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If you want to connect to the public INTERNET you need to get a public IP address
(that unique all over the world), its mean that if each host in the world has
unique public IP address we would have run out of IP address years ago. To solve
this problem we can use NAT (Network Address Translation).



Why do you need NAT? If your network uses real public Internet IP addresses and
your computer has one, then you probably don't need NAT. However, there may be
almost no one on the planet whose network uses real public IP addresses because
they are just so hard to get.

Private IP addresses usually start with 10, 172.16, or 192.168. Just about everyone
who accesses the Internet uses private IP addresses, so they don't have to worry
about allocating real Internet private IP addresses.

Network Address Translation is most commonly used to map these private IP addresses
on your internal LAN to the real public IP addresses used on the Internet. NAT has
a number of uses,


but just about everyone uses it to connect to the Internet without giving it a

In other words -- to make a general statement -- you need NAT to connect to the

NAT is configured and performed on yoUr Internet router, where both networks are


Just about every person on the planet who connects to the Internet uses network
address translation (NAT) to do it. But there are two kinds of NAT -- static and
dynamic -- and you need to know how to configure them.



your PC is assigned a private IP address of, this address cannot be

routed on the internet but you can still access the internet. This is because your
router (or modem) translates this address into a public IP address,
for example, before routing your data into the internet. When your router receives
a reply packet destined for it will convert back to your private IP before sending that packet to you.

Suppose your company has 100 employees but your Internet Service Provider only
gives you 10 public IP addresses. It means that you can only allow 10 hosts to
access the internet at the same time. By using NAT you can dynamically assign these
10 public IP addresses to employees who really need them. This is called dynamic

But the above NAT solution does not solve our problem completely because in some
days there can be more than 10 people surfing INTERNET. In this case, only the
first 10 people can access internet, others must wait to their turns. To solve this
problem Nat used PAT (Port Address Translation).


PAT permits multiple devices on a local area network (LAN) to be mapped to a

single public IP address with different port numbers. When using PAT, the router
maintains unique source port numbers on the inside global IP address to distinguish
between translations. In the below example, each host is assigned to the same
public IP address but with different port numbers (from 1000 to

PAT can support about 2 RAISE TO16 ports, which is more than 64,000 connections
using one public IP address.