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The grammartranslation method is a method of teaching foreign languages derived from the

classical (sometimes called traditional) method of teaching Greek and Latin. In grammar
translation classes, students learn grammatical rules and then apply those rules by translating
sentences between the target language and the native language. Advanced students may be
required to translate whole texts word-for-word.

When teachers started teaching other foreign languages in the 19th century, they used the same
translation-based approach as had been used for teaching Latin. The method has been rejected by
scholars, and has no theoretical basis.

The method has two main goals: to enable students to read and translate literature written in the
source language, and to further students' general intellectual development. It originated from the
practice of teaching Latin; in the early 1500s, students learned Latin for communication, but after
the language died out it was studied purely as an academic discipline.

The audio-lingual method, Army Method, or New Key,[1] is a style of teaching used in teaching
foreign languages. It is based on behaviorist theory,[citation needed] which postulates that certain
traits of living things, and in this case humans, could be trained through a system of
reinforcement. The correct use of a trait would receive positive feedback while incorrect use of
that trait would receive negative feedback.

Repetition: the student repeats an utterance as soon as he hears it.

Inflection: one word in a sentence appears in another form when repeated.

Replacement: one word is replaced by another.

Restatement: the student rephrases an utterance.

This approach to language learning was similar to another, earlier method called the direct
method.[citation needed] Like the direct method, the audio-lingual method advised that students
should be taught a language directly, without using the students' native language to explain new
words or grammar in the target language. However, unlike the direct method, the audio-lingual
method did not focus on teaching vocabulary. Rather, the teacher drilled students in the use of
grammar.
Suggestopedia is a teaching method developed by the Bulgarian psychotherapist Georgi Lozanov.
It is used mostly to learn foreign languages.

The theory applied positive suggestion in teaching when it was developed in the 1970s. However,
as the method improved, it has focused more on "desuggestive learning" and now is often called
"desuggestopedia".Suggestopedia is a portmanteau of the words "suggestion" and "pedagogy". A
common misconception is to link "suggestion" to "hypnosis". However, Lozanov intended it in the
sense of offering or proposing, emphasising student choice.

The direct method of teaching, which is sometimes called the natural method, and is often (but
not exclusively) used in teaching foreign languages, refrains from using the learners' native

language and uses only the target language. It was established in Germany and France around
1900 and contrasts with the grammartranslation method and other traditional approaches, as
well as with C.J.Dodson's bilingual method

n general, teaching focuses on the development of oral skills.[2] Characteristic features of the
direct method are:

teaching concepts and vocabulary through pantomiming, real-life objects and other visual
materials

teaching grammar by using an inductive approach (i.e. having learners find out rules through the
presentation of adequate linguistic forms in the target language)

centrality of spoken language (including a native-like pronunciation)

focus on question-answer patterns

Question/answer exercise the teacher asks questions of any type and the student answers.

Dictation the teacher chooses a grade-appropriate passage and reads it aloud.

Reading aloud the students take turn reading sections of a passage, play or a dialogue aloud.
Student self-correction when a student makes a mistake the teacher offers him/her a second
chance by giving a choice.

Conversation practice the students are given an opportunity to ask their own questions to the
other students or to the teacher. This enables both a teacher-learner interaction as well as a
learner-learner interaction.

Paragraph writing the students are asked to write a passage in their own words

Communicative language teaching (CLT), or the communicative approach, is an approach to


language teaching that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of study.

Language learners in environments utilizing CLT techniques learn and practice the target language
through interaction with one another and the instructor, study of "authentic texts" (those written
in the target language for purposes other than language learning), and use of the language in class
combined with use of the language outside of class.

CLT also focuses on the teacher being a facilitator, rather than an instructor. Furthermore, the
approach is a non-methodical system that does not use a textbook series to teach English but
rather works on developing sound oral/verbal skills prior to reading and writing.
Storytelling describes the social and cultural activity of sharing stories, sometimes with
improvisation, theatrics, or embellishment. Every culture has its own stories or narratives, which
are shared as a means of entertainment, education, cultural preservation or instilling moral
values.[1] Crucial elements of stories and storytelling include plot, characters and narrative point
of view.

The term "storytelling" can refer in a narrow sense specifically to oral storytelling and also in a
looser sense to techniques used in other media to unfold or disclose the narrative of a story.