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(study Natural Phenomena and Biological Life)

Natural science is a branch of science that seeks to elucidate the rules that govern the natural world by
applying an empirical and scientific method to the study of the universe

-Physical science

Physical Science is an encompassing term for the branches of natural science and science that study
non-living systems, in contrast to the life sciences. However, the term "physical" creates an unintended,
somewhat arbitrary distinction, since many branches of physical science also study biological
phenomena.

Physics

Physics (from Ancient Greek: physis "nature") is a natural science that involves the study
of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More
broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.
The science of matter is also addressed by physics, but while physics takes a more general and
fundamental approach.

Chemistry

Chemistry (the etymology of the word has been much disputed) is the science of matter and the changes
it undergoes., chemistry is more specialized, being concerned with the composition, behavior (or
reaction), structure, and properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical
reactions. It is a physical science which studies various substances, atoms, molecules, and matter
(especially carbon based).

Inorganic chemistry - Branch of chemistry that deals with inorganic compounds (lifeless)
typically these are compounds that do not contain carbon.
Organic Chemistry - Branch of chemistry dealing with organic (living) compounds.
BioChemistry - the study of the chemical compounds, reactions, etc, occurring in living
organisms
Physical Chemistry - the branch of chemistry dealing with the relations between the physical
properties of substances and their chemical composition and transformations.
Neuro Chemistry - the study of neurochemicals , which include neurotransmitters and other
molecules such as neuro-active drugs that influence neuron function.
Metallurgy - studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements , their intermetallic
compounds , and their mixtures, which are called alloys . It is also the technology of metals: the
way in which science is applied to their practical use.
Earth science

Earth science (also known as geoscience) is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to
the planet Earth. It is arguably a special case in planetary science, the Earth being the only known life-
bearing planet. There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. The formal
discipline of Earth sciences may include the study of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, oceans and
biosphere, as well as the solid earth.

Astronomy - The study of objects and matter outside the earth's atmosphere. The stars, planets,
moons, asteroids, galaxies and more.
Astrophysics - A branch of astronomy dealing with the motions, physical properties and
behaviors of celestial objects.
Geography - The science that deals with the earth's surface, its distribution, shapes,
characteristics and complex interactive structures including the phyical and biological structures.
Geology - The study of the history of the earth and it's life as recorded and expressed in rocks.
Geophysics - A branch of earth science that deals with the phyical processes of the earth.
Mineralogy - the science dealing with minerals, their characteristics, properties and
classifications.
Oceanography - The science of studying all aspects of oceans including properties, biological
life, patterns, resources and more.
Paleontology - The science of studying past geological periods as they are expressed and
displayed through rocks, minerals and especially fossils.
Seismology - Science that deals with earthquakes and artificially generated vibrations of the
earth.

--Life science

Life science comprises the branches of science that involve the scientific study of living organisms, like
plants, animals, and human beings. However, the study of behavior of organisms, such as practiced in
ethology and psychology, is only included in as much as it involves a clearly biological aspect. While
biology remains the centerpiece of life science, technological advances in molecular biology and
biotechnology have led to a burgeoning of specializations and new, often interdisciplinary, fields.

Biology

Biology is the branch of natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including
their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. [

Anatomy - A branch of science that deals with the structure of organisms.


Cytology - A branch of biology that studies and deals with cells, their anatomy, functions,
morphology and history.
Entomology - The Study of Insects
Herpetology - The study of reptiles and amphibians
Histology - The study of tissue structure and organization on a microscopic leve.
Ichthyology - The study of fishes
Ornithology - The study of birds
Microbiology
Bacteriology - The study of Bacteria
Protozoology - The study of protozoans (stuff like amoebae and paramecia)
Virology - The study of viruses
Zoology /zoldi/, occasionally spelled zology, is the branch of biology that relates to the
animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and
distribution of all animals, both living and extinct. The term is derived from Ancient Greek
(zon, "animal") + (logos, "knowledge").
Human Biology

Human biology is an interdisciplinary academic field of biology, biological anthropology, nutrition and
medicine which focuses on humans; it is closely related to primate biology, and a number of other fields.

Some branches of biology


include: microbiology, anatomy, neurology and neuroscience, immunology, genetics, psychology,physiolo
gy, pathology, biophysics, and ophthalmology.

Botany

Botany, plant science(s), or plant biology is a branch of biology that involves the scientific study of plant
life. Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines including structure, growth, reproduction,
metabolism, development, diseases, chemical properties, and evolutionary relationships among
taxonomic groups. Botany began with early human efforts to identify edible, medicinal and poisonous
plants, making it one of the oldest sciences. Today botanists study over 550,000 species of living
organisms. The term "botany" comes from Greek , meaning "pasture, grass, fodder", perhaps via
the idea of a livestock keeper needing to know which plants are safe for livestock to eat.

(study human behavior and societies)

The social sciences are the fields of scholarship that study society. "Social science" is
commonly used as an umbrella term to refer to a plurality of fields outside of the natural
sciences.

Animal Behavior - A branch of biology that deals with animal behavior


Anthropology - the science that deals with the origins, physical and cultural development,
biological characteristics, and social customs and beliefs of humankind.
Archeology - the scientific study of historic or prehistoric peoples and their cultures by
analysis of their artifacts, inscriptions, monuments, and other such remains, especially
those that have been excavated.
Crimonology - The study of crime and criminals
Economics - the science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of
goods and services, or the material welfare of humankind.
Education -
Ethnology - a branch of anthropology that analyzes cultures, especially in regard to their
historical development and the similarities and dissimilarities between them.
Government -
Linguistics - the science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology,
syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics .
Political Science - The study of government and politics.
Psychology - the science of the mind or of mental states and processes.
Sociology - the science or study of the origin, development, organization, and functioning
of human society; the science of the fundamental laws of social relations, institutions, etc.
Formal sciences

The formal sciences are the branches of knowledge that are concerned with formal systems,
such as logic, mathematics, theoretical computer science, information theory, systems theory,
decision theory, statistics, and some aspects of linguistics.

Unlike other sciences, the formal sciences are not concerned with the validity of theories based
on observations in the real world, but instead with the properties of formal systems based on
definitions and rules. Methods of the formal sciences are, however, applied in constructing and
testing scientific models dealing with observable reality.

Decision theory-in economics, psychology, philosophy, mathematics, and statistics is


concerned with identifying the values, uncertainties and other issues relevant in a given
decision, its rationality, and the resulting optimal decision. It is very closely related to the
field of game theory.
Logic (from the Greek logik) is the formal systematic study of the principles of
valid inference and correct reasoning. Logic is used in most intellectual activities, but is
studied primarily in the disciplines of philosophy, mathematics, semantics, and computer
science. Logic examines general forms which arguments may take, which forms are
valid, and which are fallacies. In philosophy, the study of logic figures in most major
areas: epistemology, ethics, metaphysics. In mathematics, it is the study of valid
inferences within some formal language.[ Logic is also studied in argumentation theory.
Mathematics-which is classified as a formal science,[ has both similarities and
differences with the empirical sciences (the natural and social sciences). It is similar to
empirical sciences in that it involves an objective, careful and systematic study of an
area of knowledge; it is different because of its method of verifying its knowledge, using
a priori rather than empirical methods. The formal sciences, which also include statistics
and logic, are vital to the empirical sciences. Major advances in formal science have
often led to major advances in the empirical sciences. The formal sciences are essential
in the formation of hypotheses, theories, and laws, both in discovering and describing
how things work (natural sciences) and how people think and act (social sciences).
Statistics-is the study of the collection, organization, and interpretation of data. It deals
with all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of
surveys and experiments.A statistician is someone who is particularly well versed in the
ways of thinking necessary for the successful application of statistical analysis. Such
people have often gained this experience through working in any of a wide number of
fields. There is also a discipline called mathematical statistics, which is concerned with
the theoretical basis of the subject.
The word statistics, when referring to the scientific discipline, is singular, as in "Statistics is an
art." This should not be confused with the word statistic, referring to a quantity (such as mean or
median) calculated from a set of data,[ whose plural is statistics ("this statistic seems wrong" or
"these statistics are misleading").

Systems theory- is the transdisciplinary study of systems in general, with the goal of
elucidating principles that can be applied to all types of systems in all fields of research.
The term does not yet have a well-established, precise meaning, but systems theory can
reasonably be considered a specialization of systems thinking and a generalization of
systems science. The term originates from Bertalanffy's General System Theory (GST)
and is used in later efforts in other fields, such as the action theory of Talcott Parsons
and the system-theory of Niklas Luhmann.In this context the word systems is used to
refer specifically to self-regulating systems, i.e. that are self-correcting through feedback.
Self-regulating systems are found in nature, including the physiological systems of our
body, in local and global ecosystems, and in climate.
Theoretical computer science (TCS) -is a division or subset of general computer
science and focuses on more abstract or mathematical aspects of computing.These
divisions and subsets include analysis of algorithms and formal semantics of
programming languages. Technically, there are hundreds of divisions and subsets
besides these two. Each of the multiple parts have their own individual personal leaders
(of popularity) and there are many associations and professional social groups and
publications of distinction.
Applied science- is the application of scientific knowledge transferred into a physical
environment. Examples include testing a theoretical model through the use of formal
science or solving a practical problem through the use of natural science.Applied science
differs from fundamental science, which seeks to describe the most basic objects and
forces, having less emphasis on practical applications. Applied science can be like biological
science and physical science.Applied mathematics, Applied physics, Medicine, Computer
science. Fields of engineering are closely related to applied sciences. Applied science is
important for technology development. Its use in industrial settings is usually referred to as
research and development (R&D).