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Basic Cement Chemistry

Learning Objectives

Know the meaning and the way of presentation of chemical and mineralogical
composition of cement specific materials
Know the chemical moduli applied for cement specific materials
Know the Bogue-calculation for clinker mineral phases and the relationship with
chemical moduli
Chemical Composition
Chemical Formulae
Mineralogical Composition
Chemical Parameters for Cement-Specific Materials
Contents of Clinker Minerals According to Bogue
Relationship between Chemical Moduli and Clinker Mineral Contents
Exercise for Calculation

Elemental Composition (weight %)

Chemical Composition

Elemental composition in weight percentage. By convention, the elements are


expressed in form of their oxides (exception; Cl, F).
Usual sequence of elements in cement chemistry
L.o.I.: e.g. at 1050 C, mainly due to CO2 and H2O
Chemical Composition Examples

Chemical Formula

The chemical formula indicates the elements occurring in a chemical compound:


For a molecular compound, type and absolute number of elements are given

For a mineralogical compound, type and relative number of elements are given

Note: In mineralogical compounds, the elements need not necessarily occur in simple
numerical ratios (impurities, solid solution)

Chemical Formulae

In the cement chemistry, shorthands are often used:

Mineralogical Composition

Composition of material, expressed in weight-percentage of the occurring minerals


Note: Difference between chemical and mineralogical composition

Chemical Parameters for Cement-Specific Materials

Titration

Content of carbonates as determined by acid-base titration, expressed as CaCO3

% Titration = 1.786 CaO + 2.48 MgO

Applied for: Limestone Marl Raw Meal

Lime Saturation
The LS is a measure to which extent the CaO-richest compounds C3S, C3A and C4AF can be
formed without the necessary presence of free lime. At LS > 100, free lime will unavoidably
be present after burning.

Applied for:

Raw meal

Clinker

Cement: neat OPC only

CaO = CaO(total) 0.7 SO3

Usual range in clinker: 85 100

Note: The influence of MgO can be accounted for

Max. 2% MgO may be introduced in formula (not applied in cement specifications)

Silica Ratio

Applied for:

Siliceous-argillaceous raw components


Raw Meal

Clinker

Cement

Usual range in clinker: 1.8 3.6

Alumina Ratio

Applied for:

Siliceous-argillaceous raw components

Raw Meal

Clinker

Cement

Usual range in clinker: 1 3

Na2O-equivalent

Total alkali content, expressed as Na2O

Na2O-equivalent = Na2O + 0.658 K2O

Note:

Limit for low alkali cement

Na2O-equivalent < 0.6 %

Applied for:

Clinker

Cement

Moduli of Main Clinkers in Holcim group


Moduli of Main Clinkers
Content of clinker Minerals according to Bogue

Percentage content of clinker minerals, assuming that chemical equilibrium is


attained, and that no impurities are present.

C3S = 4.07 CaO 7.6 SiO2 6.72 Al2O3 1.43 Fe2O3

C2S = 8.6 SiO2 + 5.07 Al2O3 + 2.08 Fe2O3 3.07 CaO

or 2.87 SiO2 0.754 C3S

C3A = 2.65 Al2O3 1.69 Fe2O3

C4AF = 3.04 Fe2O3

In reality, the mineralogical composition of industrial clinkers differs to some extent from
that calculated according to Bogue.
Applied for Cement

OPC only (excl. blended cements)

Correction for CaO in CaSO4: CaO = CaOtot 0.70 SO3

For AASHTO: TiO2 and P2O5 to be added to Al2O3 (no longer for ASTM)

Clinker

CaO can be corrected for free lime; depending on objective of calculation CaO = CaOtot
CaOfree

Significance of Clinker Minerals for Cement Properties

Significance of Clinker Minerals for ASTM Cement Types

Type I Portland no restrictions regarding clinker minerals


Type II Portland with moderate sulphate resistance (and moderate heat of hydration)

C3A max. 8 %

(C3S + C3A max. 58% for moderate heat of hydration)

Type III Portland with high early strength

C3A max. 15% (C3A max. 8% for moderate sulphate resist. C3A max. 5% for high sulphate
resist.)
Type IV Portland with low heat of hydration

C3S max. 35%

C2S min. 40%

C3A max. 7%

Type V Portland with high sulphate resistance

C3A max. 5.0 %

C4AF + 2 C3A max. 25%

or C4AF + 2 C2F max. 25%

Clinker Minerals as Function of LS

Clinker Minerals as Function of SR


Clinker Minerals as Function of SR
Clinker Minerals as Function of AR
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