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Quality Control For

Laboratory Tests

DEVELOPED & ISSUED BY :-


ISO CELL (H.O.)

Shapoorji Pallonji & Co.Ltd


Technology Quality Service
PREFACE

The purpose of this Laboratory Manual is to standardise & provide test methods
as per the requirement of Clients / Cilents Consultant. The manual is brief &
made user friendly. It also includes formats which can be incorporated to record
the results & thus in toto is a ready reckoner.

This laboratory manual was initiated by Mr.Hemant Joshi, Q.A / Q.C Manager
under the guidance of Mr. N.D. Sadri Management Representative (ISO
9001:2000) with ISO - Cell at H.O. The standard practices & methods of testing
& measurement will be updated by ISO Cell (H.O) from time to time based on the
feedbacks received from the Regional ISO Coordinators across the country so as
to be in tune with our Quality Policy & Objectives.

The update of this manual shall remain a continuous effort to bring Continual
Improvements into the Quality Management Systems of SPCL.

ISO CELL (H.O)

First Edition June 2004.

Note :
1) This document is property of Shapoorji Pallonji & co.Ltd and must be surrendered to the Document Controller / M.R. on
transfer or cessation of employment.
2) While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information presented in this Lab Manual, neither SPCL nor
its employees can accept responsibility for any loss or damage incurred in connection with the use of the contents.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
1. Mr. Hemant G. Joshi QA/QC Manager (Poona R.O)
2. Mr. N. D. Sadri Management Representative (ISO 9001:2000)
3. Mr. J. P. Rao Additional G.M (H.O)
4. Mr. Omkar S . Bendre Asst. Engineer Quality (ISO Cell)
5. Mr. Prashant P. Bhavsar Asst. Engineer Quality (ISO Cell)
INDEX
Page No.
I - General :

1. Scope of the Manual 1


2. Table-1.- List of tests to be conducted at Site 2
3. Table-2.- List of tests to be conducted at External Lab. 3 to 4
4. Table-3.- List of lab equipments 5 to 6
5. Table-4.- List of reference IS codes 7
6. Table-5.- Acceptance Criteria for material 8 to 10
7. Acceptance Criteria Graph Zone wise for Sand 11 to 12

II - Procedures :

1. Area of Laboratory Required 13 to 14


2. Precautionary measures for testing equipments 15 to 16
3. Procedure for Sampling of Material 17 to 20
4. Slump test 21
5. RMC Inspection/testing for Concrete 22 to 24
6. Cube filling from fresh concrete 25 to 26
7. Compressive strength of concrete 27 to 29
8. Procedure for Standard deviation 30 to 31
9. Field Test for Silt Content in Sand 32
10. Sieve Analysis of Fine aggregate 33 to 35
11. Sieve analysis of coarse aggregate 36 to 38
12. Specific Gravity and water Absorption of Aggregates 39 to 42
13. Flakiness Index 43 to 44
14. Elongation Index 45 to 46
15. Aggregate Crushing Value 47 to 49
16. Tests for Common Burnt Clay Bricks
( Strength , Water Absorption ) 50 to 52
17. Soil Water Content 53 to 55
18. Soil Field density by Core- cutter. 56 to 58

III - Calibration of Test Equipments :

1. General 59
2. Calibration Plan 60
3. Procedure for Verification of Equipments 61 to 64
4. Calibration of Batching Plant 65 to 66
5. List of Abbreviations 67
6. Definitions 68 to 69
7. Ammendment 70
CHAPTER 1

GENERAL
SCOPE OF THE MANUAL :

This is a users manual for material testing and sampling at site. The scope of this
manual is pertaining to SPCL procedure Document No 1000 GP04 038 and which
includes data, procedures , formats as following :

1. Setting up of infra-structure required for testing various regular material as per the
list given in Table-1. Infra will comprise of :
a. Enclosed area for conducting the tests at desired conditions.
b. Equipments for the various tests as listed in table-2 .
c. Filing rack / cabinet for keeping the records and table /chair.
d. Curing tank for concrete cubes.
e. Trained QC engineer & /or Trained Lab technician shall be deputed for the
site.

2. Any other tests on same material or the material other than listed will have to be
done in external laboratory. The records of such tests will be maintained at the
laboratory. ( List Of Tests as per Table-1a )
3. Any approved samples, test pieces will be maintained at the laboratory.
4. Procedure for calibration of test equipments & validation of measuring
aids (GP 04 043 )

1
TABLE 1

List of Tests to be Conducted at Site Laboratory :

Sr.No Material to be tested Related IS Codes Tests to be


Conducted
1. Soil 2720 part-1-2-29 (1975) In-situ core
test.
Moisture
Content
2. Concrete 1199 (1959) Compressive
456 (2000) strength
10262 (1982) Slump Test
8112 (1989)
a. Coarse Aggregate 2430(1986) Sieve Analysis
2386 part-1-3-4 (1963) Aggregate
383 (1970) Crushing
Value
Specific
Gravity
Water
absorption
b. Fine aggregate 1542 (1992) Sieve Analysis
2116 (1980) Silt Content
383 (1972) Specific
Gravity
3. Bricks 3495 part-1-2 (1992) Compressive
1077 (1992) Strength
5454 (1978) Water
Absorption
Test

2
TABLE 2

List of the Material / Tests to be Conducted at External Laboratory :

*Note : External Laboratory shall be as per requirement of the project or as


approved by Client.

Sr. Material to Tests to be conducted Requirements


No. be Tested
1. Construction Potability, Sulphates, As per Requirements of IS :
Water Chlorides 456 which shall be done at
the start of project or change
of source.
2. Cement As per respective IS codes
for OPC, PPC, PSC and for
Grades 43 /53
a. Physical Strength, Fineness, Initial / For every batch if MTC is not
Final setting Time, available. If MTC is available
Standard Consistency, at Random frequency.
Soundness by Le-chatelier
method
b. Chemical Loss on ignition, Insoluble In case cement is old or for
residue new brand along with above
tests
3. Reinf Steel For respective IS codes for
Fe: 415/500/550
a. Physical Yield stress/UTS, At given Frequency ( Project
Elongation, bend- rebend, Specific)
Weight per meter
b. Chemical % of Carbon , Sulphur, For new manufacturer or
Phosphorus problem in physical tests
4. Structural
Steel
a. Physical Yield stress/UTS, At given Frequency ( Project
Elongation, bend- rebend, Specific)
Weight per meter
b. Chemical % of Carbon , Sulphur, For new manufacturer or
Phosphorus problem in physical tests
c. Weld tests Butt full strength joints- As per provision in tender or
Radiography requirements.
5. Concrete Compatibility with cement- New admixture or admixture
Admixtures Marsh cone testing is giving performance
problems.
6. C.C. Block/ Compressive strength, At given Frequency ( Project
Paver blocks water absorption, Density Specific)
7. Aggregate
a. Physical Routine tests If specified by Client
Abrasion value Critically for road works

8. Concrete Mix Design At start of project and /or


change of cement .
Non Destructive Tests like When cube strengths are
Ultra sonic or Rebound below acceptance criteria or
hammer as required by client.
Core Test As specified by IS : 456 or
as per Client requirement
9. Soil Max dry density and water At the start of the activities
content relationship ( and change of source.
proctor test )
Gradation, Plastic Limit, As required.
Liquid Limit
Soluble sulphate contents As required
10. RCC Pipes- Three edge test, Water As required ( Normally test
NP ( Non- absorption setup available with
Pressure ) manufacturer )
class.
11. Galvanized Zinc coating thickness As required.
Steel

4
TABLE 3
List of Laboratory Equipments :

Sr. Equipments Capacity/ Size Make


No
1. Compression Testing 100 /200 tonne Lawrence & Mayo /
machine Universal
2. Cube Moulds 150x150x150 mm ISI Mark (Contass)
3. Slump Cone Top Diameter 100 mm,
Bottom Diameter 200
mm,Height 300 mm,
SheetThickness 1.6 mm
min.
4. G.I.Coarse Aggregate 40,20,16,12.5,10,6.32,4.75,2.3 ISI Mark (Contass)
Sieves- 300 mm dia 6mm
5. Brass Fine Aggregate 10mm & 4.75, 2.36, 1.18mm, ISI Mark (Contass)
sieves- 200 mm dia 600mcn, 300mcn,150mcn
6. Weigh Balance 10kg ( Accuracy 1g ISI Mark (Contass)
Pan )
a C.I. Weights 5,2,1,500g, 200g, 100g, 50g Duely calibrated
and stamped by
Weight and
Measure Dept.
b S.S. Weights in box 100g, 50g, 20g, 10g, 5g, 2g, Duely calibrated by
1g Weight and
Measure Dept.
7. Flakiness Index Gauge --
8. Elongation Gauge --
9. Measuring Cylinders 250 ml Borosil
a) Glass Height 335mm
b) Plastic (non-
transparent)
10. Pychnometer Bottle Capacity 1 litre approx.
11. Aggregate Crushing --
test apparatus
12. Oven with Thermostat 45x45cm size (2 tray) Expo
aluminium chamber
13 G.I. Trays Large / med
14. Thermometer 200 deg range (Indian Glass) ISI Mark
15. Vernier Caliper -- ISI Mark
16. Wire gauge -- ISI Mark
17. Core cutter ( For fine 3 cutters
grained soils) Cutter Int. Dia 100mm
Height 130 mm
Dolly Height 25 mm
Rammer Dia 140 mm
Thickness 75mm
18. Weigh Balance (10kg) Battery backup Eureka
Electronic Platform 345x 225mm
19. Circular Spring 50kg , 100 kg ISI Mark
Balance
20. Misc.- Brush, duster,
Trowel, scoop,
Spanners, Sample
metal containers,
gunny bags

6
Table 4

LIST OF REFERENCE IS CODES:

IS: 383 - Specifications for Coarse and Fine aggregate


IS: 516 - Method of tests for strength of Concrete
IS: 808 - Dimensional Properties of Structural Steel Sections (For Ref)
IS: 1077 - Common Burnt Clay Bricks Specifications
IS: 1199 - Method of Sampling & analysis of Concrete
IS: 1542 - Sand for Plaster
IS: 1786 - Specifications for High Deformed Bars (For Ref)
IS: 2062 - Steel for General Structural Purpose (For Ref)
IS: 2116 - Sand for Masonry Mortars
IS: 2386-I - Method of test for aggregates Particle size , shape
IS: 2386-III - Method of test for aggregates Sp. Gr, Density
IS: 2386-IV - Method of test for aggregates- Mechanical properties
IS: 2430 - Method of Sampling Aggregates
IS: 3495 - Test for Burnt Clay Bricks
IS: 8112 - Specifications for 43 Grade Ordinary Portland Cement.(For Ref)
IS: 10262 - Guidelines for Concrete Mix Design. (For Ref)
IS: 456 - Specification for Plain and Reinf. Cement Concrete. (For Ref)

7
TABLE 5

ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR VARIOUS MATERIAL

Material Reference Clause Details of Acceptance Frequency


/Pg
River GP 04 Pg-3 Inspection of in-coming material Every load
Sand 037 Sand shall be free from clay lumps.
Sand shall be free from organic
matters
IS:383 Table - Physical Testing -
4/pg-11 As per Grading zone-I- III. 4.75 mm
passing 90-100%. 150 mcn passing 0-
10%. Grading Zone-I-III is generally
suitable for RCC.
600 mcn passing for Zone-I 15-34%,
Zone-II- 35-59%, Zone-III- 60-79,
Zone-IV- 80-100
Table- Limit of Deleterious material( % by
1/pg-8 weight)
Coal & Lignite 1%, Clay lumps 1%,
75mcn passing 3%, Shale-1%
Total % of deleterious material 5%
Table- Limit of Deleterious material ( % by
1/pg-8 weight)
Coal & Lignite- 1%, Clay lumps- 1%,
75 micron passing 15%, shale-1%
Total % of deleterious material except
75 micron passing 2%
Silt Content:8% by Volume for River
sand
Coarse GP 04 Pg-3 Inspection of in-coming material- Every
aggrega 037 Shall be of angular shape and not Load.
te flaky.
Shall be free from deleterious
material
Shall be free from mud and soil.
IS:383 Table-2 % passing for Single size aggregate of
/pg-9 nominal size
IS sieves Nominal sizes
40mm 20 mm 16 mm 12.5 mm
10 mm
40mm 85-100 100
20 0-20 85-100 100
16 85-100
12.5 85-100
100
10 0-5 0-20 0-30 0-45
85-100
4.75 0-5 0-5 0-10
0-20
2.36
0-5
3.3/pg-6 Aggregate Crushing Value
45% for concrete other than wearing
surface.
30% for concrete for wearing surface.
3.4 /pg-6 Aggregate Impact Value-Alt to 3.3
45% for concrete other than wearing
surface.
30% for concrete for wearing surface.
Table- Limit of Deleterious material ( % by
1/pg-8 weight)
Coal & Lignite- 1%, Clay lumps- 1%,
75 micron passing 3%, Total % of
deleterious material 5%
Flakiness Index: 30% for concrete.
Commo GP 04 Pg -5 Inspection of in-coming material Every Load
n Clay 037 Shall be of specified size and shape
Bricks Edges and corners shall be sharp
and straight
It should be rectangular and
smooth.
It shall be free from undulations ,
cracks and properly burnt.
Shall not give efflorescence when
dipped in water.
It shall give clear ringing sound
when struck with each other.
Shall not break when dropped from
1 meter height.

5454 cl. 5.2.1.1 Compressive Strength of any individual


brick in the sample shall not fall below
the min average compressive strength
specified for corresponding class by
more than 20%.
1077 Table-1 Classification on basis of average
/pg-1 compressive strength:
Class Designation Min Avg.
Comp Strength,
kg/sqcm
4.5 35
5 50
7.5 75
etc
Compressive strength shall not fall
below above limits.
cl.6.2 /pg- Tolerances Non-modular:
1 For 20 bricks
Length 4600 +/- 80 mm
Width 2200 +/- 40 mm
Height 1400 +/- 40 mm
cl.7.2 /pg- Water Absorption :
3 Should not be more than 20% by
weight upto class 12.5 and 15% by
weight for higher classes.
cl.7.3/pg-3 Efflorescence: Moderate upto class
12.5 and Slight for higher classes.
Concret 456 cl. 15.4 The test results shall be average of 3
e /pg-29 specimens. Individual variation should
not be more than +/- 15%
Compressive Strength :The mean
strength from any group of 4
consecutive test results shall be as
below :
For M:15 - it shall be > / = Fck +
0.825 x S.D.
Or
Fck +
3 N / mm2 whichever is
Greater
Provided individual test
results shall be > /= Fck
3 N/mm2
For M: 20 or Above it shall be >/=
Fck + 0.825 x S.D.
Or
Fck + 4 N /mm2
whichever is greater
Provided individual test
results shall be >/= Fck
4 N/mm2.
Note : In case S.D. is not established
then assumed S.D. as per Table-8
shall be considered.

10
Acceptance Criteria Graph ' Zone Wise ' for Sand

600 mcn % passing


ZONE DESIGNATION FOR FINE AGGREGATES
Lower Limit Upper limit
Zone-I 15 34
Zone-II 35 59 100
Zone-III 60 79 90

% PASSING 600 MCN SIEVE


Zone-IV 80 100 80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
600 mcn %
0
passing

Zone-I

Zone-II

Zone-III

Zone-IV
Upper limit

600 mcn %
ZONES passing
Lower Limit

ZONE - I GRADING
ZONE-I GRADING CURVE
Sieves % Passing

10 mm 100 100 120


4.75 mm 90 100 100
% PASSING

2.36 mm 60 95 80
60
1.18 mm 30 70
40
600 mcn 15 34 20
300 mcn 5 20 0
150 mcn 0 10
1.18 mm

2.36 mm

4.75 mm
150 mcn

300 mcn

600 mcn

10 mm
% Passing
Lower
SIEVES SIZES % Passing
Upper

ZONE - II GRADING
Sieves % Passing ZONE -II GRADING CURVE
Lower Limit Upper limit
10 mm 100 100 120
4.75 mm 90 100 100
% PASSING

2.36 mm 75 100 80
1.18 mm 55 90 60
600 mcn 35 59 40
300 mcn 8 30 20
150 mcn 0 10 0
1.18 mm

2.36 mm

4.75 mm
150 mcn

300 mcn

600 mcn

10 mm

% Passing
Lower
% Passing
SIEVE SIZES
Upper

11
ZONE - III GRADING
Sieves % Passing ZONE -III GRADING CURVE
Lower Limit Upper limit
10 mm 100 100 120
4.75 mm 90 100
100
2.36 mm 85 100
1.18 mm 75 100

% PASSING
80
600 mcn 60 79 60
300 mcn 12 40
150 mcn 0 10 40

20

0 % Passing

1.18 mm

2.36 mm

4.75 mm
150 mcn

300 mcn

600 mcn

10 mm
Lower
% Passing
Upper
SIEVE SIZES

ZONE - IV GRADING
Sieves % Passing
Lower Limit Upper limit ZONE -IV GRADING CURVE
10 mm 100 100
4.75 mm 95 100 120
2.36 mm 95 100 100
1.18 mm 90 100
% PASSING

80
600 mcn 80 100
60
300 mcn 15 50
40
150 mcn 0 15
20
% Passing
0
Lower
1.18 mm

2.36 mm

4.75 mm
150 mcn

300 mcn

600 mcn

10 mm

% Passing
Upper
SIEVE SIZES

GRADING OF AGGREGATES :

Seives used for Coarse Aggregate : 80mm, 40mm, 20mm, 10mm, 4.75mm.

Seives used for Fine Aggregate : 10mm, 4.75mm, 2.36mm, 1.18mm, 600micron, 150micron.

12
CHAPTER 2

PROCEDURES
CHAPTER 1

Area of laboratory Required :

To have convenient working and storage of records and equipment area is required
more than 12 sq. m. Working platform of approx 3 m long and 700 mm wide will be
required. 2-15Amp / 2-5 Amp electric points other than regular lighting /fan points are
required.

Curing tank :
Size of Tank is depend upon number of cube sets taken at decided frequency. Cubes
to be arrange in stack of three and day wise. Tank should have separate
compartments for 7 days and 28 days cubes. Thus for daily avg 3 sets
( 18 cubes ) of cubes, tank will have plan dimensions 1250x900 for 7 day
compartment and 3000x1250 for 28 days compartment. Clear Depth of tank shall be
fixed one at 750 mm which includes free board. For any increase and decrease of
sampling size can be alter considering cube stacking arrangements.Water tank should
be kept clean and free from dust particles & micro organisms growth. Water should be
changed every 7th day.Curing tank should be covered with a lid.

13
14
CHAPTER 2

PRECAUTIONERY MEASURES FOR TESTING EQUIPMENTS / TESTING

Certain work Culture and precautions are required to upkeep equipments and
samples :
1. Cube Moulds :
Shall be always used in whole set. ( 1 set of 6 nos of moulds along with
spanner )
Components of mould sets shall not be interchanged.
All bolts shall be checked for threading and shall be oiled from time to time after
cleaning.
Only fixed spanners shall be used for bolts.
Moulds shall be checked for dimensional correctness & daigonal check
everytime before use.
Moulds shall be thoroughly cleaned after the use and lightly oiled.
2. Slump Cone :
Shall be always ready in complete set including tamping rod and trowel.
Shall be cleaned and lightly oiled from inside after the use. Before use oil shall
be wiped out.
Cone shall be well fitted with base so as no leakage of slurry takes place.
3. Compression Testing machine :
Have authentic calibration report handy.
Always use designated oil in machine
Keep platens in clean condition.
CTM shall be properly fixed in position and shall be in level.
Keep adequate clear working area in front of CTM.
Check dial gauge pointer is on zero before testing.
Max. Loading on CTM shall be 85-90% of Rated Capacity.
4. Curing Tank :
Water in tank shall be clean and change at frequent intervals. The water shall
not be allowed to use for any other purpose.
Water shall always cover top of cube by at least 50-75 mm.
Water temperature must be controlled during winter.
15
5. Concrete Cubes :
Casting of cubes shall be done at well designated place and level / hard
platform.
Freshly cast cubes shall be away from any vibrations and shocks. They will be
covered by wet gunny bags immediately after casting.
Cubes shall be correctly mkd for number / location , mix, date etc.
Cubes shall be placed in tank in correct sequential manner so as to locate them
easily.
While handling cubes, utmost care to be taken not to damage edges / corners.
Always cast extra cubes to deal with serious situation.
6. Sieves :
Sieves shall be always kept in set in proper sequence and vertically arranged.
Fine sieves can get damaged due to incorrect use. Always clean sieves by
brush and remove stuck particle by forceps or needle. Do not bang on the
mesh.
Sieves shall be kept clean and dry.
7. Core Cutters :
Use Cutters in set of three.
Do not use cutter in coarse grain /gravelly soil.
8. Weighing Balance :
Keep balance in clean condition. De-dust it frequently.
Always cover electronic balance when not in use.
Balance shall be loaded to max 90% of rated capacity.
Balance shall be kept on level platform. Remove the pan when not in use.
Do not weigh with Fan on. Breeze affects the accurate weighing.
9. Samples :
All samples shall be kept at laboratory in designated area in proper pack ,
container.
All samples shall be tagged for name, sources, collection points and dated.

16
CHAPTER 3

PROCEDURE FOR SAMPLING

FOR AGGREGATES ( IS : 2430 ) :


Sample from Stock Pile of the Coarse / Fine aggregate:
Samples from stock piles should be made up of at least 10 increments; taken
equally from top third , mid point and bottom third.
Outer layer of sampling point shall be removed and the sample is taken from
the material beneath.
Gross Sample the sample thus collected will be the gross sample. Qty of
gross sample is depends on the aggregate size :
Aggregate Size , mm 2.36 / 4.75 12.5 20 40
Min wt. Of
Gross sample, kg 10 15 25 80
Reduction of Gross Sample : Will be done as per method of Quartering to
required sample size for testing.
Quartering Method :
Take the gross sample on plain platform. For Fine aggregate use Tray so that
residual fines can be collected by brushing.
The aggregate shall be mixed and then scooped into a cone shape pile.
After the cone is formed, it shall be flattened by pressing the top.
Then it is divided in four quadrants diagonally.
The bulk of the sample is reduced by rejecting any two diagonally opposite
quarters.
This method is repeated till sample size is approximately achieved for given
testing.
FOR FRESH CONCRETE IN THE FIELD ( IS : 1199 )
Sample from Mixer :
At least three approximate equal samples totaling 0.02 m3 ( equivalent to fill 6
cube moulds ) shall be taken from a batch.
For collection a scoop shall be used. No tool with flat edges ( like pawra) shall
be used.
3 samples are taken at about the time interval when , and of concrete is
discharged.
17
Sample from Place and Time of Deposition :
Sample shall be taken immediately after or during discharge at site.
Samples shall be collected from not less than 5 well distributed points avoiding
the edges of the mass where segregation may have occurred.
Mixing of Sample :
Sample thus received shall be immediately remixed on non-absorbent platform
and made ready for testing.
Frequency of Sampling :
The minimum frequency of sampling of concrete of each grade shall be as
below:
Qty of Concrete in the No of Samples *
Work , m3
1-5 1
6-15 2
16-30 3
31-50 4
51 & Above 4+1 additional sample for each
addl 50 m3 or part thereof.
Note At least one sample taken from each shift.
Where concrete is produced at continous production unit such as RMC
plant, frequency of sampling may be agreed upon mutually.
Note Three specimens shall be made for each sample for testing at 28 days.
Additional samples may be required for determining strength at 7 days or at the
time of striking formwork.
Remarks Sample* means qty of concrete required to fill one set of cubes
( 3nos / 6 nos ) for testing. Hence number of sample is equivalent to number of
cube sets ( 3 / 6 nos. ). 3 cubes are drawn when only cube testing is done at 28
days . 6 cubes are drawn for tests at 7 / 28 days required.

18
CONCRETING IN HIGH TEMPERATURE REGIONS (IS : 7861-1)
Ice is added
Water Cement Ratio should not change with addition of Ice
Adjust Quantity of water accordingl to the volume of melting ice

CONCRETING IN LOW TEMPERATURE REGIONS (IS : 7861-2)


Precautions must be taken to keep the temperature in control during mixing
and placing
Concrete.
The commonly adopted method is by using hot water upto 60 C .
In extreme frost conditions the concrete surface is covered with dry blankets
of straw,cement bags,tarpaulins etc.

FOR EARTH / SOIL ( IS : 2720 -I ) :


If the earth received for testing is wet for handling then same is air dried on
platform in outdoor.
The Gross sample shall be as below:
Max size of particles Min. Gross Sample
In Substantial qty in kg
75 mm 100
40 mm 80
19 mm 35
10 mm 25
4.75 mm 20

Sample size for required test shall be made as per quartering method
described above.
Care to be taken that no fines are lost in the operation as soil properties mostly
depend on them for testing.

19
BRICKS ( As per IS : 5454 ) :
Sampling a lot which shall contain maximum 50000 bricks. In case a
consignment has bricks more than 50000 bricks of same classification, size
and manufactured under relatively similar conditions, it shall be divided into lots
of 50000 bricks or part thereof.
Sampling from the stack When it is necessary to take sample from the stack,
the stack shall be divided into number of real or imaginary sections and
required number of bricks shall be drawn from each section. For the purpose
bricks in the upper layers of the stack shall be removed to enable units to be
sampled from places within the stack.
Sample size For Visual / Dimensional Characteristics

Lot Size of bricks Sample size for Individual brick Sample size For group of
Check 20 bricks Check

2001 10000 20 40
10001 35000 32 60
35001- 50000 50 80
Sample size For Physical Characteristics
Samples shall be drawn for these tests from above sample lot.

Lot size of bricks Sample size for Comp. Strength Warpage


Bulk density, water absorption
Efflorescence etc.
2001-10000 5 10
10001 35000 10 20
35001-50000 15 30

20
CHAPTER 4

PROCEDURE FOR SLUMP TEST FOR FRESH CONCRETE ( IS : 1199)

Aim : To check Workability of Freshly mixed Concrete by Standard Slump Cone


Method. This method is suitable for max size of aggregate upto 38 mm only.
Apparatus :
Slump cone with base plate and cone having bottom dia 20 cms , top dia 10 cms and
height 30 cms.
Smooth Tamping rod 16 mm dia and 600 mm long with one rounded edge.
Scoop , Trowel, Collection pan, measuring scale ( Tamping rod also have marking ).
Smooth / Leveled platform for working.
Procedure :
Sample is collected as per the sampling procedure given earlier.
Internal surface of the cone shall be cleaned and freed from extra moisture and
any layer of set cement slurry.
Conical mould shall be fixed tight on the base with screw arrangement ensuring
that no cement slurry will leak from the joint.
Assembly shall be placed on smooth and truly horizontal surface rigidly.
Mould shall be filled up in 4 layers. Each layer shall be tamped with tamping
rod for 25 times evenly. Tamping shall penetrate in layer below.
The top level shall be struck off by trowel or rod flush to the top of cone.
The Cone shall loosened at the base and shall be lifted carefully vertically
without disturbing concrete mass.
The subsidence shall be measured immediately.
Above operations shall be carried out at place free from vibrations and shock.
The whole exercise is to be done within two minutes from sampling.
In any test in which specimen collapses or shears the test will be repeated.
Record :
Slump shall be recorded in mm.
If in repeat test the slump shears, it is to be recorded.

Format Used : It shall be recorded in Cube Register.

21
CHAPTER 5

PROCEDURE FOR SAMPLING / INSPECTION / TESTING RMC CONCRETE

Aim:
To Check, Inspect Conformity of RMC Concrete which is manufactured outside and
supplied at site.
Pre-requisites :
RMC supplier shall be given prior information by the site regarding following:
1. Grade of Concrete.
2. Minimum Cement or cementetious material contents. ( Client Approval required )
3. Slump required and tolerances in slump. (Guidelines IS : 4926. Client Approval
required)
4. W/C ratio.
5. Method of Concreting ( Manual, Bucket or Pumping )
6. Control of temperature if required shall be specified in case of Mass concreting.
7. Quantity of Concrete required Total, Phasewise, daywise.
8. Supplier shall know site condition , distance and shortest route to the site from his
plant
9. Decision shall be made between Supplier and Site regarding tests and method to
be adopted. ( Client Approval required )
10. Frequency and Acceptance criteria of each testing shall be decided before start. (
Client Approval required )

RMC Supplier shall give following Information to Site :


1. Mix design details including admixures/ additives and cement used. ( To be
approved by Customer )
2. Material testing results for Cement, Admixures / Additives, water , Coarse and
Fine aggregate.
3. Transit mixer Capacity & time to travel from RMC plant to site.
4. Minimum and maximum quantity that can be supplied in a single pour.
5. Suppliers In-house testing facilities.
6. Method of concreting which Supplier can undertake for the pours.
7. Communication system which Supplier adopts.
8. Name of Important Plant Personnel.
22
Site Planning for RMC Concrete Laying :
1. Concrete Volume shall be planned for various grades. Concreting shall be
released possibly in multiple of Transit mixer capacities with concrete pumps at
site.
2. Readiness for receiving concrete shall be assured for given pours. Pour shall be
completed at the earliest after receiving transit mixer on the site. ( As per IS : 4926
entire operation of pouring in place shall be completed within 1 hours water is
mixed in mix when retarder is not mixed.)
3. If multiple suppliers are planned to supply concrete in a given pour or concreting
plan, it shall be at well-defined locations for each supplier and not mixed up.
Procedure :
a) Slump Test : Shall be carried out for each Transit mixer as per procedure 1 and
sampling procedure.
b) Filling Cubes from Freshly mixed concrete : Shall be carried out as per Procedure
2 in presence of Suppliers representative or by Supplier as decided. Sample
shall be taken at the earliest when transit mixer is received on the site.
c) Inspection of Coarse Aggregate in Mix ( Site Trial Method ) :
This shall be done on random basis to check coarse aggregate proportion and
quality in mix.
Take sample from transit mixer as per sampling procedure weighing around 15
kgs. Put the sample in tray, remix thoroughly and select 8 kgs of sample by
quartering method so as correct representative sample is collected.
Place the test sample on sieves 20 mm /10 mm/ 4.75 mm and wash same in
running water and simultaneously sieving through the sieves.
Air dry the portion separately and weigh the same. Check the total weight of the
fractions vis a vis arrived from mix design calculations. These shall be more
or less conforming without major deviations.
Check the quality of aggregate vis a vis the samples collected from the Plant.
d) Cube testing shall be done at Site laboratory or as decided.
Reports :
Maintain all reports like slump tests , cube tests and random inspection of
coarse aggregate etc challanwise and date / time wise.
Mention location , layer of pour on challan. Mention challan no in cube register
alongwith location. Mention name of Supplier in all records.
23
FORMAT FOR RMC CUBE REGISTER

NAME OF PROJECT :

Name of Client :

Name of Consultant :

S Name Vide Time Time Grad Locat ID of Slum Temp of Random Date of
r of Delivery Mixer discharg e of ion of Cube p in fresh testing Testin
N Suppli Challan/ Left e Conc Use s mm Concret of g for 7
o er Date Mixin complet rete e recd. Aggrega days
. g ed te
Plant OK?
Yes / No

Date of Weight Area of Stren 7 days Strength 28 days Sign of Sign of Remarks
Testing of Cube gth at Avg at 28 Avg Contract Client /
for 28 Cubes Surface 7days Strength days in strength or Consulta
days in Kg cm2 in in kg/cm2 in nt
kg Kg/cm2 kg/cm2
/cm2

Remarks :
This format shall be used as Register. Preferably 7 days and 28days readings
shall be entered in different rows.

24
CHAPTER 6

PROCEDURE FOR FILLING CUBES FROM FRESHLY MIXED CONCRETE

Aim : To prepare specimens for the test of Compressive Strength of concrete.

Apparatus :
Cube moulds fitted tightly on base plate (size in mm 150x150x150) in required set (
One set comprises of 6 moulds.)
Smooth Tamping rod of size 16 mm dia and length of 600 mm with one rounded edge.
Trowels small and large.
Collection pan, scoop, measuring scale etc.
Flat working platform of adequate size.

Procedure of Cube Casting:


Cube moulds shall be verified for dimensions and tight fitting assembly. They
shall be lightly oiled and have clean surfaces.
Cube moulds shall be arranged in sets on working platform.
Sample is collected as per the procedure given earlier.
Concrete is filled in cubes one by one in three layers. Each layer is tamped 25
times with tamping rod evenly. Tamping shall penetrate the layer below. Care
to be taken particularly at corners. Small trowel can be used at the sides to
ensure proper surface of sides and allow entrapped air to escape.
Cubes shall be filled slightly above top surface of mould.
The top extra layer shall be struck off by large trowel, flush to the top.
Cubes shall not be disturbed till at least 6 hours after the casting.
Cube concrete surface shall be marked with Cube I.D. , Mix, location of use,
date, source of concrete ( additional) when adequately set.
Cubes thus cast, shall be covered with wet gunny bags till they are replaced in
curing tank.
After about 10-12 hours cubes can be opened and place them in curing tank.
Cubes shall be checked for surface correctness, sharp edges and incorrect
filling. Such defective cubes may be rejected there it self. In such case
Corrective /Preventive actions shall be taken.
25
Procedure for Tank Curing :
Cubes shall be arranged in the curing tank sequentially as per ID mark,
datewise.
Cubes shall be sorted out for 7 days , 28 days tests. Cubes shall be placed in
the tank in layer of three cubes with marked top upside.
Cubes once placed in tank shall not be handled, disturbed frequently so that
edges are not broken.
Water in tank shall cover cubes by at least 50-75 mm all the time.
Water temperature must be maintained in winter.

Procedure for In-Situ Curing :


This method is deployed to decide stripping time of shuttering when shuttering
stripping is planned earlier than given as per IS: 456. This method shall not be
deployed for the cubes to be tested for compressive strength of concrete at 28 days.

Record :
Details of Cubes thus sampled shall be entered serially in Cube Register maintained
for testing compressive strength.
The number of cube samples cast shall also be entered in pour card with proper
traceability to cube register.

Format to be Used : It shall be recorded in Cube register

26
CHAPTER 7

PROCEDURE FOR COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TESTING FOR CONCRETE

Aim : To establish Compressive strength of concrete sample for acceptance


Apparatus :
Compressive Testing machine having adequate capacity.
Weighing Balance.
Measuring Scale.
Procedure :
Remove the cubes required for testing from curing tank wipe clean of water and
air dry them to surface dryness.
Stack cubes in sequence as per mix, dates, locations etc.
Record the actual surface area ( Sq cm)of the cube which will be in contact with
platen of CTM ( A in cm2 or mm2 ).
Weigh the cubes and record the weights in the register in g.
Place the cube on platen centrally keeping trowelled side in front.
Position the top platen on cube surface. See that there is no gap left between
cube top and platen.
Load the CTM at desired speed without any shocks.( Pointer and needle shall
move together)
When crushing takes place in the specimen, needle will start falling back but
pointer will remain at maximum reading.
Record the reading shown by pointer viewing perpendicular to the face of dial.
( Load applied in kN or tonne- W)
Relieve the load from CTM. Remove the cube. Clean the platens.
Check the features of cube failure. Good failure is that cube mass retained
shall have concavity on sides. If failures are occurring consistently by crack
developing only on one side it means cubes are eccentrically loaded. If cracks
are always developed centrally means point load is getting applied due to
convexity of platens. Remedial measures are required to be taken for this.

27
Calculations:
Compressive Stress ( c ) in N / mm2 or Kg / cm2 as below :

c = Wx1000 /A in N/mm2 or Kg /cm2


Average of the set of Three or more cubes to be recorded (c ).
When three or more cubes from single batch/lot is tested, max variation is
allowed +/- 15%. If any cube is showing more variation, result of that cube is
discarded and average of two or more is to be taken.

Recording :
Record is generated as per the sample format given in chronological order.

Format to be Used : To be recorded in Cube Register.

28
FORMAT FOR CONCRETE CUBE REGISTER

NAME OF PROJECT :

Name of Client :

Name of Consultant :

Sr ID Mark Location Grade Slump Date of Date of Date of Weight


No of Cube of in mm casting Testing Testing of
Concre cubes for 7 for 28 Cubes
te days days in Kg

Area of Strength 7 days Strength 28 days Sign of Sign of Remarks


Cube at 7days Avg at 28 Avg Contract Client /
Surface in Strength days in strength or Consulta
Cm2 kg /cm2 in kg/cm2 in nt
Kg/cm2 kg/cm2

Remarks :

This format shall be used as Register. Preferably 7 days and 28days readings
shall be entered in different rows.

29
CHAPTER 8

STANDARD DEVIATION FOR CONCRETE CUBE RESULTS AT 28 DAYS

( As per SP-23 )

A. Initial Set of 30 Readings :


1 List down 28days cube result of one concrete grade taking Averages of 3 cube samples ( Xi )

2 Std Dev shall first calculated for minimum 30 nos of results, n = No of results considered

3 Calculate Average of Xi = X bar

4 Calculate value of ( Xi - Xbar ) for each result and Calculate square of ( Xi -Xbar )

5 Add all values of ( Xi -Xbar ) ^2 = Xn

6 Calculate Std Deviation by Formula


S.D. = ( Xn / n-1 ) ^ 1/2

7 After first 30 results, SD to be updated on decided frequency ( say Monthly )

Site : Name of Client :

Concrete Grade : Period :


Individual Avg Result of Xi- Xbar ( Xi- Xbar ) ^2
Sr. No Cube strength 3 Cubes
in N/mm2 Xi
1
2
3

30
Total Xi = Total Xn = (I)

Xbar n = 30

S.D. = (I)

30
UPDATING THE SD FOR SUBSEQUENT SETS
OF RESULTS

Site : Name of Client :

Concrete Grade : Period :


Individual Avg Result ofXi- Xbar ( Xi- Xbar ) ^2
Sr. No Cube strength
3 Cubes
in N/mm2 Xi
31
32
33

55
Total Xi = Total Xn = ( II )

Xbar n = 25

S.D. = ( II )

To Calculate SD upto date Result 55

Total Xn = Xn( I ) + Xn ( II )

Total n = 29 + 24

Therefore S.D. = ( Total Xn / Total n ) ^ 1/2

Note : Do not calculate Average of SD ( I ) & SD ( II ).

31
CHAPTER 9

PROCEDURE FOR FIELD TEST FOR SILT CONTENT IN SAND

( Ref : A. M. Neville )
Aim : To determine Silt content in Sand by volumetric method field test.
Apparatus :
Measuring cylinder 250 ml
Common Salt.
Procedure :
Prepare 1% solution by mixing 10gms of common salt in 1litre of water.
Put this solution in measuring cylinder upto the mark of 50 ml.
Add Sand as received in the cylinder till its level reaches 100 ml.
Add Solution again so that the mixture reaches the level of 150 ml.
Cylinder top is now covered with the palm of hand and shake vigorously by
turning upside down.
Then allow it to stand undisturbed for 3 hours.
Take reading for top layer of Silt ( A ) and layer of Sand ( B ).
Calculations :
Silt content % Volumetric = (A / B ) x100
Reporting :
% Silt contain (Volumetric ) shall be reported in whole number.
Note : This method is approximate and conversion to weight basis ( which is
acceptance criteria ) is dependent on fineness of material. However 8% volumetric
content is treated as reliable. It was suggested that weight ratio is obtained by
multiplying volumetric ratio by for natural sand and for Crushed sand.
Accurate test when 8% limit of silt contain is exceeded can be done as per IS method
of Sedimentation if required.

Format to be Used :
It shall be recorded in Sieve Analysis for Fine aggregate. Alternatively separate
register for silt contents.

32
CHAPTER 10

PROCEDURE FOR SIEVE ANALYSIS OF FINE AGGREGATES


( I.S. : 2386-I )

Aim : To determine the properties of Fine aggregate for size and distribution by
calculating Fineness modulus and deciding Grading Zone.
Apparatus :
Drying Oven
IS Sieves 10 mm, 4.75mm, 2.36 mm, 1.18 mm, 600 micron, 300 micron, 150 mm,
pan.
Weigh scale to the accuracy of 1g.
Brush , Metal trays etc.
Procedure:
Sample of sand shall be collected as given earlier.
Sieves shall be cleaned and arrange in sequence in descending order. Pan
shall at the lower most end and Lid on top.
Take around 1 kg of sample and dry it in oven at temp of 100-110 deg C.
Dried sample shall be then weighed ( 1 kg preferably) and sieved successively
on sieves starting with 10mm and then through 150 micron.
Each sieve shall be shaken at least for two minutes on clean tray until no more
trace passes.
Motion shall be varied like back and forth, left to right, circular clockwise and
anti-clockwise and with frequent jarring.
Material shall not be forced through the mesh. Lumps in fines shall be broken
against the wall of sieve.
Sieves shall be brushed from underneath of mesh and pass on to the next.
On completion of sieving, material retained on each sieve is to be weigh
separately.

33
Calculations :
Fineness Modulus : Add values of Cumulative % Retained on each sieves and
divide by 100. (Normally accepted limit of FM is value between 2.2 to 3.2.
Higher value of FM indicates Coarser sand whereas lesser value indicates
Finer one. )
Grading Zone of Fine Aggregate Value is shown between I to IV. Where
zone- I is associates with Coarser Fine aggregate and Zone IV is Finer.
Zones are decided from values of 600 micron passing % in sieve analysis.
( Refer Table-4 of IS : 383 )
Zone I 15-34%, Zone-II 35-59 %, Zone-III- 60-79%, Zone-IV- 80-100%
Reporting:
The cumulative % by weight of the total sample passing each sieves, to the
nearest whole number.
Or
The % by weight of the total sample passing one sieve and retained on the next
smaller sieve to the nearest 1 decimal.
Calculate F.M. of the material and decide Grading Zone of material.

Format to be Used :
Format of Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregate shall be used.

34
FORMAT FOR SIEVE ANALYSIS FOR FINE AGGREGATE

NAME OF PROJECT : DATE OF TESTING:

Name of Client :

Name Of Consultant :

Type of Aggregate : River Sand / Crushed Sand Date of sample


Collected :
Source :

Name of Supplier : Sample size : grams

IS Sieve Wt Wt Cumulative Cumulative Remarks


Size retained retained wt retained Passing %
on each % %
sieve, g
10 mm
4.75 mm
2.36 mm
1.18 mm
600
micron
300
micron
150
micron
Pan

Dry Loose Bulk Density : kg /cm3 Fineness Modulus :

Silt Content by Volume % : % Grading Zone :

Specific gravity : gms/cc Oversize % :

SAMPLE ACCEPTED / REJECTED

Tested by : Checked by :

Date Date

35
CHAPTER 11

PROCEDURE FOR SIEVE ANALYSIS OF COARSE AGGREGATES


( I.S. : 2386-I )

Aim : To determine the properties of Coarse aggregate for size and grading
distribution ( Nominal 20mm/12.5or10 mm metal).
Apparatus :
Drying Oven
IS Sieves 40 mm, 20 mm,16 mm, 12.5 mm, 10mm, pan. for Analysis of 20 mm
metal
IS Sieves 20 mm, 16 mm,12.5 mm, 10 mm, 4.75 mm ,2.36mm pan - for Analysis of
10/12.5 metal.
Weigh scale to the accuracy of 1g.
Brush , Metal trays etc.
Procedure:
Sample of aggregate shall be collected as given earlier.
Sieves shall be cleaned and arrange in sequence in descending order. Pan
shall at the lower most end and Lid on top.
Take around 5 kg of sample and dry it in oven at temp of 100-110 deg C.
Dried sample shall be then weighed ( 5 kg preferably) and sieved successively
on sieves starting with 40mm and then through 4.75mm( For 20 mm down
aggregate size ) and through 2.36 mm (For 12.5/10 mm down aggregate size) .
Each sieve shall be shaken at least for two minutes on clean tray until no more
trace passes.
Motion shall be varied like back and forth, left to right, circular clockwise and
anti-clockwise and with frequent jarring.
Material shall not be forced through the mesh. But for coarser than 20mm
particles, placing is permitted (passing particles through sieve opening
manually).
Sieves shall be brushed from underneath of mesh and pass on to the next.
On completion of sieving, material retained on each sieve is to be weigh
separately.

36
Reporting:
The cumulative % by weight of the total sample passing each sieves, to the
nearest whole number.
Or
The % by weight of the total sample passing one sieve and retained on the next
smaller sieve to the nearest 1 decimal.
Check for permissible limits for passing.

Format to be Used :
Format of Sieve Analysis for Coarse Aggregate shall be used.

37
FORMAT FOR SIEVE ANALYSIS FOR COARSE AGGREGATE

NAME OF PROJECT : DATE OF TESTING:

Name of Client :

Name of Consultant :

Size of CA : mm Date of sample


Collected :
Source :
Name of Supplier : Sample size : grams

IS Sieve Wt Wt Cumulative Cumulative Remarks


Size retained retained wt retained Passing %
on each % %
sieve, g
40 mm
20 mm
16mm
12.5 mm
10 mm
4.75 mm
2.36 mm
Pan
Total

Dry Loose Bulk Density : kg / m3 % Fines passing 4.75% :

Water Absorption % : %

Specific Gravity : gms/cc

SAMPLE ACCEPTED / REJECTED

Tested By : Checked By:

Date Date

38
CHAPTER 12

DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND WATER ABSORPTION OF


AGGREGATES
( IS : 2386 part-III)
Aim :
To determine the Specific Gravity of Coarse Aggregate ( Smaller than 10 mm ) and
Fine Aggregate by using Pychnometer Bottle.
Apparatus :
Balance of Capacity not less than 3 Kgs and accuracy of 0.5 g.
Thermostatically controlled Oven
Pychnometer Bottle
G.I. Tray, Air Tight Containers around 1kg capacity, Filter Paper and Funnel.
Sample :
1 kg sample of 10mm sieve passing and retained on 4.75 mm sieve for Coarse
Aggregate
500 g sample of 4.75 mm sieve passing for River or Crushed Sand.

A. PROCEDURE FOR COARSE AGGREGATE


A sample passing 10mm sieve and retained on 4.75 mm sieve is to be
collected and placed in the tray and covered with distilled water; gently rodded
to remove entrapped air.
The sample shall be kept for 24 hrs +/- hrs
The water shall be then carefully drained from the sample by decantation
through filter paper and any material retained being returned to the sample.
The sample is then air-dried with help of air drier or fan gently until no free
surface moisture is seen.
The saturated and surface-dry sample shall be weighed. ( Weight A g )
The aggregate shall then be placed in pychnometer bottle which shall be filled
with distilled water. Any trapped air shall be removed by rotating bottle on its
sides and covering hole in the cone portion with finger.
The pychnometer bottle shall be topped with water full to the surface of hole in
metallic cone.
The pychnometer bottle shall be dried from outside and weighed (Weight B g )

39
The contents of Pychnometer bottle shall be then emptied in the tray ensuring
all aggregate is transferred properly.
Pychnometer bottle shall be then rinsed and filled up with distilled water fully,
dried from outside as above and then weighed ( Weight C g )
The sample of aggregate as collected above shall be drained and decanted
through filter paper and retained material on filter paper shall be returned to the
sample.
The sample then shall be placed in oven at 100 to110 deg C for 24 +/- hrs.
During this period it shall be stirred occasionally to facilitate drying.
It shall be cooled in air-tight container and weighed ( Weight D g )
Such two tests shall be made
Calculations :
Specific Gravity = D/ A(BC)
Water Absorption = 100 ( A D ) / D
( % of Dry weight)
Reporting :
Individual and mean results shall be reported and grading of the aggregate shall be
stated.

B. PROCEDURE FOR FINE AGGREGATE :


Procedure is similar to the above but only sample size shall be 500g.

Format to be Used :
Format of Determination of Specific Gravity shall be used.( For Sp. Gravity )
Format of Determination of Water Absorption of Coarse and Fine Aggregates
shall be used. ( Water Absorption)

40
FORMAT FOR DETERMINATION OF WATER ABSORPTION OF COARSE & FINE
AGGREGATE
( IS : 2386-III )

NAME OF PROJECT : DATE OF TESTING:

Name of Client :

Name Of Consultant :

Type of Aggregate : Date of sample


Collected :
Source :

Name of Supplier : Sample size : grams

Sr.No Description Sample-1 Sample-2


.
1. Weight of material after fan drying for
4-5 hrs to Surface Saturated Dry
condition ( A, g )
2. Weight of Oven dry material for 24 hrs
( D, g )

3. % Water absorption in SSD condition


100 x ( A D ) / D
4. Average of % Water Absorption

SAMPLE ACCEPTED / REJECTED

Tested by : Checked by :

Date Date

41
FORMAT FOR DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY
( IS 2386- III )

NAME OF PROJECT : DATE OF TESTING:

Name of Client :

Name of Consultant :

Size of CA : mm Date of sample


Collected :
Source :
Name of Supplier : Sample size : grams

Sr Description Sample
I II
1. Weight of Saturated
Surface-dry sample, A in
g
2. Weight of Pychn. Bottle
+ Sample + Water , B in
g
3. Weight of Pychn. Bottle
+ Water, C in g
4. Weight of Oven Dried
Sample, D in g
5. Sp. Gravity = D / A ( B
C)

6. Average Sp. Gravity

Tested By : Checked By :

Date Date

42
CHAPTER 13

PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINATION OF FLAKINESS INDEX OF AGGREGATE


( IS : 2386 I )

Aim:
To determine the Flakiness of particles of Coarse Aggregate greater than 6.3 mm
size.
Apparatus :
Balance with accuracy of 0.1% of weight of sample
Flakiness Index Gauge
All other as per Sieve analysis.
Sample :
It shall be taken from retained material from Sieve analysis preferably and should
have at least 200 pieces of any fraction.
Procedure :
Each sample of 20 mm and 10mm shall be taken from retained fraction.
Each fraction shall be gauged in turn for thickness on metal gauge.
The total amount passing the gauge shall be weighed.
Report :
The flakiness Index is the total weight of the material passing the various
thickness gauges; expressed as a % of the weight of total sample gauged.

Format to be Used :
Format for Flakiness Index shall be used.

43
FORMAT FOR FLAKINESS INDEX OF COARSE AGGREGATE

NAME OF PROJECT : DATE OF TESTING:

Name of Client :

Name Of Consultant :

Size of CA : mm Date of sample


Collected :
Source :
Name of Supplier : Sample size : grams

Size of Aggregate Individual wt of Weight of


aggregates Aggregate
retained between passing through
sieves , g respective slot of
the gauge , g
63 50 mm W1 = w1 =
50- 40 mm W2 = w2 =
40 31.5 mm W3 = w3 =
31.5 25 mm W4 = w4 =
25 20 mm W5 = w5 =
20 16 mm W6 = w6 =
16 12.5 mm W7 = w7 =
12.5- 10 mm W8 = w8 =
10- 6.3 mm W9 = w9 =

Actual Flakiness Index = 100 x ( w1 +w2 + w3 + ----- / W1 + W2 + W3 --- )

Actual Flakiness Index =

Acceptable Flakiness Index =

SAMPLE ACCEPTED / REJECTED

Tested by : Checked By :

Date Date

44
CHAPTER 14

PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINATION OF ELONGATION INDEX OF


AGGREGATE
( IS : 2386 I )
Aim:
To determine the Elongated shape of particles of Coarse Aggregate greater than 6.3
mm size.
Apparatus :
Balance with accuracy of 0.1% of weight of the sample
Elongation Index Gauge
All other as per Sieve analysis.
Sample :
It shall be taken from retained material from Sieve analysis preferably and should
have at least 200 pieces of any fraction.
Procedure :
Each sample of 20mm and 10mm metal shall be taken from retained fraction.
Each fraction shall be gauged in turn for thickness on metal gauge.
The total amount passing the gauge shall be weighed.
Report :
The Elongation Index is the total weight of the material passing the various
thickness gauges; expressed as a % of the weight of total sample gauged.

Format to be Used :
Format for Elongation Index shall be used.

45
FORMAT FOR ELONGATION INDEX OF COARSE AGGREGATE

NAME OF PROJECT : DATE OF TESTING:

Name of Client :

Name Of Consultant :

Size of CA : mm Date of sample


Collected :
Source :
Name of Supplier : Sample size : grams

Size of Aggregate Individual wt of Weight of


aggregates Aggregate
retained between passing through
sieves , g respective slot of
the gauge , g
63 50 mm W1 = w1 =
50- 40 mm W2 = w2 =
40 31.5 mm W3 = w3 =
31.5 25 mm W4 = w4 =
25 20 mm W5 = w5 =
20 16 mm W6 = w6 =
16 12.5 mm W7 = w7 =
12.5- 10 mm W8 = w8 =
10- 6.3 mm W9 = w9 =

Elongation Index = 100 x ( w1 +w2 + w3 + ----- / W1 + W2 + W3 --- )

Actual Elongation Index =

Acceptable Elongation Index =

SAMPLE ACCEPTED / REJECTED

Tested by : Checked By :

Date Date

46
CHAPTER 15

PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINATION OF AGGREGATE CRUSHING VALUE


( I.S : 2386-IV )

Aim:
To calculate aggregate Crushing value by testing aggregate passing 12.5 mm sieve
and retained on a 10 mm sieve. ( This is Alternative method to Aggregate Impact
Value.)
Apparatus:
15 cm dia steel cylinder with plunger and base plate
tamping rod 16 mm dia and 600 mm long with one end rounded.
Weighing balance of accuracy 1 g
I.S sieves 12.5 mm , 10 mm & 2.36 mm.
Drying Oven, CTM
Procedure :
Take sample of aggregates by sieving through 12.5mm and retained on 10mm.
The aggregate shall be tested in surface dry condition. If dried by heating, the
period of drying shall not exceed 4 hours and temp shall be 100-110 deg C.
Sample shall be cooled down to room temperature before testing. Take
approximately 6 kgs of sample.
The quantity of the sample shall be such that the depth of material in the
cylinder after tamping shall be 10cms.
Cylinder shall be filled up in 3 layers and each layer shall be tamped 25 times
with tamping rod and finally leveled off.
The weight of material comprising the test sample shall be determined. ( A ), g
The plunger shall be placed in position and the apparatus shall be then placed
between the platens of CTM.
Load shall be applied at uniform rate so that load of 40t is reached in 10
minutes.
The load shall be removed from the cylinder and sieved through 2.36 mm
sieve. The fraction passing sieve 2.36 mm shall be weighed to nearest 1g
(B,g )
Such two tests shall be taken.
47
Reporting :
Aggregate Crushing Value, % = ( B / A ) x100
The mean of the two results shall be reported to the nearest whole number.

Format to be Used :
Format for Aggregate Crushing value to be used.

48
FORMAT FOR AGGREGATE CRUSHING VALUE

NAME OF PROJECT : DATE OF TESTING:

Name of Client :

Name of Consultant :

Size of CA : mm Date of sample


Collected :
Source :
Name of Supplier : Sample size : grams

Description Sample
I II
Weight of Oven Dried
Sample A , g
Weight of Sample
passing 2.36 mm
sieve after Loading ,
B , g
Aggregate Crushing
Value
= 100x B/A
Average

Acceptable Limit

SAMPLE ACCEPTED / REJECTED

Tested By : Checked By :
Date Date

49
CHAPTER 16

PROCEDURE FOR TESTS ON COMMON BURNT CLAY BRICKS


( I.S : 3495-I&II )

A. DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF BRICKS:


Aim: To determine Compressive Strength of Common Burnt Clay bricks
Apparatus :
M.S. Packing Plates 10 / 12 mm thk of adequate size ( 250mm x 150 mm)- 2 nos,
minimum
Plywood sheets 3mm thk /3 ply 2 nos
CTM
Measuring Scale
Clean sand screened through 3 mm sieve ( Remark-Sieving through 4.75 mm
normally will do)
O.P. Cement, jute cloth
Pre- Conditioning :
Record the measurements of the samples to nearest 1mm.
Remove the unevenness observed in the bed faces to provide two smooth and
parallel faces by grinding ( rubbing )
Immerse the specimens in the water at room temperature for 24 hours.
Remove specimen and drain out surplus moisture. Fill the frog and voids in the
bed faces with CM 1:3 flushed to the surface.
Store under damp jute cloth for 24 hrs and then immerse in water for 3 days.
Remove specimen from water and wipe traces of moisture.
Procedure :
Place the specimen with flat faces horizontal and mortar filled face upward
between two ply sheets and required packing plates. Center it carefully.
Apply load at rate of 140 kg /cm2 per minute ( 30 tonne per minute ) , till
failure occurs.
Note the maximum load at the failure.

50
Calculations :
Compressive Strength, kg /cm2 = Max Load in Kg / Avg area of the bed faces of the
specimen, cm2
Report: Average of the results shall be reported.
Format to be Used :
Format for Testing of Common Burnt Clay Brick shall be used.

B. DETERMINATION OF WATER ABSORPTION :


Aim :
To determine water absorption of specimen by 24 hours immersion in cold water.
Apparatus :
Balance with accuracy of 1g
Oven
Measuring scale.
Pre- conditioning :
Dimensions shall be measured to accuracy of 1 mm of test specimen
Dry specimen in oven at temperature 105-115 deg C till it attains substantially
constant mass.
Cool the specimen to room temperature and obtain weight M1, g ( Specimen
warm to touch shall not be weighed. )
Procedure:
Immerse completely dried specimen in clean water at temperature
27+/- 2 deg C.
Remove specimen after 24 hours and wipe out any traces of water with damp
cloth.
Weigh the specimen within 3 minutes after removing from water. ( M2, g )
Calculations :
% Water Absorption = ( M2-M1 /M1) x100
Report :
Average of the results to be reported.
Format to be Used :
Format for Testing of Common Burnt Clay Bricks shall be used.

51
FORMAT FOR TESTING OF COMMON BURNT CLAY BRICKS
( IS : 3495-I )

NAME OF PROJECT : DATE OF TESTING:

Name of Client :

Name of Consultant :

A. Compressive Strength :

Sr. Date of Frog Mark I.D. Date of Wt of


Receipt of ( Sketch) Testing Brick in
Sample gms

Area of Load as Calibrated Strength Average Sign of Sign of


Brick per dial load in kN in N /mm2 Strength SPCL Client
sample gauge in engr. Consultan
kN t

B. Water Absorption :
Sr Date of Frog I.D. Date of Wt of Wt of Water Sign.
receipt mark testing oven brick Absorpti
of Sketch dried immers on %
sample brick in ed for
g 24 hrs
in water
in g

SAMPLE ACCEPTED / REJECTED

Tested By : Checked By
Date Date

52
CHAPTER 17

PROECEDURE FOR DETERMINATION OF


WATER CONTENT IN SOIL SAMPLE
( IS : 2720-II )

A. By Oven Drying Method :

Aim :
To determine Water Content in Soil Sample at Laboratory by Oven Method
Apparatus :
Container Any suitable non-corrodable air tight container. ( Remarks- These can
be 300ml aluminum or stainless steel boxes with lid )
Balance Having accuracy of 0.04% of the weight of soil taken for test. Remarks-
Balance of capacity 500 g and accuracy of 0.1g can be used when accurate
working is required. If normal weighing balance with 1g accuracy is used then
accuracy of water content will be around 0.2 to 0.5% only; depending on sample
size 500 to 200 g respectively.
Drying Oven Thermostatically controlled.
Soil Specimen :
It shall be true representative of soil mass. The size of specimen are
recommended for general laboratory use as below. However, the dryer the soil,
greater shall be size. Remarks : Preferably take 500g sample when weighing
accuracy is 1g.

Size of particles, mm 37.5 19 9.5 4.75 2


More than 90% passing

Min qty of soil specimen


For test in g 1000 500 300 200 50

Procedure:
Clean the container with lid, dry and weigh ( W1,g )
Take the required quantity of the soil specimen in container, crumble clods and
place loosely and weigh with the lid ( W2, g )

53
Keep filled container in an oven with the lid removed and maintain the
temperature at 110+/- 5 deg C. for maximum 24 hours.
Cool the container and record Final mass of container with lid and dried sample
( W3, g ).

Calculations :
% of Water Content = 100 x ( W2-W3 ) / ( W3- W1)
Report :
The water content % shall be expressed to two significant figures ( e.g.- 23, 2.3,
0.23 )
Note : Oven drying at 110 +/- 5 deg C does not result in reliable values for soil
containing Gypsum and any other mineral having water of hydration or significant
amount of organic matter. Reliable values can be obtained in an oven by drying at
temperature around 60-80 deg C.

Remarks: Traces of Gypsum / lime / Alum can be seen as white particles. That of
Organic matter will show black colour fibrous traces. Particles of Green / Bluish
Green can be minerals having water of hydration.

B. By Sand Bath Method ( Suitable as Field Test )


This method is not suitable for soil containing a large portion of Gypsum ,
Calcareous Matter or Organic matter.

Aim :
To determine water content in soil specimen in the field.
Apparatus:
Container Any suitable Air tight container as given in Oven drying method.
Sand Bath : Suitable size and containing clean sand to a depth of 3 cms.
Stove, Spatula

Soil Specimen :
As given in Oven drying method.

54
Procedure :
Clean the container with lid, dry and weigh ( W1 , g )
Take the required quantity of the soil specimen in container, crumble the clods
and place loosely and weigh ( W2, g )
Add few pieces ( 3-4 small) of white paper if necessary. This the indicator for
over-heating. While heating the soil paper pieces shall not turn brown.
Place the container with lid removed on sand bath and heat sand bath on the
stove.
During heating sample shall be turned frequently and thoroughly to assist
evaporation. It shall be done carefully so as no soil mass is spilled over.
When drying is complete, remove the container and cool it down. Remove
pieces of papers.
Weigh the container with lid on. ( W3, g )

Calculations :

w % = 100x ( W2 - W3 ) / ( W3 W1 )
Report :
Same as Oven drying method to two significant figures ( e.g. 23, 2.3, 0.23 )

Format to be Used :
Format of Field Dry Density by Core cutter Method to be used.

55
CHAPTER 18

DETERMINATION OF DRY DENSITY OF SOIL IN-PLACE


BY CORE-CUTTER METHOD
( I.S : 2720-XXIX )

Aim : To determine the Field density of Fine grained soil by using Core-cutter. ( It
is less accurate than sand Replacement Method and recommended for well
compacted soils.
Apparatus :
Core cutter / Dolly / Rammer.
Balance of 1 g accuracy.
Pallet knife, Straight edge, Steel rule, Pick axe etc.
Soil sample :
Soil sample is termed as fine-grained if 90% by weight is passes through IS sieve
4.75 mm.
Procedure :
Internal Volume ( Vc, cm3 ) of core cutter shall be calculated by taking
dimensions to nearest to 0.25 mm ( By vernier).
Cutter shall be weighed to nearest g. ( Wc, g )
A small area, approximately 30 cms square of the soil layer to be tested shall
be exposed and leveled.
Cutter shall be placed vertically on soil with dolly on top.
Cutter shall be rammed down vertically into the soil layer until only about 15
mm of dolly protrudes above surface.
Care to be taken that cutter shall not rock sideways while hammering.
The cutter shall be dug out of surrounding soil by pick axe. Please take care so
as to have some protruding soil mass from the lower edge.
Soil from both the ends shall be trimmed flat to the ends of cutter.
The cutter containing soil mass shall be weighed to nearest g ( Ws, g )
The soil mass shall be removed from cutter and representative sample shall be
tested for water contents.
At least 3 tests are required to make average result.

56
Remarks Often problem encountered when soil mass is dry and cutter is not
properly filled up or looses soil while handling. In such case test is to be done
by sprinkling water and testing after suitable lapse of time. Core cutter shall be
removed, trimmed and kept in polythelene bag to take it to laboratory. It shall
be weighed with cutter and any loose soil mass collected in bag.

Calculations :
Bulk Density Yb of Wet Soil is as below:
Yb = ( Ws Wc ) / Vc , gms /cm3
Dry Density Yd is as below:
Yd = 100 Yb / ( 100 + w ) , gms /cm3 Where w = Water content %

Report :
Dry Density to be recorded to 2nd place of decimal in gms/cm3.
Water Content % to two significant figures ( e.g.- 23, 2.3, 0.23 )

Format to be Used :
Format of Field Density of Soil by Core Cutter Method shall be used.

57
FIELD DRY DENSITY OF SOIL
BY CORE CUTTER METHOD
( IS : 2720- XXIX )

NAME OF PROJECT : DATE OF TESTING:

Name of Client : Location :

Name of Consultant : Layer No : from bottom

Thickness of layer : mm
MDD of Soil : g/cm3 OMC % :

Sr. Description Sample


I II III
A. Bulk Density of Soil
1. Weight of the cutter, Wc , g

2. Weight of Cutter + Soil , Ws, g

3. Volume of Cutter , Vc , cm3

4. Bulk Density of Soil Yb


= ( Ws Wc ) /Vc , g / cm3
B. Water Content %
1. Weight of Container with Lid ,
W1 , g
2. W1 + Weight of wet Soil = W2
,g
3. W1 + Weight of Oven dried
soil = W3 , g
4. % of Water Content, w = 100x
( W2 W3 ) / ( W3 W1 )
C. Dry Density of Soil
1. Dry Density of Soil , Yd = 100
Yb / ( 100 + w ) , g / cm3
2. Average Field Dry Density, Yd
, g /cm3
D. % Compaction Achieved,
100 x ( Yd avg / MDD )

Acceptable Limit =

RESULT ACCEPTED / REJECTED

ACTION TO BE TAKEN ( If Any ) :

Tested By : Checked By :
Date Date
58
CHAPTER 3

CALIBRATION OF TEST
EQUIPMENTS
1- GENERAL
Scope :
The scope of this Calibration Plan is pertaining to SPCL procedure Document No
1000 GP04 043.
This Plan deals with Calibration & /or Verification of test equipments and measuring
equipments used in testing and production.

Requirements :
All test equipments in lab shall be in proper condition of use. They shall be verified at
some defined frequency to achieve correct results and consistent performance.
Measuring equipments and Test equipments are required to be calibrated to show that
these equipments give correct results within the tolerances specified by BIS. This shall
be done at defined frequency or as required.

59
2 - CALIBRATION PLAN

Sr Equipment Brand / Part to be Method of Frequency Latest


. Make Calibrated Calibration Calibration
N on
o
1. Compressi Lawrence & Dial Gauge External Once a
on testing Mayo Agency Year
machine
2. Weigh ISI Mark Weights External Once a
Balance (Contass) Agency Year
&Weights
3. Batch Dial Gauge In -House Once a six
Plant or Load cell month
4. Oven Expo Thermostat In -House Once a
Year
5. Pan Eureka External Once a six
balance Agency month
(electronic)
6. Mechanical Dial Gauge External Once a six
Weigh or Load cell Agency month
Batcher
7. Cube ISI Mark Check on In -House Once a
moulds (Contass) edges and three
straightness month

60
3 - PROCEDURE FOR VERIFICATION OF EQUIPMENTS
(In House Test)
VERIFICATION OF CUBE MOULD
Aim : To check Cube Mould assembly for dimensional correct ness.
Apparatus : Platform flat and leveled, Set of spanners,Metallic scale,Vernier Caliper
Procedure :
Put Sr No on Cube moulds and base plates ( All plates )
Cube set assembly shall be kept on platform.
Check the joints which shall be tight and uniform. Thickness shall be hairline thick.
Check the bolts for tight fitting and cleanliness.
Remove the bolts and dis assemble the side plates and bottom plate.
Check for cleanliness and straightness with help of straight edge.
Re-fit the assembly and again and check for dimensional accuracy.
Check for diagonals for right angles in plan.
Remove bottom plate if attached and check diagonals between top and bottom.
Put cube assembly on base plate and check level of adjacent plates.
Tolerances ( IS : 516 ) :
Dimensional tolerances shall not be more than 150 + /- 0.2 mm.
Angular Tolerances shall be 90 deg + /- 0.5 deg. ( +/- 0.2 mm ).
Reports :Keep records of verifications of dimensions Date and Serial wise.

VERIFICATION OF SIEVES
Aim : To visually inspect the sieves for condition
Procedure :
Check the sieves are properly secure at frame and no gap is seen between frame and
sieve when pressed little on sieve center by palm.
Check the sieve wires /flats for straightness, ruptures etc.
Records : Rejected sieves shall be marked and then dispose suitably.

61
VERIFICATION OF PAN BALANCE
Aim : To check the sensitivity of pan balance.
Apparatus : Weight of least count.
Procedure :
Check proper level of balance and cleanliness.
Keep the pan on balance and check for pointer.
Then apply slight pressure on pan and keep the balance in swing. Watch for any
abrupt stoppage of swing.
Then keep the least count weight lightly without shock in pan and check if it record
swing. Remove the weight lightly with forceps without shock and watch if pointer
returns back to original.
If it does not respond to the least count weight, use next higher weight and observe.
Conclusion : Weight to which balance responds and visually seen shall be the least
count of the balance.

VERIFICATION OF MECHANICAL WEIGH BALANCE


Aim : To check condition and sensitivity of weighing mechanism.
Apparatus : Weight of 3kgs. ( This will give tolerance of about 2% in weighing as
against 3% specified ).
Procedure :
Put weigh balance on level ground. Empty the buckets completely.
Check weighing mechanism is showing zero reading.
Add 3 kg load in bucket and check the reading.
Add 20 kg weight and check the reading.
Add 3kg weight and check the reading and so on.
Conclusion :
If it shows the reading around 3 kgs for each increment , it is OK. If not check
weighing mechanism which may have jammed bearing. Clean, change and repeat
procedure. If still error persists then it is time to calibrate equipment which only can be
done by manufacturer or approved agency. ( One common problem with arm type
weigh batcher is slotted weights. If they get interchanged then weighing will show
variation.)

62
VERIFICATION OF COMPRESSION TESTING MACHINE OIL LEAKAGE
Aim : To check performance of loading. This can be tested while performing above
test also.
Apparatus :
Test Cube for higher grade than normally tested.
Procedure :
Test method is same as Cube Testing but cube is not to be loaded till crushing.
Place the cube in machine and load the cube till first crack appears on surface.
Stop the loading.
Watch the black needle whether remains in position. This needle may come back
slightly as cube is getting strained but then remains in position.

Conclusions :
If the needle traced back slowly it means there is leakage in system particularly Oil
seal inside cylinder. Or visible leakage in line connecting dial gauge and cylinder.

Report :
Report the load applied and observation and file in Calibration File.
Consult manufacturer for Repairs if required.

VERIFICATION OF COMPRESSION TESTING MACHINE PLATEN FLATNESS


Aim : To check the condition of CTM for its performance- platen Flat ness.
Apparatus :
Test Cubes of grade at least M: 20 ( Extra Conc. Cubes which are not listed for
checks of work )
Plain Paper and New Carbon Paper- 2each
Procedure :
For carrying out this test, cube is required to load partially only say upto 25-30 kN and
cube shall be retrieve in whole piece. Method is same as Cube testing.
Check cube surface which will be contact with platens for flatness by straight edge.
Put carbon paper on bottom platen, carbon side facing top and then put plain paper
( Mark Bottom Side on the paper ) on top of carbon paper.

63
Slide the cube and center it correctly so that whole cube surface shall be in contact
with plain paper. Mark the cube edges on the paper by pen.
Slide one more plain paper ( Mark Top Side on the paper )on top surface of cube.
Put carbon paper on top of plain paper with carbon side touching plain paper. Mark
the cube edges on paper by pen after tightening platen on cube by jack.
Load the CTM partially say upto 25-30 kN. This should not break the cube.
Remove the load. Retrieve the cube and plain papers watch the carbon marks on the
papers.Complete the cube size marking with straight edge to show area of cube with
respect to carbon mark ( which will appear circular in shape).
Results :
Refer to the top side paper first.Match the diagonals of cube size and check if carbon
mark is concentric with center of cube dimensions. If this is not concentric then cubes
are getting loaded eccentrically and failures are occurring only on one side mostly.
Check the carbon marking on the paper with respect to size of cube. If this marking is
less than 75 mm in diameter, it means cube is getting loaded only as point load
thereby most of the cubes are getting cracks centrally.Refer to the Bottom side
paper.On this side carbon marking will on more area than top side. Check the
consistency of shade of marks.It shall not be varying too much in shade or blank
spaces in between.
Conclusions:
If top markings are showing point or eccentric loading, it means top platen is bent (
Usually this occurs in 100t CTM as per our experience).If bottom marking have large
shade variance, bottom platen surface has irregularities.Consult the Manufacturer for
replacement or repairs of platens.

64
4 - CALIBRATION OF BATCHING PLANT
(In House Test)

Aim : To calibrate the weighing mechanism of batch plant to conform within weighing
tolerances.

Apparatus :
Calibrated Weight blocks of various designations 50 / 20 kgs / 10 kgs ( As decided
and required ).

Procedure :
Clear the bucket of all loose and any sticking material shall be removed.
Set the reading at zero on display for no load.
Load the bucket with weights starting from 20 kg and increase at the increment of
50 kgs.
At start and each increment record the load on dial or display ( Loading Condition
).
Reach the total load upto 1.2 times the operating weight of material being used or
to the 0.9 times of capacity.
After this remove 50 kg load every time and record these decrement values as
above ( Unloading Condition )
Check the report for tolerances to + /- 3 %. If it is exceeding the same weighing
mechanism shall be adjusted suitably to give minimum errors.

Report :
Keep report of variance of actual weights and recorded weights. Give correction
factors to plant operator.

65
BATCHING PLANT CALIBRATION REPORT

Site : Date of Calibration :

Make and capacity of Batching Plant :

SP Code No :

Testing Condition : LOADING / UNLOADING

Actual Readin Readin Error% Error% Remarks


Weight g g before After
before After correct correct
correct Corret n n
n n
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1100
1150
1200
1250
1300
1350
1400
1450
1500

Calibration Done By : Checked By :

66
5 - LIST OF ABBREVIATION

Amp : Ampere
Avg : Average
C : Centigrade
C.C. : Cement Concrete
CA : Coarse Aggregate
cc : Cubic Centimeter
cl. : Clause
CM : Cement Mortar ( Proportion )
cm : Centimeter
cm2 : Square Centimeter
cm3 : - do
CTM : Compression Testing Machine
deg : Degree ( Temperature)
Dia : Diameter
DLBD : Dry Loose Bulk Density.
g : Gram
G.I. : Galvanized Iron
Hrs : Hours
IS : Indian Standard
ISI : Indian Standard Institution now BIS ( Bureau of Indian Standards )
Kg : Kilogram
kN : Kilo-Newton ( Weight measure. 1kN = 1000 N = 100 kg )
LL : Live Load
M.S. : Mild Steel
m3 : Cubic meter
Max : Maximum
mcn : Micron ( 1000 micron = 1 mm )
MDD : Maximum Dry Density
Min : Minimum
mm : Millimeter
mm2 : Square Millimeter
Mpa : Mega Pascal ( Unit of Stress/ Pressure )
MT : Metric Ton ( 1 MT = 1000 Kgs)
MTC : Manufacturers Test Certificate
N : Newton ( weight measure 10 N = 1 Kg approx )
No : Number
O.P.C : Ordinary Portland Cement
OMC : Optimum Moisture Content
Pg : Page
PPC : Portland Pozzolana Cement
PSC : Portland Slag Cement
Qty : Quantity
RMC : Ready Mix Concrete
S.D. : Standard Deviation
Sp.Gr. : Specific Gravity
SPCL : m/s Shapoorji Pallonji & Co. Ltd.
Sr. : Serial
Std : Standard
UTS : Ultimate Tensile Stress
wt : Weight
67
6 - DEFINITIONS
Newton : It is measure of weight in S.I. ( International Standard ) Unit. 10 N = 1kg.
Approximately.
Mpa : It is unit of Stress or Pressure in S.I. ( International Standard ) Unit. Equivalent
to N/mm2.
Optimum Moisture Content ( OMC ) : Calculated in %. It is the moisture content in
soil at which soil can be compacted to maximum Dry Density under given applied
efforts ( Ramming with standard weight rammer through standard distance ).
Maximum Dry Density ( MDD ) : The maximum density to which soil can attain at
given parameters ( Like Moisture Content and efforts ). The value is calculated without
the weight of water content in specimen.
Gross Sample : Sample collected from stack of material which is representative and
it is further divided to make specimen for testing by specific method.
Liquid Limit ( LL ) : It is calculated in % for cohesive soils. It is the % of water at
which soil specimen flows under little effort applied. This gives undesirable conditions
of water content in cohesive soil mass.
Plastic Limit ( PL ) : It is calculated in % for cohesive soils. It is the % of water at
which soil specimen become plastic e.g. moldable / compactable. OMC of soil is
generally slightly less than PL.
Plasticity Index ( PI ) : It is numerical difference bet LL & PL ( LL- PL ). For highly
cohesive soils PI is high. For Non-cohesive soils PI is less. Highly cohesive soils
offers great resistance to compaction and Non-cohesive soils are unstable in moist
conditions.
Characteristic Strength ( of Concrete ) , Fck : This is the designated strength ( in
N/mm2 or kg /cm2 ) of cube cured for 28 days for given Grade of the concrete, below
which not more than 5% of the test results are expected to fall. This value shall not be
considered as accepted value of strength directly. Concrete strength acceptance
criteria is based on value of Fck.
Mean Target Strength (of Concrete ) : This value is targeted when designing the
mix of concrete under strict control at laboratory. Hence under site conditions lower
values will be attained without any compromise on acceptance criteria.
Lot of Brick : A collection of bricks of same class and size, manufactured under
relatively similar conditions of production.

68
Batch of Cement : This is displayed on cement bags as a week number of the year.
It shows Week of production ( Whole year is divided in weeks and serial no of week is
given. E.g.- 4th week means 4th week of Jan. 9th week means 1st week of Mar ) along
with Month and year is also shown. The display is 9 / 03 or

W M Y
9 3 2003

0.2% Proof stress ( For steel ) - IS : 1608 : It is derived from graph force vs.
extension. Value of force is derived by drawing line at 0.2% of extension on graph and
running it parallel to the straight portion of graph. This line will intersect the graph and
value of force will be obtained. This force is divided by the original cross section area
of specimen and thus 0.2 % proof stress is arrived at.
Batch of Steel- IS 1786 : Any quantity of bars /wires of same size and grade whether
in coils or bundle presented for examination and test at one time.
Bundle of Steel IS 1786 : Two or more coils or a number of lengths properly bound
together.
Notes ( As mentioned in this manual ) : These are authentic notes / comments
given from references.
Remarks ( As mentioned in this manual ) : These are added extra as per normal
practices and observations. These can not be quoted as authentic one as no
proper back up can be available.

69
LABORATORY MANUAL AMENDMENT REQUEST FORM
From :
Document Code :
Dept./Site : ISO Cell, SP Centre

Document Title : To :

Current Issue No. : Date :

Chapter No. Details Proposed Amendment Reason

SIGNATURE OF ORIGINATOR
Review Notes :

Signature of Original Approving Authority

P.S. The Amendment Request Form shall be approved Recommended Not Recommended
by the approving authority of the Document.

Document Amendment Date :

Document Approval Date :

Document Issued On : By :

70