing: "We look forward to hearing from you soon."

Object to doing: "Does anyone object to me smoking?"

Get used to doing: "It took him a long time to get used to living in a city."

Prefer something to doing something else: "I prefer cooking to doing the dishes."

After prepositions

"Before going out he turned off the heating."

"I'm tired of arguing."

"These are used for cracking walnuts."

"I passed the exam by remembering the equations."

In some fixed expressions

"As well as doing"


"It's no good doing"
"It's no use doing"

Some verbs can use either the 'to do' or the 'ing' form

See / hear / watch someone do / doing

With the verb form do, you see or hear the whole action. For example,"I heard him tell you
about the letter."

With the verb form ing you only see or hear part of the action. For example, "I saw her drinking
a coffee in the bar."

Remember / regret
If you use ing after these verbs, you are talking about something that happened before. "I
remember coming here as a child" I'm not a child any more, but I remember the times when I
came here before.

"I regret not studying." (I didn't study in the past and I regret it now.)

If you use the to do form after these verbs, then you are referring to something in the future.

"Please remember to turn off the lights." (Please don't forget to do it later.)

"I regret to inform you that" (I'm just about to tell you some bad news.)

Stop

"I want to stop smoking." (I want to break my habit.)

"She stopped to sit down." (She stopped walking so that she could sit down.)

Try

Try + ing = try out this experiment.

Try reading something in English every day." (You may be surprised at the results!)

Try to do = try hard to do something.

"Please try to be quiet when you come in." (Please make an effort.)

In English, you can show what you feel about a situation by using words such as may, will,
would, might, can and could.

These words can change the meaning of a sentence and show that something is possible,
necessary, uncertain, or intended.

"For example, "I'll go shopping tomorrow" shows that you intend to go tomorrow.

"I might go shopping tomorrow" shows that perhaps you will go tomorrow, but you don't know
for sure.

When you use these words, remember:

* They are followed by the verb without to.


* You don't need an 's' for the third person singular: "He might come to the party." (Not "he
mights come to the party".)

* You can make a question by putting the word before the person, not by using 'do' or 'have':
"Could you help me?" (Not "do you could help me?")

* You can make a negative form by adding a form of not to the word:

can becomes can't

will becomes won't

might becomes might not (or mightn't)


may becomes may not

could becomes couldn't.

How possible something is

"The company might relocate next year."

"We may have to wait an hour for dinner in this restaurant."

"It can get very cold here in winter."

"We could all live to be 100 years old in theory."

How certain something is

"She'll get promoted next year."

"He won't agree to that idea."

"You must be our new neighbour."

"If you left now, you would get the train."

Offers and requests

"Shall I open the door for you?"

"I'll cook dinner, if you like."

"Could you help me?"

"Can you pass me the salt, please?"


Permission

"Can I open the window, please?"

"You may now look at your exam papers." (This is formal.)

Ability

"I can cook, but I can't drive."

"I couldn't speak French very well when I was at school."

Using should, must and need

These words help you to talk about rules, obligation and advice.

Should

We use should to give advice.

"If you want to learn English, you should practise as much as possible."

We can also use should to talk about what we expect to happen.

"He should be here by now he left over an hour ago."

The negative of should is shouldn't.

"You shouldn't eat so much chocolate it's bad for you."

Must

We use must to talk about obligation.

"I must call my grandmother today it's her birthday."

If you want to say the opposite that there is no obligation to do something, use don't have to or
don't need to.

"You don't have to wash the car I'll do it."

"You don't need to put the rubbish out I've already done it."

We can also use must to talk about what we think is logically certain.

"You must be tired after all that travelling."


If you want to say that something is logically impossible, use can't.

"Who's that at the door? It can't be the postman he's already been."

Mustn't means that it is not allowed to do something.

"You mustn't feed animals in the zoo it's not allowed."

Should have done

Look at this example dialogue:

"You know my car was broken into yesterday."

"How terrible. What did you do?"

"Oh, nothing."

"You should have called the police."

We use the pattern should have done to talk about what we think would have been the best thing
to do. However, the past event we are talking about cannot be changed. So the pattern after
should is have done not should do.

In the example dialogue, the person didn't contact the police yesterday (in the past), so you can't
change the situation. You can only say what action would have been the best in this situation

Choose the best word or phrase to fill the gap!

1. What's __________ name? Jane Edwards. you your yours you're 2. Is this your

bag? No, it isn't. No, there isn't. No, she isn't. No, isn't it. 3. Sam _________ a doctor,

he's a teacher at the university. aren't isn't not doesn't 4. __________ two hundred

students in my school. They are It is There are There is 5. Do you live in Munich? Yes,

__________ I live. I don't. I do live. I do. 6. Those are very nice __________. Where

did you buy them? shirt dress trousers handbag 7. __________ bag is this? It's mine.

Whose What's Who's Who 8. She __________ a house in the town centre. got

have got has got is got 9. I like your new car.

How much __________ for it? you pay you paid did you pay have you paid. 10.

Excuse me, waiter. Can you bring me the __________, please? note money bill
cheque 11. Is there any food left? __________ No, there isn't. Yes, there is any. Yes, they

is. No, there aren't. 12. He __________ in an office every morning from eight to twelve.

working works work am working 13. I'm hungry. __________ something to eat, please.

I like I'd want I'd like I'm like 14. I bought this house ____________________. 10

years ago 10 years away since 10 years for 10 years 15. Switzerland is __________ than

Britain. as small smallest more small smaller 16. ____________________ drive you

to the airport? Will I Shall I Have I to Do I need 17. She's never __________ to New

York. gone was been went 18. Hamlet _____________ by William Shakespeare.

written is written has been written was written 19. __________ you ever visited

London? Did Do Where Have 20. We need to walk more ________________ or we

will miss our bus. quick speedy quickly fast 21. It's a very long day for Jack. He

doesn't get home from school __________ six o'clock. since to towards until 22. A

friend of __________ phoned this morning but __________ didn't leave a message. yourself, hers

you, her yours, she your, she 23. We __________ lunch when the phone __________.

had, rang were having, rang were having, was ringing had, has rung 24. You

__________ open the door before the train gets into the station. It's very dangerous. don't have to

mustn't should must 25. Once she ____________ the letter, she posted it immediately.

wrote was writting has written had written 26. __________ she likes coffee, she

prefers tea. However Although But When 27. It's the best film __________. You

should go and see it. I've already seen I've ever seen I've never seen I ever saw 28.

I always take an umbrella __________ it rains. however despite in case as 29. This

time next week ___________ on the beach in the Caribbean. I lie I'm lying I'll lie I'll be

lying 30. By the time he was five, Beethoven ________________ several pieces of music.

composed has composed had been composing had composed 31. You __________ come

with us if you don't want to. don't have to aren't supposed to haven't to must 32.

______________________ to him, I could have prevented the accident. If I spoke I had spoken

Had I spoken If i would have spoken to him 33. She's just bought a brand new car so she
__________ be able to drive. can't must won't probably 34. I ____________

drinking last year, but I didn't. ought to give up ought to have given up ought given up

oughted to give up 35. The President ____________ the new museum yesterday, but it still isn't

finished. had to open has to have opened was to have opened had to have opened

36. No sooner ___________ in through the door than the phone rang. I had walked was I

walking had I walked I was walking 37. I'd sooner ___________ a car than a motorbike.

him to buy that he buy he bought he should buy 38. It's time __________ some work.

for to do she would do she did she were to do 39. It's now 9 o'clock and the train

___________arrive at 8:15. had to must was due to is going to 40. We regret

___________ that the course has been cancelled. to tell telling to have said to say
Den Test ausw erten

You can use one of the following methods to view someone's webcam:

Method 1, using the Conversation window:

For Yahoo! Messenger 10 or later versions:


o Click the Actions menu in the Conversation window, point to More Actions, and
then click View Webcam.
For older versions of Yahoo! Messenger:
o Click the Actions menu in the Conversation window and then click View
Webcam.

Method 2, using the Chat window:

1. Select your contact from the Chat List in the Chat window.
2. Click the Actions menu in the Chat window and then click Contact Options.
3. Click View Webcam.