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T&R

Bulletin
4-16
(2015)

Recommended Practices for


Ship Heating, Ventilation &
Air Conditioning
Design Calculations

Technical and Research Program


The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers
99 Canal Center Plaza, Ste 310, Alexandria, VA 22314
www.sname.org
SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)
Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)
Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

TECHNICAL AND RESEARCH BULLETIN 4-16 (2015)

RECOMMENDED PRACTICES FOR SHIP HEATING,


VENTILATION & AIR CONDITIONING DESIGN
CALCULATIONS
Prepared by

Raja Awwad
Senior Principal Mechanical Engineer
HVAC Section Head
Gibbs & Cox, Inc.

Kevin Prince
Assistant Vice President, Engineering
Gibbs & Cox, Inc.

And

Nicholas DeLuca Mark Gates Michelle Gahagan


Marine Engineer Marine Engineer Marine Engineer
Gibbs & Cox, Inc. Gibbs & Cox, Inc. Gibbs & Cox, Inc.

In conjunction with the

SHIPS MACHINERY COMMITTEE


December 2015

Published by
The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers
99 Canal Center Plaza, Alexandria, Virginia 22314
Copyright 2015 by the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers
with rights reserved.

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)
Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

This Bulletin was prepared under direction from the Ships Machinery Committee

for

THE SOCIETY OF NAVAL ARCHITECTS AND MARINE ENGINEERS


TECHNICAL AND RESEARCH PROGRAM

Mr. Frederick (Rick) H. Ashcroft, Chairman

Reviewed and Approved by:

SHIPS MACHINERY COMMITTEE

Mr. Richard Delpizzo, Committee Chair

Mr. Robert J. Bazzini Mr. Richard D. Hepburn


Mr. Robert S. Behr Mr. Bahadir Inozu
Mr. John W. Boylston Mr. Charles A. Narwicz
Mr. William G. Bullock Mr. Mark F. Nittel
Mr. Hannon Marshal Burford Mr. Michael G. Parsons
Mr. Allen Chin Mr. Kevin Prince
Mr. Joseph H. Comer Mr. Michael J. Roa
Mr. W. Mark Cummings Mr. David R. Rodger
Mr. John J. Dumbleton Mr. Alan L. Rowen
Mr. Jose Femenia Mr. Peter George Schaedel
Mr. Earl W. Fenstermacher Mr. John Thomas Schroppe
Mr. Robert M. Freeman Mr. William J. Sembler
Mr. Rob Geis Mr. Tony Teo
Mr. Joseph D. Hamilton Mr. Richard P. Thorsen
Mr. Richard W. Harkins Mr. Ivan Zgaljic
Mr. John F. Hennings

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)
Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

It is understood and agreed that nothing expressed herein is intended or shall be construed to give any
person, firm, or corporation any right, remedy, or claim against SNAME or any of its officers or members.

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)
Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Preface
The revised Technical and Research Bulletin No. 4-16 has been prepared to standardize heating, ventilation, and air
conditioning calculations for merchant and naval ship designs. The revised Bulletin introduced calculations unique
to naval ships but can be applied to merchant ships. There is a new section dedicated to the HVAC conversion
factor and a section on humidity control. The Bulletin has a new section on ships air balance, demonstrated with
examples in the cooling and heating seasons that air balance goes beyond supplying and exhausting the same
volume of air. All sample forms were revised and included in the last section. Two examples were included to
demonstrate the difference between a push through and a pull through air conditioning systems with
demonstrative psychrometric charts. There is no implication of warranty by The Society of Naval Architects and
Marine Engineers that use of this guideline will ensure successful performance of vessels and/or machinery
including compliance with contract specifications, Regulatory bodies or classification societies.

Acknowledgements
Many thanks to Mr. Richard Delpizzo of American Bureau of Shipping for presenting the
authors with the opportunity to revise T&R Bulletin 4-16.

The principal author, Raja Awwad, was fortunate to have a group of talented engineers at Gibbs
& Cox, Inc. to assist in this endeavor: Nicholas Deluca, Mark Gates and Michelle Gahagan.

I am equally grateful for the SNAME T&R Steering Committee Chair, Mr. Rick Ashcroft,
SNAME T&R Coordinator, Mr. Alex Landsburg and Mr. Anthony Maples Owner and Founder
of Maples Environment Services, LLC for their review and insightful comments.

Thanks to Mr. Kevin Prince for his support and valuable contribution.

Last but not least, I extend my appreciation to: Jessica Baker, Senior Mechanical Engineer,
Preconstruction Manager, Southland Industries and Patricia McGinn, Engineering Group
Assistant Manager Machinery Department, Gibbs & Cox, Inc. for their review and comments.

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)
Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Table of Contents

PREFACE .................................................................................................................................... VI
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ....................................................................................................... VI
DEFINITIONS .............................................................................................................................. 3
SYMBOLS ..................................................................................................................................... 3
1.0 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................. 4
1.1 GENERAL ........................................................................................................................... 4
1.2 PECULIARITIES OF MARINE HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING DESIGN
4
1.3 SCOPE ................................................................................................................................ 4
2.0 DESIGN CONDITIONS ....................................................................................................... 4
2.1 AIR CONDITIONED SPACES ............................................................................................... 5
2.1.1 Air Conditioning Design Temperatures .............................................................................................5
2.1.2 Heating Design Temperatures ............................................................................................................5
2.1.3 Minimum Outdoor Air (Replenishment) Requirements ..................................................................5
2.1.3.1 Occupancy ................................................................................................................................. 5
2.1.3.2 Infiltration .................................................................................................................................. 5
2.2 NON-AIR CONDITIONED SPACES ...................................................................................... 5
2.3 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM DESIGN PRACTICE ............................................................. 8
2.3.1 Supply Air.............................................................................................................................................8
2.3.2 Relative Humidity ................................................................................................................................8
2.4 AIR AND WATER VAPOR ................................................................................................... 8
3.0 ROOM LOAD COMPONENTS AND CALCULATIONS............................................... 8
3.1 TRANSMISSION LOAD ........................................................................................................ 9
3.1.1Transmission Heat Gain (Loss) ..........................................................................................................9
3.1.2Sample Calculations Transmission Only ...................................................................................... 12
3.2 SOLAR + TRANSMISSION LOAD ...................................................................................... 16
3.2.1 Solar + Transmission Heat Gain ...................................................................................................... 16
3.2.2 Sample Calculations Transmission Only ...................................................................................... 17
3.3 LIGHTING LOAD .............................................................................................................. 19
3.3.1 Lighting Heat Gain ............................................................................................................................ 20
3.3.2 Sample Calculations .......................................................................................................................... 20
3.4 EQUIPMENT LOAD ........................................................................................................... 21
3.4.1 Equipment Heat Gain ........................................................................................................................ 21
3.4.2 Direct Return from Electronics / Electrical Equipment ................................................................. 23
3.4.3 Sample Calculations .......................................................................................................................... 23
3.5 PERSONNEL LOAD ........................................................................................................... 24
3.5.1 Personnel Heat Gain .......................................................................................................................... 25
3.5.2 Sample Calculations .......................................................................................................................... 25
3.6 HVAC CONVERSION FACTOR ........................................................................................ 26
3.7 INFILTRATION LOAD ....................................................................................................... 27
3.7.1 Infiltration Heat Gain (Loss) ............................................................................................................ 27
3.7.2 Sample Calculations .......................................................................................................................... 28

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)
Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

3.8 HUMIDITY CONTROL ...................................................................................................... 29


3.8.1 Constant Summer Reheat Applications ........................................................................................... 29
3.8.2 Sample Calculations .......................................................................................................................... 30
3.9 VENTILATION LOAD........................................................................................................ 30
3.9.1 Allowable Temperature Rise Calculations ...................................................................................... 30
3.9.1.1 Transmission Load ....................................................................................................................31
3.9.1.2 Solar Load ................................................................................................................................31
3.9.1.3 Lighting Load............................................................................................................................31
3.9.1.4 Equipment Load ........................................................................................................................31
3.9.2 Rate of Air Change ............................................................................................................................ 31
3.9.3 Precooling ........................................................................................................................................... 31
3.9.4 Sample Calculations .......................................................................................................................... 32
4.0 SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND CALCULATIONS....................................................... 33
4.1 ROOM LOAD .................................................................................................................... 34
4.2 FAN LOAD ........................................................................................................................ 34
4.2.1Fan Motor Heat Gain ........................................................................................................................ 34
4.2.2Sample Calculations .......................................................................................................................... 34
4.3 SUPPLY DUCT LOAD........................................................................................................ 35
4.3.1 Supply Duct Heat Gain...................................................................................................................... 35
4.3.2 Sample Calculations .......................................................................................................................... 35
4.4 RETURN PATH LOAD ....................................................................................................... 36
4.4.1 Return Path Heat Gain...................................................................................................................... 36
4.4.2 Sample Calculations .......................................................................................................................... 36
4.5 OUTDOOR AIR LOAD ...................................................................................................... 36
4.5.1 Occupancy Calculations .................................................................................................................... 37
4.5.2 Sample Calculations .......................................................................................................................... 37
5.0 SHIPS AIR BALANCE ...................................................................................................... 37
6.0 HVAC CALCULATION BOOKLET ................................................................................ 38
6.1 COMPARTMENT EQUIPMENT LIST ................................................................................. 38
6.1.1 Sample Forms..................................................................................................................................... 38
6.2 HEATING AND COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS ............................................................ 39
6.2.1 Sample Forms..................................................................................................................................... 39
6.3 PSYCHROMETRIC CHART ............................................................................................... 40
6.4 COOLING ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................ 40
6.5 HEATING ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................ 40
6.6 SUPPLY SYSTEM ANALYSIS ............................................................................................. 40
6.7 EXHAUST SYSTEM ANALYSIS .......................................................................................... 40
BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCES ........................................................................................... 52
APPENDIX A HVAC CASE STUDY ..................................................................................... 53

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DEFINITIONS
Air conditioning: The process of treating air to control temperature and relative humidity.

Cooling season: The time of the year when cooling is required.

Heating season: The time of the year when heating is required.

High occupancy spaces: Spaces having twelve (12) or more occupants.

Ventilation: The supply and exhaust of outside air by fans for the purpose of maintaining temperatures, and
removing offensive odors and contaminants from spaces.

Outdoor air: Weather air supplied to the ship by ventilation fans to ventilated spaces, as replenishment to air
conditioning systems, or as infiltration into the ship.

Infiltration: Uncontrolled leakage of outside air into an air conditioned space.

Direct return: Dedicated return or exhaust terminal located within six inches of the discharge ventilation opening of
equipment with an internal ventilation blower.

Pull-through system: An air conditioning system where the fan is located downstream of the cooling coil.

Push-through system: An air conditioning system where the fan is located upstream of the cooling coil.

Constant summer reheat: Sensible heat added for the purpose of controlling relative humidity in spaces with high
latent (moisture) loads.

Pressurized space: An air conditioned space where, by design, the amount of replenishment air exceeds the amount
of exhaust.

Sensible heat factor: Is the ratio of room total sensible heat load to the room total load.

SYMBOLS
A area of deck or room boundary [ft2] ql latent heat [Btu/hr]
B.F. ballast factor qs sensible heat [Btu/hr]
cp,a specific heat of dry air [Btu/lb/F] ql,d equipment latent heat dissipation [Btu/hr]
cp,w specific heat of water vapor [Btu/lb/F] qs,d equipment sensible heat dissipation [Btu/hr]
CSR constant summer reheat ql,p personnel latent heat dissipation [Btu/hr/person]
F HVAC conversion factor [Btu-lb-min/hr/ft2/F] qs,p personnel sensible heat dissipation [Btu/hr/person]
F.W. fluorescent bulb wattage [W] SHF sensible heat factor
Gsf glass solar factor [Btu/hr/ft2] T temperature difference [F]
ho enthalpy of outdoor air [Btu/lb of dry air] Te solar effective temperature difference [F]
hr enthalpy of room air [Btu/lb of dry air] Tf temperature rise due to fan motor heat [F]
H.F. hood factor To temperature of outdoor air [F]
I.W. incandescent bulb wattage [W] Tp design temperature of precooled supply air [F]
L.C. load constant [Btu/hr/ft2] Tr temperature rise [F]
LAT coil leaving air temperature [F] Ts space design air temperature [F]
Of minimum outdoor air rate [CFM/person] U overall coefficient of heat transfer [Btu/hr/ft2/F]
P number of room occupants [persons] U.F. equipment use factor
Q air flow quantity [CFM] V room volume [ft3]
QCC air flow through the precooling coil [CFM] v specific volume [ft3/lb]
q total heat [Btu/hr] W humidity ratio [lb of water vapor/lb of dry air]
qf fan motor heat [Btu/hr] motor motor efficiency

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 General
The primary functions of marine heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are to provide comfort
and healthy conditions for the crew and passengers, to maintain satisfactory operation of equipment, prevent build
up of offensive odors and dangerous gases, and prevent spoilage of supplies by controlling ambient conditions.

This is accomplished by establishing the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning requirements for each space and
then preparing a set of "load" calculations and analyses to determine the sizes of HVAC equipment that meet all
established requirements.

1.2 Peculiarities of Marine Heating, Ventilating, and Air


Conditioning Design
Basic design considerations are similar for land-based and marine HVAC installations; however, there are a number
of factors uncommon to land-based installations which must be considered when designing a marine HVAC system.
A marine HVAC installation:

Is subjected to forces induced by pitch, roll, and slamming of the ship.


Is designed to operate over a wide range of weather conditions and can be subjected to extreme changes in
weather conditions (temperature, humidity and solar) within a short period of time.
Is designed to function in a corrosive seawater environment.
Is relatively compact due to space limitation on ships.
Is more susceptible to noise problems because the enclosed areas are relatively small, close to equipment and
machinery spaces, and the ships structure affords very little inherent sound dampening.
Must be very rugged because ship operating schedules severely limit the time available for maintenance by
specialized land-based personnel.

1.3 Scope
This bulletin contains guidance to assist in designing a marine HVAC installation for a merchant ship. Detailed
room and system design criteria are provided for all spaces of a typical merchant ship, with the exception of the
engine room (machinery space) and cargo spaces, which, due to the complexity of equipment, heat liberation, and
commodity ventilation requirements, are not within the scope of this bulletin. The instructions include the detailed
calculations required to determine both room and system loads. Typical HVAC calculations and forms are included
to clarify the application of the data contained herein.

2.0 DESIGN CONDITIONS


A ship's HVAC requirements are dependent on specific data which must be gathered before the necessary
calculations can be made. This data includes:

Outside air design dry bulb (DB) and wet bulb (WB) temperatures for the cooling season.
Outside air design dry bulb temperature for the heating season.
Room design dry bulb temperatures in the cooling and heating seasons.
Room design relative humidity (RH) for the cooling season.
Design seawater temperature for both the cooling and heating seasons.
Ships general arrangement drawing.
Boundary constructions for each space.
Lights in each space.
Equipment in each space.
Occupancy in each space.

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)
Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Room ventilation requirements.


Type of cooling system.
Type of heating system.
Type of ventilation system.

Most of the above design data is listed in, or can be determined from, information contained in the ship's
construction specifications, general arrangement plans, joiner arrangement plans, structural plans, lighting
arrangement plans, and equipment lists; however, where the specifications and plans are silent on design data,
recommended values in this section should be used until the data becomes available.

2.1 Air Conditioned Spaces


Normally, all staterooms, cabins, lounges, recreation rooms, mess rooms, dining rooms, offices, slop chests, radio
and radar transmission rooms, electronic rooms, Gyro rooms, steering gear rooms, chart rooms, hospitals,
wheelhouses and passages within A/C areas shall be cooled during the cooling season and heated during the heating
season. Stairwells within the air conditioned envelope shall be indirectly conditioned by return air, wherever
possible.

2.1.1 Air Conditioning Design Temperatures

Outside Air Dry Bulb 95F


Outside Air Wet Bulb 82F
Inside Air Dry Bulb 78F
Inside Air Wet Bulb 66.5F (corresponds to 55% RH)
Seawater 85F

2.1.2 Heating Design Temperatures

Outside Air Dry Bulb 0F


Inside Air Dry Bulb 70F
Medical Spaces Dry Bulb 75F
Seawater 28F

2.1.3 Minimum Outdoor Air (Replenishment) Requirements


The minimum outdoor air to be supplied to an air conditioning system shall be determined by room occupancy.

2.1.3.1 Occupancy
Minimum outdoor air based on room occupancy shall be 12 CFM/person for high occupancy spaces (e.g.,
recreation rooms, dining rooms and mess rooms) and 15 CFM/person for low occupancy air conditioned
spaces (e.g., staterooms and offices).

These rates shall only be increased to achieve air balance within each subdivision, but shall not exceed 50
CFM/person.

2.1.3.2 Infiltration
For spaces such as the Wheelhouse (Pilot House) with doors that open directly to the weather, minimum
outdoor air rate of change shall be 60 minutes, but shall not exceed 50 CFM/person.

2.2 Non-Air Conditioned Spaces


Spaces which are not air conditioned shall be heated and/or ventilated in accordance with the requirements of Table
2-1. Non-air conditioned spaces not mentioned in the table shall be treated the same as similar spaces listed. In all
cases, the allowable temperature rise must provide room ambient temperatures within the temperature ratings of
electrical equipment installed in the room. The design temperature rises in Table 2-1 are based on outside air and
seawater design temperatures noted in Section 2.1.1. These temperature rises shall be adjusted if different outside
air and seawater temperatures are used.

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)
Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Table 2-1: Ventilation & Heating Recommendations for Non-Air Conditioned Spaces
Ventilation Heating
Temperature Max. Air Change, Temperature,
Type Space Rise, Tr (F) R/C (minutes) Ts (F)
Air Cond. Equip. and Fan Rooms 15 - 40

Baggage 15 15 60

Battery Room - 4 40

Bonded Stores 15 10 40

Bosns Stores - 20 -

Bow Thruster Room 15 6 40

Butcher Shop 10 4 40

Canvas Room - 6 40

Capstan Machinery Room 15 6 -

Cargo Control Room - 10 70

Carpenter Shop 10 6 60

Cleaning Gear Locker - 4 -

CO2 Room 15 6 -

Deck Lockers, Deck Stores 15 - -

Deck Toilet - 6 60

Dry Stores - 15 -

Elec. & Engrs. Workshops 10 6 60

Elev. Mach. Room 15 6 -

Emerg. Gen. Room 15 10 40

Engrs. Stores 20 30 -

F.O. Filling Station - 6 -

Galley and Galley Pantry * 10 1 50

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)
Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Table 2-1 Continued


Ventilation Heating
Temperature Max. Air Change, Temperature,
Type Space Rise, Tr (F) R/C (minutes) Ts (F)
Garbage Room 10 1 -

Hawser Room - 20 -

Lateral Thruster Compt 15 6 -

Laundries Service ** 10 4 70

Linen Lockers, Daily Service - 15 -

Linen Room Clean 10 5 60

Linen Room Soiled 10 4 -

Machine Shop 15 6 60

Oil Skin Lockers - 4 -

Paint Rooms, Deck & Engrs. 10 4 -

Pantries Service 10 4 -

Passageway, Outside A/C Spaces 10 6 -

Pump Room 15 3 40

Sewage Tank Space 15 6 -

Shaft Alley - 10 -
Stores Ships Dry Daily Galley
10 4 50
& Bulk Food
Stores Stewards & Misc. 10 6 -

Stevedores Toilets - 6 60

Toilet & Showers 10 4 70

Winch M.G. 15 6 -

Windlass Machinery Room 15 6 40

* The minimum exhaust air from a Galley shall be equal to the total airflow from all hoods in the Galley.
** The minimum exhaust air from a Laundry space shall be equal to the clothes dryers total blower airflow.

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)
Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

2.3 Air Conditioning System Design Practice


The following criteria are considered to be good design practices. It is recognized that particular installations may
require the use of values other than those listed below. It is recommended, however, that when other values are used,
their use be considered on a case by case basis only. It is noted that example cases used throughout this bulletin are
based on outside air and seawater design temperatures noted in Section 2.1.

2.3.1 Supply Air


The maximum design temperature difference between the supply air at the room terminal and the room design
temperature shall be 30F.

Room supply air shall be based on the room sensible load, supply air dry bulb, and room design dry bulb
temperatures.

2.3.2 Relative Humidity


The design off-coil relative humidity of supply air shall not exceed 95%.
The system design relative humidity shall not exceed 55%.
Individual rooms within a system shall not exceed 55% RH.

2.4 Air and Water Vapor


The air and water vapor for air conditioning calculations shall be considered as having the following physical
properties:

Dry Air Specific Heat 0.24 Btu per lb. per oF


Dry Air Specific Volume 13.34 ft3 per lb.
Water Vapor Specific Heat 0.45 Btu per lb. per oF
Heat of Vaporization 1055 Btu per lb.

Physical properties of air and water vapor for ventilation, infiltration, and preheating are discussed in Section 3.6 of
this bulletin.

3.0 ROOM LOAD COMPONENTS AND


CALCULATIONS
This section discusses the first phase in designing an HVAC system which is to establish the cooling, heating, and
ventilation load requirements for each individual room.

Table 3-1 lists room load components, the section which describes each component, and when each component is
considered.

Table 3-1: Room Load Components


Cooling Heating Ventilation
Component Section Calculations Calculations Calculations
Transmission 3.1 X X X
Solar 3.2 X - X
Lights 3.3 X X X
Equipment 3.4 X - X
Personnel 3.5 X - -
Infiltration 3.7 - X -
Ventilation 3.9 - - X

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)
Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Production schedules may require that HVAC load calculations be made concurrent with or prior to the completion
of design development and the selections of equipment and lighting facilities. This requires the HVAC engineer to
make assumptions (e. g., boundary constructions, lighting requirements, and equipment sizes). Calculations based
on such assumptions must be considered as estimates and must be revised when the actual conditions and
requirements have been established to ensure the installed HVAC system is designed to meet actual conditions and
requirements.

3.1 Transmission Load


Transmission load is the sensible heat flow through a boundary due to the temperature differential across the
boundary surfaces.

3.1.1 Transmission Heat Gain (Loss)


Transmission heat gain or loss for a boundary is calculated using the equation:

q = U A T (3-1)

Where T is the temperature difference across the boundary.

Separate calculations must be made for each boundary or portion which has a different U or T value.

Where rooms have composite boundaries of steel and joiner work, the boundary areas shall be calculated using
dimensions which extend to the steel. Molded (steel to steel) dimensions shall be used in Equation 3-1.
Dimensions shall be rounded off to the nearest foot.

When a room design temperature is not specified, the temperatures listed in Table 3-2 shall be used or an
abbreviated heat balance calculation may be used to estimate the room temperature.

Values of U shall be taken from the current edition of Thermal Insulation Report, SNAME Technical and
Research Bulletin No. 4-7.

For cooling load calculations, the cooling effect of an adjacent space is not considered unless the lower
temperature is maintained by air conditioning or refrigeration equipment. For heating load calculations, the
heat gain through a boundary is deducted only if the higher temperature of the adjacent space is maintained by a
heating system.

Table 3-2: Transmission Calculation Temperatures for Non-Air Conditioned Spaces

Type of Space Ts Cooling (F) Ts Heating (F)


Air Conditioning Equipment and Fan Rooms 110 40

Baggage 110 60

Battery Room 110 40

Bonded Stores 110 40

Bosns Stores 115 30

Bow Thruster Room 110 40

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)
Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Table 3-2 Continued

Type of Space Ts Cooling (F) Ts Heating (F)


Butcher Shop 105 40

Canvas Room 105 40

Capstan Machinery Room 110 30

Cargo Control Room 105 70

Cargo Oil Tanks 140 40

Cargo Spaces Above Waterline 120 20

Cargo Spaces Below Waterline 100 40

Carpenter Shop 105 60

Cleaning Gear Locker 105 60

CO2 Room 110 40

Deck Lockers, Deck Stores 110 30

Deck Toilet 110 60

Dry Stores 110 50

Elec. & Engrs. Workshops 105 60

Elevator Machinery Room 110 40

Emerg. Generator Room 110 40

Engrs. Stores 115 30

Fresh Water Tanks 120 35

F.O. Filling Station 110 30

F.O. Settling Tanks 120 70

F.O. Storage Tanks 120 40

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)
Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Table 3-2 Continued

Type of Space Ts Cooling (F) Ts Heating (F)


Galley and Galley Pantry 105 50

Garbage Room 105 50

Hawser Room 115 30

Lateral Thruster Compt. 110 40

Laundries Service 105 70

Linen Lockers, Daily Service 105 60

Linen Room Clean 105 60

Linen Room Soiled 105 40

Machine Shop 110 60

Machinery & Boiler Casings 140 70

Machinery & Boiler Spaces 130 50

M.G. & Resistor Rooms 110 30

Oil Skin Lockers 105 40

Paint Rooms, Deck & Engr.s 105 40

Pantries Service 105 60

Stairwells Inside A/C Areas 80 65

Passageways & Stairwells Outside A/C Areas 105 60

Pump Room 110 40

Sewage Tank Space 110 40

Shaft Alley 105 40

Stores Ships Dry Daily Galley & Bulk Food 105 50

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)
Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Table 3-2 Continued

Type of Space Ts Cooling (F) Ts Heating (F)


Stores Stewards & Misc. 105 50

Stevedores Toilets 105 60

Toilets Outside A/C Spaces 105 60

Toilets & Showers, Medical Spaces 85 75

Toilets & Showers Within A/C Spaces 85 70

Voids Above Waterline 120 20

Voids Below Waterline 100 40

Winch M.G. Room 110 30

Windlass Machinery Room 110 40

3.1.2 Sample Calculations Transmission Only


For cooling calculations, heat flow into a room is positive (load) and heat flow out of a room is negative (credit,
is deducted from the room cooling load). For heating calculations, heat flow out of a room is positive (load)
and heat flow into a room is negative (credit, is deducted from the room heating load).

CASE 1 Stateroom deck over: Type 10 construction, molded dimensions 11'-6" x 12'-8", adjacent to an
air conditioned cabin.

Cooling Calculation

T = 78 78 = 0F (Sec. 2.1.1)
No Heat Flow
q=0

Heating Calculation

T = 70 70 = 0F (Sec. 2.1.1)
No Heat Flow
q=0

CASE 2 Stateroom deck below: Type 55 construction, molded dimensions 11'-6" x 12'-8", adjacent to
engineers storeroom.

Cooling Calculation

T = 115 78 = 37F (Table 3-2 & Sec. 2.1.1)


A = 12' 13' = 156 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)
U = 0.11 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 55)
q = 0.11 156 37 = 635 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)
Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Heating Calculation

T = 70 30 = 40F (Table 3-2 & Sec. 2.1.2)


A = 12' 13' = 156 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)
U = 0.09 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 55)
q = 0.09 156 40 = 562 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

CASE 3 Stateroom forward bulkhead: Type 6 construction, molded dimensions 8'-5" x 12'-8", adjacent to
laundry.

Cooling Calculation

T = 105 78 = 27F (Table 3-2 & Sec. 2.1.1)


A = 8' 13' = 104 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)
U = 0.313 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 6)
q = 0.313 104 27 = 879 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

Heating Calculation

T = 70 70 = 0F (Table 3-2 & Sec. 2.1.2)


No Heat Flow
q=0

CASE 4 Stateroom after bulkhead: Type 5 construction, molded dimensions 8'-5" x 12'-8", adjacent to
stateroom toilet & shower (5') and hospital (7'-8").

Cooling Calculation

T&S T = 85 78 = 7F (Table 3-2 & Sec. 2.1.1)


T&S A = 8' 5' = 40 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)
T&S U = 0.376 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 5)
T&S q = 0.376 40 7 = 105 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)
Hospital T = 78 78 = 0F (Table 3-2 & Sec. 2.1.1)
Hospital No Heat Flow
Hospital q=0

Heating Calculation

T&S T = 70 70 = 0F (Table 3-2 & Sec. 2.1.2)


T&S No Heat Flow
T&S q=0
Hospital T = 70 75 = -5F (Sec. 2.1.2)
Hospital A = 8' 8' = 64 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)
Hospital U = 0.354 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 5)
Hospital q = 0.354 64 -5 = -113 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

CASE 5 Stateroom inboard bulkhead: Type 5 construction, molded dimensions 8'-5" x 11'-6", adjacent to
passageway.

Cooling Calculation

T = 80 78 = 2F (Table 3-2 & Sec. 2.1.1)


A = 8' 12' = 96 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)
U = 0.376 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 5)
q = 0.376 96 2 = 72 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

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Heating Calculation

T = 70 65 = 5F (Table 3-2 & Sec. 2.1.2)


A = 8' 12' = 96 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)
U = 0.354 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 5)
q = 0.354 96 5 = 170 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

CASE 6 Stateroom outboard bulkhead: Type 63 construction, molded dimensions 8'-5" x 11'-6", glass
area 6 ft2, fully shaded by structural overhang.

Cooling Calculation

Type 63 T = 95 78 = 17F (Sec. 2.1.1)


Type 63 A = (8' 12') 6 ft2 = 90 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)
Type 63 U = 0.10 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 63)
Type 63 q = 0.10 90 17 = 153 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)
Glass T = 95 78 = 17F (Sec. 2.1.1)
Glass A = 6 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)
Glass U = 1.13 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Window Glass, Single Pane)
Glass q = 1.13 6 17 = 115 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

Heating Calculation

Type 63 T = 70 0 = 70F (Sec. 2.1.2)


Type 63 A = (8' 12') 6 ft2 = 90 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)
Type 63 U = 0.09 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 63)
Type 63 q = 0.09 90 70 = 567 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)
Glass T = 70 0 = 70F (Sec. 2.1.2)
Glass A = 6 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)
Glass U = 1.13 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Window Glass, Single Pane)
Glass q = 1.13 6 70 = 475 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

CASE 7 Laundry Room deck over: Type 57 construction, molded dimensions 11'-6" x 12'-8", adjacent to
air conditioned cabin.

Cooling Calculation

T = 78 105 = -27F (Table 3-2 & Sec. 2.1.1)


A = 12' 13' = 156 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)
U = 0.23 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 57)
q = 0.23 156 -27 = -969 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

Heating Calculation

T = 70 70 = 0F (Table 3-2 & Sec. 2.1.2)


No Heat Flow
q=0

CASE 8 Laundry Room deck below: Type 53 construction, molded dimensions 11'-6" x 12'-8", adjacent
to engineers storeroom.

Cooling Calculation

T = 115 105 = 10F (Table 3-2)


A = 12' 13' = 156 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)

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U = 0.28 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 53)


q = 0.28 156 10 = 437 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

Heating Calculation

T = 70 30 = 40F (Table 3-2 & Sec. 2.1.2)


A = 12' 13' = 156 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)
U = 0.187 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 53)
q = 0.187 156 40 = 1167 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

CASE 9 Laundry Room forward bulkhead: Type 5 construction, molded dimensions 8'-5" x 12'-8",
adjacent to clean linen room.

Cooling Calculation

T = 105 105 = 0F (Table 3-2)


No Heat Flow
q=0

Heating Calculation

T = 70 60 = 10F (Table 3-2)


A = 8' 13' = 104 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)
U = 0.354 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 5)
q = 0.354 104 10 = 368 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

CASE 10 Laundry Room after bulkhead: Type 6 construction, molded dimensions 8'-5" x 12'-8", adjacent
to stateroom.

Cooling Calculation

T = 78 105 = -27F (Table 3-2 & Sec. 2.1.1)


A = 8' 13' = 104 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)
U = 0.313 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 6)
q = 0.313 104 -27 = -879 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

Heating Calculation

T = 70 70 = 0F (Table 3-2 & Sec. 2.1.2)


No Heat Flow
q=0

CASE 11 Laundry Room inboard bulkhead: Type 5 construction, molded dimensions 8'-5" x 11'-6",
adjacent to passageway inside A/C space.

Cooling Calculation

T = 78 105 = -27F (Table 3-2)


A = 8' 12' = 96 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)
U = 0.376 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 5)
q = 0.376 96 -27 = -975 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

Heating Calculation

T = 70 70 = 0F (Table 3-2)

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No Heat Flow
q=0

3.2 Solar + Transmission Load


Solar + transmission load is the sensible heat flow through the room's weather boundaries which are exposed to the
sun. This load is in addition to the transmission load for the affected boundary or boundaries, but the total load
(solar + transmission) is calculated in one step.

3.2.1 Solar + Transmission Heat Gain


Solar + transmission heat gain is calculated using a variation of Equation 3-1:

q = U A Te (3-2)

Where Te is the difference between the effective temperature from Table 3-3 and room design temperature.
The values of U shall be those for Solar Radiation in the current edition of Thermal Insulation Report,
Technical and Research Bulletin No. 4-7.

The solar + transmission heat gain for glass shall be calculated using the equation:

q = G sf A (3-3)

Where more than one boundary of a space is exposed to the sun, a separate heat gain calculation shall be
performed for each boundary or combination of boundaries and the greatest simultaneous gain shall be used for
determining the solar and transmission heat load.

The dimensions to be used when calculating the boundary area are delineated in Section 3.1.1, except that
vertical shaded areas shall not be included. Shaded areas shall be calculated with the sun at a 45o angle from the
horizon.

Glass solar factors and effective temperatures for single and multi-boundary calculations are listed in Table 3-3.
If a different outside design temperature is specified, the temperatures in Table 3-3 must be adjusted
accordingly, upward or downward.

Table 3-3: Glass Solar Factors & Effective Temperatures


Single Boundary Multi-Boundary
Glass Solar Factor Calculations Calculations
160 Btu/hr/ft2 120 Btu/hr/ft2
Single Boundary Multi-Boundary
Outdoor Air
Calculations Calculations
Dry Bulb
Horizontal Vertical Horizontal Vertical
Temperature
Surface Surface Surface Surface
90F 140 120 125 110
Effective
Temperatures 95F 145 125 130 115

100F 150 130 135 120

105F 155 135 140 125

110F 160 140 145 130

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3.2.2 Sample Calculations Transmission Only

CASE 12 Stateroom outboard bulkhead: Type 63 construction, molded dimensions 8'-5" x 11'-6", glass
area 6 ft2, completely exposed to the sun. No other boundaries exposed to the sun.

Cooling Calculation

Type 63 Te = 125 78 = 47F (Table 3-3 & Sec. 2.1.1)


Type 63 A = (8' 12') 6 ft2 = 90 ft2 (Sec. 3.2.1)
Type 63 U = 0.11 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 63)
Type 63 q = 0.11 90 47 = 465 Btu/hr (Equation 3-2)
Glass Gsf = 160 Btu/hr/ft2 (Table 3-3)
Glass A = 6 ft2 (Sec. 3.2.1)
Glass q = 160 6 = 960 Btu/hr (Equation 3-3)

Heating Calculation

Same as Section 3.1.2 CASE 6.

Type 63 q = 567 Btu/hr


AND
Glass q = 475 Btu/hr

CASE 13 Same as CASE 12 except the bulkhead is partially shaded by 5' structural overhang.

Cooling Calculation Shaded Portion

Type 63 T = 95 78 = 17F (Sec. 2.1.1)


Type 63 A = (5' 12') 6 ft2 = 54 ft2 (Sec. 3.2.1)
Type 63 U = 0.10 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 63)
Type 63 q = 0.10 54 17 = 92 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)
Glass T = 95 78 = 17F (Sec. 2.1.1)
Glass A = 6 ft2 (Sec. 3.2.1)
Glass U = 1.13 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Window Glass, Single Pane)
Glass q = 1.13 6 17 = 115 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

Cooling Calculation Unshaded Portion

Type 63 Te = 125 78 = 47F (Table 3-3 & Sec. 2.1.1)


Type 63 A = 3'5" 12' = 3' 12' = 36 ft2 (Sec. 3.2.1)
Type 63 U = 0.11 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 63)
Type 63 q = 0.11 36 47 = 186 Btu/hr (Equation 3-2)

Heating Calculation

Same as Section 3.1.2 CASE 6.

Type 63 q = 567 Btu/hr


AND
Glass q = 475 Btu/hr

CASE 14 Stateroom outboard bulkhead and deck above both exposed to the sun. Outboard bulkhead (same
as CASE 12): Type 63 construction, molded dimensions 8'-5" x 11'-6", glass area 6 ft2. Deck above: Type 62
construction, molded dimensions 11'-6" x 12'-8".

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Cooling Calculation

When more than one boundary may be exposed to the sun, several calculations are required to determine
the maximum room load. In this case the combinations which must be considered are:

(a) Deck above solar and outboard bulkhead weather.


(b) Deck above weather and outboard bulkhead solar.
(c) Deck above solar and outboard bulkhead solar.

The combination that yields the largest load shall be used.

14(a) Cooling Calculation deck above solar, outboard bulkhead weather.

DECK

Type 62 Te = 145 78 = 67F (Table 3-3 & Sec. 2.1.1)


Type 62 A = 12' 13' = 156 ft2 (Sec. 3.2.1)
Type 62 U = 0.11 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 62)
Type 62 q = 0.11 156 67 = 1150 Btu/hr (Equation 3-2)

BULKHEAD

Type 63 T = 95 78 = 17F (Sec. 2.1.1)


Type 63 A = (8' 12') 6 ft2 = 90 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)
Type 63 U = 0.10 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 63)
Type 63 q = 0.10 90 17 = 153 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)
Glass T = 95 78 = 17F (Sec. 2.1.1)
Glass A = 6 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)
Glass U = 1.13 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Window Glass, Single Pane)
Glass q = 1.13 6 17 = 115 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

TOTAL q = 1150 + 153 + 115 = 1418 Btu/hr

14(b) Cooling Calculation deck above weather, outboard bulkhead solar.

DECK

Type 62 T = 95 78 = 17F (Sec. 2.1.1)


Type 62 A = 12' 13' = 156 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)
Type 62 U = 0.09 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 62)
Type 62 q = 0.09 156 17 = 239 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

BULKHEAD Same as CASE 12.

Type 63 q = 465 Btu/hr


AND
Glass q = 960 Btu/hr

TOTAL q = 239 + 465 + 960 = 1664 Btu/hr

14(c) Cooling Calculation deck above and outboard bulkhead solar (use effective temperatures for multi-
boundary calculations from Table 3-3).

DECK

Type 62 Te = 130 78 = 52F (Table 3-3 & Sec. 2.1.1)

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Type 62 A = 12' 13' = 156 ft2 (Sec. 3.2.1)


Type 62 U = 0.11 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 62)
Type 62 q = 0.11 156 52 = 892 Btu/hr (Equation 3-2)

BULKHEAD

Type 63 Te = 115 78 = 37F (Table 3-3 & Sec. 2.1.1)


Type 63 A = (8' 12') 6 ft2 = 90 ft2 (Sec. 3.2.1)
Type 63 U = 0.11 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 63)
Type 63 q = 0.11 90 37 = 366 Btu/hr (Equation 3-2)
Glass Gsf = 120 Btu/hr/ft2 (Table 3-3)
Glass A = 6 ft2 (Sec. 3.2.1)
Glass q = 120 6 = 720 Btu/hr (Equation 3-3)

TOTAL q = 892 + 366 + 720 = 1978 Btu/hr

MAXIMUM: q = CASE 14(c) = 1978 Btu/hr

Heating Calculation

DECK

Type 62 T = 70 0 = 70F (Sec. 2.1.2)


Type 62 A = 12' 13' = 156 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)
Type 62 U = 0.10 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 62)
Type 62 q = 0.10 156 70 = 1092 Btu/hr (Equation 3-2)

BULKHEAD Same as Section 3.1.2 CASE 6.

Type 63 q = 567 Btu/hr


AND
Glass q = 475 Btu/hr

CASE 15 Laundry Room outboard bulkhead: Type 63 construction, molded dimensions 8'-5" x 11'-6",
glass area 6 ft2, completely exposed to the sun.

Cooling Calculation

Te = 125 105 = 20F (Tables 3-2 & 3-3)


A = 8' 12' = 96 ft2 (Sec. 3.2.1)
U = 0.11 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 63)
q = 0.11 96 20 = 211 Btu/hr (Equation 3-2)

Heating Calculation

T = 70 0 = 70F (Table 3-2 & Sec. 2.1.2)


A = 8' 12' = 96 ft2 (Sec. 3.1.1)
U = 0.09 Btu/hr/ft2/F (T&R 4-7, Type 63)
q = 0.09 96 70 = 605 Btu/hr (Equation 3-1)

3.3 Lighting Load


Lighting load is the sensible heat generated by the lights in a room. Lighting load shall be accounted for in all spaces
in the cooling season, and shall be deducted from the heating load in all spaces in the heating season except berthing
spaces, cabins, and staterooms.

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3.3.1 Lighting Heat Gain


When the installed lighting is known, the heat gain shall be calculated for the normal room lighting mode
which, for these calculations, shall be considered to be all overhead and cornice lights controlled by wall
switches and work station lights; i.e., desk lights in office. The lighting load shall be calculated using the
equation:
q = ( I .W . + F .W .) B.F. 3.412 (3-4)

Where 3.412 is a conversion factor from Watts to Btu/hr. The ballast factor, B.F., shall be taken as 1.25.

When the installed lighting is not known, the lighting load shall be estimated using the equation:

q = A L.C. (3-5)

The deck area, A, used when calculating estimated lighting loads shall be based on the finished dimensions, if
known. Otherwise, use molded dimensions to calculate the deck area. See Table 3-4 for the appropriate value of
load constant, L.C.

All estimated lighting loads must be revised when the installed lighting load is known. This is particularly
important for mess rooms and other public spaces with large lighting loads.

Table 3-4: Assumed Lighting Loads (Btu/hr/ft2 Deck Area)


Space Load Constant, L.C.
Passenger Staterooms 7
Captain & Chief Engineer Staterooms 7
Officer Staterooms 4
Crew Staterooms 4
Mess Rooms, Lounges & Public Spaces 9
Offices 7
Other Spaces 7

3.3.2 Sample Calculations

CASE 16 Officer Stateroom: Installed lights controlled by wall switch, three ceiling fixtures each with two
20W fluorescent bulbs. Finished dimensions, deck above: 11'-6" x 12'-2".

I.W. = 0 (Sec. 3.3.1)


F.W. = 3 2 20 = 120 Watts (Sec. 3.3.1)
B.F. = 1.25 (Sec. 3.3.1)
q = 120 1.25 3.412 = 512 Btu/hr (Equation 3-4)

CASE 17 Same as CASE 16 except installed lights are not known.

Ad = 12' 12' = 144 ft2 (Sec. 3.3.1)


L.C. = 4 Btu/hr/ft2 (Table 3-4)
q = 144 4 = 576 Btu/hr (Equation 3-5)

CASE 18 Officer Laundry: Installed lights controlled by wall switch, four ceiling fixtures each with two
20W fluorescent bulbs. Finished dimensions, deck above: 11'-6" x 12'-2".

I.W. = 0 (Sec. 3.3.1)


F.W. = 4 2 20 = 160 Watts (Sec. 3.3.1)

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B.F. = 1.25 (Sec. 3.3.1)


q = 160 1.25 3.412 = 682 Btu/hr (Equation 3-4)

3.4 Equipment Load


Equipment load is the sensible and latent heat generated by equipment operating within a space.

For air conditioned spaces, both the sensible and latent components of the equipment load are included in the
cooling load calculations; however, for ventilated spaces, only the sensible component is included in the cooling
load calculations.

Spaces that typically have equipment load are galleys, pantries, laundries, radio and communication rooms,
wheelhouses, resistor houses, deck machinery compartments, and specialized spaces such as computer rooms or
engine control rooms. Equipment load will normally be included for lounges, mess rooms, offices, and officer
staterooms.

3.4.1 Equipment Heat Gain


Equipment heat gain must be based on heat dissipation data for actual equipment installed. The best source of
heat dissipation data is the equipment manufacturer; however, quite often the equipment has not been selected
when the HVAC calculations are performed, in which case other sources of heat dissipation data must be used,
such as manufacturers' manuals for similar pieces of equipment or the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals.
Table 3-5 herein provides heat dissipation data for typical marine equipment and may be used when more exact
information is not available for a specific design

Table 3-5: Recommended Heat Dissipation for Typical Marine Equipment (Btu/hr)

Equipment Max. qsd Max. qld


Clothes Dryer, Electric * 4400 -

Clothes Washer 1300 -

Coffee Maker 6500 2000

Coffee Warmer 230 70

Combination Steam Cooker/Kettle, Electric 33500 17500

Convection Oven, Electric 13500 6900

Dishwasher 1120 580

Fry Kettle, Electric 12500 6900

Garbage Disposal 1120 -

Griddle, Electric 13500 6900

Ice Cuber 1300 -

Iron, Electric 3400 -

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Table 3-5 Continued

Equipment Max. qsd Max. qld


Meat Slicer, Electric 1120 580

Mixer, Electric 1120 580

Oven, Electric 13500 6900

Range, Electric 24700 12700

Refrigerator (up to 20 cu.ft.) 1300 -

Toaster 2230 1970

* Vented to Atmosphere

All estimated equipment heat gains must be revised after the equipment has been selected and the actual heat
dissipation data is known. This is especially important for spaces with a high concentration of equipment or for
new or rapidly changing equipment such as computers.

When the heat dissipation data is known or estimated, the equipment heat gain shall be calculated using the
following equations:
q s = q s ,d U .F . H .F . (3-6)

AND

ql = ql ,d U .F . (3-7)

Where an exhaust hood is fitted over the equipment, use a Hood Factor, H.F., of 0.5. The latent load for such
equipment is considered as zero. Use H.F. = 1.0 in Equation 3-6 when an exhaust hood is not fitted over the
equipment. See Table 3-6 for recommended Use Factors, U.F.

For electric motors, the sensible heat gain may be calculated using one of the following equations:

bhp 2545 U .F .
qs = (3-8)
motor

OR

q s = kWmotor 3412 U .F . (3-9)

Where bhp is the motor brake horsepower and kWmotor is the rated kW of the motor. Motor efficiencies, motor,
are listed in Table 3-7.

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Table 3-6: Recommended Use Factor for Typical Equipment *


Space Use Factor
Cargo Gear Equipment Room 0.5
Computer Room 1.0
Engine Control Room 1.0
Fan Rooms 1.0
Galley 0.5
Gyro Equipment Room 0.5
Offices 0.3
Pantry 0.5
Radar Equipment Room 0.5
Radio Room 0.3
All Other Spaces 0.3
* To be used when exact information is not available.

Table 3-7: Electric Motor Efficiencies *


Motor Size (hp) motor
1/8 or less 0.50
1/6 to 1/3 0.65
1/2 to 3/4 0.73
Larger than 3/4 to 2 0.82
Larger than 2 to 10 0.87
Larger than 10 0.91
* To be used when exact information is not available.

3.4.2 Direct Return from Electronics / Electrical Equipment


Direct return from electronics equipment and racks with internal ventilation blowers shall be considered on a
case by case basis. Direct return entails providing return ducting located within six (6) inches of the equipment
ventilation discharge opening. The benefit of providing direct return is a reduction in room load and in the
amount of air conditioning airflow to the space. The direct return ducting shall be sized for 125% of the
equipments internal blower rated airflow. For equipment located in an air conditioned space, 75% of the
equipments heat dissipation can be considered as cooling coil load and the remaining 25% as room load. It is
noted that direct return does not reduce the overall air conditioning system cooling load.

For equipment located in a ventilated space and provided with a dedicated exhaust terminal, 75% of the
equipment heat dissipation shall be considered to be captured by the exhaust terminal and discharged to the
weather. The remaining 25% of the equipment heat dissipation shall be considered as room load.

3.4.3 Sample Calculations

CASE 19 Stateroom with 5 ft3 under-counter refrigerator.

qs,d = 1300 Btu/hr (Table 3-5)


U.F. = 0.3 (Table 3-6)
H.F. = 1.0 (Sec. 3.4.1)
qs = 1300 0.3 1.0 = 390 Btu/hr (Equation 3-6)

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CASE 20 Laundry with electric clothes dryer, clothes washer, and iron.

Dryer qs,d = 4400 Btu/hr (Table 3-5)


Washer qs,d = 1300 Btu/hr (Table 3-5)
Iron qs,d = 3400 Btu/hr (Table 3-5)
All U.F. = 0.3 (Table 3-6)
All H.F. = 1.0 (Sec. 3.4.1)
Dryer qs = 4400 0.3 1.0 = 1320 Btu/hr (Equation 3-6)
Washer qs = 1300 0.3 1.0 = 390 Btu/hr (Equation 3-6)
Iron qs = 3400 0.3 1.0 = 1020 Btu/hr (Equation 3-6)
Total qs = 1320 + 390 + 1020 = 2730 Btu/hr

CASE 21 Ventilated Galley electric range with hood.

qs,d = 24700 Btu/hr (Table 3-5)


U.F. = 0.5 (Table 3-6)
H.F. = 0.5 (Sec. 3.4.1)
qs = 24700 0.5 0.5 = 6175 Btu/hr (Equation 3-6)

CASE 22 Air conditioned galley convection oven, electric without hood.

qs,d = 13500 Btu/hr (Table 3-5)


ql,d = 6900 Btu/hr (Table 3-5)
U.F. = 0.5 (Table 3-6)
H.F. = 1.0 (Sec. 3.4.1)
qs = 13500 0.5 1.0 = 6750 Btu/hr (Equation 3-6)
ql = 6900 0.5 = 3450 Btu/hr (Equation 3-7)

CASE 23 Air conditioned Galley convection oven, electric with hood.

qs,d = 13500 Btu/hr (Table 3-5)


U.F. = 0.5 (Table 3-6)
H.F. = 0.5 (Sec. 3.4.1)
qs = 13500 0.5 0.5 = 3375 Btu/hr (Equation 3-6)
ql = 0 Btu/hr (Sec. 3.4.1)

CASE 24 Fan Room with 5.0 HP motor.

bhp = 5.0 HP (Given)


U.F. = 1.0 (Table 3-6)
motor = 0.87 (Table 3-7)
5.0 2545 1.0
qs = = 14626 Btu/hr (Equation 3-8)
0.87

CASE 25 Fan Room with 5.0 kW motor.

kWmotor = 5.0 kW (Given)


U.F. = 1.0 (Table 3-6)
qs = 5.0 3412 1.0 = 17060 Btu/hr (Equation 3-9)

3.5 Personnel Load


Personnel load is the sensible and latent gain generated by a rooms occupants.

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3.5.1 Personnel Heat Gain


Personnel heat gain is calculated using the equations:

qs = qs, p P (3-10)

AND

ql = q l , p P (3-11)

Personnel heat dissipation varies with room temperature and level of personnel activity. Recommended values
are shown in Table 3-8. For messing facilities, add 30 Btu/hr sensible and latent per person eating as an
allowance for heat dissipation from food.

Occupancy for staterooms shall be based on the number of sleeping accommodations. For offices, lounges,
messing facilities, work rooms and similar spaces, occupancy shall be 3/4 of the seating capacity, rounded off to
the nearest whole number.

Table 3-8: Room Load Components


Room D.B. Mess Attendants
(F) & Working Spaces All Others
Sensible Latent Sensible Latent
75 360 440 300 300
76 345 455 290 310
77 330 470 275 325
78 315 485 265 335
79 300 500 250 350
80 285 515 240 360
81 270 530 230 370
82 255 545 215 385
83 240 560 205 395
84 225 575 190 410
85 210 590 180 420

3.5.2 Sample Calculations

CASE 26 Stateroom with single berth.

qs,p = 265 Btu/hr/person (Table 3-8)


ql,p = 335 Btu/hr/person (Table 3-8)
P = 1 person
qs = 265 1 = 265 Btu/hr (Equation 3-10)
ql = 335 1 = 335 Btu/hr (Equation 3-11)

CASE 27 Officer Mess Room four tables, each with four seats, and one mess attendant.

Diners qs,d = 265 + 30 = Btu/hr/person (Table 3-8)


Diners ql,d = 335 + 30 = Btu/hr/person (Table 3-8)
Messman qs,d = 315 Btu/hr (Table 3-8)
Messman ql,d = 485 Btu/hr (Table 3-8)

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Diners P = 3/4 (4 4) = 12 people (Sec. 3.5.1)


Total qs = (295 12) + (315 1) = 3855 Btu/hr (Equation 3-10)
Total ql = (365 12) + (485 1) = 4865 Btu/hr (Equation 3-11)

CASE 28 Office with eight seats.

qs,p = 265 Btu/hr/person (Table 3-8)


ql,p = 335 Btu/hr/person (Table 3-8)
P = 3/4 8 = 6 people (Sec. 3.5.1)
qs = 265 6 = 1590 Btu/hr (Equation 3-10)
ql = 335 6 = 2010 Btu/hr (Equation 3-11)

3.6 HVAC Conversion Factor


In general, sensible heat loads or gains can be calculated using the equation:

q s = F Q T (3-12)

Equation 3-12 can be utilized to calculate room loads, heating loads, preheat loads, infiltration loads, etc.
Depending on the application, the value of the HVAC conversion factor, F, varies. In general, it is defined by the
equation:

60 [c p ,a + (W c p ,w )]
F= (3-13)
v
In the past, regardless of season or application, a conversion factor of 1.08 was used in all heat load calculations.
This factor of 1.08 is an accepted value for marine air conditioning applications, but its use in ventilation, preheating
and infiltration calculations does not produce accurate results. To obtain accurate heat load calculations, Equation
3-13 must be evaluated with the proper air and water vapor properties for each application.

The specific heat of dry air, cp,a, and specific heat of water vapor, cp,w, vary with temperature and pressure.
However, this variation is small and will have negligible effect on the value of the F. As such, the specific heats of
dry air and water vapor noted in Section 2.4 (cp,a = 0.24 Btu/lb/F and cp,w = 0.45 Btu/lb/F, respectively) can be
assumed constant for all HVAC applications.

However, specific volume of air, v, and humidity ratio, W, vary widely under differing conditions. The HVAC
engineer shall use the appropriate values of v and W as follows:

For air conditioning applications only, the use of 1.08 is acceptable.

For ventilation and infiltration calculations in the cooling season, the conversion factor shall be revised to
reflect v = 14.445 ft3 per lb. of air and W = 0.0208 lb. water per lb. dry air at 95/82F DB/WB. In this case,
Equation 3-13 yields F = 1.04. For outside air design temperatures other than 95/82F DB/WB, the HVAC
engineer shall be responsible for revising the factor to reflect the correct specific volume of air at the prescribed
outside air design temperatures.

For preheating calculations, the conversion factor shall be revised to reflect the specific volume and humidity
ratio of air at the preheat temperature. Typical preheat temperatures are between 42F (v = 12.66 ft3/lb. of air,
W = 0.0008 lb. water per lb. dry air) and 50F (v = 12.86 ft3/lb. of air, W = 0.0008 lb. water per lb. dry air), from
which the corresponding range of conversion factors, by Equation 3-13, is 1.14 F 1.12. Use of F = 1.14 is
conservative, and is recommended as a general guideline for calculating the preheat load.

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For infiltration at 0/0F DB/WB, v = 11.599 ft3 per lb. of air and W = 0.0008 lb. water per lb. dry air. In this
case, Equation 3-13 yields F = 1.24. If the outside air design conditions are other than 0/0F DB/WB, the
HVAC engineer shall revise the factor accordingly.

Table 3-9 indicates properties of air at various cooling season outside air conditions and indicates the corresponding
HVAC conversion factor. Table 3-10 indicates the same for different preheating temperatures and heater entering
conditions.

Table 3-9: HVAC Conversion Factors for Ventilation, Infiltration, and A/C Applications
Humidity
Outside Design Specific Ratio,W
Temperatures Volume, v Conversion (lb. water
(F DB/WB) (ft3/lb. of air) Factor, F vapor/lb. dry air) Application
105.0 / 87.5 14.790 1.02 0.0245 Ventilation
95.0 / 82.0 14.445 1.04 0.0208 Ventilation
90.0 / 81.0 14.318 1.05 0.0210 Ventilation
0/0 11.599 1.24 0.0008 Infiltration
10 / 10 11.861 1.22 0.0013 Infiltration
For A/C applications: F = 1.08

Table 3-10: Preheating HVAC Conversion Factors for Various Preheat Conditions
Preheat Design Humidity
Temperature Outside Design Specific Ratio,W
(F DB) Conditions Volume, v (lb. water Conversion
(F DB/F WB ) (ft3/lb. of air) vapor/lb. dry air) Factor, F
42 0/0 12.669 0.0008 1.14
50 10 / 10 12.871 0.0013 1.12
45 0/0 12.659 0.0008 1.14
50 10 / 10 12.853 0.0013 1.12

3.7 Infiltration Load


Infiltration is leakage of outdoor air into an air conditioned space. This leakage imposes both a sensible and a latent
heat load. Normally, infiltration is only considered for spaces which are not pressurized and have direct access to
the weather. It is recommended that an infiltration load only be applied to an unpressurized wheelhouse because it
is common practice to have wheelhouse doors open when navigating a ship near land. All other outside doors are
considered as closed. Special infiltration requirements should be detailed in the construction specifications.

The sensible heat component of infiltration is included in the cooling and heating loads. The latent heat component
is only included in the A/C cooling loads. The latent heat gain is not considered for heating, except when
humidification is required by the specifications.

3.7.1 Infiltration Heat Gain (Loss)


Infiltration heat gains or losses are calculated using the following equations:

Total Heat
60 Q (ho hr )
q= (3-14)
v

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Sensible Heat
Cooling Season: q s = 1.04 Q T (3-15)

Heating Season: q s = 1.24 Q T (3-15a)

Latent Heat
Cooling Season: ql = q q s (3-16)

Where T is the difference between design outdoor dry bulb temperature and design room dry bulb temperature,
and the constants 1.04 and 1.24 are the appropriate HVAC conversion factors from Table 3-9.

For spaces that are not pressurized, the infiltration rate of change shall be 60 minutes for cooling calculations
and 10 minutes for heating calculations. The dimensions used in calculating the room volume are the finished
deck heights and horizontal dimensions inside joiner linings and bulkheads.

If the space is pressurized, the infiltration rate of change shall be 120 minutes for cooling calculations and 20
minutes for heating calculations.

3.7.2 Sample Calculations

CASE 29 Wheelhouse unpressurized, finished dimensions 8'-2" x 30'-4" x 20'-7". Cooling season: outside
air conditions 95F DB, 82F WB; inside air conditions 78F DB, 66.5F WB. Heating season: outside air
temperature 0F DB; inside air temperature 70F DB.

Cooling Calculations

V = 8' 30' 21' = 5040 ft3 (Sec. 3.7.1)


Q = 5040 / 60 = 84 CFM (Sec. 3.7.1)
T = 95 78 = 17F (Sec. 2.1.1)
v = 14.445 ft3/lb. of air (Psychrometric Chart)
ho = 45.75 Btu/lb (Psychrometric Chart)
ho = 31.11 Btu/lb (Psychrometric Chart)
60 84 ( 45.75 31.11)
q= = 5108 Btu/hr (Equation 3-14)
14.445
qs = 1.04 84 17 = 1485 Btu/hr (Equation 3-15)
qs = 5108 1485 = 3623 Btu/hr (Equation 3-16)

Heating Calculations

Q = 5040 / 10 = 504 CFM (Sec. 3.7.1)


T = 70 0 = 70F (Sec. 2.1.2)
qs = 1.24 504 70 = 43747 Btu/hr (Equation 3-15a)

CASE 30 Wheelhouse pressurized, finished dimensions 8'-2" x 30'-4" x 20'-7". Cooling season: outside air
conditions 95F DB, 82F WB; inside air conditions 78F DB, 66.5F WB. Heating season: outside air
temperature 0F DB; inside air temperature 70F DB.

Cooling Calculations

V = 8' 30' 21' = 5040 ft3 (Sec. 3.7.1)


Q = 5040 / 120 = 42 CFM (Sec. 3.7.1)
T = 95 78 = 17F (Sec. 2.1.1)

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v = 14.445 ft3/lb. of air (Psychrometric Chart)


ho = 45.75 Btu/lb (Psychrometric Chart)
ho = 31.11 Btu/lb (Psychrometric Chart)
60 42 (45.75 31.11)
qs = = 2554 Btu/hr (Equation 3-14)
14.445
qs = 1.04 42 17 = 743 Btu/hr (Equation 3-15)
qs = 2554 743 = 1811 Btu/hr (Equation 3-16)

Heating Calculations

Q = 5040 / 20 = 252 CFM (Sec. 3.7.1)


T = 70 0 = 70F (Sec. 2.1.2)
qs = 1.24 252 70 = 21874 Btu/hr (Equation 3-15a)

3.8 Humidity Control


In air conditioned spaces with high latent heat loads, the relative humidity may exceed the maximum design value of
55%. A quick inspection of the sensible heat factor indicates where this may occur. Sensible heat factor can be
determined from the equation:

qs
SHF = (3-17)
q

In spaces served by pull-through air conditioning systems, humidity control is required where SHF 0.59.
Similarly, spaces served by push-through systems require humidity control where SHF 0.62. These values are
applicable only for a cooling coil LAT of 51.5/50.5F (DB/WB). For different LAT, the HVAC engineer shall
determine the applicable room sensible heat factor below which humidity control will be required.

One effective method of controlling humidity is to provide constant summer reheat. In air conditioned spaces where
psychrometric analysis indicates a space relative humidity higher than 55%, constant summer reheat shall be
provided so that the resultant relative humidity in these spaces is less than or equal to 55%. The amount of heat
required will depend on several factors:

Cooling coil leaving air temperatures.


Location of the fan with respect to the cooling coil (pull-through or push-through system).
Air conditioning fan motor heat (in pull-through systems only).
Space sensible heat factor.

3.8.1 Constant Summer Reheat Applications


The amount of constant summer reheat required for a particular space can be calculated using the following
equations:

Pull-Through Systems: CSR =


(0.59 q ) q s (3-18)
1 0.59
OR

Push-Through Systems: CSR =


(0.62 q ) qs (3-19)
1 0.62
The amount of constant summer reheat calculated by the above two equation represents the minimum amount of
heat to achieve a RH of 55%. If a relative humidity below 55% is specified or desired for a particular space, a
greater SHF may be used accordingly.

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Constant summer reheat must be added to the space sensible and total heat loads when performing cooling analyses.
When performing heating analyses, the constant summer reheat shall be compared with the space heating load
required to maintain the space at the heating season design temperature, and the heater shall be sized for the
condition that results in the larger load.

3.8.2 Sample Calculations

CASE 31 Mess Room served by a pull-through A/C system, sensible heat load 14000 Btu/hr, total heat
load 28000 Btu/hr, cooling coil LAT: 51.5/50.5F (DB/WB), maximum relative humidity: 55%.

q = 28000 Btu/hr (Given)


qs = 14000 Btu/hr (Given)
SHF = 14000 / 28000 = 0.5 (Equation 3-17)
Target SHF = 0.59 (Sec. 3.8.1)
CSR =
(0.59 28000) 14000 = 6146 Btu/hr (Equation 3-18)
1 0.59
Room heat loads including CSR:
q = 28000 + 6146 = 34146 Btu/hr (Sec. 3.8.1)
qs = 14000 + 6146 = 20146 Btu/hr (Sec. 3.8.1)

CASE 32 Same as CASE 31 except served by a push-through A/C system.

q = 28000 Btu/hr (Given)


qs = 14000 Btu/hr (Given)
SHF = 14000 / 28000 = 0.5 (Equation 3-17)
Target SHF = 0.62 (Sec. 3.8.1)
CSR =
(0.62 28000) 14000 = 8842 Btu/hr (Equation 3-19)
1 0.62
Room heat loads including CSR:
q = 28000 + 8842 = 36842 Btu/hr (Sec. 3.8.1)
qs = 14000 + 6146 = 22842 Btu/hr (Sec. 3.8.1)

3.9 Ventilation Load


A ventilation system serves the dual purpose of removing both contaminants and heat generated within a space. Its
ability to control temperature is limited in that it can only maintain a room ambient temperature above that of the
outside air temperature. To maintain a space at ambient temperature below the outside air temperature, some form
of air conditioning must be employed to cool the supply air.

The ventilation requirement of a space is determined by one of the following methods:


Allowable temperature rise, F
Rate of air change, R/C

Most spaces which have an allowable temperature rise also have a maximum rate of air change requirement. Where
both requirements are noted for a space, the supply air shall be based on the requirement that results in the larger
amount of airflow. For special cases concerning Galleys and Laundry rooms, see Table 2-1.

Ventilation air supply to any space shall not be less than 35 CFM. Recommended ventilation rates are listed in Table
2-1.

3.9.1 Allowable Temperature Rise Calculations


The ventilation air quantity for a room based on allowable temperature rise is calculated using the following
equation.

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qs
Q= (3-20)
1.04 (Tr T f )
Temperature rise due to fan motor heat must be included to calculate the required ventilation based on the
allowable temperature rise. If the fan motor heat is given in terms of total heat dissipated (Btu/hr), Tf can be
calculated and inserted into Equation 3-20. If the fan motor heat is not known, an estimated temperature rise of
3.0F shall be used. The ventilation air quantity must be revised when the fan motor heat becomes available.

Recommended allowable temperature rises are listed in Table 2-1. See Section 4.2 for determination of supply
fan temperature rise.

3.9.1.1 Transmission Load


Ventilation transmission loads are calculated in the same manner as cooling transmission loads detailed in
Section 3.1.1. Note, however, that the room dry bulb temperature is higher than the outside dry bulb
temperature which means that ventilation transmission loads through weather boundaries are always heat
losses.

For sample calculation of ventilation transmission load, refer to Section 3.1.2 - CASES 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11.

3.9.1.2 Solar Load


Ventilation solar loads are calculated in the same manner as solar cooling loads detailed in Section 3.2.1.

For sample calculation of ventilation solar load, refer to Section 3.2.2 - CASE 15.

3.9.1.3 Lighting Load


Ventilation lighting loads are calculated in the same manner as lighting cooling loads detailed in
Section 3.3.1.

For sample calculation of ventilation lighting load, refer to Section 3.3.2 - CASE 18.

3.9.1.4 Equipment Load


Ventilation equipment loads are calculated in the same manner as equipment cooling loads
detailed in Section 3.4.1, except that only sensible heat gain is considered.

For sample calculation of ventilation equipment load, refer to Section 3.4.2 - CASES 20, 21, 24,
and 25.

3.9.2 Rate of Air Change


Ventilation air requirements based on rate of air change are calculated using the equation:

V
Q= (3-21)
R/C
The dimensions used in calculating the room volume, V, are molded deck heights and dimensions for ventilated
spaces. Recommended rates of air change are listed in Table 2-1.

3.9.3 Precooling
Precooling of the ventilation air supply is an option that the HVAC Engineer can incorporate in the design.
While precooling increases demand from the air conditioning plant, several benefits can be realized. Precooling:

Lowers the temperature of the supply air to ventilated spaces.


Reduces the amount of air required for ventilated spaces.
Reduces the sizes of the ventilation supply and exhaust fans.
Reduces the sizes of ducting of the ventilation systems.

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Lowers air conditioning systems outdoor air cooling load.


Improves environmental conditions in ventilated spaces.

Typically, a precooling coil is implemented with a coil bypass. As the two air streams mix downstream of the
coil, the desired supply air temperature is reached.

The amount of air required to flow through the precooling coil depends on the location of the fan relative to the
coil. Equations 3-22 and 3-23 are used to calculate the required airflow through the precooling coil.

Q (To + T f T p )
Pull-Through Systems: QCC = (3-22)
To LAT

OR

Q (To + T f T p )
Push-Through Systems: QCC = (3-23)
To + T f LAT
Where Q is the ventilation supply system total airflow and Tp is the desired mix temperature of precooled air
with outdoor air.

3.9.4 Sample Calculations

CASE 33 Laundry sensible heat load 1310 Btu/hr, room volume based on molded dimensions 1008 ft3,
supply fan temperature rise 2.8F.

Ventilation Calculation

When a space has two ventilation requirements, allowable temperature rise and rate of change, two calculations
must be performed. The larger air quantity, Q, is the one used.

33(a) Allowable temperature rise

qs = 1310 Btu/hr (Given)


Tf = 2.8F (Given)
Tr = 10F (Table 2-1)
1310
Q= = 175 CFM (Equation 3-20)
1.04 (10 2.8)

33(b) Rate of change

V = 1008 ft3 (Given)


R/C = 4 minutes (Table 2-1)
Q = 1008 / 4 = 252 CFM (Equation 3-21)

MAXIMUM: Q = CASE 33(b) = 252 CFM

CASE 34 Cleaning Gear Locker volume 112 ft3.

V = 112 ft3 (Given)


R/C = 4 minutes (Table 2-1)
Q = 112 / 4 = 28 CFM (Equation 3-21)
Use minimum ventilation air quantity:
Q = 35 CFM (Sec. 3.9)

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CASE 35 Machinery Space precooled, cooling coil leaving air: 51.5/50.5F DB/WB, total airflow: 12400
CFM, required supply temperature: 90F. Fan located downstream of the cooling coil. Temperature rise due to
fan motor heat: 2.5F.

Q = 12400 CFM (Given)


To = 95F (Sec. 2.1.1)
Tp = 90F (Given)
Tf =2.5F (Given)
LAT = 51.5F (Given)
12400 (95 + 2.5 90)
QCC = = 2138 CFM (Equation 3-22)
95 51.5

CASE 36 Same as CASE 35, except fan located upstream of the cooling coil.

Q = 12400 CFM (Given)


To = 95F (Sec. 2.1.1)
Tp = 90F (Given)
Tf =2.5F (Given)
LAT = 51.5F (Given)
12400 (95 + 2.5 90)
QCC = = 2022 CFM (Equation 3-23)
95 + 2.5 51.5

4.0 SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND


CALCULATIONS
After the individual space cooling and heating load requirements have been established, the spaces are grouped
together to form one or more systems. Theoretically, the spaces served by a system should all have similar
characteristics such as:

Usage, i.e., period of occupancy.


Occupancy density (which establishes the sensible heat factor).
Odor potential (to avoid transfer of objectionable odors via return air).
High equipment heat loads
Similar weather and solar exposure.

Most merchant ships, however, are too small to justify separate systems based on theoretical groupings. For
example, normally the only spaces which have high occupancy density are the mess rooms and lounges but the air
requirements for these spaces are usually too small to warrant a separate system. It is common practice, therefore, to
divide the spaces into two systems of approximately equal capacity and arranged to achieve an economical air
distribution. It is recommended that the wheelhouse be served with a separate system to minimize energy
requirements. It is also recommended that the wheelhouse be pressurized to minimize the space infiltration loads in
the cooling and heating seasons.

Table 4-1 lists system load components, the section which describes each component and when they are considered.

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Table 4-1: System Load Components


Cooling Heating Ventilation
Component Section
Calculations Calculations Calculations
Room Load 4.1 X X X
Fan Load 4.2 X - -
Supply Duct 4.3 X - -
Return 4.4 X - -
Outdoor Air 4.5 X X -

4.1 Room Load


Components of the room load are identified in Section 3.

4.2 Fan Load


Fan load is the sensible heat added to the air by the fan motor and is no different from sensible equipment loads
described in Section 3.4. It is expressed in terms of the air temperature rise across the fan or heat flow (Btu/hr). Fan
load shall be included for all air conditioning systems and for ventilation systems serving spaces whose required air
flows are based on allowable temperature rise.

4.2.1 Fan Motor Heat Gain


When the horsepower of the fan motor to be used is known, the fan load is calculated in one of two ways,
depending on whether the fan motor is in or outside of the air stream.

When the fan motor is in the air stream, the fan load is calculated using Equation 3-8, with a use factor of 1.0.
When the fan motor is outside the air stream, the fan load is calculated using the equation:

q s = bhp 2545 U .F . (4-1)

Where the use factor shall be 1.0. For a fan motor outside the air stream, the difference between Equations 3-8
and 4-1 shall be applied as room equipment load.

To calculate the temperature rise due to fan motor heat, use Equation 4-2. The value of qs to be used shall be
selected from either Equation 3-8 or 4-1, depending on the location of the fan motor with regard to the
airstream. For selection of the applicable HVAC conversion factor, see Section 3.6.

qs
Tf = (4-2)
F Q

If the actual fan motor characteristics are not known, use Tf = 3.0F as an estimate, as noted in Section 3.9.1.

Temperature rise calculations shall be rounded off to the nearest tenth of a degree. All estimated fan loads must
be recalculated when fan motor has been selected.

4.2.2 Sample Calculations

CASE 37 Axial Fan (motor and fan in air stream) 5.0 HP motor, 5000 CFM A/C application.

bhp = 5.0 HP (Given)


motor = 0.87 (Table 3-7)
Q = 5000 CFM (Given)
F = 1.08 (Table 3-9)
U.F. = 1.0 (Sec. 4.2.1)

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5.0 2545 1.0


qs = = 14626 Btu/hr (Equation 3-8)
0.87
14626
Tf = = 2.7F (Equation 4-2)
1.08 5000

CASE 38 Centrifugal Supply Fan (fan only in air stream) 15 HP motor, 8000 CFM Ventilation
application.
bhp = 15 HP (Given)
Q = 8000 CFM (Given)
F = 1.04 (Table 3-9)
U.F. = 1.0 (Sec. 4.2.1)
q s = 15 2545 1.0 = 38175 Btu/hr (Equation 4-1)
Heat for eqpt load (Sec. 4.2.1)
38175
Tf = = 4.6F (Equation 4-2)
1.04 8000

CASE 39 Axial Supply Fan (motor and fan in air stream) motor heat dissipation: 3880 Btu/hr, 1600 CFM
Ventilation application.

qf = 3880 Btu/hr (Given)


Q = 1600 CFM (Given)
F = 1.04 (Table 3-9)
3880
Tf = = 2.3F (Equation 4-2)
1.04 1600

CASE 40 Centrifugal Fan (motor and fan in air stream) motor characteristics unknown.

Tf = 3.0F (Sec. 3.9.1)

4.3 Supply Duct Load


Sensible heat is added to or extracted from the air in a duct when the duct passes through spaces having higher or
lower dry bulb temperatures; however, this load is only considered when calculating cooling loads. This load is
expressed in terms of air temperature rise.

4.3.1 Supply Duct Heat Gain


The supply duct load is estimated using the longest run of duct after the cooling coil. The temperature rise shall
be calculated using the equation:
Length 1.5F
Tr = (4-3)
100'
Where Length is the length of the longest supply duct run, in feet.

Temperature rise calculations shall be rounded off to the nearest tenth of a degree. When the length of the
supply duct is unknown, a temperature rise of 2.0F may be used as an estimate and later revised once the
supply duct length is known. Duct insulation shall be considered to minimize the supply duct heat gain.

4.3.2 Sample Calculations

CASE 41 A/C System longest run of supply duct after the cooling coil = 110 ft.

Length = 110' (Given)


110 1.5
Tr = = 1.65F (Equation 4-3)
100

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Use Tr = 1.7F (Sec. 4.3.1)

4.4 Return Path Load


Return path load is the sensible heat picked up by the recirculated air as it passes through passageways, stairwells,
and the return ducting. This load is also expressed in terms of air temperature rise.

4.4.1 Return Path Heat Gain


For systems in which the passageways and stairwells are directly supplied with conditioned air, the return path
load is estimated using the longest run of return ducting. The temperature rise shall be calculated using the
equation:
Length 0.5F
Tr = (4-4)
100'
Where Length is taken as that of the longest return ducting, in feet.

For systems in which the passageways and stairwells are indirectly supplied with conditioned air, the return
path load may be assumed to be 5.0F to simplify calculations or may be determined by a two step process:

1. The heat gain in passageways and stairwells may be determined using a heat balance calculation or
assumed to be a 3.0F temperature rise.
2. The heat gain in the return ducts shall be calculated using Equation 4-4.

All temperature rises shall be rounded off to the nearest tenth of a degree.

4.4.2 Sample Calculations

CASE 42 A/C System, air conditioned passageways and stairwells longest run of return duct = 180 ft.

Length = 180' (Given)


180 0.5
T = = 0.9F (Equation 4-4)
r 100

CASE 43 A/C System with indirect cooling of passageways and stairwells longest run of return duct = 80 ft.

Two methods are available for estimating the return path load:

43(a) Assume Tr = 5.0F

43(b) Assume passageway gain = 3.0F, calculate return duct gain:

Length = 80' (Given)


80 0.5
Return T = = 0.4F (Equation 4-4)
r 100
Total Tr = 3.0 + 0.4 = 3.4F (Sec. 4.4.1)

4.5 Outdoor Air Load


The build-up of offensive odors in air conditioned spaces is controlled by exhausting conditioned "stale air" to the
weather. An equal quantity of outdoor air is introduced into the air supply system to keep the system in balance. The
outdoor air requirements are calculated separately for each air conditioned space; however, the outdoor air load is a
system load not a room load because the air is introduced into the A/C system air return and not directly into the
room.

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Outdoor air required for an air conditioning system shall be based on room occupancy and shall be increased only in
order to balance exhaust requirements within each subdivision, but shall not exceed 50 CFM per person.

4.5.1 Occupancy Calculations


Outdoor air requirements based on occupancy are calculated using the equation:
Q = Of P (4-5)
Room occupancy shall be determined in the same manner detailed in Section 3.5.1.

4.5.2 Sample Calculations

CASE 44 Stateroom 4 berths.

Of = 15 CFM/person (Sec. 2.1.3.1)


P = 4 people (Sec. 3.5.1)
Q = 15 4 = 60 CFM (Equation 4-5)

CASE 45 Radio Room.

Of = 15 CFM/person (Sec. 2.1.3.1)


P = 1 person (Sec. 3.5.1)
Q = 15 1 = 15 CFM (Equation 4-5)

CASE 46 Office 8 seats.

Of = 15 CFM/person (Sec. 2.1.3.1)


P = 3/4 8 = 6 people (Sec. 3.5.1)
Q = 15 6 = 90 CFM (Equation 4-5)

5.0 SHIPS AIR BALANCE


In its simplest form, ships air balance is taken as exhausting the same amount of air (in CFM) from the ship to the
weather as being supplied (in CFM) by the ventilation supply fans. Air is supplied and exhausted by fans. Fans,
however, are constant volume machines, and as such, provide the same volumetric flow regardless of air
temperature. To achieve true air balance, the exhaust fan(s) must exhaust the same mass of air as is provided by the
supply fan(s). The mass of air (lb. of air per minute) is calculated by dividing the fan volumetric flow (in CFM) by
the specific volume of air at the fan inlet condition, which can be obtained from a psychrometric chart.

For example: a supply fan that is sized for 1000 CFM and supplying air at 95/82oF DB/WB (v = 14.445 ft3/lb. of air)
is actually supplying 69.23 lbs. of air per minute. If this fan is providing outside air to air conditioning systems as
replenishment, the typical practice is to provide an exhaust fan sized for 1000 CFM to balance the air provided by
the supply fan. The 1000 CFM now being exhausted from air conditioned areas will be at temperatures close to that
air conditioned spaces. At 78/66.5oF DB/WB (v = 13.796 ft3/lb. of air), the exhaust fan is exhausting 72.48 lbs. of
air per minute. The difference between the mass of air being supplied and exhausted produces negative pressure
with regards to atmospheric pressure in the air conditioned area. If a weather door is opened, unfiltered, hot, and
humid outside air will infiltrate the air conditioned area.

In the heating season, the opposite occurs; a greater mass of air is supplied than is exhausted. The conditioned area
comes under positive pressure, and air exits when the weather doors are opened, thereby eliminating the infiltration
of unfiltered and cold air into the ship.

In mechanically ventilated areas, ventilation supply fans will be providing more air mass than is being exhausted,
thus creating a positive pressure.

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Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

Neither positive nor negative pressure is desirable since either may create a safety hazard when opening weather
doors and doors separating air conditioned and ventilated areas of the ship. It is recommended that provisions for
maintaining the ship at a neutral pressure with regards to the atmosphere be incorporated in the HVAC design.

6.0 HVAC CALCULATION BOOKLET


Standard forms have been developed to simplify and reduce the effort required to prepare and review a set of HVAC
calculations.

Table 6-1 lists a typical set of forms, the sections which describe each form, and when it is used.

Table 6-1: HVAC Forms


Cooling Heating Ventilation
Form Section
Systems Systems Systems
Compartment Equipment List 6.1 X - X
Heating & Cooling Load Calculations 6.2 X X X
Psychrometric Chart 6.3 X - X*
Cooling Analysis 6.4 X - -
Heating Analysis 6.5 - X -
Supply System Analysis 6.6 - - X
Exhaust System Analysis 6.7 - X X
* Psychrometric Charts are required for ventilation systems only if precooling is used.

The forms listed in Table 6-1 are normally assembled in booklet form along with a title sheet, list of references, a
Table of Contents, and a list of abbreviations and symbols. Sample forms are provided in the figures at the end of
this section using results from some of the example cases presented.

6.1 Compartment Equipment List


A typical form used to calculate compartment equipment loads is shown in Figure 6-1. The pertinent information
shown is:

Space name and location


Equipment within the space
Manufacturer rating for each piece of equipment in Watts or Btu/hr
Use factor for each piece of equipment
Adjusted sensible and latent heat load for each piece of equipment to be used for calculating cooling or
ventilation requirements.

The equipment loads are calculated in conformance with Section 3.4. The adjusted sensible and latent equipment
loads are summarized for each space and the total adjusted loads are noted on the corresponding heating and cooling
load calculation sheet.

6.1.1 Sample Forms

CASE 47 Stateroom with a 5 ft3 under-counter refrigerator. See Figure 6-2 and Section 3.4.2, CASE 19.

CASE 48 Laundry with electric clothes dryer (vented to the atmosphere), electric clothes washer, and
electric iron. See Figure 3 and Section 3.4.2, CASE 20.

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)
Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

6.2 Heating and Cooling Load Calculations


This form, Figure 6-4, is used to calculate the room loads described in Section 3. The necessary information which
must appear on this form is:

Space name and location


Space heating and cooling design temperature
Space and temperature adjacent to each boundary
Load key (defined below)
Boundary areas
Insulation type
Heat transfer coefficient, U, (with direction of heat flow) for each boundary condition
Insulation key for each boundary condition, defined below.

The standard load key is shown in the lower left hand corner of Figure 4. It is a means of identifying in the body of
the calculations what the physical relation of the boundary is to the room and is necessary for the proper
identification of U values to be used. The values of U are determined from the current edition of the Thermal
Insulation Report, SNAME Technical & Research Bulletin No. 4-7. These factors are defined according to the
insulation arrangement and thickness, direction of heat flow, and relationship between the room and adjacent spaces,
as to inside air, outside air, seawater or solar. The insulation key is the insulation Type defined within the tables of
T&R 4-7. These U values may also depend upon whether the room is being heated or cooled.

Once the basic parameters have been entered on the form, temperature differences and heat transfers for each
boundary can be calculated. Sensible and latent heat cooling loads and heating load can then be totaled.

The bottom portion of the form has been reserved for miscellaneous calculations to CFM, heat capacity, sensible
heat factor, room gross or net volume, and air rate of change. All symbols used on the form are also defined.

This is the extent of the heating and cooling load calculations.

Heating and cooling load calculations can be performed manually or by the aid of computer programs. Regardless
of which method is used, the results shall be documented as shown on Figure 6-4.

Upon completion of the heating and cooling load calculations, the HVAC engineer shall perform the following
analyses:

a. Ships air balance shall be performed to ensure that the amount of required supply is equal to the amount of
required exhaust in each subdivision.
b. Cooling load analyses for all air conditioning systems to size the cooling coils, fans and determine the required
airflows for each air conditioned space.
c. Heating load analyses for all air conditioning systems to determine the heating requirements for each space and
size the heaters
d. Supply systems analyses for all ventilation supply systems to size the supply fans, determine the pre-heat loads
and size the pre-heaters and reheaters.
e. Exhaust systems analyses for all exhaust systems to size the exhaust fans, and determine the heating loads for
spaces with natural supply and mechanical exhaust, and size the heaters serving these spaces.

6.2.1 Sample Forms

CASE 49 Air conditioned Stateroom. See Figure 5 and Section 3.1.2, CASES 1 through 5, Section 3.2.2
CASE 12, Section 3.3.2 CASE 17, Section 3.5.2 CASE 26, and Section 6.1.1 CASE 47.

CASE 50 Ventilated Laundry Room. See Figure 6-6 and Section 3.1.2, CASES 7 through 11, Section 3.2.2
CASE 15, Section 3.3.2 CASE 18, and Section 6.1.1 CASE 48.

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)
Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

6.3 Psychrometric Chart


Figure 6-7 shows a typical psychrometric chart that can be used for analyzing total system performance and
parameters. However, any standard psychrometric chart can be used. Appendix A contains a sample psychrometric
chart.

6.4 Cooling Analysis


The cooling analysis, Figure 6-8, is used to summarize the cooling requirements for each air conditioned space. For
this purpose, space has been provided to list the compartment and location, sensible and latent cooling loads,
sensible heat factor, and required outside air for each space served by the system.

Upon completion of all entries for a system, total system requirements can be determined. The cooling analysis sheet
can then be used to summarize all cooling systems in a similar manner. Appendix A contains a sample cooling
analysis.

6.5 Heating Analysis


Figure 6-9 shows the form developed for summarizing system heating requirements. It is very similar to the cooling
analysis form, but lists space heating loads, required temperature rise, and summarizes heater required performance.
Appendix A contains a sample heating analysis.

6.6 Supply System Analysis


Figure 6-10 is used to list the supply system analysis for ventilated spaces. The form provides for listing space name,
location, design temperatures (cooling and heating seasons), cooling and heating loads, and supply CFM. Appendix
A contains a sample supply system analysis.

6.7 Exhaust System Analysis


Figure 6-11 is used to list the exhaust system analysis for ventilated spaces requiring exhaust. The form provides for
listing space name, location, design temperatures (cooling and heating seasons), cooling and heating loads, and
exhaust CFM. Appendix A contains a sample exhaust system analysis.

40
Figure 6-1: Compartment Equipment List
SPACE SPACE NO.

MFG. RATING MAX. PROB. HEAT DISSIPATION, BTU/HR


USE
EQUIPMENT TOTAL REMARKS
FACTOR
WATTS BTU/HR BTU/HR* SENSIBLE LATENT

* USE OF HOOD REDUCES MAX. PROB. TOTAL BTU/HR BY 50%.


NOTES:
COMPARTMENT
EQUIPMENT LIST
HULL OR JOB NO.:
CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO.

41
Figure 6-2: Sample Form, CASE 47
SPACE SPACE NO.
STATEROOM C-11
MFG. RATING MAX. PROB. HEAT DISSIPATION, BTU/HR
USE
EQUIPMENT TOTAL REMARKS
FACTOR
WATTS BTU/HR BTU/HR* SENSIBLE LATENT
REFRIGERATOR 5 ft3 1300 0.3 390 390 TABLES 3-5 & 3-6

* USE OF HOOD REDUCES MAX. PROB. TOTAL BTU/HR BY 50%.


NOTES:
COMPARTMENT
EQUIPMENT LIST
HULL OR JOB NO.:
CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO.

42
Figure 6-3: Sample Form, CASE 48
SPACE SPACE NO.
LAUNDRY C-9
MFG. RATING MAX. PROB. HEAT DISSIPATION, BTU/HR
USE
EQUIPMENT TOTAL REMARKS
FACTOR SENSIBLE
WATTS BTU/HR BTU/HR WATTS
DRYER 4400 0.3 1320 1320 TABLES 3-5 & 3-6

WASHER 1300 0.3 390 390 TABLES 3-5 & 3-6

IRON 3400 0.3 1020 1020 TABLES 3-5 & 3-6

TOTAL 2730 2730

NOTES:
COMPARTMENT
EQUIPMENT LIST
HULL OR JOB NO.:
CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO.

43
Figure 6-4: Heating & Cooling Load Calculations
SPACE SPACE NO.
COOLING SEASON: T = _______ F HEATING SEASON: T = _______ F

LOAD INSUL U U
ADJACENT COMPARTMENT A TO T QS QL QT TO T QW
KEY KEY COEFF DIR COEFF DIR

NOTES:

SYMBOLS KEY
A = Boundary Area [ft2] U = Heat Transfer Coefficient [Btu/ft2/hr/F] 1 = Deck Over 6 = Inboard Bulkhead
QS = Heat Load, Sensible [Btu/hr] T = Space Design Temp. [F] 2 = Deck Under 7 = Lights
HEATING & COOLING
QL = Heat Load, Latent
QT = Heat Load, Total
[Btu/hr]
[Btu/hr]
TO = Temperature of
Adjacent Space / Outside
[F] 3 = Outboard Bulkhead / Shell
4 = Forward Bulkhead
8 = Equipment
9 = Personnel
LOAD CALCULATIONS
QW = Heat Load, Winter [Btu/hr] T = Temperature Difference [F] 5 = After Bulkhead 10 = Infiltration
HULL OR JOB NO.:
CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO. OF

44
Figure 6-5: Sample Form, CASE 49
SPACE SPACE NO.
COOLING SEASON: T = __78__ F HEATING SEASON: T = __70__ F
STATEROOM C-11
LOAD INSUL U U
ADJACENT COMPARTMENT A TO T QS QL QT TO T QW
KEY KEY COEFF DIR COEFF DIR
A/C CABIN 1 10 156 78 0 - - 0 0 0 70 0 - - 0
ENG. STOREROOM 2 55 156 115 37 0.11 635 0 635 30 40 0.09 562
SOLAR 3 63 90 125 47 0.11 465 0 465 0 70 0.09 567
SOLAR 3 GLASS 6 960 0 960 0 70 1.13 475
LAUNDRY 4 6 104 105 27 0.313 879 0 879 70 0 - - 0
S.R. TOILET 5 5 40 85 7 0.376 105 0 105 70 0 - - 0
HOSPITAL 5 5 64 78 0 - - 0 0 0 75 -5 0.354 -113
PASSAGEWAY 6 5 96 78 0 - - 0 0 0 70 0 - - 0

TRANSMISSION SUBTOTAL 3044 0 3044 1491

LIGHTS 7 576 0 576 0


EQUIPMENT 8 390 0 390 0
PERSONNEL 9 265 335 600 0

SENSIBLE HEAT SUBTOTAL 4275 1491


LATENT HEAT SUBTOTAL 335 0

TOTAL HEAT 4610 1491

NOTES: GLASS SOLAR LOAD = 160 BTU/HR/FT2 6 FT2 = 960 BTU/HR


VOLUME = 1008 FT3
SHF = 4275 / 4610 = 0.93

SYMBOLS KEY
A = Boundary Area [ft2] U = Heat Transfer Coefficient [Btu/ft2/hr/F] 1 = Deck Over 6 = Inboard Bulkhead
QS = Heat Load, Sensible [Btu/hr] T = Space Design Temp. [F] 2 = Deck Under 7 = Lights
HEATING & COOLING
QL = Heat Load, Latent
QT = Heat Load, Total
[Btu/hr]
[Btu/hr]
TO = Temperature of
Adjacent Space / Outside
[F] 3 = Outboard Bulkhead / Shell
4 = Forward Bulkhead
8 = Equipment
9 = Personnel
LOAD CALCULATIONS
QW = Heat Load, Winter [Btu/hr] T = Temperature Difference [F] 5 = After Bulkhead 10 = Infiltration
HULL OR JOB NO.:
CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO. OF

45
Figure 6-6: Sample Form, CASE 50
SPACE SPACE NO.
COOLING SEASON: T = __105__ F HEATING SEASON: T = __70__ F
LAUNDRY C-9
LOAD INSUL U U
ADJACENT COMPARTMENT A TO T QS QL QT TO T QW
KEY KEY COEFF DIR COEFF DIR
A/C CABIN 1 57 156 78 -27 0.23 -969 0 -969 70 0 - - -
ENG. STOREROOM 2 53 156 115 10 0.28 437 0 437 30 40 0.187 1167
SOLAR 3 63 96 125 20 0.11 211 0 211 0 70 0.09 605
CLEAN LINEN 4 5 104 105 0 - - 0 0 0 60 10 0.354 368
DECK CADET S.R. 5 6 104 78 -27 0.313 -879 0 -879 70 0 - - -
PASSAGEWAY 6 5 96 78 -27 0.376 -975 0 -975 70 0 - - -

TRANSMISSION SUBTOTAL -2175 0 -2175 2140

LIGHTS 7 682 682 0


EQUIPMENT 8 2730 2730 0

SENSIBLE HEAT SUBTOTAL 1237 2140


LATENT HEAT SUBTOTAL 0 0

TOTAL HEAT 1237 2140

NOTES: VOLUME = 1008 FT3

SYMBOLS KEY
A = Boundary Area [ft2] U = Heat Transfer Coefficient [Btu/ft2/hr/F] 1 = Deck Over 6 = Inboard Bulkhead
QS = Heat Load, Sensible [Btu/hr] T = Space Design Temp. [F] 2 = Deck Under 7 = Lights
HEATING & COOLING
QL = Heat Load, Latent
QT = Heat Load, Total
[Btu/hr]
[Btu/hr]
TO = Temperature of
Adjacent Space / Outside
[F] 3 = Outboard Bulkhead / Shell
4 = Forward Bulkhead
8 = Equipment
9 = Personnel
LOAD CALCULATIONS
QW = Heat Load, Winter [Btu/hr] T = Temperature Difference [F] 5 = After Bulkhead 10 = Infiltration
HULL OR JOB NO.:
CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO. OF

46
Figure 6-7: Psychrometric Chart

47
Figure 6-8: Cooling Analysis
SYSTEM NO. DC CLASS COIL SIZE QTY COIL ENTERING AIR TEMP COIL LEAVING AIR TEMP COIL FLOW TOTAL COIL LOAD
/ F DB / F WB / F DB / F WB GPM TONS
COIL NO.: FAN SIZE: FAN TOTAL PRESS.: IN. WG TOTAL AIR: CFM MIX TEMP: F DB
AIRSIDE P: IN. WG FAN MOTOR HP: HP FAN AIR: CFM REPL AIR: CFM REPL TEMP: F DB
FAN MOTOR HEAT: BTU/HR FAN BYPASS AIR: CFM RETURN AIR: CFM RETURN TEMP: F DB

SPACE COOLING LOAD (BTU/HR) REHEAT SPACE REQD DESIGN AIR


SPACE NAME SPACE NO. SENSIBLE LATENT TOTAL SHF (Y/N) CFM/BTU AIR (CFM) (CFM)

NOTES:
COOLING
ANALYSIS
HULL OR JOB NO.:
CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO.

48
Figure 6-9: Heating Analysis
SYSTEM NO. FAN AIR: CFM TOTAL AIR: CFM T1 = SPACE DESIGN TEMP: F DB T4 = OFF-COIL TEMP: F DB
FAN BYPASS AIR: CFM REPL AIR: CFM T2 = REPL AIR TEMP: F DB T5 = LIGHT LOAD TEMP: F DB
RETURN AIR: CFM T1 = LIGHT LOAD MIX TEMP: F DB T6 = WINTER MIX TEMP: F DB
AIRFLOW (CFM) SPACE LOAD (BTU/HR) REQUIRED T (F) HEATER DATA
SPACE LIGHT LIGHT TIN TOUT PWR
COOL HEAT WINTER REHEAT
SPACE NAME NO. LOAD WINTER LOAD REHEAT CFM (F) (F) (kW) NO. REMARKS

NOTES:
HEATING
ANALYSIS
HULL OR JOB NO.:
CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO.

49
Figure 6-10: Supply System Analysis

SYSTEM NO. DC CLASS

DSGN TEMP SPACE LOAD AIR QUANTITY


SPACE (F) (BTU/HR) (CFM)
SPACE NAME NO. COOL HEAT COOL HEAT COOL HEAT REMARKS

NOTES:
SUPPLY SYSTEM
ANALYSIS
CALCULATED BY: HULL OR JOB NO.:
CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO.

50
Figure 6-11: Exhaust System Analysis

SYSTEM NO. DC CLASS

DSGN TEMP SPACE LOAD AIR QUANTITY


SPACE (F) (BTU/HR) (CFM)
SPACE NAME NO. COOL HEAT COOL HEAT COOL HEAT REMARKS

NOTES:
EXHAUST SYSTEM
ANALYSIS
CALCULATED BY: HULL OR JOB NO.:
CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO.

51
BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCES
Technical and Research Bulletin No. 4-7, Thermal Insulation Report

2013 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)
Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

APPENDIX A HVAC CASE STUDY


General
Appendix A an example of the application of the criteria and procedures, recommended in the Bulletin.

Appendix A presents a discussion of psychrometric analysis which was not included in the body of the bulletin. This
analysis demonstrates the link between the air conditioning design requirements of a system to the chilled
water/refrigeration equipment performance. In addition, the psychrometric analysis accompanied with a psychrometric
chart provides a graphic representation of the air conditioning process.

The use of a Psychrometric chart is essential for air conditioning system design. The chart depicts dry air and moisture
properties at various temperatures. Relative humidity lines are noted on the chart which helps the designer in
determining system compliance with design requirements. Most important is the ease with which properties of air
stream mixtures can be determined. While several properties of air mixture (dry air and water moisture mixture) are
shown on the chart, only two properties are required to locate a point on the chart. Typically, dry and wet bulb
temperatures are used for this purpose. In addition to illustrating the air conditioning process, the cooling coils entering
air conditions can be determined. These conditions (dry and wet bulb temperatures of air entering the coil) are essential
inputs for sizing the coil.

Psychrometric charts used to only be constructed manually by HVAC designers. Currently, psychrometric softwares
offered by several companies are available to designers. The software is user friendly. Charts created with the software
are clear and more accurate than manually constructed charts.

HVAC Case Study


The example considers two air conditioning system designs; PULL THROUGH AND PUSH THOUGH. The use of
each is dictated by the designers preference and often by space availability.

In a PULL THROUGH system, the fan is located downstream of the cooling coil. The fan motor heat increases the
temperature of the air leaving the coil, and as such, the system airflow has to be increased to accommodate the
temperature rise. The sketch below is a graphical presentation of a PULL THROUGH system.

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)
Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations

In a PUSH THROUGH system, the fan is located upstream of the cooling coil. The fan motor heat increases the
temperature of the air entering the coil. In this type of system, the fan motor heat does not affect the system airflow.
The sketch below is a graphical presentation of a PULL THROUGH system.

In order to demonstrate the subtle difference between the two types of systems, the following items remain the same for
both systems:

1. Same spaces served


2. Cooling and heating loads of the spaces served are the same for both systems
3. Required replenishment air of 990 CFM is the same for both systems
4. Same Off-coil temperature of 51.5/50.5 deg F (WB/DB) for both systems
5. Fan Motor Heat Load temperature rise of 3.0 deg F was used for both systems
6. Supply Duct Load temperature rise of 2.0 deg F (Section 4.3.1) is assumed for both systems
7. Return Path Load temperature of 5.0 deg F (Section 4.4.1 is assumed for both systems
8. Replenishment air is assumed to be preheated to 42 deg F in the heating season.

For PULL THROUGH system:


See Sheet No. 1 for Cooling Analysis
See Sheet No. 2 for system Psychrometric Chart
See Sheet No. 3 for Heating Analysis

For PUSH THROUGH system:


See Sheet No. 4 for Cooling Analysis
See Sheet No. 5 for system Psychrometric Chart
See Sheet No. 6 for Heating Analysis

It should be noted that air conditioning loads for both systems is approximately the same, while the total required heating
load is exactly the same. For the convenience of the Bulletin user, a table of comparison was prepared to highlight the
subtle difference between design particulars of the two systems. See Table A-1 on the next page for the System Design
Comparison.

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SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 4-16 (2015 Interim)
Recommended Practices for Merchant Ship HVAC Design Calculations
Table A-1: System Design Comparison
ITEM PULL THROUGH PUSH THROUGH
Replenishment air 990 CFM 990 CFM
Replenishment air temp deg F 98.0 (95+3 for supply fan rise) 98.0 (95+3 for supply fan rise)
Off-coil temp DB/WB 51.5/50.5 51.5/50.5
Total spaces sensible heat ratio 0.82 0.82
Supply duct load 2.0 deg F 2.0 deg F
System relative humidity 42.2% 42.9%
Fan motor heat load 3.0 deg F downstream of coil 3.0 deg F upstream of coil
Total spaces sensible loads 92416 BTU/HR 92416 BTU/HR
Temp of air supply to spaces 56.5 deg F (51.5+2+3.0) 53.5 deg F (51.5+2)
System airflow 4000 CFM 3500 CFM
Return path load 5.0 deg F 5.0 deg F
Mix air temp (DB/WB) deg F 86.7/69.5 87.2/70.4
Coil entering (DB/WB) deg F 86.7/69.5 90.2/71.3
Air conditioning load 19.5 tons 19.0 tons
Winter mix 63.1 deg F 62.1 deg F
Total required heating 39.3 kW 39.3 kW

The difference in the air conditioning loads is attributed to the supply duct and the return path loads.
Because of the difference in airflows between the two systems, it is expected that these loads will be
different and as a result, there will be a small difference in the air conditioning loads.

55
SYSTEM NO. DC CLASS COIL SIZE QTY COIL ENTERING AIR TEMP COIL LEAVING AIR TEMP COIL FLOW TOTAL COIL LOAD
PULL THROUGH 86.7 / 69.5 F DB / F WB 51.5 / 50.5 F DB / F WB GPM 19.50 TONS
COIL NO.: FAN SIZE: FAN TOTAL PRESS.: IN. WG TOTAL AIR: 4000 CFM MIX TEMP: 86.7 F DB
AIRSIDE P: IN. WG FAN MOTOR HP: HP FAN AIR: 4000 CFM REPL AIR: 990 CFM REPL TEMP: 98 F DB
FAN MOTOR HEAT: BTU/HR FAN BYPASS AIR: NONE CFM RETURN AIR: 3010 CFM RETURN TEMP: 83 F DB

SPACE COOLING LOAD (BTU/HR) REHEAT SPACE REQD DESIGN AIR


SPACE NAME SPACE NO. SENSIBLE LATENT TOTAL SHF (Y/N) CFM/BTU AIR (CFM) (CFM)
Radio Room 8425 335 8760 0.96 N 0.04328 365 365
Inspectors Stateroom 2639 335 2974 0.89 N 0.04328 114 110
Assistant Chief Engr Stateroom 2736 335 3071 0.89 N 0.04328 118 120
Chief Engineer Stateroom 3303 335 3638 0.91 N 0.04328 143 145
Deck Officer Stateroom 2287 335 2622 0.87 N 0.04328 99 100
Masters Office 3127 1005 4132 0.76 N 0.04328 135 135
Masters Stateroom 3303 335 3638 0.91 N 0.04328 143 145
Assistant Master Stateroom 2348 335 2683 0.88 N 0.04328 102 100
Officer Stateroom (1) 2420 335 2755 0.88 N 0.04328 105 105
Officer Stateroom (2) 2605 335 2940 0.89 N 0.04328 113 110
Officers Mess 4119 2190 6309 0.65 N 0.04328 178 180
Crew Mess 7945 5120 13065 0.61 N 0.04328 344 345
Lounge 4700 1340 6040 0.78 N 0.04328 203 200
Engine Department Stateroom (1) 2787 670 3457 0.81 N 0.04328 121 120
Engine Department Stateroom (2) 2985 670 3655 0.82 N 0.04328 129 130
Deck Department Stateroom (1) 2914 670 3584 0.81 N 0.04328 126 130
Deck Department Stateroom (2) 4306 670 4976 0.87 N 0.04328 186 190
Deck Department Stateroom (3) 2760 670 3430 0.80 N 0.04328 119 120
Deck Department Stateroom (4) 2760 670 3430 0.80 N 0.04328 119 120
Deck Department Stateroom (5) 4036 670 4706 0.86 N 0.04328 175 175
Steward Department Stateroom (1) 2414 670 3084 0.78 N 0.04328 104 105
Steward Department Stateroom (2) 2638 670 3308 0.80 N 0.04328 114 110
Steward Department Stateroom (3) 2787 670 3457 0.81 N 0.04328 121 120
Hospital 2389 670 3059 0.78 N 0.04328 103 100
Machinery Control Room 9683 335 10018 0.97 N 0.04328 419 420

Totals 92416 20375 112791 0.82 4000 4000

NOTES:
1. Supply air temp = 51.5 + 3 deg fan rise + 2 deg supply duct rise = 56.5 deg F
COOLING
2. System airflow = total sensible load / (1.08 x (78 56.5) ANALYSIS
3. CFM/BTU = system airflow / total sensible load HULL OR JOB NO.:
CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO. 1

56
57
SYSTEM NO. FAN AIR: CFM TOTAL AIR: CFM T1 = SPACE DESIGN TEMP: 70 F DB T4 = OFF-COIL TEMP: 51.5 F DB
FAN BYPASS AIR: N/A CFM REPL AIR: 990 CFM T2 = REPL AIR TEMP: 42 F DB T5 = LIGHT LOAD TEMP: N/A F DB
PULL THROUGH
RETURN AIR: 3010 CFM T1 = LIGHT LOAD MIX TEMP: N/A F DB T6 = WINTER MIX TEMP: 63.1 F DB
AIRFLOW (CFM) SPACE LOAD (BTU/HR) REQUIRED T (F) HEATER DATA
SPACE LIGHT LIGHT TIN TOUT PWR
COOL HEAT WINTER REHEAT
SPACE NAME NO. LOAD WINTER LOAD REHEAT CFM (F) (F) (kW) NO. REMARKS
Radio Room 365 365 6314 N/A N/A 22.9 - - 365 63.1 86.0 2.65
Inspector Stateroom 110 110 3650 N/A N/A 37.7 - - 110 63.1 100.7 1.31
Assistant Chief Engr Stateroom 120 120 2905 N/A N/A 29.3 - - 120 63.1 92.4 1.11
Chief Engineer Stateroom 145 145 3825 N/A N/A 31.4 - - 145 63.1 94.4 1.44
Deck Officer Stateroom 100 100 2808 N/A N/A 32.9 - - 100 63.1 96.0 1.04
Masters Office 135 135 2672 N/A N/A 25.3 - - 135 63.1 88.3 1.08
Masters Stateroom 145 145 3825 N/A N/A 31.4 - - 145 63.1 94.4 1.44
Assistant Master Stateroom 100 100 2678 N/A N/A 31.7 - - 100 63.1 94.8 1.00
Officer Stateroom (1) 105 105 2706 N/A N/A 30.8 - - 105 63.1 93.9 1.02
Officer Stateroom (2) 110 110 3456 N/A N/A 36.0 - - 110 63.1 99.1 1.25
Officers Mess 180 180 3126 N/A N/A 23.0 - - 180 63.1 86.1 1.31
Crew Mess 345 345 4911 N/A N/A 20.1 - - 345 63.1 83.2 2.20
Lounge 200 200 5687 N/A N/A 28.6 - - 200 63.1 91.7 1.81
Engine Dept Stateroom (1) 120 120 4374 N/A N/A 40.7 - - 120 63.1 103.8 1.55
Engine Dept Stateroom (2) 130 130 3860 N/A N/A 34.4 - - 130 63.1 97.5 1.42
Deck Dept Stateroom (1) 130 130 4019 N/A N/A 35.6 - - 130 63.1 98.6 1.46
Deck Dept Stateroom (2) 190 190 6005 N/A N/A 36.2 - - 190 63.1 99.3 2.18
Deck Dept Stateroom (3) 120 120 4001 N/A N/A 37.8 - - 120 63.1 100.9 1.44
Deck Dept Stateroom (4) 120 120 4001 N/A N/A 37.8 - - 120 63.1 100.9 1.44
Deck Dept Stateroom (5) 175 175 6005 N/A N/A 38.7 - - 175 63.1 101.8 2.14
Stew Dept Stateroom (1) 105 105 4019 N/A N/A 42.4 - - 105 63.1 105.4 1.41
Stew Dept Stateroom (2) 110 110 3709 N/A N/A 38.2 - - 110 63.1 101.2 1.33
Stew Dept Stateroom (3) 120 120 4375 N/A N/A 40.7 - - 120 63.1 103.8 1.55
Hospital 100 100 3756 N/A N/A 46.7 - - 100 63.1 109.8 1.48
Machinery Control Room 420 420 7884 N/A N/A 24.3 - - 420 63.1 87.4 3.23

Totals 4000 4000 39.3

NOTES:
1. Space temperature = 70 deg F for all spaces except Hospital
HEATING
2. Hospital space temperature = 75 deg F ANALYSIS
HULL OR JOB NO.:
CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO. 3

58
SYSTEM NO. DC CLASS COIL SIZE QTY COIL ENTERING AIR TEMP COIL LEAVING AIR TEMP COIL FLOW TOTAL COIL LOAD
PUSH THROUGH 90.2 / 71.3 F DB / F WB 51.5 / 50.5 F DB / F WB GPM 19.0 TONS
COIL NO.: FAN SIZE: FAN TOTAL PRESS.: IN. WG TOTAL AIR: 3500 CFM MIX TEMP: 87.2 F DB
AIRSIDE P: IN. WG FAN MOTOR HP: HP FAN AIR: 3500 CFM REPL AIR: 990 CFM REPL TEMP: 98 F DB
FAN MOTOR HEAT: BTU/HR FAN BYPASS AIR: NONE CFM RETURN AIR: 2510 CFM RETURN TEMP: 83 F DB

SPACE COOLING LOAD (BTU/HR) REHEAT SPACE REQD DESIGN AIR


SPACE NAME SPACE NO. SENSIBLE LATENT TOTAL SHF (Y/N) CFM/BTU AIR (CFM) (CFM)
Radio Room 8425 335 8760 0.96 N 0.03787 319 320
Inspectors Stateroom 2639 335 2974 0.89 N 0.03787 100 100
Assistant Chief Engr Stateroom 2736 335 3071 0.89 N 0.03787 104 100
Chief Engineer Stateroom 3303 335 3638 0.91 N 0.03787 125 125
Deck Officer Stateroom 2287 335 2622 0.87 N 0.03787 87 85
Masters Office 3127 1005 4132 0.76 N 0.03787 118 120
Masters Stateroom 3303 335 3638 0.91 N 0.03787 125 125
Assistant Master Stateroom 2348 335 2683 0.88 N 0.03787 89 90
Officer Stateroom (1) 2420 335 2755 0.88 N 0.03787 92 90
Officer Stateroom (2) 2605 335 2940 0.89 N 0.03787 99 100
Officers Mess 4119 2190 6309 0.65 N 0.03787 156 155
Crew Mess 7945 5120 13065 0.61 N 0.03787 301 300
Lounge 4700 1340 6040 0.78 N 0.03787 178 180
Engine Department Stateroom (1) 2787 670 3457 0.81 N 0.03787 106 110
Engine Department Stateroom (2) 2985 670 3655 0.82 N 0.03787 113 110
Deck Department Stateroom (1) 2914 670 3584 0.81 N 0.03787 110 110
Deck Department Stateroom (2) 4306 670 4976 0.87 N 0.03787 163 160
Deck Department Stateroom (3) 2760 670 3430 0.80 N 0.03787 105 105
Deck Department Stateroom (4) 2760 670 3430 0.80 N 0.03787 105 105
Deck Department Stateroom (5) 4036 670 4706 0.86 N 0.03787 153 150
Steward Department Stateroom (1) 2414 670 3084 0.78 N 0.03787 91 90
Steward Department Stateroom (2) 2638 670 3308 0.80 N 0.03787 100 100
Steward Department Stateroom (3) 2787 670 3457 0.81 N 0.03787 106 110
Hospital 2389 670 3059 0.78 N 0.03787 90 90
Machinery Control Room 9683 335 10018 0.97 N 0.03787 367 370

Totals 92416 20375 112791 0.82 3500 3500

NOTES:
1. Supply air temp = 51.5 + 2 deg supply duct rise = 53.5 deg F
COOLING
2. System airflow = total sensible load / (1.08 x (78 53.5) ANALYSIS
3. CFM/BTU = system airflow / total sensible load HULL OR JOB NO.:
CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO. 4

59
60
SYSTEM NO. FAN AIR: 3500 CFM TOTAL AIR: 3500 CFM T1 = SPACE DESIGN TEMP: 70 F DB T4 = OFF-COIL TEMP: 51.5 F DB
FAN BYPASS AIR: NONE CFM REPL AIR: 990 CFM T2 = REPL AIR TEMP: 42 F DB T5 = LIGHT LOAD TEMP: N/A F DB
PUSH THROUGH
RETURN AIR: 2510 CFM T1 = LIGHT LOAD MIX TEMP: N/A F DB T6 = WINTER MIX TEMP: 62.1 F DB
AIRFLOW (CFM) SPACE LOAD (BTU/HR) REQUIRED T (F) HEATER DATA
SPACE LIGHT LIGHT TIN TOUT PWR
COOL HEAT WINTER REHEAT
SPACE NAME NO. LOAD WINTER LOAD REHEAT CFM (F) (F) (kW) NO. REMARKS
Radio Room 320 320 6314 N/A N/A 26.2 - - 320 62.1 88.3 2.65
Inspector Stateroom 100 100 3650 N/A N/A 41.7 - - 100 62.1 103.8 1.32
Assistant Chief Engr Stateroom 100 100 2905 N/A N/A 34.8 - - 100 62.1 96.9 1.10
Chief Engineer Stateroom 125 125 3825 N/A N/A 36.3 - - 125 62.1 98.3 1.43
Deck Officer Stateroom 85 85 2808 N/A N/A 38.5 - - 85 62.1 100.6 1.04
Masters Office 120 120 2672 N/A N/A 28.5 - - 120 62.1 90.6 1.08
Masters Stateroom 125 125 3825 N/A N/A 36.3 - - 125 62.1 98.3 1.43
Assistant Master Stateroom 90 90 2678 N/A N/A 35.5 - - 90 62.1 97.6 1.01
Officer Stateroom (1) 90 90 2706 N/A N/A 35.8 - - 90 62.1 97.8 1.02
Officer Stateroom (2) 100 100 3456 N/A N/A 39.9 - - 100 62.1 102.0 1.26
Officers Mess 155 155 3126 N/A N/A 26.6 - - 155 62.1 88.7 1.30
Crew Mess 300 300 4911 N/A N/A 23.1 - - 300 62.1 85.2 2.19
Lounge 180 180 5687 N/A N/A 32.0 - - 180 62.1 94.1 1.82
Engine Dept Stateroom (1) 110 110 4374 N/A N/A 44.7 - - 110 62.1 106.8 1.56
Engine Dept Stateroom (2) 110 110 3860 N/A N/A 40.4 - - 110 62.1 102.5 1.41
Deck Dept Stateroom (1) 110 110 4019 N/A N/A 41.7 - - 110 62.1 103.8 1.45
Deck Dept Stateroom (2) 160 160 6005 N/A N/A 42.7 - - 160 62.1 104.8 2.16
Deck Dept Stateroom (3) 105 105 4001 N/A N/A 43.2 - - 105 62.1 105.3 1.44
Deck Dept Stateroom (4) 105 105 4001 N/A N/A 43.2 - - 105 62.1 105.3 1.44
Deck Dept Stateroom (5) 150 150 6005 N/A N/A 45.0 - - 150 62.1 107.1 2.14
Stew Dept Stateroom (1) 90 90 4019 N/A N/A 49.3 - - 90 62.1 111.3 1.40
Stew Dept Stateroom (2) 100 100 3709 N/A N/A 42.3 - - 100 62.1 104.3 1.34
Stew Dept Stateroom (3) 110 110 4375 N/A N/A 44.7 - - 110 62.1 106.8 1.56
Hospital 90 90 3756 N/A N/A 51.6 - - 90 62.1 113.6 1.47
Machinery Control Room 370 370 7884 N/A N/A 27.6 - - 370 62.1 89.7 3.24

Totals 3500 3500 29.3

NOTES:
1. Space temperature = 70 deg F for all spaces except Hospital
HEATING
2. Hospital space temperature = 75 deg F ANALYSIS
HULL OR JOB NO.:
CALCULATED BY: CHECKED BY: REV. SHEET NO. 6

61