Sie sind auf Seite 1von 2

//INTRO

If you want to connect to the public INTERNET you need to get a public IP address
(that unique all over the world), its mean that if each host in the world has
unique public IP address we would have run out of IP address years ago. To solve
this problem we can use NAT (Network Address Translation).

//WHAT IS NAT? PPT

// PURPOSE OF NAT PPT

Why do you need NAT? If your network uses real public Internet IP addresses and
your computer has one, then you probably don't need NAT. However, there may be
almost no one on the planet whose network uses real public IP addresses because
they are just so hard to get.

Private IP addresses usually start with 10, 172.16, or 192.168. Just about everyone
who accesses the Internet uses private IP addresses, so they don't have to worry
about allocating real Internet private IP addresses.

Network Address Translation is most commonly used to map these private IP addresses
on your internal LAN to the real public IP addresses used on the Internet. NAT has
a number of uses,

// PPT USES OF NAT

but just about everyone uses it to connect to the Internet without giving it a
thought.

In other words -- to make a general statement -- you need NAT to connect to the
Internet.

NAT is configured and performed on yoUr Internet router, where both networks are
connected.

// BEFORE TYPE OF NAT PPT


Just about every person on the planet who connects to the Internet uses network
address translation (NAT) to do it. But there are two kinds of NAT -- static and
dynamic -- and you need to know how to configure them.

//AFTER STATIC NAT


//EXAMPLE

your PC is assigned a private IP address of 192.1.1.1/24, this address cannot be


routed on the internet but you can still access the internet. This is because your
router (or modem) translates this address into a public IP address, 82.102.142.204
for example, before routing your data into the internet. When your router receives
a reply packet destined for 82.102.142.204 it will convert back to your private IP
192.1.1.1/24 before sending that packet to you.

// DYNAMIC NAT
Suppose your company has 100 employees but your Internet Service Provider only
gives you 10 public IP addresses. It means that you can only allow 10 hosts to
access the internet at the same time. By using NAT you can dynamically assign these
10 public IP addresses to employees who really need them. This is called dynamic
NAT.

But the above NAT solution does not solve our problem completely because in some
days there can be more than 10 people surfing INTERNET. In this case, only the
first 10 people can access internet, others must wait to their turns. To solve this
problem Nat used PAT (Port Address Translation).

//PAT PPT

PAT permits multiple devices on a local area network (LAN) to be mapped to a


single public IP address with different port numbers. When using PAT, the router
maintains unique source port numbers on the inside global IP address to distinguish
between translations. In the below example, each host is assigned to the same
public IP address 82.102.142.204 but with different port numbers (from 1000 to
1002).

PAT can support about 2 RAISE TO16 ports, which is more than 64,000 connections
using one public IP address.