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European Drawings 3

European Drawings 3

Nicholas Turner
Lee Hendrix
Carol Plazzotta

The J. Paul Getty Museum

1997 The J. Paul Getty Museum
1200 Getty Center Drive, Suite 1000
Los Angeles, California 90049-1681


J. Paul Getty Museum.

European drawings.

Includes index.
1. Drawing, EuropeanCatalogs. 2. Drawing
California-Malibu-Catalogs. 3. J. Paul Getty Museum
Catalogs. I . Goldner, George R., 1943- . I I . Hendrix,
Lee. I I I . Williams, Gloria. IV. Title.
NC225.J25 1987 741.94'074'019493 87-29346
ISBN 0-89236-092-5 (v. 1)

ISBN 0-89236-219-7 (v. 2)

ISBN 0-89236-480-7 (v. 3)

Printed in the United States of America


Martin Schongauer, Studies ofPeonies
(detail), (cat. no. 73)

Giovanni Bellini, Fortitude (cat. no. 5)

Domenichino, Head of Saint Cecilia (detail),
(cat. no. 14)

PAGE v i :
Jacopo Ligozzi, An Azappo Archer with
a Cheetah (detail), (cat. no. 23)

PAGE v i i i :
Giulio Romano, Janus, Chronos, Gaea,
and a Victory (detail), (cat. no. 20)


John Walsh


Nicholas Turner




Italian School (Nos. 1-59)

German and Swiss Schools (Nos. 60-75)
Dutch and Flemish Schools (Nos. 76-91)
French School (Nos. 92-101)
Spanish School (Nos. 102-19)







T he third catalogue o f the Getty Museums draw

ings appears at a great moment i n our history: the
opening, after fourteen years o f planning and
building, of a new museum. The creation of the drawings collec
tion, like that o f the new museum, was made possible by J. Paul
uscripts, i t occupies new quarters that include a spacious day-lit
study room (with a view o f the nearby hills and Los Angeles i n
the distance), storage rooms, and offices; next door there is an
ample laboratory for paper conservation. A gallery for drawings
exhibitions, larger than the one i n M a l i b u but designed to have
Getty's vastly generous bequest o f 1976. Although Getty's nar a similar intimacy and comfort, w i l l continue the tradition o f
row range o f interests d i d not include drawings, his w i l l allowed displaying works from the permanent collection, interspersed
the Museum to acquire them, and since the 1980s a collection o f from time to time w i t h loan shows.
real distinction has been formed. N o w comprising 506 drawings, Since the drawings catalogued i n this volume were the last
it has been the subject o f two previous volumes i n this series, the group acquired under the remarkable curatorship o f George
first appearing i n 1988, the second i n 1992. Goldner, who began the Museum's collection and spent a dozen
W h e n I wrote a foreword to the first volume, the Depart years building it, I want to pay tribute to h i m once more. A n d to
ment o f Drawings shared space w i t h the Department o f Manu Nicholas Turner, whose impressive purchases since he took over
scriptsalso a new creationin a room i n the basement o f the the department i n 1993 w i l l be the subject o f a fourth volume,
Museum i n M a l i b u which had previously housed the photo now i n preparationas well as to his coauthors, Lee Hendrix
archive. Upstairs the department had a small gallery, where, i n and Carol PlazzottaI offer thanks and admiration for having
the course o f a dozen years, i t put on more than fifty exhibi produced this catalogue.
tions drawn from its ever-growing holdings. I n March o f this
year the Department o f Drawings moved to the Getty Museum John Walsh
at the Getty Center, where, once more sharing space w i t h M a n Director


T he third volume o f the catalogue o f drawings i n

the J. Paul Getty Museum describes works chosen
for the collection between 1990 and 1993 by m y
predecessor, George Goldner, who left the Museum i n the sum
mer o f 1993 to take up the Drue Heinz Curatorship o f Drawings
Stephanie Schrader, who served as special assistant i n the
department i n 1996.
I am especially indebted to the intern for 1996-97, Taco
Dibbits o f the D u t c h Institute for the History o f A r t (Neder-
lands Interuniversitair Kunsthistorisch Instituut) i n Florence,
and Prints at the Metropolitan Museum o f A r t , New York. who undertook the arduous tasks o f checking outstanding refer
They include works o f the Italian, Dutch, Flemish, Swiss, Ger ences, compiling the indexes and concordance, and checking the
man, French, and Spanish schools. A handful o f the drawings final typescript. His work was an invaluable and very timely
acquired during this period have been held over for further contribution to the catalogue.
research and w i l l be described i n future catalogues. I n the course o f writing the catalogue, the compilers
A m o n g the notable highlights are The Holy Family with the incurred numerous debts o f gratitude. We should like to thank
Infant Saint John the Baptist by Michelangelo (cat. no. 28), a Marta Ajmar, Lizzie Boubli, Xavier Bray, Barbara Brejon de
work o f extraordinary intensity and without doubt the finest Lavergnee, Duncan Bull, Alexandra Chaldecott, Hugo Chap
drawing by the artist to have appeared on the market since the man, Clario D i Fabio, Mario D i Giampaolo, David Ekserdjian,
Second W o r l d War, and Studies of Peonies by the German Caroline Elam, Laurie Fusco, Antony Griffiths, Marguerite
Renaissance master M a r t i n Schongauer (cat. no. 73). A m o n g the Guillaume, Michael Hirst, Peter Humfrey, Mauro Lucco, Fran
rarities are the eighteen Spanish drawings (cat. nos. 102-19), ois Quiviger, Ruth Rubinstein, Arlette Srullaz, Jane Shoaf
purchased en bloc early i n 1994. Represented are artists such as Turner, Emmanuel Starcky, Luke Syson, Franoise Viatte, and
Pedro Atanasio Bocanegra, Eugenio Cajs, Vicente Carducho, Hans van der W i n d t .
and Juan Carrefio de Miranda. W i t h this purchase, the Getty W i t h i n the Museum, thanks are due to Maite Alvarez o f
acquired one o f the largest and most comprehensive holdings o f the Department o f Education; Denise Allen o f the Department
Spanish drawings i n the United States. o f Paintings; M a r k Greenberg o f the Department o f Publica
Visitors to the study room sometimes inquire about the tions; Charles Passela, head o f Photographic Services, and his
purpose o f the code consisting o f two capital letters which con staff; and, finally, to Krista Brugnara and Kathleen Kibler, cura
stitutes the middle part o f the inventory number (for example, torial assistant and staff assistant, respectively, i n the Depart
91.GG.35, the number for cat. no. 4). Before joining the Getty, I ment o f Drawings.
was myself curious on the point. This seemed therefore a good Karen Jacobson copyedited the text o f the catalogue at great
opportunity to explain that they are i n fact the codes devised by speed and w i t h exemplary thoroughness, and the compilers are
the Registrar to indicate the different techniques used for works most grateful for her help. We should also like to thank designer
on paper: G A , pen and ink; G B , chalk (either red or black); G C , Sandy Bell, whose sensitivity to the subject matter and close
watercolor; G D , pencil or graphite; G E , crayon; G F , charcoal; G G , attention to detail are reflected i n this handsome volume. Stacy
miscellaneous drawings (that is, drawings done i n a combination Miyagawa o f Getty Trust Publication Services ably coordinated
of mediums); G H , etchings; G I , engravings; G J , woodcuts; G K , the production o f the catalogue, ensuring the timely completion
lithographs; G L , miscellaneous prints. of the project.
The entries on the Italian and Spanish drawings were writ
ten jointly by myself and Carol Plazzotta, assistant curator at the Nicholas Turner
National Gallery, London, who, before assuming that position, Curator, Department of Drawings
worked for the Museum for a short time. We made use o f
unpublished research by George Goldner on some o f the Italian
drawings. The Dutch, Flemish, Swiss, German, and French C O N T R I B U T O R S TO T H E C A T A L O G U E
entries are the work o f m y colleague Lee Hendrix, associate Cat. nos. 1-59 Nicholas Turner and Carol Plazzotta
curator i n the Department o f Drawings. Preliminary research on Cat. nos. 6 0 - 9 1 Lee Hendrix
the French and Spanish drawings was undertaken by Heinz Cat. nos. 92-101 Lee Hendrix, w i t h drafts by Heinz Widauer
Widauer o f the Albertina, Vienna, intern at the Museum i n Cat. nos. 102-19 Nicholas Turner and Carol Plazzotta, w i t h
1995-96. M a n y o f the biographical entries were drafted by drafts by Heinz Widauer

This page intentionally left blank
Giovanni Agostino da Lodi
Head ofa Man (SaintJohn the Baptist?) (cat. no. 19)

Filippino Lippi
Two Studies ofa Standing Youth (cat. no. 24)
Michelangelo Buonarroti
The Holy Family with the Infant Saint John the Baptist (cat. no. 28)
Pietro da Cortona
Christ on the Cross with the Virgin Mary, Mary Magdalen, and Saint John (cat. no. 35)

Andrea del Sarto
Studies ofFigures behind a Balustrade (recto) (cat. no. 43)
Taddeo Zuccaro
Design for a Circular Dish (cat. no. 55)

Lucas Cranach the Elder
Portrait ofa Man (cat. no. 64)
Martin Schongauer
Studies ofPeonies (cat. no. 73)
Hans Bol
Landscape with the Story of Venus and Adonis (cat. no. 77)

Jacques de Gheyn I I
A Soldier on Guard Blowing the Match (cat. no. 81)
Louis Carrogis de Carmontelle
The Duchess ofChaulnes as a Gardener in an Allee (cat. no. 93)
Juan de Juanes
Christ Carrying the Cross (cat. no. in)

Bartolome Esteban Murillo
The Youthful Saint John the Baptist Seated in a Landscape (cat. no. 114)
Alessandro Algardi
Bologna 1598 -Rome 1654

orn i n Bologna, Alessandro Algardi was trained i n worked chiefly for the papal court. D u r i n g the pontificate o f
the Carracci academy under Ludovico Carracci Innocent X (1644-55) n e
created many o f his greatest works,
(1555-1619) and w i t h the minor Emilian sculptor including a bronze seated figure o f the pope (1646-50; Rome,
Giulio Cesare Conventi (1577-1640). According to the biogra Musei dei Conservatori). Algardi s style is more restrained and
pher Giovanni Pietro Bellori (1613-1696), Algardi went to M a n classical than that o f his archrival, Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598
tua when he was around twenty-four years old and found 1680), recalling his Bolognese origins. His surviving drawings
employment w i t h Ferdinando Gonzaga carving ivory and mod were for the most part made i n preparation for or i n association
eling figures and ornaments, which were later cast i n silver w i t h his sculptural projects.
and bronze. By 1625 Algardi had settled i n Rome and thereafter

1 Venus(?) in Her Sea Chariot T H E O L D A T T R I B U T I O N to the Bolognese artist Fran

cesco Albani (1578 -1660) was doubtless suggested by the draw
Suckling Cupid ing s mythological subject matter as well as by a certain stylistic
resemblance to his work. The handling is, however, characteris
Black chalk with some stumping, the outlines of the group
tic of Algardi, under whose name the drawing was sold i n 1990.
including Venus and her chariot pricked for transfer; a vertical
fold in the paper runs through the middle of the sheet; three Especially close are two other finished chalk studies by the art
horizontal lines ruled blind with a stylus, two toward the top ist: the Allegory of Bologna i n the A r t Institute, Chicago (inv.
and one above the lower edge, suggest that the paper was 1922.3479; Joachim and McCullagh 1979, no. 68; Montagu 1985,
taken from an account book or ledger; H : 30.4 cm ( n / i 6 in.);
1 5

vol. 2, p. 481, no. 45, fig. 181), which is similarly i n black chalk,
W: 44.8 cm (iyVs in.)
and the red-chalk Venus and Cupid at the Forge of Vulcan i n the
92.GB.39 Hessisches Landesmuseum, Darmstadt (inv. A E 1620; Montagu
1985, vol. 2, p. 481, no. 39, fig. 221).
Although previously identified as Amphitrite, the goddess
Private collection (sale, Sotheby's, London, 2 July 1990, lot 37);
i n the present drawing is probably Venus, since the infant she
art market, London.
suckles appears to be Cupid, held up to her side by a tri ton wear
EXHIBITIONS ing a garland of seaweed around his waist. Moreover, she rides i n
None. a scallop-shell chariot drawn by two dolphins, common attributes
o f Venus, which recall her birth from the sea. Neptune appears
Journal 21 (1993), p. 135, no. 56. i n the background on the right, riding i n a shell chariot drawn
by two hippocamps (seahorses) and brandishing his trident. He
On the old, probably eighteenth-century French mount, was the husband of Amphitrite, but i t is still unlikely that she is
inscribed lower center, beneath the drawing, in brown ink,
the goddess represented, for her sons were Triton, Rhode, and
Benthesicyme, and the child represented here is clearly Cupid,
son o f Venus. Neptune's presence i n the scene may simply reflect
his role as the ruler o f the sea and all its inhabitants.

2 Italian School & ALGARDI

The purpose o f the drawing remains unknown. The arrange o f Roman Customs, i n the Villa Pamphilj, Rome, which were
ment o f the figures suggests a design for a low-relief sculpture, executed according to Algardi s designs i n 1646 (ibid., p. 455,
possibly for execution i n repousse metalwork. The outlines o f no. A . 199 [a], p i . 80). Further parallels may be found i n some o f
the main group alone have been pricked for transfer. The fact his metal sculptures, notably the dish w i t h Venus and Cupid at
that the two tritons and two dolphins to the right and the figure Vulcans Forge, the whereabouts o f which are unknown (ibid.,
o f Neptune i n the background have not been gone over thus p. 416, no. 133.D.2), and the gilt-bronze Beheading of Saint Paul
might imply either that the project was abandoned, that only i n San Paolo Maggiore, Bologna (ibid., p. 372, no. 69, p i . 46).
the main group o f figures was eventually used, or that the right- Finally, Algardi s small bronze Putto on a Hippocampi now i n the
hand side o f the composition was subsequently altered. Walters A r t Gallery, Baltimore (ibid., p. 394, no. 104.C.1, p i .
M a n y stylistic analogies may be found i n Algardi s sculpted 197), may be compared w i t h the figure o f a triton blowing a
work. Venus s pose, for example, may be compared w i t h that o f conch shell i n the Getty drawing.
Apollo i n one o f the stucco bas-reliefs i n the vault o f the Gallery

ALGARDI ?f Italian School 3

Filippo Baldinucci
Florence 1625-1696

orn into a prominent Florentine family, Filippo Leopoldo's death he continued to serve under Cosimo I I I . Bal
Baldinucci was an amateur artist, historian, collec dinucci was the author of the Notizie de professori deldisegno . . .
tor, and connoisseur. From 1664 he served Leo (Florence, 1681-1728), a collection o f biographies o f artists from
polde de' Medici as a bookkeeper; later he became a consultant Cimabue (1240/50-1302) to his own contemporaries. H e also
for the prince s gallery o f artists' self-portraits and vast collection wrote a biography o f Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) i n 1682,
o f drawings (of which he published a summary inventory). After one o f the primary sources for the artist's life.

2 Portrait of a Man Valori at Empoli Vecchio, fifteen miles outside Florence: "era
condannato a far, quasi ogni giorno, i l ritratto al naturale d'uno
Red and black chalk, with some stumping; H : 23.2 cm de' signori suoi compagni, i n matita rossa e nera . . . tirandosi a
(9% in.); W: 16.5 cm (6/2 in.) sorte quello che doveva, d i giorno i n giorno, ritrarsi" (almost
every day he was condemned to make a portrait from life o f
one o f his gentlemen companions, i n black and red chalk,
PROVENANCE choosing by lots each day the one to be portrayed; Baldinucci/
Francesco Maria Niccolo Gabburri(?); William Kent(?); Matteoli 1975, pp. 21-22). The originals were given to his host,
Henry Scipio Reitlinger, London (Lugt Suppl., 2274a) (sale, who framed them and put them on the walls o f his villa. A t Val
Sotheby's, London, 9 December 1953, part of lot 19); ori s death they passed into the possession o f the Rinuccini fam
G. Heinmann, London (sale, Christie s, London, 2 July 1985,
ily, and a group o f them subsequently found their way into the
lot 66); private collection, United States; art market, Boston.
collection o f Commodore Emilio Santarelli (1801-1886), who
EXHIBITIONS gave them, along w i t h the rest o f his collection o f drawings, to
None. the Uffizi i n 1866. Baldinucci apparently made a duplicate o f
every portrait drawing for his own collection and kept them
together i n a book, which came into the possession o f the Flor
Journal (1993), p. 136, no. 57.
entine nobleman, diplomat, painter, and collector Francesco

On the verso, inscribed in graphite in the bottom left Maria Niccolo Gabburri (1676-1742). This book, together w i t h
corner, 1.1032 (encircled), and in the bottom center, in Gabburri s entire collection o f drawings, was sold by his heirs i n
H . S. Reitlingers hand(?), Filippo Baldinucci /1624i6p6; 1758 to the English dealer W i l l i a m Kent, whose stock o f draw
inscribed in the bottom right corner, in brown ink, 6, and with ings was i n turn dispersed at various sales i n London i n the
the sheet turned upside down, in the center, in graphite, -843-.
1760s (Turner 1993, p. 179).
The identity o f the sitter i n this portrait remains unknown,
though i t is likely he was a friend o f Valori, a renowned host,
T H E F L O R E N T I N E W R I T E R , collector, and amateur artist whose villa, La Lastra, was a meeting place for many o f the most
Filippo Baldinucci is best known for his monumental history o f distinguished noblemen, letterati, and artists o f the day: "Era
Florentine art, the Notizie de'professori deldisegno . . . , published quel buon Vecchio [i.e., Valori] il Mecenate d i t u t t i i virtuosi del
partly posthumously between 1681 and 1728. Less familiar is his suo tempo, e d i t u t t i gli u o m i n i d i garbo, e d i spirito, onde i n
work as an artist, which survives i n a series o f drawn portraits o f sua casa era la pi scelta Conversazione d i tal sorta d i gente, che
friends and acquaintances, the great majority o f which are i n the fosse allora nella Citt d i Firenze" (That good old man was the
Gabinetto dei Disegni of the Uffizi (Matteoli 1988, pp. 353-437). Maecenas o f all the virtuous people o f his time, and o f all the
I n the biography o f his father, Francesco Saverio Baldinucci men o f fashion and spirit, whence at his house one could hear
(1662-1738) tells how Filippos talent for portraiture was fos the choicest conversation o f such persons who were then i n the
tered at summer gatherings at the country villa o f the Marchese city o f Florence; Gabburri M S . , vol. 2, p. 953). The strong fea-

4 Italian School ?f BALDINUCCI

tures o f this young man recall those i n several o f the portraits
from the Uffizi group, many o f which are identified by inscrip
tions (compare especially Portrait ofjacopo Marucelli, inv. 5674-s;
Matteoli 1988, p. 410, no. 23, i l l . p. 385). Nearly all the portraits
done for Valori by Baldinucci are o f roughly the same format
(approx. 23 i 6 cm [9 6 in.]).
O n the verso is an accidental offset from another drawing,
likewise a portrait o f a man, head and shoulders, and again i n
red and black chalk. The original from which this reversed
impression was taken remains untraced, but it too was almost
certainly by Baldinucci. This offset, the residue o f a tinted edge
along the right side o f the paper, and the traces o f four stitch
holes at the left side furnish evidence that the drawing was once
part o f a sketchbook or album, possibly the one that contained
the series o f replica drawings subsequently owned by Gabburri.
The drawing may be dated c. 1670.

6 Italian School ?f BALDINUCCI

Federico Barocci
Urbino c. 1535-1612

F ederico Barocci's earliest works were painted for

the cathedral o f his native Urbino and show the
influence o f the central Italian Mannerist style
practiced by his teacher Battista Franco (i5io?-i56i). He visited
Rome for the first time i n the mid-i550s, then again i n 1560,
the numerous examples o f the latter are Ii Perdono o f 1574-76
(Urbino, San Francesco), the Madonna del Popolo o f 1579 (Flor
ence, Uffizi), The Entombment o f 1580-82 (Senigallia, Santa
Croce), the Madonna del Rosario o f 1589-93 (Senigallia, Palazzo
Vescovile), The Visitation o f 1583-86 (Rome, Santa Maria i n
when he worked w i t h Federico Zuccaro (1540/42-1609) on the Vallicella), and The Institution oj the Eucharist of1603-7 (Rome,
decoration o f the Vatican Belvedere and Casino o f Pius IV. By Santa Maria sopra Minerva). Barocci was greatly influenced by
1565 Barocci had returned to Urbino, where he spent the rest Correggio (q.v.) and evolved a manner that anticipated some o f
of his life. He painted very few easel pictures but was the lead the tendencies o f the later Baroque style.
ing painter o f altarpieces i n the late sixteenth century. A m o n g

5 Head of a Boy (recto); Studies of Lightly drawn on the reverse o f the sheet (with the paper
turned ninety degrees counterclockwise) are what appear to be
an Infant (verso) studies for the figure o f Ascanius, both cut off at the shoulders
by the top o f the sheet. So far as i t goes, the study on the left
Black, red, pink, and white chalk on blue paper (recto); black
chalk (verso); H : 24.8 cm ( 9 % in.); W: 17.5 cm (6 /i6 in.)
15 corresponds quite closely to its painted counterpart, except for
some differences i n the position of the legs. I n this first study the
94.GB.35 child advances w i t h his right hand raised to his head and his left
extended forward, whereas i n the painting he tears at his hair
w i t h his right while holding Aeneas s tunic w i t h his left. I n a sec
Unidentified seventeenth-century collector; anonymous
ond, more faintly drawn study on the right are what appear to be
owner (sale, Christies, London, 15 April 1980, lot 20);
Roberto Ferretti, Ontario, Canada; art market, London. the legs o f this figure, since they seem to be climbing a step, i n
profile to the right, as i n the painting.
EXHIBITIONS Several studies for this picture exist, including a cartoon i n
Toronto and New York 1985-86, pp. 58-59, no. 23. the Louvre, Paris (inv. 35774; Paris 1974, no. 14; Emiliani 1985,
vol. 2, p. 231, fig. 477). A finished study for the head and right
Journal 23 (1995), p. 73, no. 18. forearm of the child is i n the A r t Museum, Princeton (inv. 47-119;
Cleveland and New Haven 1978, no. 55), but should probably be
Inscribed in the top left corner in black ink, 11. classified as a copy, although we have not seen the original. Two
sheets o f studies i n the Kupferstichkabinett, Berlin (inv. K d Z
20293, 20353), which at first sight seem to relate to the figure o f
THE DRAWING O N T H E R E C T O is a study for the head Ascanius, appear to be connected w i t h a third sheet from the
of the infant Ascanius, the son o f Aeneas. I n Barocci's painting same collection (inv. K d Z 20220) and to be for a figure resting
Aeneas s Flight from Troy Ascanius is shown clutching distract his head on his left hand and holding a book w i t h his right.
edly at his father s legs as Aeneas flees from the burning city o f The Getty drawing is one o f a large number o f studies o f
Troy, carrying his father, Anchises, i n his arms (the story is taken heads drawn from life i n colored chalks which Barocci made
from YitgOlLsAeneid, 2:671-729). The original version o f the pic throughout his career. I n its sensitivity and tenderness o f expres
ture, now lost, was commissioned i n 1586 by Emperor Rudolf I I sion the sheet is most similar to a Head of a Boy i n the Musee
and was delivered to Prague i n 1589. Barocci painted a replica, Bonnat, Bayonne (inv. 662; Bean i960, no. 5), also comparable
dated 1598, for Monsignor Giuliano della Rovere, which is i n the i n the diagonal orientation o f the head on the sheet, although i t
Galleria Borghese, Rome (Olsen 1962, no. 39[II], fig. 65; E m i - is not certain that the latter drawing is related to Aeneas s Flight.
liani 1985, vol. 2, pp. 230-37). The composition is Barroccis only The present drawing was formerly contained i n a leather-
secular narrative. bound album assembled by an unknown collector i n the seven-

BAROCCi ?f Italian School 7

3 V E R S O

teenth century. Some o f the drawings from this volume were group o f studies o f heads attributed to the Cavaliere d'Arpino
removed at an early date, while the remainder were extracted (i5(S8?-i64o) and his school.
and sold at auction at Christie s, London, on A p r i l 15, 1980 (lots The reproduction o f the recto o f the present sheet i n the
18-97). The number 11, inscribed i n the left corner, belongs to Christie s sale catalogue shows i t laid down on a page from the
the sequence applied after a good part o f the original series o f seventeenth-century album, w i t h a thick, black-ink border ruled
drawings had been removed and is possibly early eighteenth cen just outside its edge. This old backing is no longer w i t h the draw
tury. Included i n the volume as submitted for sale at Christie s ing and was presumably removed by the previous owner i n order
were two other drawings catalogued as by Barocci (lots 18,19), as to reveal the verso study. The sheet is now supported by a mod
well as a drawing by Jusepe de Ribera (q.v.) and a substantial ern inlay.

BAROCCI ?f Italian School 9

Attributed to Lazzaro Bastiani
Venice, active 1449-1512

"T" azzaro Bastiani was first documented i n 1449 as a have collaborated w i t h Bellini on three triptychs made for the
I painter i n a workshop i n Venice. His paintings church o f Santa Maria della Carit i n Venice (Venice, Accade-
I J c l i n w the influence o f Marco Zoppo (i432?-i478?) mia), as well as on the altarpiece Saint Vincent Ferrer (Venice,
and Andrea Mantegna (q.v.), both artists from Padua, where Museo Correr) o f c. 1464-68. Bastiani s later style shows the
Bastiani may have received his initial training. The extent o f impact o f Bartolomeo Vivarini (c. 1440-after 1500). His oeuvre
Bastiani s oeuvre remains much disputed, and some of the paint of drawings is very small and has not been definitively separated
ings from the 1450s formerly attributed to h i m , such as The Birth from those o f other contemporary Venetian hands, such as
of the Virgin (Rome, Grassi collection), are now thought to be Bellini and Vittore Carpaccio (q.v.).
by the young Giovanni Bellini (q.v.). I n the 1460s Bastiani may

4 The Virgin Annunciate The old Sagredo (?) mat is still attached to the drawing,
although i t has been trimmed to the edges. O n the reverse the
Pen and brown ink and brown wash; H : 10.2 cm (4 in.); characteristic paper tabs associated w i t h mounts from this col
W: 8.4 cm (3^16 in.); cut irregularly at the top in the form of lection are placed on the diagonal at the corners, their protrud
an arch
ing lappets now cut away The symmetrical placement o f these

91.GG.35 tabs shows that, at some time before it was laid down, the sheet
was cut at the left edge i n order to center the figure on the
PROVENANCE recto w i t h i n the rectangular field, as well as at the top, i n an
Zaccaria Sagredo(?) and thence by descent in the Sagredo irregular arch.
family, Venice; Jean-Jacques de Boissieu(?), Lyon; private
The V i r g i n kneels at an antique half-column decorated w i t h
collection, Lugano; art market, Zurich.
bucrania and swags, a symbol o f the pre-Christian w o r l d van
EXHIBITIONS quished by the advent o f Christ. Since she looks up from her
None. reading i n astonishment at Gabriels announcement, the angel
must have been shown on a now-lost pendant drawing or on
the same sheet before i t was cut down. W h i l e the figure type,
Rearick 1985, pp. 48-50; Scarpa 1987, p. 385; Journal (1992),
the elegant simplicity o f the drapery, and the subtle effects o f
p. 159, no. 50.
light reflect the influence o f Venetian Renaissance masters Gio
Inscribed at the bottom of the sheet, slightly to the right of vanni Bellini and Vittore Carpaccio, the tightly executed washes,
center, in brown ink, Luca d'Olanda. On the reverse of the modeled w i t h the point o f the brush and rendered as hatch
old Sagredo (?) mat, inscribed in the bottom center, in brown ing i n the areas o f halftone, reveal a special debt to Carpaccio s
ink, O. n: 8. (i.e., the eighth item in the section "[Scuola]
method o f drawing.
Oltramontano"), and on the bottom right tab, also in brown
ink, nonese (i.e., a person from the Val di Non, a valley Bastiani, to w h o m the present sheet has been attributed by
situated north of Trento). Roger Rearick, seems to have trained i n Padua. Although he is
not recorded among the group of studio assistants associated w i t h
the workshop o f Francesco Squarcione (1394-c. 1468) i n the
T H E T R A D I T I O N A L A T T R I B U T I O N to the Netherlandish middle o f the century, there are echoes i n Bastiani s later w o r k o f
painter o f portraits and religious subjects Lucas van Leyden the style o f other Paduan artists, such as Marco Zoppo, who left
(1494-1533) can be safely discounted, though i t may be taken Padua i n 1455 t o
w o r k i n Venice and Bologna, and Andrea M a n
as an indication o f the esteem i n which the drawing was held by tegna. Rearick has gone so far as to suggest that Bastiani was a
an early collector. Apparently other drawings from the recently pupil o f Nicolo Pizolo, yet another Paduan master active at
discovered group believed to be from the Sagredo collection, to about that time. According to Rearick, Bastiani w o u l d have com
which this drawing belonged (and which, for a few years, was pleted his training i n Pizolo s studio i n 1448 and then moved to
in a private collection i n M u n i c h ) , similarly bore attributions Venice, where he is recorded i n the following year. Once there,
to "Luca d'Olanda," though these too are by fifteenth-century he seems to have gravitated into the circle o f artists working
Venetian masters (Rearick 1985, p. 49). around Jacopo Bellini (c. 1400-1470/71) and his son Giovanni.

10 Italian School ?f ATTRIB. TO BASTIANI

N o single drawing can be connected w i t h certainty to any panels by Bastiani, Scenes from the Life of a Saint (Paris, usee
of Bastiani's securely documented work, and as a result he is des Jacquemart-Andre), particularly the left-hand scene, Funeral Pro
tined to remain a shadowy figure as a draftsman for the foresee cession, which includes several kneeling figures that are directly
able future. Nevertheless, Rearick has argued for the attribution comparable to the V i r g i n i n the present drawing.
to the artist o f the present drawing, comparing i t w i t h some There are some analogies i n handling w i t h another draw
painted works attributed to Bastiani, such as The Virgin Annun ing attributed to Bastiani, the Madonna della Misericordia in the
ciate, formerly i n a private collection, Bergamo (Volpe 1978, British Museum (inv. 1895-9-15-804; Popham and Pouncey 1950,
fig. 2b, as Giovanni Bellini); The Nativity and The Adoration no. 6). A drawing i n the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (inv. P . I I ,
(Contini Bonacossi collection, Florence); and, above all, w i t h the 2 verso), variously attributed to the schools o f both Bellini
figure of the nun donor i n The Crucifixion (Milan, Museo Poldi- (Robertson 1981, p i . XXXIVa) and Carpaccio (Muraro 1977,
Pezzoli; Pirovano 1982, no. 101, fig. 228, as Venetian School). fig. 131), is surely from the same hand as the present drawing.
Another close comparison may be made w i t h three small (signed) Rearick dates the Getty drawing c. 1464-68.

R . B A S T I A N I ?f Italian School 11
Giovanni Bellini
Venice c. 1431/36-1516

G iovanni Bellini was trained i n Venice by his

father, Jacopo Bellini (c. 1400-1470/71), and
became part o f the family workshop. His early
work, however, was greatly influenced by his brother-in-law,
Andrea Mantegna (q.v.). Bellini's direct contact w i t h Netherlan
o f c. 1480-1500. Known primarily for his devotional depictions
o f the Madonna and Child, Bellini also painted portraits and
mythological subjects. I n 1479 he was made the chief painter o f
the Venetian state, a position held until his death. Unfortunately
the history paintings he made to decorate the Palazzo Ducale
dish panels imported into Venice and w i t h Antonello da Mes were destroyed by a fire i n 1577. As the leading Venetian artist
sina (c. 1430-1479), who visited Venice i n 1475-76, led to his of the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, he had a forma
celebrated mastery o f the northern technique o f oil painting. tive influence on the next generation o f Venetian artists, most
The luminous color made possible by this technique is seen notably Giorgione (i4yy/yS^i$io) 9 T i t i a n (485/9?-576), and
to great effect i n Bellini's major altarpieces, such as the Sacra Sebastiano del Piombo (c. 1485-1547).
Conversazione, or San Giobbe Altarpiece (Venice, Accademia),

$ Fortitude vaggi et al. 1990, vol. 2, p. 53, no. 2e [repr.]), as well as i n the
carved reliefs o f the basilicas central portal, although she is
Pen and brown ink; H : 8.7 cm (3V16 in.); W: 9 cm (3 Vi in.) standing rather than kneeling i n both cases.
This recently discovered drawing is a good example o f Bel
91.GA.36 (see page i)
lini's assured yet spontaneous draftsmanship. The confident

touch is remarkable given the smallness o f scale and is especially
Zaccaria Sagredo(?) and thence by descent in the Sagredo noteworthy i n the woman's delicate curls, which are subtly dif
family, Venice; Jean-Jacques de Boissieu(P), Lyon; private ferentiated from the lion's mane; i n the play o f light and shadow
collection, Lugano; art market, Zurich. across her garment; and i n the precise description o f the central
action, namely the forcing open o f the lions roaring mouth. The
purpose o f the drawing is not known. I t could have been made
New York 1993, no. 10; London 1993-94, no. 6.
for a painting, but its size suggests that i t was intended for either
BIBLIOGRAPHY a miniature or a manuscript illumination. The figure type reveals
Scarpa 1987, p. 386; Journal zo (1992), p. 159, no. 51. the influence o f Bellini's brother-in-law Andrea Mantegna (q.v.)
and thus implies a date o f around 1470.
On the reverse of the old Sagredo (?) backing, inscribed at
The drawing belongs i n style to a small group o f pen-and-
bottom center, in brown ink, S. V. n: 4 (i.e., the fourth item
in the section "Scuola Veneta"). i n k studies now generally accepted as by Bellini, among them
two, each o f a standing Apostle, i n the Musee Bonnat, Bayonne
(inv. 1274, 689; Bean i960, nos. 10-11). The Bayonne drawings
are identical i n handling, employing the same hatching and
F O R T I T U D E , O N E O F T H E four Cardinal Virtues and a cross-hatching juxtaposed w i t h areas o f untouched paper to sug
symbol o f endurance and strength, is sometimes represented as gest chiaroscuro, and the same "nobbly" delineation o f the feet
a woman forcing open the jaws o f a lion, as i n this example, of the figures. A further comparison may be made w i t h the Piet
though she more commonly appears as a warrior wearing a hel drawing i n the Louvre, Paris (inv. R F 436; Tietze and Tietze-
met and holding a shield, spear, or sword or accompanied by a Conrat 1944, no. 319).
pillar. The present configuration overlaps w i t h iconography asso The sheet is awkwardly cut into a square shape and was i n
ciated w i t h Samson, another personification o f courage, who is this form at least as early as the late seventeenth century, when i t
often shown grabbing a lion from behind and pulling its jaws was mounted and placed i n the albums apparently belonging to
apart, as well as w i t h Hercules. As a woman struggling w i t h a Zaccaria Sagredo. O n the reverse are fragments o f a typical so-
lion, Fortitude occurs i n the mosaics o f San Marco, Venice (Cara- called Sagredo backing (see also cat. no. 4).

12 Italian School ?f BELLINI

School of Giovanni Bellini
c. 1431 /3 6 Venice 1516

6 Standing Man Wearing a Turban tan Mehmed I I inaugurated the second Venetian-Ottoman war
(1463-79) following Venice's refusal to cede its forts on the
Pen and brown ink and brown wash; : n.6 cm (4/ in.); Aegean coast o f the Morea. I n 1479 Gentile Bellini was sum
W: 5.2 cm (2 /i6
moned to the court o f Constantinople as official artist, and on
his return i n 1481 he introduced a distinct orientalist flavor into
his pictures, which influenced the work o f his entourage.
PROVENANCE The present drawing shows a bearded man wearing a turban
Zaccaria Sagredo(?) and thence by descent in the Sagredo and a cloak and holding a book. Turbaned figures o f this sort
family, Venice; Jean-Jacques de Boissieu(P), Lyon; private appear i n a number of paintings by Gentile and/or Giovanni Bel
collection, Lugano; art market, Zurich.
lini, for example, The Preaching of Saint Mark in Alexandria
formerly i n the Scuola Grande di San Marco i n Venice and now
None. in the Pinacoteca d i Brera, M i l a n (Goffen 1989, fig. 184)com
missioned from Gentile i n 1504 and finished by Giovanni and
BIBLIOGRAPHY his workshop after Gentile s death i n 1507. As Roger Rearick has
Scarpa 1987, p. 387; Journal 20 (1992), p. 160, no. 52. pointed out (cited i n Scarpa 1987, p. 387), there are certain more
striking analogies between the present drawing and figures i n
Attached to the verso are remnants of three of the four tabs
The Martyrdom of Saint Mark, z mural depicting another o f the
characteristic of the so-called Sagredo collection mounts (see
also cat. nos. 4-5). scenes from the saints life on the entrance wall o f what was
formerly the Albergo o f the Scuola Grande, now the Ospedale
Civile, Venice (Goffen 1989, fig. 185). Commissioned from Gio
vanni Bellini i n 1515, this work was taken over after his death the
R E P R E S E N T A T I O N S O F T U R K S i n late fifteenth-century next year by his follower Lorenzo Belliniano, who finished the
Venetian art have a special resonance, for this was the time when painting i n 1526 (cf. Pignatti 1981, p. 146). A noteworthy parallel
the O t t o m a n Empire was continuing to encroach westward from exists between the subject o f the Getty drawing and the tur
its center i n ancient Anatolia, now modern Turkey, posing a baned figure to the left o f the door i n the painting, who displays
threat to the independence of Venice. After significant Ottoman the same jutting chin w i t h spadelike beard. His right hand is
conquests i n southeastern Europe, including the annexation o f also comparable i n both its position and its somewhat sche
Serbia (1454-55) and the conquest o f the Morea (1458-60), Sul matic, ball-like shape.

14 Italian School & S C H O O L OF B E L L I N I

Agnolo Bronzino
Monticelli, near Florence, 1503Florence 1572

orn i n Monticelli, on the outskirts o f Florence, gorical and mythological pictures, for instance, the celebrated
Agnolo Bronzino was trained by Raffaellino del Allegory of Venus and Cupid o f c. 1545 (London, National Gal
Garbo (i466?-i524). I n the 1520s he collaborated lery), which epitomizes the grace o f his mannerist style. Some o f
w i t h Pontormo (q.v.), assisting h i m i n a number o f commissions, his best-known paintings portray members o f the Florentine
including the decoration o f the cloister o f the Certosa del Gal- aristocracy, such as the Portrait of Ludovico Capponi o f c. 1550-55
luzzo (1523-24), near Florence (see cat. no. 37), and the Cap (New York, Frick Collection), i n which he combined an acute
pella Capponi i n Santa Felicita, Florence (1526-28). Bronzino sense o f observation w i t h coolness and detachment. One o f his
became a favorite artist o f the Medici court, commissions for last paintings is the fresco The Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence, i n
which included the decorations o f the chapel o f Eleonora o f San Lorenzo, Florence, which he completed three years before
Toledo (1539-64) i n the Palazzo Vecchio. H e also painted alle his death.

7 Head of a Young Man

Black chalk; H : 13.8 cm (5/10 in.); W: 10.4 cm (4/16 in.)


Private collection (sale, Sotheby's, London, 3 July 1989, lot 64);
art market, London.


Journal 19 (1991), p. 156, no. 44; Rowlands 1996, pp. 184,187,
fig. 22b.

T H I S H E A D , P E R H A P S D R A W N from life, is a study for FIGURE A. Agnolo Bronzino (1503-1572). Portrait ofa
Young Man, c. 1550. Oil on panel. H : 85.7 cm (33% in.);
Bronzino's Portrait of a Young Man i n the Nelson-Atkins
W: 68.6 cm (27 in.). Kansas City, Missouri, The Nelson-
Museum, Kansas City, usually dated c. 1550 (fig. 7a; Emiliani Atkins Museum of Art, Purchase Nelson Trust, inv. 49-28.
i960, p i . 78; McCorquodale 1981, fig. 86; Rowlands 1996, no.
22). I n the painting the sitter, also w i t h a short beard and slight
mustache, wears a black cap w i t h a white ostrich feather, a black ing was originally depicted bare-headed (very much as i n the
cloak over his shoulders, and a violet doublet (now darkened), drawing), wearing alVantica armor and holding a shield (Row
from beneath which emerges the white collar o f a chemise. I n lands 1996, p. 182). This earliest configuration recalls the pose o f
the drawing, however, he is bare-headed, w i t h no sign o f cloth a classical warrior. More o f the sitter s long, elegant neck w o u l d
ing about his neck. have been visible, since he originally wore a steel coverlet to pro
Technical analysis has revealed that Bronzino made numer tect his collarbone, without any undergarment. Detailed analy
ous changes i n the course o f developing his composition, as he sis o f the face i n the x-radiograph also reveals that the sitters
did i n so many o f his immaculately wrought portraits. The Getty features were originally considerably closer to those i n the draw
drawing corresponds to the earliest stages o f this process and was ing, the face once having been broader, mainly on account o f a
probably made before the artist embarked on the painting itself. sparser beard, and the irises o f the eyes larger, again as i n the
X-radiograph photography indicates that the figure i n the paint- study. The lighting o f the face and the highlights i n the eyes i n

16 Italian School ?f BRONZINO

this early stage o f the painting may also be compared w i t h those A m o n g Bronzino s few surviving portrait drawings, the pres
in the drawing. ent example is unique i n focusing on the head alone. I n others
Herbert Keutner (1957-59, 5 x 2
8) tentatively identified he drew his sitters at half length or more and included summary
the Kansas City picture w i t h a portrait o f Cosimo I (1519-1574) indications o f props and setting, as i n Seated Youth at Chats-
listed i n the 1612 inventory o f the Riccardi collection, Florence, worth (Devonshire Collection inv. 714; Smyth 1971, pp. 3 - 4 ,
as by Pontormo, but this suggestion has not been generally fig. 4; Jaffe 1994, Tuscan and Umbrian Schools; p. 84, no. 51, as
accepted. More recently, Eliot Rowlands (1996, p. 187) has hinted by Pontormo) and Three-Quarter-Length Study of a Standing
at an alternative hypothesis based on what may be deduced from Man i n the British Museum, London (inv. 1958-12-13-1; London
the picture s nineteenth-century provenance, the Palazzo Mozzi 1986, no. 119).
in Florence. I f the picture came into the Mozzi family by inheri The small scale is unusual for a study from life. Slight pen-
tance from the mother o f the last male heir, Count Adolfo timenti i n the right ear and eye may, however, imply adjust
Mozzi Del Garbo, a member o f the Guadagni family, then a ments i n front of the model. I t is interesting to note that prior to
possible thread connecting the Mozzi w i t h Bronzino may be the drawings appearance at the 1989 Sotheby's auction the sheet
made, since the Guadagni were the patrons o f one o f the artist s bore an attribution to the Pre-Raphaelite painter W i l l i a m H o l -
best-known altarpieces, the Resurrection i n Santissima A n n u n man H u n t (1827-1910).
ziata i n Florence.

BRONZINO ?f Italian School 17

Attributed to Agnolo Bronzino
Monticelli, near Florence, 1503-Florence 1572

8 Study of a Mans Right Hand T H E D R A W I N G IS B A S E D on the right hand o f the capitano

Giuliano de' Medici, one o f the sculptures made by Michel
(recto); Studies of Four Heads angelo for the Medici mausoleum i n the N e w Sacristy o f San
and of a Nude Figure Seen from Lorenzo, Florence (see fig. 8a). Michelangelo was involved i n the
project from 1520 to 1534. Evidence for the dating o f the individ
the Rear (verso) ual statues is not entirely clear, but we know that one o f the capi-
tani was well advanced by 1526, when Michelangelo reported
Black chalk (recto); pen and brown ink (verso); : 7.5 cm
that he was about to embark on the other, and that both were
(3 in.); W: 15.3 cm (6 in.)
installed i n their niches prior to his departure for Rome i n Sep
92.GB.40 tember 1534 (see Pope-Hennessy 1985, pp. 327-35, for a sum
mary o f the chronology). The accentuated veins on the back o f
PROVENANCE the hand i n the drawing correspond exactly to the crisscross pat
Zaccaria Sagredo(?) and thence by descent in the Sagredo
tern o f those i n the sculpture, as does the square thumbnail, set
family, Venice; Jean-Jacques de Boissieu(?), Lyon; Maurice de
deeply into the flesh. The draftsman also included the cuff o f the
Marignane (his mark, bottom right); Hubert de Marignane;
private collection, Munich; art market, London. figure s sleeve, copying the distinctive thick, squared edge o f its
carved form. There is no trace i n the drawing o f the baton on
EXHIBITIONS which Giuliano s hand rests i n the sculpture.
Monte Carlo 1966, no. 4 (as anonymous Florentine, early
I n order to make this copy, the draftsman must somehow
sixteenth century); Drawing in Florence, 15001650, Katrin
have placed himself on a level w i t h the hand, since i t is drawn
Bellinger Kunsthandel, at Harari and Johns, London,
25 June-12 July 1991, no. 5; New York 1993, no. 17; London in close-up and not as i f from a low viewpoint. I t is well known
1993-94, no. 17. that the sculptures i n the chapel were much copied by artists,
and i t is likely that steps were used to gain a better view. Alter
BIBLIOGRAPHY natively, the study could have been made from a cast o f the
Goldner 1990, pp. 262-64; Nichols 1992, p. 45 n. 25; Journal
hand. The draftsman has i n fact combined more than one view
21 (1993), p. 133, no. 51.
o f the three-dimensional hand, including both the upper surface
On the verso, inscribed along the bottom of the sheet, right o f the thumb and the bulging muscle along the lower contour o f
of center, in brown ink, SF. n: 2 (i.e., the second item in the the hand, which i n reality cannot be seen simultaneously. This
section "Scuola Fiorentina"). ambiguity o f viewpoint apparently led to problems when i t came
to the difficult foreshortening o f the crooked forefinger.

FIGURE 8 A. Detail of a plaster cast of Michelangelo s sculpture of Giuliano de' Medici.

18 Italian School ?f ATTRIB. TO BRONZINO

8 R E C T O

F I G U R E 8 . Hendrick Goltzius (1558 -1617). Study ofa Right Hand.

Pen and brown ink. H : 23 cm (9/16 in.); W: 32.2 cm (12% in.). Haarlem, Teylers Museum inv. 58.

The capitani i n the Medici Chapel were instantly famous, black chalk i n the Stdelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt [inv.
prompting quantities o f eulogistic responses, which praised not N . 805; Reznicek 1961, no. 432]). Karel van Mander reported that
just the whole figures but also their constituent parts. I n a letter Goltzius traveled to Italy, passing through Venice, Florence, and
to Michelangelo o f 1543, for example, the Italian writer A n t o n Bologna on his way to Rome, where, on his arrival i n 1591, he
Francesco D o n i enthusiastically conjured up the statues by list made sketches after famous antiquities (van Mander/Miedema
ing their parts, beginning not, as one might expect, w i t h the 1994, vol. i , p. 390, fol. 283r). The earlier date o f 1588 on the
heads but w i t h the monumental hands: "Che diro io d i quei Haarlem drawing may imply that he studied the hand from a
Capitani, manoni di Dio [italics added], teste, busti, braccia, cast or some other reproduction.
gambe, stinchi, piedi, cose e sguardi che cavano i core" (What The Getty drawing has also been related to the hand o f the
shall I say o f those captains, great, godlike hands, heads, busts, standing man i n the background to the right o f Bronzino's
arms, legs, shins, feetthings and glances that strike the heart; Deposition of Christ, c. 1542-45, i n the usee des Beaux-Arts,
Vasari/Barocchi 1962, vol. 3, p. 993). Besangon (Goldner 1990, pp. 2 6 2 - 6 4 ) . Although there is a dis
Similarities between the present drawing and Study of a tinct resemblance, the mans thumb is not visible, and his fingers
Right Hand by Hendrick Goltzius (q.v.) were first noted by Law are positioned slightly differently, as he holds against his chest
rence Nichols (1992, p. 45 n. 25). Goltzius's study is known i n the three nails w i t h which Christ was crucified. One o f the
two autograph versions: one, dated 1588, i n the Teylers Museum, points i n George Goldner s argument i n favor o f a relationship
Haarlem (fig. 8b; Reznicek 1961, no. 165; Ackley 1989, no. 58), to this painting was his observation that the three heads drawn
and the other i n the collection o f the heirs o f I . Q. van Regieren i n pen on the verso may be for the group o f figures i n the back
Altena, Amsterdam (Reznicek 1961, no. 166; Amsterdam 1993- ground on the right o f the same picture. N o t only are we unable
94, pp. 353-54, no. 18). The drawings have often been inter to see this similarity, but we can find no instances o f compa
preted as studies o f Goltzius's own injured right hand on rable pen work i n Bronzino's other known drawings. Neverthe
account o f the tortuous pose. Since the pose is clearly Michelan- less, the old Sagredo attribution on the verso o f the drawing to
gelesque i n origin, however, this hypothesis should probably be the "Scuola Fiorentina" is entirely plausible. The Michelange-
discounted. A connection w i t h Michelangelo's prototype seems lesque forms and the highly finished black-chalk technique o f the
undeniable, yet Goltzius's formulation differs significantly i n recto study are characteristic o f mid-sixteenth-century Floren
that the thumb is thrust upward, the wrist is at a different angle, tine drawing, and Bronzino is clearly a candidate for its author
and the detail o f the sleeve is more naturalistic. I t would seem ship, although another Florentine contemporary might equally
that the drawings represent Goltzius's reinterpretation o f the well be considered.
famous hand (see also a sheet o f studies o f hands i n red and

20 Italian School ?f ATTRIB. TO BRONZINO

Giulio Campi
Cremona c. 15081573

G iulio Campi was the most prominent member

of the Campi family, which dominated paint
ing i n Cremona for much o f the sixteenth cen
tury. According to Giorgio Vasari (q.v.), he learned painting from
his father, Galeazzo (c. 1477-153 6), though his early paintings are
cino. Around 1539 Campi began his decoration o f the church o f
San Sigismondo i n Cremona, where he returned to work i n the
later 1550s and 1560s. The frescoes and altarpiece above the
church's high altar are typical o f his eclectic style, which com
bines monumental classicism w i t h elegant, sensual illusionism
also much indebted to the work o f Giovanni Antonio da Porde- strongly reminiscent o f Parmigianino (1503-1540). His most
none (1483?1539) and Girolamo Romanino (1484/87-1560?). important project o f the 1540s was the reconstruction and deco
Giulio signed and dated his early painting The Virgin and Child ration o f the church o f Santa Margherita, Cremona. His many
with Saints Nazarius and Celsus (Cremona, Sant'Abbondio) i n surviving drawings include several preparatory studies for altar-
1527. By 1530 his work began to show the influence o f Giulio pieces and frescoes.
Romano (q.v.), as seen i n his decorations for the church at Son-

p Neptune chi, where he was lodged, was marked by triumphal arches deco
rated w i t h statues and representations of his illustrious deeds and
Black chalk, the principal outlines gone over with a hard insignia. According to the account by Campi s younger brother
chalk in the manner of a stylus so as to indent them; most Antonio i n his Cremona fedelissima o f 1585, i n which the whole
of the surface of the back of the sheet was rubbed with black
spectacle is summarized (see pp. xxvii-xxviii), Giulio Campi and
chalk to allow the drawing of the figure on the recto to be
transferred; H : 42.7 cm ( i 6 / i 6 in.); W: 27.6 cm (10 A in.)
7 Camillo Boccaccino (1504/5-1546) were responsible for con
structing these temporary decorations {apparati) to their own
WATERMARK designs ("furono tutti questi apparati fatti con disegno, & archi-
Bull's head with a letter above it (somewhat similar to tettura d i Giulio Campo mio fratello, & d i Camillo Boccac
Briquet 1966, vol. 4, no. 14481). cio" [p. xxviii]). Some o f the motifs may have been inspired
by Giulio Romano's temporary decorations made only a few
90.GB. 66
months earlier for the emperor's triumphal entry into the city o f
PROVENANCE M i l a n (see Mantua 1989-90, pp. 500-501).
Private collection, Geneva; art market, London. The awkward movement o f the elongated figurecom
bined w i t h the rapid, at times even crude, execution seems to
indicate some degree o f haste on the part o f the draftsman, a
Cremona 1985, p. 285, no. 2.6.11.
state o f m i n d consistent w i t h the suggested purpose o f the study,
BIBLIOGRAPHY for which there was evidently a deadline. Neptune stands on a
Bober 1988, pp. 230 n. 3, 231 n. 17; Journal 19 (1991), p. 156, pedestal against a pilaster, the base of which is largely defined by
no. 43. the fish on whose head he rests his left foot. Hastily indicated to
each side o f h i m are the lines o f the vertical architectural mem
Inscribed in the lower right, in an early seventeenth-century(?)
ber, while beyond, on the "blank wall" to the right, are the cast
hand, in brown ink, Julio Campi Cremonese; numbered in the
upper right corner, in the same hand(?), also in brown ink, 26. shadows o f his arms and the staff o f his trident. There are a
number o f pentimenti, the most important o f which are two
further alternatives for the position o f the head, both i n profile
and tilted farther back, so that the figure looks over his right
As G I U L I O B O R A WAS the first to suggest, this impressive shoulder; neither o f these solutions is reinforced i n darker chalk.
sheet is a preparatory study for the decoration o f one o f the t r i A separate study for the top o f the trident, which, i n the main
umphal arches erected i n Cremona on the occasion o f the glori study, would project beyond the figure s right hand, off the sheet,
ous entry into the city o f the Emperor Charles V on August 18, appears i n the upper right. Rather than selecting a taller sheet,
1541. His route from the Porta San Michele to the Palazzo Trec- the artist used a simple inset to show this detail. The reinforce-

CAMPI & Italian School 21


merit o f the main outlines, together w i t h the blackening o f the Florence (inv. 13231 recto and verso; Bober 1988, pis. 2, 3); the
reverse o f the sheet, suggests that the design was transferred to Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris (inv. 5 res, vol. 2, fols. 20, 21;
another surface, possibly another piece o f paper. Bober 1988, pis. 4, 5); and the Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart (inv. c
Several other drawings by Campi for the same project exist, 78/2892). Another study for Fortitude^), recently on the art
and these are summarized by Bora (in Cremona 1985, p. 285) market (sale, Christie's, Monte Carlo, 20 June 1994, lot 15), may
and Jonathan Bober. O f particular interest is a series o f studies be added to this group. I n all o f these drawings the monumental
for the four Cardinal Virtues, which have similar backgrounds classicism o f Giulio Romano's graphic style is combined w i t h
and the same cast shadows to the right. These are i n the Uffizi, the elegance and sensual illusionism o f Parmigianino's.

22 Italian School ?f CAMPI

Vittore Carpaccio
Venice c. 1460/65-1525/26

Little is known about the life and artistic training situ). Carpaccio worked for other confraternities as well as com
I o f Vittore Carpaccio. H e was probably born i n pleting many independent paintings, altarpieces, and portraits
Venice in the 1460s, and his earliest paintings date during his prolific career. A m o n g the latter are The Meditation on
from the early 1480s. By 1490 Carpaccio was certainly an estab Christ's Passion o f c. 1502-8 (New York, Metropolitan Museum
lished master, as that year he signed and dated the first scene o f of Art) and Saint Thomas in Glory between Saints Mark and Louis
a major cycle o f paintings o f the life o f Saint Ursula done for of Toulouse o f 1507 (Stuttgart, Staatsgalerie). The influence o f
the Scuola d i Sant'Orsola, Venice. The series o f nine canvases Giovanni Bellini is apparent i n works such as The Presentation in
(Venice, Accademia) was completed around 1495. Soon there the Temple o f 1510 (Venice, Accademia), painted for the church
after he painted another cycle for a different Venetian confrater of San Giobbe.
nity, the Scuola d i San Giorgio degli Schiavoni (c. 1502-8; i n

10 God the Father (recto); near Bergamo, and still i n situ (Venice 1963, no. 20), though
there the figure o f G o d is surrounded by a more triangular radi
Standing ChriB (verso) ance, connoting the Trinity, and gazes ahead, rather than down,
as i n the present example. Another painted version of the God the
Black chalk and gray wash, heightened with white body color,
on paper washed greenish blue; the preparation of the surface Father, dated 1491, is i n the Fondazione Cagnola, Gazzada. I n
of the verso is more opaque in finish and of a lighter, purer addition, the same m o t i f appears on a building i n the back
blue; H : 21 cm (8/4 in.); W: 17.2 cm (6 A in.) 3
ground o f Saint Jerome and the Lion, painted by Carpaccio for
the Scuola d i San Giorgio degli Schiavoni i n Venice (see Scarpa
1989, pp. 110-21).
Beneath the greenish blue preparation, w i t h the sheet
Zaccaria Sagredo (?) and thence by descent in the Sagredo turned upside down, is a study i n red chalk for the upper part o f
family, Venice; Jean-Jacques de Boissieu(?), Lyon; private the torso o f a standing man wearing a togalike costume, who
collection, Lugano; art market, Zurich. raises his left forearm; his head is cut off by the edge of the sheet.
This abandoned sketch may have been drawn i n the same con
nection as the study on the verso o f a standing man holding a
staff, nude but for a loincloth and a shawl draped over his left
BIBLIOGRAPHY forearm, and cut off at the shoulders by the top edge of the sheet.
Scarpa 1984, pp. 134-35; Scarpa 1987, p. 391; Scarpa 1989, The youth on the verso, who appears to be on a pedestal and
pp. 110-24; Journal 20 (1992), pp. 162-63, no. 56. may therefore be copied from an antique sculpture, also relates
i n type to the figure o f Christ i n the painting Christ with the
Inscribed in the lower left corner, in brown ink, /Gijrolamo
Instruments of the Passion (Udine, Museo Civico), signed and
da Trevigi (i.e., with an attribution to the Ferrarese painter
Girolamo daTreviso [1497-1544]). dated 1496, i n which the figure stands i n an analogous pose on a
low plinth but is l i t from the opposite direction.
The style o f both the recto and verso studies is characteris
tic o f Carpaccio s drawings o f the last decade o f the fifteenth
A F I G U R E C L O S E L Y C O R R E S P O N D I N G to that o f the G o d century, such as Torso of a Nude Male i n the Hermitage, Saint
the Father on the recto appears i n the lunette-shaped compart Petersburg (inv. 34846; Muraro 1977, ill. p. 48), and Portrait
ment o f a polyptych painted by Carpaccio and his assistants i n of a Youth at Christ Church, Oxford (inv. 0282; Byam Shaw
1496-1505 for the parish church at Grumello de' Zanchi, Zogno, 1976, no. 710).

CARPACCIO ?f Italian School 23

Valerio Castello
Genoa 1624-1659

v alerio Castello was a member o f a large family

o f painters i n Genoa, which included Bernardo
(1557?1629) and Giovanni Battista Castello
(1547-1637), his father and uncle, respectively. I n addition to
copying drawings i n his fathers studio, Valerio studied w i t h
Domenico Fiasella (1589-1669) before leaving for M i l a n and
1540). U p o n his return to Genoa around 1645-47 he made
paintings that synthesize these influences w i t h aspects of Genoese
painting. He is best known for the decorative frescoes he painted
in the 1650s for the Palazzo Balbi-Senarega (c. 1657-59)
eral other Genoese palaces. Valerio also made easel paintings o f
religious subjects and landscapes. Although he died from the
a n <
i s e v

Parma sometime between 1640 and 1645. D u r i n g his travels he plague at a young age, he was extremely prolific and shaped the
assimilated influences from the paintings o f Giulio Cesare Pro- styles o f his pupils Bartolomeo Biscaino (1629-1657) and Ste-
caccini (1574-1625), Correggio (q.v.), and Parmigianino (1503- fano Magnasco (c. 1635-1670/73).

11 The Agony in the Garden THE SHEET IS L A I D D O W N onto a mat or backing char
acteristic o f those made for the first earl o f Leicester by his
Pen and blackish brown i n k and light brown wash, framer, Thomas Pelletier, the son and partner o f the gilder and
heightened w i t h white body color; H : 13 cm (5% i n . ) ; framer John Pelletier. The mount has a narrow gilt band at the
W : 15.8 cm (6/4 in.)
edges o f the drawing and a surrounding light reddish brown
washed border.
The inscription on the back o f the mat gives the drawing to
PROVENANCE Parmigianino, and this may well reflect a still earlier attribution
Thomas Coke, first earl o f Leicester, H o l k h a m H a l l ; by to the master. I n his typescript catalogue of the drawings at H o l k
descent to the present viscount, Edward Coke (sale, Christie s
ham Hall, Norfolk, England, compiled around 1940, A . E. Pop-
London, 2 July 1991, lot 53); art market, L o n d o n .
ham was skeptical o f this claim: " I am not convinced that this is
EXHIBITIONS by Parmigianino, near as i t comes to h i m " (Popham and Lloyd
Old Master Drawings from Holkham, Thos. Agnew & Sons 1986, p. 45, no. 84). Philip Pouncey was the first to propose the
L t d . , London, 1977, no. 10. attribution to Castello (cited i n London 1977, p. 17, no. 10).
Pouncey pointed out the clear stylistic parallels w i t h the drawing
The Adoration of the Shepherds at Christ Church, Oxford (inv.
Newcome 1978, p. 326 n. 19; Newcome 1981, pp.
0403; Byam Shaw 1976, no. 1102), which Byam Shaw attributed
187-88, fig. 3; Popham and Lloyd 1986, no. 84; journal 21
(1993), p. 135, no. 55. to the little-known Emilian Vincenzo Caccianemici. Vasari de
scribes Caccianemici as a Bolognese nobleman and a great friend
Inscribed near the b o t t o m left corner i n brown ink, of Parmigianino s who imitated as well as he was able the man
Parmigiano. The reverse o f the o l d m o u n t carries a large ner o f that master (Vasari/Milanesi 1878-85, vol. 5, p. 238). The
cursive inscription, upper center, i n the hand previously
reversed initials VC inscribed on a contemporary etching after
believed to be that o f W i l l i a m Kent, also i n brown ink, V Q 1

Parmigiano. This is now thought to be the hand o f the first

the Christ Church drawing (Passavant 1860-64, - 6, p. 177,
earl o f Leicester's mounter and framer, the Huguenot gilder no. 2; Popham 1968, fig. 2, as Caccianemici), however, could
and framer Thomas Pelletier. Numbered i n the center, i n well refer to Castello, as Pouncey maintained.
black chalk, 8.
The attribution to Castello of the ex-Holkham/Getty draw
ing found the support o f Camillo Manzitti (cited by Clovis

26 Italian School ?f CASTELLO

Whitfield i n London 1977, no. 10), who dated i t c. 1645 and degree o f finish and small scale, i t seems more likely that the
pointed out a similarity between the sleeping figure o f an apostle drawing was made as a design for an etching or engraving, like
on the right and the sleeping Joseph i n Castello's painting The the one at Christ Church, though no such print is known.
Dream of Joseph o f 1649-50 i n a private collection, Genoa (Man- Besides the Christ Church drawing, other compositional
zitti 1972, no. 46, repr. p. 123). The pose o f the middle apostle studies by Castello from this early phase o f his careerdrawn
is also extremely similar to that o f the Christ C h i l d i n the in pen and the same blackish brown i n k and also executed i n a
Madonna delle Ciliege, also i n a private collection, Genoa, dated meticulously exact, decorative styleinclude The Finding of
by Manzitti a few years earlier, to 1645-46 (1972, no. 10), and Moses i n the Louvre, Paris (inv. 9199; Newcome 1978, p. 325,
indeed the style o f the Getty drawing accords better w i t h Cas fig. 7), and a drawing o f an equestrian subject i n a private col
tello's earlier work. N o painting corresponding i n design to the lection, M i l a n .
present drawing has so far been identified. To judge from its high

C A S T E L L O ?f Italian School 27
Circle of Giovanni Battista Cima da Conegliano
Conegliano, near Treviso, c. 1459/6() Conegliano or Venice 1517/18

orn i n Conegliano, Cima spent his entire career i n Nicholas, Anthony Abbot, Sebastian, and Lucy (?) of c. 1499-1501
Venice, probably arriving there sometime i n the (Venice, Accademia), painted for Santa Maria della Carit. His
early to mid-148os. His training is still debated, pictures have a refined sense o f surface detail, a statuesque figure
although Giorgio Vasari (q.v.) thought that he had probably style, and a mood o f calm meditation w i t h i n crisply defined
studied w i t h Giovanni Bellini (q.v.), whose influence is evident landscapes and architectural settings. Later i n life he produced
in Cimas early paintings, such as The Virgin and Child with some mythological paintings, such as the pair o f tondi Endymion
Saints James and Jerome o f 1489 (Vicenza, Museo Civico). Cima Asleep and The Judgment of Midas (both Parma, Galleria Nazio-
was principally a painter o f devotional works and altarpieces, nale) o f c. 1505-10, which were inspired i n part by the younger
including The Virgin and Child with Saints Catherine^), George, painter Giorgione (1477/78?-!510).

12 Saint on Horseback location unknown; Humfrey 1983, fig. 198a). The horseman i n
the painting wears a plumed helmet, whereas his counterpart i n
Red chalk over stylus underdrawing, the subsidiary study and the Getty drawing is bare-headed but w i t h a halo, indicating
the background landscape in a more orange shade of chalk; that he is a saint.
black chalk lines connecting the four hooves of the horse;
The connection between the two representations is indis
H : 21.7 cm (8/2 in.); W: 17.8 cm (7 in.)
putable, but the precise nature and direction o f influence is
92.GB.113 harder to determine. The drawing contains certain anomalies
that make its status difficult to assess. Despite the presence o f
PROVENANCE passages o f fluent, spirited stylus underdrawing (particularly i n
Zaccaria Sagredo(?) and thence by descent in the Sagredo
the hindquarters o f the horse), the overall appearance o f the red
family, Venice; Jean-Jacques de Boissieu(?), Lyon; private
chalk drawing is labored at best, and the concentration on tonal
collection, Geneva; art market, London.
considerations and lack o f pentimenti give it the appearance o f a
EXHIBITIONS copy. The presence o f the subsidiary s t u d y i n which the idio
None. syncratic features o f the horse s head, w i t h its curious cleft muz
zle, are repeated w i t h even less understanding than i n the main
drawingsupports this hypothesis.
Journal 21 (1993), p. 130, no. 46 (as North Italian, active
second half of the fifteenth century). Another odd feature is the diagrammatic arcs that join the
horse s hooves, which a copyist might have drawn i n as a guide.
Along the bottom edge to the right, remnants of a trimmed- The figure o f Marcus Curtius i n the painting is, i f anything,
off inscription in brown ink; on the verso, concealed by the more wooden i n appearance than the saint i n the drawing, how
original Sagredo (?) album page, inscribed in brown ink, S. V.
ever, and the horse and rider, curiously isolated from their sur
n: $ (i.e., the fifth item in the section "Scuola Veneta"); the
roundings, seem also to have been inserted from another source.
album page has been trimmed down, but the drawing is still
attached to it by means of the rounded corner tabs It appears likely that both images depend upon some lost origi
characteristic of the so-called Sagredo mounts (see also nal, the iconography o f which was then independently adapted
cat. nos. 4 - 6 ) . (interestingly enough, the Marcus Curtius picture was subse
quently overpainted, and a dragon was inserted, transforming
the subject into Saint George [see Ragghianti 1961, fig. 4, for its
I N T H E UNSIGNED ENTRY on this drawing i n the Getty Jour appearance before the original subject was restored]).
nal a certain resemblance between the rider and Francesco Gon I n conversation w i t h Nicholas Turner (May 1996), Ekserd
zaga, fourth marquis o f Mantua, is mentioned, and the style o f jian was inclined to accept Cimas authorship o f the drawing.
the drawing is compared w i t h the work o f artists from the circle The strongest argument i n favor o f an attribution to the artist,
of Mantegna, such as Francesco Bonsignori (c. 1460-1519). As however, rests upon its connection w i t h Marcus Curtius, the
David Ekserdjian has pointed out, however, a very similar authorship o f which is "not particularly close [to Cima]" i n Peter
equestrian figure appears i n a painting from the circle o f Cima Humfrey s view (letter to the department, 10 July 1996). For this
da Conegliano, The Death of Marcus Curtius (fig. 12a; present reason and because o f the lack o f red chalk drawings i n Cima s

28 Italian School fa C I R C L E OF C I M A
FIGURE I2A. Circle of Cima da Conegliano (c. 1459/60?1517/18). The Death of Marcus Curtius. Oil or tempera on panel.
H : 38 cm (15 in.); W: 86 cm (33% in.). Location unknown.

generally accepted graphic oeuvre, we have preferred to attribute Gothic window. W i t h i n the contours o f the forms delineated by
the drawing to the "circle o f Cima." the leading, Mocetto modeled the figures and created subtle
More recently, however, Mauro Lucco (letter to the depart chiaroscuro effects by using a technique o f fine cross-hatching
ment, August 1996) has speculated on the possibility that the similar to that employed i n his engravings and drawings. A
Getty drawing could be a first idea for the figure o f Saint George strong similarity between the figure i n the Getty drawing and
in the bottom right o f a stained-glass window i n the church o f that i n the window undoubtedly exists, and Lucco s suggestion is
Santi Giovanni e Paolo, Venice, by the Venetian engraver, worth further consideration. The occurrence o f similar riders i n
painter, and designer o f stained glass Girolamo Mocetto Mocetto s painting Battle of Horsemen (Pavia, Museo Civico)
(c. 1470-after 21 August 1531). The lower band o f stained-glass and i n his engraving Israel and Amalekites: Moses between Aaron
panels, carried out around 1515, is among the artists most suc and Hur (London, British Museum inv. 1862-7-12-121; H i n d
cessful works and shows the figures o f Saint Theodore, Saints 1948, vol. 5, no. 1), i n which the head o f the horse i n the center
John and Paul, and Saint George and the Princess i n a continu o f the composition is practically identical to that i n the drawing,
ous landscape setting that runs behind the stone divisions o f the provides further support for this hypothesis.

30 Italian School ?f CIRCLE OF CIMA

Correggio (Antonio Allegri)
Correggio I489(?)-I534

s a young man, Antonio Allegri, known as Cor the work o f Raphael (1483-1520) and Michelangelo (q.v.). Cor
reggio, after the provincial town o f his birth, reggio s greatest decorations are i n Parma: the cupola frescoes
worked i n Mantua, where he may well have The Vision of Saint John the Evangelist on Patmos of 1520-22, i n
known Andrea Mantegna (q.v.), who died when he was about San Giovanni Evangelista, and The Assumption of the Virgin o f
sixteen. This would account for the influence o f Mantegnas 1526-30, i n the cathedral. These works are crowded w i t h fig
work on his early development, as can be seen i n the younger ures i n heavenly ecstasy, the illusionistic treatment o f the com
artist s Virgin and Child with Saints Francis, Anthony of Padua, positions anticipating Baroque decorations o f a century later.
Catherine of Alexandria, and John the Baptist o f 1514-15 (Dres Returning to Correggio i n 1530, the artist made a series o f paint
den, Gemldegalerie Alte Meister). A r o u n d 1518 Correggio s style ings for Federico Gonzaga representing the Loves o f Jupiter,
assumed a monumental, classical feeling that presupposes a visit including the sensuous Jupiter andTo o f c. 1532 (Vienna, Kunst
to Rome sometime before 1520, where he would have seen historisches Museum).

13 Study for Saint Matthew were painted after the interior of the dome, and therefore toward
the end o f this period, around 1523.
Red chalk; H: 12 cm (4% in.); W: 11 cm (4 /i6
in.); the upper I n each o f the four pendentives Correggio painted an Evan
corners cut gelist paired w i t h a Doctor o f the Church. N o fewer than six
working drawings (on five sheets) survive for the group repre
senting Saint Matthew and the angel w i t h Saint Jerome, i n the
Fragment of a large circle.
southeast pendentive. These are formerly i n the Armand H a m
91.GB.4 mer collection, Los Angeles, and now i n the National Gallery
of Art, Washington, D . C . (inv. 199.217.6 verso); i n the Staat
liche Graphische Sammlung, M u n i c h (inv. 8570 recto and
Sir Peter Lely, London (Lugt 2092); William Gibson, London
verso); i n the British Museum, London (inv. 1953-12-12-1); i n
(Lugt Suppl., under no. 2885); S. Schwarz, New York (sale,
Sotheby's, New York, 16 January 1986, lot 41); John Gaines, the Uffizi, Florence (inv. 1953F); and i n a private collection,
Lexington, Kentucky; Sabatino Abate, Boston; art market, Germany (formerly Conte Rasini, Milan; for color reproduc
Boston. tions o f all the aforementioned drawings, see D i Giampaolo and
Muzzi 1990, nos. 22-25, 85 verso). DeGrazia, who outlined a
possible sequence for these studies (Washington, D . C , 1984, p.
86, under no. 11), pointed out that Correggio seems to have
BIBLIOGRAPHY established a solution for the group early i n the design process
DeGrazia 1990, pp. 83-84 n. 6; Journal20 (1992), p. 164, (the ex-Hammer/Washington drawing), refining, rather than
no. 58. significantly altering, his chosen composition i n the subsequent
On the verso, inscribed just above the center in black chalk,
The Getty drawing rests somewhat uneasily w i t h i n this
No y, above the bottom edge, in an old Italian hand, in brown
ink, Ant: da Corregio; and, in the bottom right corner, also
scheme i n that i t shows Saint Matthew and the angel alone. I t
in brown ink, with Gibsons characteristic pricing code, 2.5. also differs from the other sketches i n showing both Matthew
and the angel resting on blocks rather than clouds. Both points
imply that this is an early idea, made either before Correggio had
T H I S D R A W I N G WAS C O N N E C T E D by Diane DeGrazia w i t h decided to include the Doctors o f the Church or, more likely, as
the figure o f Saint Matthew, accompanied by his attribute o f an a concerted attempt to clinch the pose o f Saint Matthew (who,
angel, i n the southeast pendentive of the cupola o f San Giovanni after all, is the principal figure i n the foreground) before going
Evangelista i n Parma (Gould 1976, p i . 73). Correggio received on to incorporate that o f Saint Jerome (on account o f the way
an initial payment for the decoration o f both the cupola and the the sheet has been cut, one cannot tell whether Correggio origi
tribune o f the church i n July 1520, and the final installment was nally allowed space for the inclusion o f another figure, as i n the
paid i n January 1524. I t is generally agreed that the pendentives M u n i c h studies).

CORREGGIO ?f Italian School 31


Although the connection w i t h the fresco cannot be defini ningen, Rotterdam (inv. 1.289 verso; D i Giampaolo and Muzzi
tively proved, the drawing fits both stylistically and formally w i t h 1990, no. 43). O n the recto o f this sheet is a study for a prophet
the preparatory studies for this commission. The discontinuous holding a tablet for one o f the friezes i n the nave o f the same
and sometimes angular contours, and the way they have been church. Despite the slightly different technique (this drawing is
reinforced, recall, for example, passages i n the British Museum in both red and black chalk, gone over i n pen and brown i n k
study, as does the looping notation for the saint s hair (compared and wash), the smudged facial features, the schematic form o f
w i t h that o f Saint Jerome i n the London sheet). the leg nearest the picture plane, the system o f shading, and even
M e n t i o n should be made o f one further study for the south elements o f the pose accord w i t h the present example and sug
east pendentive, for the angel holding Saint Jerome s hat i n the gest a close date o f execution.
left-hand corner, which is i n the Museum Boijmans Van Beu-

32 Italian School H> C O R R E G G I O

Domenichino (Domenico Zampieri)
Bologna 1581-Naples 1641

omenichino studied humanities i n his native chino received his most important independent commissions,
Bologna before briefly joining the studio o f the altarpiece The Last Communion of Saint Jerome o f 1614
the Flemish painter Denys Calvaert (c. 1540- (Rome, Musei Vaticani) and the cycle o f frescoes i n the Polet
1619), then active i n the city. A r o u n d 1595 Domenichino entered Chapel o f San Luigi dei Frances!, Rome (1612-15). Between 1617
the Carracci s Accademia degli Incamminati, and i n 1602 he fol and early 1621 he worked i n Bologna, Fano, and elsewhere i n
lowed Guido Reni (q.v.) and Francesco Albani (1578-1660) to Emilia and Romagna, before moving back to Rome i n 1621 to
Rome to work w i t h Annibale Carracci (1560-1609). From 1603 assume the position o f papal architect under Gregory XV. His
to 1610 Domenichino worked for the Farnese family under major work from the 1620s includes frescoes for the church o f
Annibale s supervision on various projects, such as three ceiling Sant Andrea della Valle as well as numerous altarpieces, por
frescoes i n the Loggia del Giardino o f the Palazzo Farnese, the traits, and landscapes. I n 1631 he left for Naples, where he stayed
wall frescoes o f the main gallery o f the Palazzo Farnese, and the for the remainder of his life, painting frescoes and altarpieces for
decorations o f the Cappella dei Santi Fondatori at the abbey the most important chapel i n the city, the Cappella del Tesoro
of Grottaferrata. After the death o f Annibale i n 1609, D o m e n i di San Gennaro.

14 Head of Saint Cecilia T H E D R A W I N G W A S O N C E P A R T o f a much larger cartoon

made i n preparation for the fresco Saint Cecilia in Glory (Spear
Black chalk with some white chalk on gray paper, some 1982, vol. i , pp. 182-84, n o
- 4 verso; vol. 2, p i . 153), one o f five

pricking for transfer, as well as pounce marks; the sheet is scenes from the life o f Saint Cecilia, painted by Domenichino
made up of four irregular pieces of paper, joined vertically
in the Polet Chapel, i n the church o f San Luigi dei Francesi i n
at the right and horizontally just above the saint s mouth;
H : 46.7 cm (iSYs in.); W: 34.2 cm (13/2 in.)
Rome, between 1612 and 1615. The fresco is the central one o f
three that decorate the vault, and since it is likely that Domeni
92.GB.26 (see page ii) chino would have embarked on the ceiling before proceeding to
the walls, the cartoon was probably made toward the beginning
of this period. Saint Cecilia was a virgin martyr o f the second or
Richard Houlditch, London (Lugt 2214, followed by the
third century A . D . , whose popularity was at its height during this
number 2 in brown ink; probably his mount); John Gere,
London; art market, London. time, following the discovery o f her miraculously preserved
body, w i t h the neck partially severed, beneath the altar i n Santa
EXHIBITIONS Cecilia i n Trastevere i n 1599.
Edinburgh 1972, no. 43; New York 1993, no. 38; London A cartoon for the entire fresco, consistent w i t h the painted
1993-94, no. 16.
design, is i n the Louvre, Paris (inv. 9082; Paris 1974, no. 16; Spear

1982, vol. 2, p i . 154). Scholars agree that it was made at the end o f
Spear 1968, pp. 114-15, pi. 4; Spear 1982, vol. 1, under no. 42V the preparatory process for this particular scene and was used to
(drawing b); Bologna 1989, under no. 28; Journal 21 (1993), transfer the final design to the surface o f the ceiling. This car
pp. 134-35, no. 54. toon was formerly owned by Charles Lebrun (q.v.) and the emi
nent print dealer, publisher, collector, and writer Pierre-Jean
On the reverse of the mount, inscribed in the center, cut
Mariette (1694-1774), who considered i t a prized possession. I n
off by the left edge, in an early eighteenth-century hand,
in brown ink,. . . head of S.* Cecilia in the deling [sic] of a a letter o f September 5,1756, to a fellow connoisseur, the Italian
Chapel, dedicated to her in the Church ofS* Luigi in Rome Giovanni Gaetano Bottari (1689-1775), Mariette wrote: "Croyez
(Houlditch s[?] identification of the drawing), and below, in a Monsieur, dans tout ce que j'ai, rien ne me cause autant de satis
different handand presumably added after the mount had faction qu'un grand carton fait par cet habile artiste pour son
been cut down, since it is in the centeralso in brown ink,
tableau de leglise Saint-Louis-des-Frangaises representant {'Apo
7756. (which happens to be the year of Houlditch s death).
theose de Sainte Cecile" (Believe me, sir, o f everything that I own,
nothing gives me so much satisfaction as a large cartoon made
by this gifted artist for his painting i n the church o f San Luigi

DOMENICHINO ?f Italian School 33

dei Francesi representing the Apotheosis of Saint Cecilia; Mntz
1884, p. 346).
The Getty drawing differs from the same passage i n the
Louvre cartoon and the finished work i n a number o f ways: the
saint s head is tilted farther back, her neckline is higher, and an
additional fold o f drapery falls from her right shoulder over her
right breast. I t too is pricked along its main contours, however,
and was clearly once part o f a much larger cartoon, since the
sheet is made up o f four irregular pieces o f paper, w i t h a hori
zontal j o i n passing through the center o f the face. Other frag
ments o f a cartoon relating to this composition exist i n the
Szepmveszeti Muzeum, Budapest (inv. 2098; Bologna 1989, no.
28, for the head o f the angel carrying aloft the portable organ on
the right o f the fresco), and i n the Pierpont Morgan Library,
New York (inv. 1973.18; New York 1981, no. 40; Spear 1982, vol.
2, p i . 155, for the head o f the angel to the left).
Richard Spear proposed that all three sheets once formed
part o f another full-scale cartoon, which Domenichino made
first but subsequently rejected as his final design. This theory
begs the question w h y the earlier cartoon should have been
pricked i f it was not ultimately used to transfer the design to the
wall. Spear very plausibly suggested that it was used to transfer
the main outlines o f the composition to the second cartoon,
which Domenichino then worked up, replacing damaged or
unsatisfactory passages o f his initial design. A marked change i n
pose is apparent between the angel i n the Budapest fragment
and the painted equivalent. The rejected cartoon would then
have been cut up and preserved i n fragments (the Budapest
drawing, which is exactly the same height as the Getty sheet, is
also on four pieces o f paper, and the joins o f both sheets are
close to the positions o f those i n the Louvre cartoon; the joins
on the Morgan fragment, however, which is on only two pieces
of paper, do not correspond).

DOMENICHINO ?f Italian School 35

Paolo Farinati
Verona 1524-1606

aolo Farinati spent almost his entire life i n his elements o f Giulios style i n decorations that similarly feature
native Verona, where he was trained by Nicolo animated figures and elaborate fictive architecture. His numer
Giolfino (1476-1555), though his emulation of the ous frescoes i n Verona, including those i n the Palazzo Giuliari o f
work o f Paolo Veronese (q.v.) played an equally important role c. 1573, bear witness to his success. He is particularly noted for
i n his artistic formation. I n 1552 Farinati visited Mantua to study his chiaroscuro drawings on tinted paper, which were often used
the fresco decorations o f Giulio Romano (q.v.) i n the Palazzo del as modelli for his painted work.
Te, and his subsequent w o r k i n Verona shows his absorption o f

i$ Chanty and Studies of (1648, pp. 125, 129; 2d ed., 1837, vol. 2, pp. 321, 327), who met
the artists son i n 1628. Sir Peter Lely owned a great number, and
Entablatures (recto); Frieze many o f these were bought at his posthumous sale by the minor

ofPutti (verso) artist and miniaturist W i l l i a m Gibson (d. 1703), whose familiar
price annotations frequently appear on the verso o f ex-Lely
Pen and brown ink and brown wash over black chalk, sheets, as i n the present example.
heightened with white oxidized body color, on blue paper The m o t i f o f a woman either suckling or holding a child on
(recto); black chalk (verso); H : 38.9 cm (i5 /i6 in.); W: 25.8 cm

her lap was one that Farinati frequently employed. Good com
(10 V% in.)
parisons are the mother and child i n a drawing i n the collec
90.GA.67 tion o f Terence Mullaly, London (Edinburgh 1969, no. 35), for
the painting Christ Shown to the People, dated 1562, now i n the
PROVENANCE Museo d i Castelvecchio, Verona; and a drawing o f the V i r g i n and
Sir Peter Lely, London (Lugt 2092); William Gibson, London C h i l d i n the National Gallery o f Scotland, Edinburgh (inv. D .
(Lugt Suppl., under no. 2885); John Barnard, London (Lugt
1577; Andrews 1968, vol. 1, p. 49, vol. 2, figs. 352-53). The lat
1419); unidentified collector (dry stamp in the bottom right
corner, A [and another initial?]); private collection, Geneva; ter drawing, which also includes architectural elements (in the
art market, London. background and bottom left o f the recto study) and is closer to
the present sheet i n terms o f style, was dated by Mullaly to the
EXHIBITIONS 1580s, and the Getty drawing is probably from the same period.
I t has also proved difficult to find a precise connection for
the friezes o f p u t t i on the verso. Farinati was widely employed
Journal 19 (1991), p. 157, no. 47. to paint decorative frescoes w i t h allegorical, mythological, and
decorative imagery i n villas i n the area around Verona, such as
On the verso, inscribed in Gibsons hand, in brown ink, in the the Palazzo Giuliari. H e kept a detailed journal from 1573 u n t i l
bottom right corner, 8.2., and to the left of this, P. Farinato.
his death i n 1606, which outlines the wide range o f w o r k he
undertook: painting frames; making costume designs; and deco
rating bedheads, doors, horse trappings, and missal covers, as well
O N T H E R E C T O is a study for the figure of Charity. There are as more prestigious commissions for altarpieces and frescoes. The
pentimenti for the suckling putto s leg, and his right arm was journal is more o f a list than a descriptive work, however, and
drawn i n as an afterthought. Below are studies for exotic entab iconography is rarely discussed, making i t hard to identify indi
latures. O n the verso are sketches for a decorative frieze i n two vidual items. O n l y one entry i n the journal, for December 18,
layers, showing p u t t i frolicking w i t h lions and a ram, amid tro 1592, mentions a design for a frieze: "Fato de pi un disegno i n
phies and swags o f fruit and foliage. carta cavreta d i u n color, con p u t i n i e animaleti e foiami e zigoni
Farinati made numerous drawings, characteristically on blue alti" ( I also made a drawing on paper tinted i n one color w i t h
paper w i t h white heightening, more than five hundred of which little putti, small animals, foliage, and large lions; Puppi 1968,
survive. These attractive sheets became collectors items, even p. 123), but many designs by Farinati for friezes survive, such as
quite shortly after the artist s death, as reported by Carlo Ridolfi three i n the Louvre, Paris (inv. 4884-86; Paris 1993, nos. 39-41).

36 Italian School & FARINATI

15 R E C T O
15 V E R S O
Attributed to Lattanzio Gambara
Brescia 1530-1573/74

Lattanzio Gambara was born in Brescia, though he Parma. His style combines the elegance o f Parmigianino (1503 -
seems to have received his early training in Cre- 1540) and Camillo Boccaccino (1504/5-1546) w i t h the monu
mona with Giulio Campi (q.v.), from whom he mental Michelangelism o f Pordenone (1483?1539). A m o n g his
absorbed the then fashionable Lombard and Emilian mannerist more important frescoes are those i n the cathedral at Parma: the
style practiced by the Campi brothers. I n 1549 Gambara returned scenes from the life o f Christ (1567-71), i n the nave, and The
to Brescia, where he was a pupil o f Girolamo Romanino (1484/ Ascension (1571-73), on the interior o f the west wall. He died i n
87-1560?), whose daughter Margherita he married i n 1556. He Brescia i n 1573 or 1574 as a result o f a fall from scaffolding.
worked mainly i n Brescia but also i n Mantua, Cremona, and

16 Chriii and the Canaanite The attribution of this powerful sheet also remains a puzzle,
though the style seems to point to an Emilian artist o f the m i d
Woman ft) to late sixteenth century. There are, for example, reminiscences
of Amico Aspertini s highly individual draftsmanship, especially
Pen and light brown ink with light brown and gray wash,
heightened with white body color, over black chalk; in the liberal use o f white body color applied w i t h the brush i n
H: 45.1 cm (17 A in.); W: 31.7 cm (12/2 in.)
the landscape, while the monumental treatment o f the figures
in monochrome foreshadows the grisaille technique so much
91.GA.78 favored by the Carracci toward the end o f the century. W h e n
sold at Christies, London, i n 1986, the drawing was given to
the Bolognese painter Biagio Pupini delle Lame (1511-1575), w i t h
Francesco Maria Niccolo Gabburri(?) (his mat[?] with
ornamental border and his numbering on the verso); the rider that i t "reflects the influence o f Girolamo da Carpi,
anonymous nobleman (sale, Christie's, London, 1 July 1986, Garofalo and Battista Dossi," all Ferrarese painters o f the six
lot 55); art market, London. teenth century. I n the Getty Journal i t was given to the Bolo
gnese painter Bartolomeo Ramenghi, called Bagnacavallo Senior
(1484-1542), following the attribution o f Philip Pouncey, but
the style seems too developed to be from the first half o f the six

BIBLIOGRAPHY teenth century (though it is worth noting i n passing a certain

Journal 20 (1992), p. 164, no. 59. resemblance to the work of his son, Giovanni Battista Ramenghi,
called Bagnacavallo Junior [1521-1601]).
On the reverse of the old backing, inscribed lower center, in
Another possibility is that the drawing could be by the Bres-
graphite, No. 62.
cian painter Lattanzio Gambara. There is a marked resemblance
in style and handling to his drawing i n this museum, Study for a
Ceiling Decoration (inv. 85.GG.292; Goldner 1988, no. 13). More
As R E L A T E D I N T H E Gospel o f Saint Matthew (15:21-28), over, there are convincing parallels i n type between the figures i n
Christ and his disciples on their way to Cana met a woman who the present drawing and those i n several o f the artist s painted
asked h i m to heal her sick daughter, a miracle he performed i n works, especially the frescoes i n Parma cathedral representing
spite o f the protests o f the disciples that she was not an Israelite. scenes from the life o f Christ (repr. Begni Redona and Vezzoli
It is by no means certain, however, that this is indeed the sub 1978, pp. 186-87), while a similar upright composition w i t h
ject o f this drawing, since the figure on the right, somewhat arched top and landscape background is found i n The Founda
resembling Saint John the Baptist, seems also to be involved i n tion of Carthage i n the Palazzo Calini (now Maggi), Calino
the proceedings. (repr. ibid., p. 158).

ATTRIB. TO GAMBARA & Italian School 39

Attributed to Girolamo Genga
Urbino or surroundings 1476-La Valle, near Urbino, 1551

G irolamo Genga, who was born i n U r b i n o or its

surroundings, received his training at the age o f
fifteen from Luca Signorelli (c. 1450-1523) and
subsequently worked as his assistant i n Cortona, Loreto, Siena,
and Orvieto. Genga moved to Perugia around 1498 to work i n
Urbino, though he also worked i n Rome as well as i n centers i n
Tuscany and Lombardy. I n 1522 he was appointed court artist
and architect to the duke o f Urbino, for w h o m he later restored
and decorated the Villa Imperiale at Pesaro. H e was summoned
to Mantua by Cardinal Ercole Gonzaga around 1547 to design
the studio o f Pietro Perugino (c. 1450-1523), where he was the facade for the cathedral there after Giulio Romano's death i n
strongly influenced by his fellow student Raphael (1483-1520), 1546. His mature style assimilates influences from many o f the
as seen in The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian of c. 1503 (Florence, great masters o f the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries,
Uffizi). Genga was active as a painter and architect mostly i n most notably Raphael.

iy Battle Scene a landscape w i t h hills and buildings. Dominique Cordellier (in

ibid., under no. 8) placed the aforementioned drawings, among
Pen and two shades of brown ink; H : 14 cm (5/2 in.); others, w i t h i n the period 1523-32, when Genga was working for
W:20.icm( 1 5
Francesco Maria I delle Rovere on the Villa Imperiale at Pesaro.
Although footsoldiers and horsemen also throng the ceiling fresco
The Oath at Sermide (or Sermete, located near the Po), i n the
PROVENANCE Sala del Giuramento o f the same villa, their scale i n relation to
Zaccaria Sagredo(?) and thence by descent in the Sagredo the overall picture space is much larger.
family, Venice; Jean-Jacques de Boissieu(?), Lyon; sale, Hotel The Getty drawing, too, shows a variety o f soldiers on foot
Drouot, Paris, 23 May 1986, lot 201; art market, Boston.
and horseback engaged i n combat. The artist seems to have gone
over some passages i n a darker i n k (see especially the right-
None. hand half o f the sheet and the border below). He shaded the
background, giving an impression o f pictorial unity, reminiscent
BIBLIOGRAPHY o f a frescoed mural or tapestry, but w i t h little sense o f actual
Journal 19 (1991), p. 156, no. 42. depth. The varying scale o f the different groups making up the
whole, w i t h the vignettes superimposed over one another, per
On the reverse of the old backing, inscribed in brown ink,
haps implies a composition from an earlier period. The armored
S.R. n- 9 (i.e., the ninth item in the section "Scuola
Romana"). rider wearing a helmet w i t h the visor lowered, seen i n profile
near the bottom left, and the horseman holding a shield, seen
from the rear i n the top right corner, are particularly reminis
S E V E R A L D R A W I N G S B Y G E N G A are o f battle scenes involv cent o f fifteenth-century types (e.g., i n an anonymous Veronese
ing both cavalry and infantry. Two particularly good comparisons drawing o f the first half o f the fifteenth century i n the British
are a drawing i n the British Museum, London (inv. 1897-4-10-2; Museum, inv. 5226-57; Paris and Verona 1996, no. 3). Along the
Pouncey and Gere 1962, no. 271), and one i n the Louvre, Paris bottom edge o f the sheet, i n parallel w i t h the human conflict
(inv. 10664; P i 9 9 J
a r s i 2 N O
- 8), though both o f these show d i m i n depicted i n the main field, is a frieze o f sea gods riding an assort
utive muscular figures and horses set i n a clearly defined space o f ment o f sea monsters.

AT R . GENGA ?f Italian School 41

Felice Giani
San Sebastiano Curone 1758-Rome 1823

orn i n San Sebastiano Curone, Felice Giani first romantic classicism o f contemporary painters such as A n t o n
studied art i n Pavia w i t h Carlo Antonio Bianchi Raphael Mengs (1728-1779) and Henry Fuseli (1741-1825).
(1737-1778) and Antonio Bibiena (1700-1774). Giani is best known as a painter o f Neoclassical decorative
After a brief period at the Accademia Clementina i n Bologna, schemes i n public and private buildings throughout Italy,
from 1778 to 1779, Giani left for Rome i n 1780 and continued including palazzi i n Faenza, Venice, Bologna, Ferrara, and Rome.
his studies at the Accademia d i San Luca under Pompeo Batoni He became a member o f the Roman Accademia d i San Luca i n
(1708-1787), Christopher Unterberger (1732-1798), and the 1811 and was elected to the Congregation o f the Virtuosi o f the
architect Giovanni Antonio A n t o l i n i (1756-1841). W h i l e i n Pantheon i n 1819. I n 1812-13 he went to France at Napoleons
Rome Giani absorbed a variety o f influences, ranging from request and decorated rooms i n the Tuileries, Paris; the Chateau
ancient Greek and Roman art to the Renaissance classicism o f Malmaison, outside Paris; and the Villa A l d i n i at Montmorency.
Michelangelo (q.v.) and Raphael (1483-1520) as well as the

18 Allegory of the Life of Canova no. 21), upon which leans the figure o f Truth, sporting the light
of knowledge on her breast. Further details include the sculptors
Pen and brown ink and watercolor over black chalk; tools i n the left foreground and, at the far right, Evil overcome
H : 35.9 cm (14/3 in.); W: 62.5 cm ( 2 4 % in.) by the lion o f San Marco, probably a symbol o f Venice.
This drawing is a preparatory study for a monument,
planned but never executed, i n honor o f Canova. The architec
PROVENANCE tural structure was designed by Giovanni Antonio A n t o l i n i , and
Antonio Certani, Bologna; private collection, Lugano; art the figurative elements by Giani. Anna Maria Matteucci sug
market, Boston. gested that this was a commemorative monument designed fol
lowing the death o f Canova i n 1822, although Giani himself died
in January o f the following year. Anna Ottani Cavina (Faenza
Bologna 1979, no. 65; Faenza 1979, pp. 69-70, no. 154.
1979, under nos. 156-58) argued that the designs may well con
BIBLIOGRAPHY stitute an earlier academic exercise, a result o f the cult o f Canova
Mauceri 1939, pp. 42-43; Matteucci 1978, p. 474 n. 7; that was i n full swing during the sculptor s own lifetime, propos
Journal (1993), p. 138, no. 61. ing, on the basis o f comparison w i t h other material, a date i n the
previous decade, around 1814.
Inscribed by the artist, in dark brown ink, on the circular
pier, ALLAIMORTALITAIFIDIA PRASITALICANOVA, in A n t o l i n i and Giani s collaboration is recorded i n three care
the book supported by the lions paw, VEN[. . JMARCO, and fully finished architectural drawings i n the Biblioteca Comunale
along the lower edge, / / Tempo scopre la Verita, a Minerva, nel dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna (cartella Gozzadini 6, nos. 1146,1148,
tempio della imortalita; inscribed in the bottom left corner, in 1140; ibid., nos. 156-58, figs. 130-32), two o f which (one i n ele
another hand, in graphite, Giani, over the same, erased.
vation and the other i n section) depict the peripteric pantheon
as a whole, while the third illustrates the central monument i n
isolation. A n t o l i n i s ground plan is also preserved (cartella Goz
W I T H I N A P A N T H E O N - L I K E structure, the sculptor Antonio zadini 6, no. 1147; Matteucci 1978, fig. 3). The Getty drawing is
Canova (1757-1822) is shown being escorted toward a circular one o f two preparatory studies by Giani alone for the central
monument by Minerva, goddess o f wisdom, while simultane monument. Although i t is similar to the final design for the
ously being crowned w i t h a laurel wreath by the winged figure structure i n terms o f iconography, Giani at this early stage
of Fame, holding a trumpet. I n the center, Victory inscribes allowed his imagination free rein: his figures do not have the
Canovas name on the monument after those o f the classical appearance o f sculptures, but are more animated, escaping the
sculptors Phidias and Praxiteles. A t the base o f the monument bounds o f any formal monumental arrangement; they inhabit a
T i m e unveils Canova s sculpture Theseus and the Minotaur (Lon Active realm, indicated by the inclusion o f clouds, and are col
don, Victoria and Albert Museum inv. A.5-1962; see Praz 1976, ored, much more i n the manner o f a painting. The other draw-

GIANI ?f Italian School 43


ing for the project by Giani is i n the Museo Civico, T u r i n the final design the m o t i f o f History prevailing over T i m e was
( D u b i n i collection no. 37; Faenza 1979, no. 155, fig. 129). This is included to balance the composition.
a more formal affair, w i t h the figure o f Immortality seated on A n t o l i n i and Giani s sectional drawing shows that w i t h i n
the raised central dais and the group o f Canova escorted by the temple the central monument was to have been surrounded
Minerva, Fame, and Victory to the left o f the monument, as i n by replicas o f Canova s greatest sculptures, including Theseus and
the finished design. The right side is left largely empty, but for a the Minotaur, explaining this m o t i f s absence i n the later designs
winged genius supporting a tablet inscribed Canova, although i n o f the monument itself.

44 Italian School ?f GIANI

Giovanni Agostino da Lodi
Active in Lombardy and the Veneto, c. 1467-1524/25

T he signature o f Giovanni Agostino da Lodi has

been found on one o f a group o f works for
merly attributed to an anonymous artist called
Pseudo-Boccaccino, which had previously been given to Boccac
cio Boccaccino o f Cremona (before 1466-1525). Giovanni Ago
V i n c i (1452-1519) and that o f northern artists as well as Venetian
masters such as Giorgione (1477/78-1510?) and the Vivarini fam
ily. Giovanni Agostino s only securely dated painting is Christ
Washing the Feet of the Apostles of 1500 (Venice, Accademia). H e
was an outstanding draftsman, w i t h Leonardesque red chalk
stino was active i n Lombardy and the Veneto at the end o f the studies o f heads, such as the Getty sheet, constituting most o f
fifteenth century and the beginning o f the sixteenth. His style his surviving drawn oeuvre.
reflects his assimilation o f the Milanese work o f Leonardo da

ip Head of a Man (Saint John the drawing was engraved as the work o f Leonardo by C. G.
Gerli for inclusion i n his handsome volume o f reproductions
the BaptiH?) Disegni di Leonardo da Vinci o f 1784. To the main series o f forty-
five prints after Leonardesque drawings i n the Biblioteca
Red chalk; H : 14.5 cm (516 in.); W: 10.8 cm (4/4 in.)
Ambrosiana, M i l a n , Gerli appended a further sixteen after draw
90.GB.116 (see plate 1) ings then i n the collection o f D o n Venanzio de' Pagave, M i l a n ,
all o f which, w i t h the exception o f the present example (pi. V I *
PROVENANCE of the appendix) and two others, are now i n the Accademia,
Cardinale Vincenzo Monti, Milan; Contessa Anna Luisa
Venice (see Venice 1980a, p. 124). One o f these, Head of a Man
Monti, Milan (until 1770); Don Venanzio de' Pagave, Milan;
in Profile (inv. 264; Gerli p i . V * ; Venice 1980a, no. 19), is num
Gaudenzio de' Pagave, Milan (until 1807); Giuseppe Bossi,
Milan (until 1818); Abate Luigi Celotti, Milan (until 1822); bered 18 i n the top right corner, i n the same hand as the number
Sir J. C. Robinson, London; sale, Christie's, London, 22 May ip i n a similar position on the Getty sheet.
1914, lot 139 (as Leonardo); private collection; sale, Christie's, Almost all o f Giovanni Agostino s known drawings are red-
London, 19 April 1988, lot 28; art market, London.
chalk studies of heads, several of which make very good compari
sons w i t h the present work. Strikingly similar i n treatment is the
European Drawings: Recent Acquisitions, Hazlitt, Gooden & drawing o f a man's head, also i n three-quarter profile to the
Fox, London, 1988, no. 7. right, i n the Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Kupferstichkabinett,
Dresden (fig. 19a; Venice 1992, no. 79). The figure is character
BIBLIOGRAPHY ized by the same frowning expression, focused gaze, prominent
Gerli 1784, pp. 9,15, pi. VI*; Vallardi 1830, pp. 9,16 (no. VI*),
cheekbone, pronounced lines about the mouth, parted lips, and
pi. 4*; Milan 1987, p. 85, under nos. 30-31; Moro 1989, p. 39,
free-flowing hair; the ear is drawn i n an exceedingly similar
fig. 40; Brescia and Frankfurt 1990, p. 276, under no. IV.i9a;
Journal 19 (1991), p. 154, no. 39; Bora 1991, p. 212 n. 27, fig. 14; manner, and also comparable is the somewhat tumescent neck,
Venice 1992, under no. 79. revealed i n both cases by a scooped neckline. The insistent diag
onal hatching underpinning the forms is another hallmark o f
Inscribed in the upper right corner, in brown ink, ip, and in
this artist, displayed i n both drawings.
the lower right corner, also in brown ink, now partly erased,
Also bearing many o f these hallmarks are two red-chalk
profile heads w i t h similar scowling expressions, again engraved
by Gerli as the work o f Leonardo, i n the Biblioteca Ambrosiana
(inv. Cod. F 274, inf. 6, and Cod. F 263, inf. 52; Gerli 1784,
T H I S VIGOROUS S T U D Y o f a male head is animated not only pis. I l l , V i l l a ; M i l a n 1987, nos. 30, 31). The strong character
by the intensity o f the subjects expression but also by the ener ization o f both the second o f these and the Getty drawing led
getic rendering of his hair, beard, and pelt. Such interest i n physi Gerli to suggest that they may have been abbozzi (sketches) for
ognomy, combined w i t h the organic curls and fur (which almost the figure o f Judas i n Leonardo's Last Supper i n the refectory o f
take on a life o f their own) and the red-chalk technique, all i n d i Santa Maria delle Grazie, M i l a n . Other comparisons worthy o f
cate a close knowledge o f the drawings o f Leonardo, for whose mention are Head of a Bearded Man i n the Musei Civici, M i l a n
work Giovanni Agostino s has repeatedly been mistaken. Indeed, (inv. sc.B.36; Venice 1992, i l l . p. 122), unusually i n black chalk;

GIOVANNI AGOSTINO ?f Italian School 45

19 A . Giovanni Agostino da Lodi (c. 1467-1524/25). Study ofa Mans

Head. Red chalk. H : 16.2 cm (6Ys in.); W: 10.8 cm (4/4 in.). Dresden,
Kupferstichkabinett der Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen inv. c. 1923-14.

the red-chalk Head of a Beardless Man i n the Devonshire Collec to Leonardo's drawings o f a similar type. Leonardo was i n Venice
tion, Chatsworth (inv. 706; Jaffe 1994, Venetian and North Ital i n the early months o f 1500, and i t seems reasonable to assume
ian Schools, no. 879); and a red-chalk Head of a Man (in profile the drawing was made at some time after this visit. Giulio Bora
to the right) i n the British Museum, London (inv. 1895-8-6-76). (in M i l a n 1987) suggests a date i n the second decade o f the six
This drawing also bears an old attribution to Leonardo and was teenth century, as a result o f Giovanni Agostino s return to L o m -
until recently catalogued as "attributed to Cesare da Sesto," but bardy from the Veneto and his "renewed direct contact w i t h
w i t h a note on the mount i n the hand o f Philip Pouncey, "but Leonardo." Several paintings by Giovanni Agostino, however,
cf. Agostino da Lodi." such as The Washing of the Feet, dated 1500, i n the Accademia,
I t is not known for what purpose the Getty drawing was Venice (Venice 1992, no. 77), and Christ and the Adulteress, i n
made, but i t seems to us that it was not necessarily a preparatory a private collection (Moro 1989, p i . 42), contain male figures
study for a painting; i t may have been one o f a series o f physiog w i t h characteristics similar to those o f the head i n the present
nomic studies, or "[teste] di carattere," to use Gerli's phrase (1784, drawing, suggesting that studies such as this one might have
p. 9, under no. I l l ) , which the Lombard artist made i n response informed the artist's painting style at an even earlier period.

GIOVANNI AGOSTINO ?f Italian School 47

Giulio Romano (Giulio Pippi)
Rome I499(?)-Mantua 1546

orn i n Rome, Giulio was the chief pupil o f Palazzo del Te, the "pleasure palace" o f the Mantuan court
Raphael (1483-1520). He collaborated w i t h the (1524-36). The fresco decorations o f this building, such as those
master on a number o f projects, including the i n the Sala dei Giganti, are prime examples o f Italian mannerist
fresco decorations i n the Stanza dell'Incendio i n the Vatican, painting. I n 1536 Giulio began the renovation and decoration o f
completed i n 1517, and those i n the Loggia d i Psyche, o f 1518-19, portions o f the Palazzo Ducale, including the Sala d i Troia and
i n the Villa Farnesina, Rome. From 1524 he was i n Mantua i n the Sala dei Cavalli. The construction o f his own palace, the
the service o f Duke Federico I I Gonzaga, for w h o m he created Casa Pippi i n Mantua, o f 1540-44, was one o f the last projects
his most celebrated work: the construction and decoration o f the he completed.

20 Janus, Chronos, Gaea, period March 1532 to July 1534. The vault, depicting the O l y m
pian divinities, was probably completed first. The preparatory
and a Victory drawings for the Sala w o u l d therefore have been made sometime
before March 1532.
Pen and brown ink and brown wash over black chalk, with
some traces of squaring in black chalk; H : 37.4 cm (14% in.); The group i n the present drawingconsisting o f Janus,
W: 31.7 cm (12/2 in.) Chronos, and Gaea, w i t h a Victory aboveis substantially the
same as i n the finished fresco, except that the winged figure was
94.GA.32 (see page viii) eventually raised and moved farther to the right. Giulio s uncer
tainty about the final pose o f this figure is also reflected i n the
pentimento for the crown she holds i n her left hand.
Sir Peter Lely (Lugt 2092, partly cut away); Pierre Crozat(?);
Dr. Richard Mead, London(?); John Barnard, London (Lugt Considering the broad range o f figures and invenzioni i n
1420); Sir Joshua Reynolds, London (Lugt 2364); grand-ducal the Sala dei Giganti, i t is surprising how few drawings by Giulio
collection, Weimar (until 1918); Continental collector (sale, for this project are known. David McTavish (Toronto and New
Christies, London, 7 April 1981, lot 48); Roberto Ferretti,
York 1985-86, p. 22, under no. 3) lists only three: a large modello
Ontario, Canada.
of Minerva, Neptune, Diana, and other gods, for the section o f
EXHIBITIONS the vault immediately to the left o f that studied i n the present
Toronto and New York 1985-86, no. 3; Mantua 1989, p. 377. drawing, i n the Louvre, Paris (inv. 3476; H a r t t 1958, no. 209); a
study for Jupiter, formerly i n the Ellesmere collection and now
BIBLIOGRAPHY in that o f Yvonne Tan Bunzl, London; and a study o f a giant
Hartt 1958, vol. 1, p. 299, no. 210, p. 159; vol. 2, fig. 349;
being crushed, also included i n the Ellesmere sale and now i n the
Verheyen 1977, p. 128; Journal23 (1995), p. 72, no. 15.
collection of Alain Delon, Geneva (what is most probably a copy
On the reverse of the old backing, inscribed in brown ink of the same is i n the Royal Library, Windsor Castle [inv. 0503;
at the t o p , / 34. N 30., and below this (with the beginning
Popham and W i l d e 1949, no. 363]). Sylvie Beguin pointed out
of the inscription scratched out), di Giulio Romano-1buon another, more general, compositional drawing for The Fall of the
disegno-, and below this, to the right, J:B. N: 570.114V4 by
Giants, i n the Musee des Beaux-Arts, Besancon (inv. 3093, as
I2 A, and along the bottom edge, from D: . Meads Coll: ;
X r n

Maturino; Beguin 1989, p. 71, fig. 30). A l l o f these studies are

inscribed in the bottom right quarter, in faint black chalk,
LelyI Mead I Reynolds. . . CrozatlBarnard! ft) TL . . . g. squared, as one w o u l d expect o f drawings made by a master for
his assistants to follow.
To this number can be added another drawing, also squared,
i n pen and wash, i n the Fogg A r t Museum, Cambridge, Mas
THIS DRAWING IS A modello for part o f the frescoed vault o f sachusetts (fig. 20a; Mongan and Sachs 1940, no. 167, as Pru
the Sala dei Giganti i n the Palazzo del Te (Hartt 1958, fig. 347), dence). This is a preliminary study for the figure o f Janus as
the summer residence o f the court o f Federico Gonzaga i n M a n finalized i n the present drawing. Similar i n pose, but w i t h the
tua. The frescoes i n the Sala were carried out by Rinaldo M a n - position o f the arms reversed, the figure is nude but for a simple
tovano w i t h assistance from Fermo da Caravaggio according to drapery and is clearly based on an antique Venus pudica (such as
Giulio s designs, and records o f payments to them exist for the the Capitoline or Medici Venuses). The inclusion o f a bearded

48 Italian School ?f GIULIO ROMANO

male face at the back o f the Venus s head indicates that Giulio
already had the Janus figure i n the fresco i n m i n d and was draw
ing on antique prototypes to inform the classical iconography o f
the Sala dei Giganti, which is based on a passage from Ovids
Metamorphoses (bk. i ) . This typical integration o f antique mate
rial has its roots i n Raphael, whose classicizing design for a figure
of a two-faced Prudence, engraved by Raimondi (Bartsch 1803-
21, vol. 14, p. 295, no. 392), Giulio surely knew. The winged Vic
tory is also clearly inspired by classical examples, and the figure
of Gaea bears close resemblance to figures from antique sar
cophagi, such as the famous Weeping Dacia, i n the Musei Capi-
tolini, Rome (inv. 776; Haskell and Penny 1981, no. 28, fig. 100).
The present drawing must have been made after the Louvre
sheet mentioned above, since the left hand o f one o f the three
Graces, gathering up her drapery, is here evident above the Vic
tory figure, as i n the fresco. I n the more compressed design o f
the Louvre study (the friezelike appearance o f which scarcely
takes into account the curvature o f the vault), the Graces appear
farther to the left, above the horses pulling Dianas chariot.

FIGURE 20A. Giulio Romano (i499?-i546). Study for Janus. Pen and
brown ink, brown wash, squared in black chalk. H : 27 cm (7% in.); W: 15 cm
(5% in.). Cambridge, Massachusetts, Fogg Art Museum, gift of Dr. James
Loeb, inv. 1928.161. Photo courtesy Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University
Art Museums.

50 Italian School & G I U L I O R O M A N O

Giulio Romano (or Raphael?)
Rome I499(?)-Mantua 1546

21 The Sacrifice of Isaac and the Apostles series the free stylus underdrawing is the same,
as are the squat proportions o f the figures.
Red chalk over preliminary underdrawing with a stylus; Also consistent i n style is the large group o f red-chalk stud
H : 28.3 cm (11 % in.); W: 19.1 cm (7/2 in.) ies made for the decoration o f the vault o f the loggia o f the Villa
Farnesina, Rome, painted i n 1518 by Raphael, w i t h the help o f
assistants (examples are reproduced i n Joannides 1983, nos. 3 9 9 -
PROVENANCE 405, 407-12, 414-15). H e is recorded as having designed the
Richard Houlditch, London (Lugt 2214; his mount); Lord whole, drawn the cartoons, and painted many o f the figures. H e
John Spencer, Althorp (Lugt 1531); private collection, England was therefore responsible for the schemes conception, appar
(sale, Sotheby's, London, 4 July 1988, lot 11); art market,
ently delegating much of the execution, such as the transfer of the
design from the cartoons and probably a considerable amount o f
EXHIBITIONS the painting, to his s t u d i o i n this case to Giulio Romano,
Mantua 1989-90, p. 250. Giovanni Francesco Penni (1496?-c. 1536), and Giovanni da
Udine (1487-1561/64), the last of w h o m would have painted the
festoons o f vegetation. I t seems improbable that Raphael would
Journal (1993), p. 131, no. 49; Rome 1993, under no. 8; Jaffe
have conceded the design to his helpers, but i n his 1958 mono
1994, Roman and Neapolitan Schools, under no. 204.
graph on Giulio Romano, Frederick H a r t t gave all o f these red-
On the reverse of the mount, turned upside down, inscribed chalk loggia studies to Giulio. Although many are now once
at the top, in brown ink, L I N. 6. again accepted as by Raphael, to w h o m they were traditionally
given, opinions among specialists remain divided. There are
unquestionable variations i n quality among the studies, but the
THIS I S T H E M O D E L , corresponding i n size and detail, for an distinctions seem insufficient to warrant the claim that some are
engraving i n the same direction (Bartsch 1803-21, vol. 14, pt. 1, by different hands. Indeed, i t is hard to resist the logical conclu
no. 5; reproduced i n The Illustrated Bartsch, vol. 26) by Agostino sion that they are by Raphael, absorbing the powerful influence
dei Musi, called Agostino Veneziano (c. 1490-c. 1540), a fol of Michelangelo's red-chalk studies for the decoration o f the Sis-
lower o f Marcantonio Raimondi (c. 1480-c. 1534). The drawing tine Chapel and moving away from the classicism o f his earlier
was apparently made specifically for the purpose, rather than i n Stanza della Segnatura frescoes i n the direction o f a more man
preparation for a painting and then later adapted to a print. The nerist style.
stylus was used freely for the underdrawing before the composi The Getty drawing and the Chatsworth drawings fit
tion was fleshed out more fully i n red chalk, rather than to trans extremely well i n style w i t h Raphael's Vision of Ezekiel o f 1518
fer the finished design to the plate, a process that would have in the Pitti, Florence (Dussler 1971, pp. 4 4 - 4 5 , p i . 98). T h e
been achieved by tracing the design onto a piece o f semitrans figures in all these compositions are characterized by somewhat
parent paper, turning the sheet over, and then pressing the squat, stocky proportions; enlarged facial features; and hair and
design through from the back o f this second sheet. beards composed o f solid, hornlike locks and curls. I t is there
The drawing is consistent i n style and technique and is fore not inconceivable that the drawings may have been made
undoubtedly from the same hand as the series The Twelve Apostles toward the end o f his life by Raphael himself, i n preparation for
i n the Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth (inv. 70-81; Jaffe 1994, an engraving.
Roman and Neapolitan Schools, no. 204). The series was engraved A freer black chalk drawing i n the Ashmolean Museum,
in reverse by Marco Dente (d. 1527), and early writers attributed Oxford (inv. I I 583; London 1983, no. 146), the attribution o f
the drawings to Raphael (1483-1520). More recently the series which has also oscillated between Raphael and Giulio, corre
has been given to Raphael's foremost pupil, Giulio Romano, on sponds closely to the present composition, but i n reverse.
the grounds o f style. I t is worth noting that i n both the Sacrifice

G I U L I O R O M A N O ( O R R A P H A E L ? ) Italian School 51
Bernardino Lanino
Vercelli 1509/13-i58i/83(?)

orn i n the city o f Vercelli, Bernardino Lanino he came under the strong influence o f Leonardo da V i n c i (1452-
trained there w i t h the little-known Baldassare 1519), as seen i n his Baptism of Christ (Milan, Pinacoteca d i Brera)
Cadighis and w i t h the Lombard painter Gau- of 1554. From this period date many o f Lanino s finest drawings,
denzio Ferrari (1475/80-1546). H i s earliest recorded work, the which create startling chiaroscuro effects through the use of black
altarpiece The Virgin and Child with Saints of 1534 (Turin, Pina- chalk and white body color heightening on brown prepared
coteca Sabauda), exhibits the figure style o f Gaudenzio, who was paper (e.g., cat. no. 22). From 1560 to 1564 Lanino worked on
himself influenced by Pietro Perugino (c. 1450-1523). Lanino s fresco decorations i n the church o f San Magno i n Legnano. H e
most important early painting was the altarpiece The Virgin and was one o f the leading painters active i n Lombardy and Pied
Child with Saints o f 1539 (Borgosesia, Santi Pietro e Paolo). mont i n the second half o f the sixteenth century.
Between 1540 and 1560 he made several visits to M i l a n , where

22 The Flagellation the Abrate collection, Turin (repr. Romano 1986, p. 162), which
are both on prepared paper and concentrate primarily on
Brush drawing in brown wash and brownish white body color, chiaroscuro effects. I n the present work the modeling is achieved
heightened with white body color, on a prepared ground; largely by the system o f white highlights, applied to the forms
H : 39.3 cm (15/2 in.); W: 32.1 cm (i2 /s in.)

w i t h a very fine brush i n a delicate network o f hatching and

Two examples o f Flagellation scenes painted by Lanino are
PROVENANCE known, both rather small-scale works w i t h the same emphasis
Private collection, Geneva; art market, London. on chiaroscuro. The first is the right-hand panel o f the predella
of an altarpiece, dated 1545, from the church o f San Sebastiano
in Biella, now i n the Museo Civico o f the same town (Romano
1986, p. 244). The two flagellants adopt poses similar to those
BIBLIOGRAPHY . of the figures i n the Getty drawing, but the figure o f Christ is
Journal 19 (1991), pp. 156-57, no. 45. doubled over i n a more contorted position. The othernot dis
similar to the present drawing, but i n reverse and w i t h Christ
looking forwardis one o f a series o f four small scenes depict
THIS HIGHLY FINISHED DRAWING i n grisaille was prob ing the Passion from the Casa Gattinara, Vercelli, which were on
ably made as a modello for a painting, though no such work is the Milanese art market i n 1963 (ibid., p. 281). Both examples
known. I t is characteristic o f Lanino s work i n terms o f style and are horizontal compositions, however, while i n the present draw
technique and may be compared w i t h drawings such as The Bap ing a vertical format was adopted.
tism of Christ \w the Biblioteca Reale, Turin (inv. 16150 D.C.; Ver The drawing appears to date from around 1550.
celli 1985, no. 22), or Christ Displaying His Wounds, formerly i n

L A N I N O & Italian School 53

Jacopo Ligozzi
Verona 1547-Florence 1627

native of Verona, Jacopo Ligozzi was born into between 1577 and 1591 Ligozzi executed many natural history
a family o f painters and designers o f armor, illustrations i n both watercolor and tempera. He also received
tapestries, and silk embroideries. I n 1576 he official large-scale commissions, such as the fresco decoration o f
arrived i n Florence to w o r k for the Medici family, first for Grand the cloisters o f the Ognissanti i n Florence (1599-1600), and
Duke Francesco I and later for Grand Duke Ferdinando I , as a painted altarpieces for churches i n Florence, San Gimigniano,
designer o f decorative art objects, including glass, furniture, jew Lucca, Ravenna, and elsewhere. Responsive to the needs o f his
elry, and tapestries. Impressed by his detailed draftsmanship and patrons, he was one o f the most versatile and productive artists
abilities as a miniaturist, Francesco employed h i m to record his of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries.
encyclopedic collection o f biological and botanical specimens;

23 An Azappo Archer with a Cheetah the graphite numbering i n the upper right corner, which was
already i n place when Niccolo Bazzanti presented his drawings
Pen and brown ink, watercolor, and body color, heightened to the Uffizi i n 1867.
with gold paint and gum arable, the background formerly
Anna Omodeo (in Florence 1965, p. 49, under no. 43) was
with blue body color (this background is shown in the color
the first to point out parallels between the Uffizi group and the
reproduction in the Christie s sale catalogue, where it is said
to have been applied later); H : 28.1 cm ( I I / I in.); W: 22.3 cm engraved illustrations i n Nicolas de Nicolays Le navigationi et
(8% in.) viaggi fatti nella Turchia, published i n Italian i n Antwerp and
Venice i n 1576 and 1580, respectively, from the French first edi
91.GG.53 (see page vi) tion o f 1568 (Lyon). Versions w i t h tinted plates exist which bear
some resemblance to Ligozzi s i n terms o f color (see the pages
bound into a volume o f heterogeneous costume prints i n the
Mrs. S. K. Legare, Washington, D.C. (sale, Christie s, London,
18 April 1989, lot 10); art market, London. British Library, London, shelfmark 146.1.10). Parallels can also be
observed between Ligozzi s pictures and the illustrations o f other
EXHIBITIONS contemporary costume manuals such as Hans Weigels Habitus
New York 1993, no. 67; London 1993-94, no. 22.
praecipuorum. . . Trachtenbuch (Nuremberg, 1577) and Abraham
de Bruyns Omnium poene gentium imagines (Cologne, 1577).
Journal xo (1992), p. 167, no. 64. Ligozzi therefore appears to have drawn his material from a vari
ety o f sources, bringing his subjects to life i n a highly imagina
Inscribed by the artist in brown ink, in the upper left, tive fashion. Cesare Vecelli s slightly later De gli habiti antichi et
AZAPPI/Sonno gli Soldati di Galera, and above the animal moderni di diverse parti del mondo (Venice, 1590) is more deriva
(which is in fact a cheetah), Leopardo.
tive and almost certainly postdates Ligozzi s series, but an illus
tration and an interesting description o f an "azappo" archer
appear on folio 397.
THIS is O N E O F A S E R I E S o f colored drawings o f figures There is no consistent precedent for the conjunction o f the
in Turkish costume by Ligozzi, many accompanied by animals, animals alongside the figures i n costume (although there is one
of which twenty-six are known, twenty-one being i n the Uffizi, interesting example i n Nicolays Navigationi, the Religioso Turco
Florence (inv. 2947- 67F, minus 2955F, missing when the draw w i t h a stag; Antwerp 1576, fol. 210; Venice 1580, p. 114), and the
ings were returned from Germany after W o r l d War I I ) ; four conceit appears to be Ligozzi s own. The exact significance o f the
(including the present work), formerly i n the collection o f Mrs. pairings remains open to interpretation, but i t has been pointed
S. K. Legare, were sold at Christies, London (18 A p r i l 1989, lots out that the animals i n Ligozzi s series often act as commen
9-12), and one was sold at Sotheby's, New York (16 January taries on the figures or reflect physiognomic similarities (see the
1986, lot 52). Anna Forlani (1982, p. 77) suggested that the Uffizi rather finely drawn whiskers o f both the archer and the so-called
drawings may originally have been bound into a taccuino (note leopardin fact, a cheetah [ghepardo]in the present draw
book). Undoubtedly from the same series, the other five became ing). I t seems that Ligozzi was combining two different pattern
separated from the Uffizi group relatively early, since they lack book traditions, a zoological one (for interesting comparisons o f

LIGOZZI ?f Italian School 55

leopards and cheetahs, transmitted through north Italian early
Renaissance pattern books, see Ames-Lewis 1981, figs. 32, 36-38,
50) and an ethnographic one (accounts o f pilgrims to Jerusalem,
travelogues, costume manuals, and prints based on the work o f
famous Venetian artists, who i n turn appear to have possessed
model books o f costumes and exotica from which to work), to
create collector's pieces o f extreme refinement. The term azappo
comes from the historical Turkish word azap, meaning "marine,"
which helps to clarify the phrase soldati di galera: these archers
were seafaring soldiers employed on Turkish galleys or longboats.
It seems likely to us that the series would have been the
result o f a commission, rather than a project carried out on the
artists own initiative. I t was precisely for his skill as a minute
observer o f nature that Ligozzi was employed by Francesco I
de' Medici. His manifold activities for the grand dukes o f Tus
cany included the making o f miniatures and copies o f works o f
art, as well as his well-known botanical and zoological studies,
also i n the Uffizi (see Florence 1961; Tomasi 1993). Ligozzi may
therefore have made the drawings at Francesco's request, at a
time when printed reproductions o f oriental costume manuals
were not yet widely available. This could have been either while
the artist was still i n Venice, where there was an established
tradition o f interest i n oriental subjects, or shortly after his
arrival at the Medici court, where he is documented as working
from 1577.

L I G O Z Z I Italian School 57
Filippino Lippi
Prato c. 1457-Florence 1504

orn i n Prato, Filippino L i p p i received his early works from about this time include The Virgin and Child
training from his father, the distinguished Floren Enthroned with Saints o f i486 (Florence, Uffizi) and the fresco
tine painter Fra Filippo L i p p i (c. 1406-1469). decorations for the Strozzi Chapel i n Santa Maria Novella, Flor
According to the artist-biographer Giorgio Vasari (q.v.), Filip ence, for which he signed the contract i n 1487. From 1488 to
pino was apprenticed around 1472 to Sandro Botticelli (1444/ 1493 he lived mostly i n Rome. A m o n g his major projects from
45-1510), whose influence is evident i n his early work. Docu this period are the frescoes i n the Carafa Chapel i n Santa Maria
ments show that he was also a member o f the Compagnia d i San sopra Minerva. Filippino's style during this period is character
Luca, the Florentine painters' guild, at the same time. A r o u n d ized by expressive, elongated figures and an interest i n still-life
1485 Filippino was commissioned to complete the fresco cycle detail, indicating a knowledge o f Netherlandish painting. H e
for the Brancacci Chapel i n Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence, a was an accomplished draftsman, working i n both metalpoint
decorative scheme that had been begun by Masaccio (1401-1428 and pen and ink.
or before) and Masolino (1383-after 1435). Other important

24 Standing Saint (recto); Two 1504 modern style]; see Genoa 1992, p. 21, no. 6): Saint Sebastian
with Saints John the Baptist and Francis (fig. 24a), with The
Studies of a Standing Youth Madonna and Child with Two Angels m a lunette above, formerly
(verso) in the chapel o f San Sebastiano i n the church o f San Teodoro,
Genoa, and now i n the Galleria d i Palazzo Bianco i n the same
Metalpoint, heightened with white body color, on light gray city (Scharf 1950, no. 134). A predella depicting the Piet is now
prepared paper (recto and verso); H : 27.1 cm (10 % in.); lost. As Clario d i Fabio kindly pointed out i n a letter to the
W: 17.4 cm (6 /s in.)

department (22 July 1996), the painting was commissioned by

Francesco d i Antonio Lomellini for the altar o f the family
91.GG.33 (see plate 2)
chapel, built and furnished at his behest by Antonio della Porta
PROVENANCE (called i l Tamagnino) and Pace Gagini i n 1501 and dedicated to
Zaccaria Sagredo(?) and thence by descent in the Sagredo Saint Sebastian. D i Fabio has also confirmed that the inscription
family, Venice; Jean-Jacques de Boissieu(?), Lyon; private on the molding at the base o f the plinth, NAPOLEONIS LOMEL
collection, Lugano; art market, Zurich.
LINI PROPRIETAS, was added i n 1858; i t refers to the branch o f the

family from which the patron o f the altarpiece was descended,
New York 1993, no. 68; London 1993-94, no. 23. namely, a medieval forebear called Napoleone Lomellini.
The saints i n the painting correspond to the titular saint o f
BIBLIOGRAPHY the chapel, Saint Sebastian; Francesco's personal name saint,
Journal20 (1992), pp. 160-61, no. 53.
Saint Francis; and to the patron saint o f Genoa, John the Bap
tist. Although this w o r k is not specifically mentioned by Vasari,
Inscribed in the bottom right corner in brown ink,
S. V n: 44 (i.e., the forty-fourth item in the section "Scuola he does record that Filippino sent works to Genoa (Vasari/
Veneta"). Milanesi 1878-85, vol. 3, p. 467), one o f many instances o f the
artist's widespread reputation during his own lifetime.
As Innis Shoemaker has remarked (1975, pp. 17, 26), there
O N T H E R E C T O I S T H E standing figure o f a male saint hold are surprisingly few drawings by Filippino that can be connected
ing a staff, or possibly a stemmed cross, i n his right hand, while w i t h his paintings, and this is particularly the case for the last
on the verso are two figure studies o f a youth, drawn from life, years o f the artist s life (she lists only eight drawings that relate to
and other subsidiary studies. extant paintings from the period 1498 to 1504, the date o f his
The purpose and date o f this sheet have not hitherto been premature death, including three for the Strozzi Chapel fres
known. The verso appears, however, to relate to the altarpiece, coes). Drawings for altarpieces by Filippino are rare, and the
signed by Filippino and dated 1503 (an inscription on the verso present example may therefore provide an unusual and interest
records that i t was sent from Florence on February 1, 1503 [i.e., ing record o f his working method i n the early years o f the six-

58 Italian School & LIPPI

24 R E C T O
24 V E R S O

teenth century and o f his continuing use o f the traditional instead o f the left. Filppino s model is shown not so much hold
medium o f metalpoint. ing as propping his raised right arm on a staff. That this could be
The principal studies on the verso appear to relate to the an alternative idea for the pose o f a Saint Sebastian finds support
figure i n the altarpiece o f Saint Sebastian, who is tied to a col i n the Genoa picture, where the saints arm is tied to the column
u m n . Filippino studied his model from both the back and the above his head, a pose that w o u l d be difficult to sustain i n life,
front, i n line w i t h the practice o f the Pollaiuolo brothers (their hence the staff i n the drawing.
own Saint Sebastian o f 1475, for the Pucci Oratory i n Santissima I n the study to the right, the model is drawn from the front,
Annunziata, now i n the National Gallery, London, being a tour i n a pose that, from the neck downward, is extremely close
de force i n this vein). The left-hand study shows the figure from (though i n reverse) to that of the saint i n the Genoa picture. The
behind, i n an attitude similar to that i n the Genoa picture (see exception to this is the left arm, which is here drawn behind the
particularly the bowed head i n near profile, w i t h the hair falling model's back, as i f his hands were bound. I n 1501 Filippino
forward), except that the weight-bearing leg is the right one, painted an altarpiece containing a Saint Sebastian i n this more

60 Italian School ?f LIPPI

notations, which seem to represent the seeds o f the architectural
elements i n the Genoa picture. Ruled linesboth at ground
level and at the height o f the models kneeswhich meet at a
right angle to the left, may reflect an idea in nuce for the archi
tectural base and moldings o f the structure on which Saint
Sebastian stands i n the painting, part o f a ruined classical edifice
that is similar i n ground plan. These lines pass behind the
model's legs, suggesting that they were drawn i n after the life
studies. As a further afterthought, Filippino seems to have partly
drawn a recess i n the side wall o f this structure and, i n an imagi
native leap, switched scale completely to depict a lilliputian
figure, less than one-third the height o f the main studies, gestur
ing up at his giant counterparts. This figure has a halo and holds
a long staff and is perhaps a preliminary idea for the figure o f
Saint John the Baptist, who steps forward from an arched open
ing i n the ruined structure o f the Genoa picture.
O f the sketches made i n the space to the right o f the figure
at the column, the uppermost one is a study o f the head and
shoulders o f a man looking up. This may be a straightforward
study o f a garzone (a youthful assistant or apprentice) wearing a
hat or turban, but the arcs at the back o f the head could also be
read as a halo surrounding a bald pate, reminiscent o f the figure
of Saint Francis i n the Genoa painting, but i n reverse. Below is
another figure wearing a hat or turban, perhaps kneeling, and
leaning forward. This appears to be a quick sketch o f a garzone
in the act o f drawing, probably at the same time as Filippino,
from the live model.
The sheet seems to have been prepared w i t h the same gray
ground on both sides, presumably at the same time. I n contrast
to the verso, the recto is primarily a drapery study, also drawn
from life, since the figure seems to be the same model who
appears i n the two studies for Saint Sebastian on the verso. The
F I G U R E 24A. Filippino Lippi (c. Saint Sebastian with Saints John
figure in the drawing is probably a garzone, to judge from his cap
the Baptist and Francis, 1503. Oil on panel. H : 3 0 1 cm ( 1 1 8 % in.); W: 1 8 2 cm (hard to see i n reproduction, though the seam and shading at
(7i/4 in.). Genoa, Galleria di Palazzo Bianco inv. 12.
the front are clearly visible i n the original) and the undershirt
and doublet visible beneath his togalike drapery. Since the artist
has drawn i n a halo and the figure holds a staff w i t h what looks
conventional pose (The Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine with like a crosspiece at the top, the idea inevitably comes to m i n d
Saints John the Baptist, Peter, Paul, and Sebastian, still i n situ i n that this too could relate to another figure i n the altarpiece,
the Isolani Chapel, San Domenico, Bologna; Scharf 1950, no. namely Saint John the Baptist, but there are so many differences
132). The white lead highlights that Filippino applied to both between the study and the painted figure that this cannot be
these studies show that the model was illuminated by a light proved. Despite the associations w i t h the Lomellini commis
source at the left, and this is consistent w i t h the direction o f sion, the fact remains that the style o f the studies on the recto
light i n the altarpiece. He also drew i n cast shadows at the and verso, as well as the features o f the tousle-haired model, bear
figures' feet. similarities to drawings by Filippino o f the late 1480s and early
Although there are common elements between the Saint 1490s, raising questions o f whether they were made specifically
Sebastian i n the Lomellini altarpiece and the life studies on the w i t h the Genoa picture i n m i n d . W h e n preparing the design o f
Getty sheet, one hesitates to attribute the association to more the altarpiece, the artist may instead have referred to sketches
than the echo o f earlier ideas. But there are other features o f the preserved from an earlier period, perhaps refreshing them w i t h
drawing that suggest a more direct connection. After he had architectural notations.
finished the study on the right, Filippino drew i n the column
from his imagination, executing the base o f the shaft w i t h the
help o f a ruler, to distinguish i t from the contours o f the figure's
legs. W i t h his ruler still i n hand, he added further structural

LIPPI ?f Italian School 61

Pietro Longhi
Venice 1700/02-1785

native o f Venice, Pietro Longhi studied first aristocracy. These compositions are often set i n domestic inte
w i t h Antonio Balestra (1666-1740) and later riors, as i n A Lady Receiving Visitors o f 1746 (New York, Metro
w i t h Giuseppe Maria Crespi (1665-1747) i n politan Museum o f Art). Charming and slightly satirical, his
Bologna. U n t i l about 1740 Longhi painted mainly historical and paintings were widely popular, becoming even more so through
religious subjects, such as The Adoration of the Magi o f 1733 engraved reproductions. After 1765 Longhi increasingly repeated
(Venice, Scuola d i San Giovanni Evangelista). He then began his most successful compositions, i n association w i t h his son
painting small genre scenes, which provide a vivid record o f the Alessandro (1733-1813).
daily life o f the different social classes i n Venice, especially the

2$ Standing Woman Holding a Muff On 90.GB.30, inscribed by the artist in black chalk to the
right of the woman's head, e; in the drapery beneath the muff,
Turned Slightly to the Right B[o?] (for Bianco?); in the skirt to the right, at right angles,
rosa; and in the apron, also at right angles, traversa. On the
(recto); Studies of Heads (verso) verso, inscribed in black chalk in the top left corner, N
11/longhi, and with the sheet turned upside down, longhi, and
Black chalk with occasional touches of white chalk (recto); in brown ink, cut off at the right edge, mie . . . Ip Lap]. . .
black chalk (verso); H : 27.9 cm (11 in.); W: 17.6 cm ( 6 / i 6 in.)
On the verso of 90.GB.31, inscribed in the top left corner in
black chalk, N-io-longhi, and with the sheet turned upside
WATERMARK down, cut off at the left edge, in brown ink, . . . de Porno/. . .
Fragment of an unidentifiable symbol within a circle. a beverlop].


T H E S E T W O D R A W I N G S originally formed a single sheet and

26 Standing Woman Holding a Muff have remained together since being divided, probably i n the last

Turned Slightly to the Left (recto); century. The studies are for the two female figures who stand
adjacent to each other i n the center o f the same picture, the Cos-
Studies of Heads (verso) morama, formerly i n the Salom collection, Segromigno Monte,
and subsequently i n the Banco Ambrosiano Veneto, Vicenza
Black chalk and white chalk (recto); black chalk (verso);
(Pignatti 1969, no. 163). The title refers to the optical device vis
H : 28.5 cm (11 VA in.); W: 18.1 cm (yYs in.)
ible i n the background o f the painting, through which, for a
90.GB.31 small fee, visitors could view three-dimensional scenes, usually
of some exotic location such as the New W o r l d .
The first drawing (cat. no. 25) is for the woman on the left
Private collection, Paris; sale, Hotel Drouot, Paris, 30 March
in the painting. Longhi appears to have had the whole composi
1989, lots 169-70; art market, London.
tion already i n m i n d , since he drew this figure slightly smaller
EXHIBITIONS than the other, anticipating the woman's position a little farther
New York 1993, no. 69; London 1993-94, no. 24. (90.GB.30 behind her counterpart i n the finished work. The color notes
only). and the inclusion o f the shadows cast by either figure also antic
ipate the painting. This is entirely typical o f Longhi, whose
Journal 19 (1991), p. 159, nos. 52-53. drawings may be characterized as notes gathered piecemeal for
paintings, as opposed to working drawings made as part o f
the evolutionary process i n the working out o f a composition.
The small sketch at the right margin o f the drawing is a detail
study for the hand o f the woman i n its pendant, a fraction o f
which is still evident at the left o f that sheet. O n the verso are
various studies o f heads, apparently unrelated to the painting i n

62 Italian School ?f LONGHI

25 R E C T O
25 V E R S O

The figure on the recto o f this drawing was used unaltered The woman w i t h the m u f f covering her left hand and w i t h
i n another version o f the Cosmorama i n the Museo Querini her right holding the ends o f her shawl together at her breast, on
Stampalia, Venice (ibid., no. 165). Both paintings probably date the recto o f the second drawing (cat. no. 26), is a study for the
to the late 1750s. A n inscription on the column at the right o f figure on the right i n the Cosmorama. O f the two sketches o f
the latter work mentions Doge Loredan (r. 1752-62), providing heads on the verso o f this drawing, the more highly finished
a broad date bracket for the painting. Pignatti placed the version seems to be for a youthful cleric, such as those that appear i n The
in Vicenza toward the end o f the 1750s by comparison w i t h Confirmation, c. 1740s, or Monks, Canons, and Friars in Venice,
other dated works. dated 1761, both i n the Museo Querini Stampalia, Venice (Pig
natti 1969, pis. 149, 221).

64 Italian School fa LONGHI

26 R E C T O
l6 V E R S O
Attributed to Andrea Mantegna
Isola di Carturo, near Padua, 1430/31Mantua 1506

resumed to have been born at Isola d i Carturo, Ducale, carried out between 1465 and 1474. I n 1466 and 1467 he
Andrea Mantegna had by 1442 moved to nearby made two trips to Florence, where he evidently looked at the
Padua, where he was apprenticed to the painter work o f the Florentine painter Andrea del Castagno (before
Francesco Squarcione (c. 1394-1468 or after). Mantegna devel 1419-1457), as reflected i n his boldly foreshortened painting The
oped an intense interest i n classical antiquity and a precise, Dead Christ, c. 1490 (Milan, Pinacoteca d i Brera). I n 1488 M a n
sculptural style o f painting, both o f which were shaped by the tegna traveled to Rome to pursue his study o f classical antiqui
intellectual culture o f Padua and by its great sculptural master ties, returning two years later to Mantua, where he spent the rest
pieces by Donatello (1386/87-1466). These influences appear i n of his life. Later paintingssuch as the Parnassus o f 1495/96-97
Mantegnas early works, such as the San Zeno Altarpiece o f and The Triumph of Virtue o f 1499-1502 (both Paris, Louvre),
1456-59 (Verona, San Zeno) and The Agony in the Garden o f for the studiolo (private domestic chamber) o f Isabella d'Este
c. 1460 (London, National Gallery). H e moved to Mantua i n depart from the geometric severity o f his early style, exhibiting a
1460 to become court painter to the Gonzaga family. One o f his more natural form o f classicism. Mantegna was also the most
principal commissions from the Mantuan period is the fanciful, important Italian printmaker o f the fifteenth century.
illusionistic decoration o f the Camera degli Sposi i n the Palazzo

27 Two Male Figures Standing THE DRAWING W A S F I R S T published by George Goldner

(1994) as a preparatory study for Mantegnas altarpiece The
(recto); Man Reclining and Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints in San Zeno, Verona,
Other Studies (verso) of 1456-59 (Lightbown 1986, pp. 4 0 6 - 7 , no. 9, figs. 3 6 - 4 2 ) .
H e pointed out an undoubted relationship between the right-
Pen and brown ink, with some traces of another drawing in hand figure i n the drawing and that o f Saint John the Baptist at
black chalk (recto); pen and brown ink, with some black the right o f the altarpiece, as well as a parallel between the reclin
chalk underdrawing (verso); H : 20.5 cm (8/16 in.); W: 12.9 cm
ing pose o f a figure on the verso and the foremost soldier i n the
(5/16 in.)
Resurrection predella panel o f this same work. He did, however,
92.GA.14 introduce a note o f caution i n observing that "the two saints on
the recto do not appear i n the painting w i t h similar identities"
(p. 372). I n pursuing his discussion o f the drawing, Goldner
Zaccaria Sagredo(?) and thence by descent in the Sagredo
mentioned similarities to other figures i n works by Mantegna,
family, Venice; Jean-Jacques de Boissieu(?), Lyon; private
collection, Geneva; art market, New York; art market, including some i n the now partly destroyed fresco cycle i n the
Lugano. Ovetari Chapel i n the church o f the Eremitani, Padua (contract
issued 1448; Mantegnas first recorded payment 1449; terminus
ante for his involvement January 1457). These include the figure
of a Roman soldier i n the middle ground o f The Execution of
BIBLIOGRAPHY Saint James (Lightbown 1986, pis. 15, 20), who holds a shield
Heinemann 1991, p. 32, no. 344, fig. 33 (as Bellini); Journal decorated w i t h a head w i t h bat wings, a m o t i f that recalls the
(1993), p. 129, no. 44; Goldner 1993, p. 176 n. 1; Goldner Medusa-like head on the shield i n the drawing (ibid., fig. 15).
1994, pp. 371-79. I n further support o f the drawings connection w i t h the

Inscribed in brown ink, in the bottom right corner, in a work of Mantegna is another figure from the Ovetari cycle, again
seventeenth-century hand, Sc. Fiorentinal Antica, and a soldier holding a shield, who stands i n a similar pose, but i n
beneath the drawing, in the center, on the original Sagredo (?) reverse, to the right o f center, i n Saint James Led to Execution
album page (on which survive the characteristic rounded (ibid., fig. 14), and, moreover, turns his head i n the direction
corner tabs; see also cat. nos. 4-6,12), in a different hand,
of a man standing slightly behind h i m (compare particularly
S.F. . On the verso, with the sheet turned on its side, are
the way one hand is held over the other at the top o f the shield,
various inscriptions in brown ink, perhaps in the artist s hand,
including amor, ualoxa predia emera, domenego, sixgismodus, the arrangement o f the drapery over the forearm, the lighting
Illmo princepi &Ex , and antonio.
and structure o f the musculature o f the torso, the epaulets, and

R . MANTEGNA Italian School 6j

27 R E C T O
27 V E R S O

what appears to be a two-tiered kilt but is i n fact the border As Goldner has suggested, the stylistic parallels w i t h M a n -
o f the lorica, or breastplate, partly overhanging the long tunic tegnas drawing style are best seen i n a comparison w i t h the
beneathstandard dress for a lightly armored Roman soldier). Studies for a Christ at the Column on a double-sided sheet i n
The strong parallels w i t h the Eremitani fresco bring into the Courtauld Institute Galleries, London (inv. 345; London
question a straightforward relationship w i t h the San Zeno altar- and New York 1992, no. 35), and a Seated Man i n the Museum
piece. As mentioned above, there is nothing to indicate that Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam (inv. no. 1.367; Robert
either o f the figures on the recto is i n fact a saint, and though the son 1968, p. 27, p i . X l b ; Goldner 1994, fig. 8; Degenhart and
pose o f the figure on the right o f the drawing is unquestionably Schmitt 1968, vol. 1, pt. 2, no. 266). W h i l e this comparison
dependent on that o f Saint John the Baptist i n the altarpiece, his holds good for the right-hand figure o f the recto study and the
position behind the soldier does not correspond to the painted sketches on the verso, the more finished passages o f drawing
solution. Furthermore, i t would be difficult to justify the pres seen i n the soldier on the left o f the recto seem less consistent
ence o f the other figure, a soldier or military saint, i n the care w i t h his hand. Ironically i t is this part o f the sheet that suggests
fully worked out iconography o f the composition. I n the only the work o f Mantegnas brother-in-law Giovanni Bellini (q.v.),
other pen-and-ink study definitely connected w i t h this project, especially i n the working and reworking o f the shadow o f the
a drawing also i n the Getty Museum (inv. 84.GG.91; Goldner drapery hanging over the soldier s right arm and i n the repeti
1988, no. 22; London and New York 1992, no. 14), which is inci tion o f the contours i n the figures legs and feet (see cat. no. 5).
dentally rather different i n style, the identity o f the figures and Although the style comes close to that o f Mantegna himself,
their relative positions are clearly established (from left to right, there are certain traits that we are unable to reconcile w i t h his
Saint Peter has a short, curly beard; Saint Paul, a long, bifurcated hand, and for this reason we have preferred to describe the draw
one; Saint John the Evangelist is clean-shaven; and Saint Zeno ing as "attributed to Mantegna."
wears a miter). ,

R . M A N T E G N A ?f Italian School 69
Michelangelo Buonarroti
Caprese 1475-Rome 1564

orn i n Caprese, Michelangelo began his training ber o f the Medici family), Michelangelo returned to Florence to
as a painter i n 1488 i n the workshop o f Domenico work on projects for the Medici church o f San Lorenzo. H e
Ghirlandaio (1448/49-1494) i n Florence. The fol began w i t h designs for the church facade, but the commission
lowing year he joined the "academy" established by Lorenzo de' was canceled by the patrons i n 1519. The following year he was
Medici, where, apparently under the tutelage o f Bertoldo d i ordered to build a new funerary chapel at San Lorenzo (the new
Giovanni (c. 1430/40-1491), he studied sculpture, copying both sacristy), i n which he was to construct tombs o f two deceased
ancient and contemporary examples. Michelangelo left for Ven Medici dukes, Lorenzo and Giuliano. I n 1524 he was diverted
ice before 1494, when the Medici were expelled from Florence yet again, this time by the newly elected Medici pope, Clement
(two years after Lorenzo's death), and from there he continued V I I , to build the Biblioteca Laurenziana over the cloisters o f San
on to Bologna, staying i n the city for about a year. I n 1496 he Lorenzo. Because o f the political instability i n Florence, Michel
was summoned to Rome, where he carved the marble statues angelo was not able to complete any of these projects as planned,
Bacchus o f c. 1496-97 (Florence, Museo Nazionale del Bargello) and after the death o f Pope Clement V I I , i n 1534, he departed
and the Piet o f 1498-99 (Rome, Saint Peter's). Returning to for Rome, where he spent most o f the remaining thirty years o f
Florence i n 1501, he received a number o f important commis his life. Major works from this late period include the fresco The
sions, including the marble David, completed i n 1504 (Florence, Last Judgment on the altar wall o f the Sistine Chapel (1534-41)
Galleria dell'Accademia), and the painting o f the H o l y Family and the frescoes i n the Pauline Chapel (1542-50). Beginning i n
known as the Doni Tondo (Florence, Uffizi), o f 1503/7. As the 1546, he worked extensively on architectural projects, including
leading sculptor o f his time and one o f the foremost painters, the rebuilding o f Saint Peters and the Capitoline H i l l . I n 1563,
he was called back to Rome i n 1505 by Pope Julius I I . H e was a year before his death, the Florentine Accademia del Disegno
employed first to erect Julius's tomb, a protracted commission was founded w i t h Michelangelo as its symbolic head. U p o n his
that the artist finished only i n 1545 (and even then only a small death, Giorgio Vasari (q.v.) and other members o f the academy
part of his original design was completed). Another great scheme organized elaborate exequies, at which he was celebrated as the
for Julius I I was the fresco decoration o f the ceiling o f the Sistine greatest practitioner o f the three main visual arts: sculpture,
Chapel i n the Vatican, which Michelangelo carried out from 1508 painting, and architecture.
to 1512. Following the election o f the next pope, Leo X (a mem

28 The Holy Family with the Infant EXHIBITIONS

The Lawrence Gallery . . . Tenth Exhibition: A Catalogue of
Saint John the BaptiU (recto); One Hundred Original Drawings by Michael Angelo, Messrs
Woodburn Gallery, London, 1836, no. 11: "The Repose
Amorous Putti at Play; Head a noble composition of the Virgin, Infant Christ, St. John,
of a Bird (verso) and other figures. This superb study has some analogy with
the splendid basso rilievo by Michael Angelo, which was left
to the Royal Academy by the late Sir George Beaumont. It
Pen and brown ink, red chalk, and black chalk over stylus
is executed in black and red chalk, and touched with the
underdrawing (recto); pen and brown ink (verso); H : 27.9 cm
pen; it has several pentimentos, and on the reverse are many
(11 in.); W: 39.1 cm (15% in.)
fine studies of sporting boys, admirably drawn with the pen.
Superb. [. . . ] From the Collections ofM. Buonaroti, and the
93.GB.51 (see plate 3) Chevalier Vicar' (a copy of the Lawrence Gallery catalogue
in the Department of Prints and Drawings of the British
PROVENANCE Museum, shelf mark L.8.31, is annotated with the price of
Leonardo Buonarroti (Michelangelo's nephew), Florence; by 250 guineas); London 1993-94, no. 28.
descent to Filippo Buonarroti, Florence; Jean-Baptiste-Joseph
Wicar; Samuel Woodburn, London; Thomas Dimsdale,
London; Sir Thomas Lawrence, London; Samuel Woodburn;
Eustace Robb, Oxfordshire, England; by descent (sale,
Christies, London, 6 July 1993, lot 120).

70 Italian School ?f MICHELANGELO

28 R E C T O

BIBLIOGRAPHY is more probably an object covered by a drapery. I n the back

Athenaeum, 16 July 1836, p. 507 (unsigned review): "The ground to the left stand two angels, holding an open book,
Repose; greatness of idea and style, approaching to grotesque,
while to the right the mule drinks from a shallow bowl, its reins
in the Virgin and Children; Joseph is likewise the magnifico
held loosely i n Joseph's right hand. The lines forming an inverted
of contemplation, in rather too resolute a posture of repose";
Hirst 1983, p. 556; Hirst 1984, p. 91; Joannides 1995, p. 7. U-shape visible between Joseph and the mule, which could be
read as another saddle or some baggage, are i n fact revisions to
On the verso, inscribed near the center, in brown ink, Tempo the arrangement o f the drapery covering Josephs posterior,
verra ancor.
which the artist brought progressively inward.
The degree o f technical complexity achieved i n this study is
uncommon i n Michelangelo's drawn oeuvre. Rarely d i d the artist
THE DRAWING O N T H E R E C T O represents the legendary combine so many different materials i n a single sheet (cf. Tolnay
meeting o f the H o l y Family w i t h the Infant Saint John the Bap 1976-80, vol. 2, nos. 237 verso, 239, 283). I n scale and elabora
tist on their journey back from Egypt, where they had fled to tion the study conveys the impression o f a work for presenta
escape the wrath o f Herod. The Virgin, kneeling, looks down at tion, but i t is nevertheless very much a working drawing, w i t h
Saint John, blessing h i m w i t h her right hand. He i n turn gazes varying degrees o f focus, layer upon layer o f painstaking work i n
at the Christ Child, who is shown twisting back to suckle at different media, and numerous pentimenti.
the Virgins left breast. Behind this group Saint Joseph looks on, Although the central group and part o f the figure o f Saint
leaning one elbow on what at first appears to be a pack saddle Joseph were first drawn i n blind w i t h the stylus, slightly to the
(though this is unlikely since the mule is already saddled) but left o f their present position, the lateral figures (i.e., the angels

MICHELANGELO ?f Italian School ji

to the left and the mule to the right), which are i n gray chalk, w i t h different alternatives for key passages i n the central group.
appear to have no indentations beneath. W h a t seems to have Most conspicuous is the pentimento for the Virgins head, origi
followed the stylus work was the drawing i n red chalk, which nally drawn looking straight ahead, w i t h centrally parted, curly
also situates the central group slightly to the left o f its present hair (see fig. 28a). Her right arm was first drawn lower, and the
position. There is a red-chalk pentimento for the backside o f the pen work o f the foreshortened fingers o f this hand and the shad
Baptist farther to the left, as well as indications o f the raised ing o f the underside o f the forearm, together w i t h the drapery
right hand o f the V i r g i n . Red-chalk pentimenti for different hanging down from the arm, are still visible overlapping the head
placements o f the Virgins head are also evident. Probably the and chest of the Baptist. Another pen-and-ink pentimento is evi
first attempt, again farther to the left, directly above the figure s dent for the left arm, which was also drawn lowered, resting on
right hand, is an arc, w i t h very faint indications o f the Virgins the draped object at the center. Michelangelo was apparently
facial features, looking downward. The head is apparently also satisfied w i t h the drawing o f the arms and head o f Christ, how
drawn w i t h the face looking directly outward, as well as down ever, and the Virgins knees and surrounding drapery, the pen
toward the Baptist. lines o f which seem to have been left more or less intact.
Even after this summary red chalk work, the drawing was One s understanding o f the drawing is complicated by the
still at a very early stage, and Michelangelo proceeded to block fact that the artist deliberately scratched out many o f the pen
i n the entire composition w i t h a gray-black chalk, drawing the lines as his idea evolved, and i t is obvious w h y he w o u l d do so,
angels, the figure o f Saint Joseph, and the mule. Passages such as since repetition o f such lines would have darkened areas that he
the Virgins left hand and the shadow behind the backside o f the needed i n highlight (see, for example, the right contour o f the
Baptist show how the gray chalk lines cover those i n red. This body o f the Christ C h i l d and the Virgins left shoulder). These
seems to have been the moment at which Michelangelo used the erasures had almost the effect o f white heightening since they
pen to strengthen the forms o f the central group. The pen draw brought back the lightness o f the color o f the paper. The traces
ing, mostly done w i t h a particularly finely cut nib, is perhaps the o f light brown i n k remaining i n the scratched-out passages har
hardest o f all to interpret because it was not necessarily carried monize i n hue w i t h the red chalk, enhancing the effect o f an
out consecutively. Michelangelo used the medium to experiment orange-red blush i n the figures i n the central group.

FIGURE 2 8 A . Detail of cat. no. 28.

72 Italian School ?f MICHELANGELO

Louvre drawing. Joseph's crossed arms and enlarged hands i n the
latter work also find echoes i n the equivalent passage i n the Getty
drawing. Although the recto o f the Louvre sheet, which does not
include Saint Joseph, is less immediately reminiscent o f the
Getty drawing, the notion o f a suckling child (the Virgins breast
is bare), the Virgins twisting posture, and, above all, the sharply
modeled drapery, again suggest that the two sheets were made at
about the same time.
Closely related stylistically to both the Getty and the Lou
vre sheets is the drawing The Virgin and Child with Three Angels
i n the Accademia, Venice (inv. 199 recto; ibid., no. 244 recto;
Prosperi 1989, no. 2). The singing angels, indicated i n lower
relief i n the background, are close cousins of the two i n the back
ground o f the Getty drawing (who are themselves reminiscent o f
the attendant angels i n a much earlier work, the Manchester
Madonna, i n the National Gallery, London). C o m m o n to all
three works (Accademia and Getty rectos; Louvre verso) is the
Virgins left hand, w i t h its elongated, crooked forefinger, remi
niscent o f the pose o f N i g h t i n the Medici Chapel (and i n a
related drawing i n the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, inv. 11 309
verso; Tolnay 1976-80, vol. 2, no. 213 verso).
I n addition to sharing many points i n common w i t h con
temporary works, the Getty drawing also reveals Michelangelo's
nostalgia for themes and ideas dating from his earlier years i n
2 8 B . Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564). Holy
Florence. Both the V i r g i n herself and the Christ C h i l d i n the
Family. Red chalk. H : 29 cm (uVie in.); W: 20.3 cm (8 in.). Paris,
Louvre, Departement des Arts Graphiques inv. 629 verso. Getty sheet contain echoes o f the serpentine contrapposto o f the
Virgins pose i n the artists precocious Doni Tondo of 1503/7 (par
ticularly the Virgins kneeling attitude and the twist of the Christ
Child's head and his raised arms). One is also reminded o f Leo
I t seems fair to say that the final stage o f the drawing was nardo's Virgin and Child with Saint Anne, the cartoon for which
the application o f oiled black chalk, w i t h which Michelangelo (London, National Gallery N G 6337) Michelangelo certainly
picked out crucial areas o f dark to complement the highlights would have seen when i t was displayed i n Florence i n the first
and bring the whole into focus. These marks are distinctive decade o f the Cinquecento. The bold foreshortening o f the V i r
under the chin and i n the neck o f the Virgin, i n the folds o f gin's right hand also has a Leonardesque flavor (compare the
drapery around her midriff, and i n the legs and groin o f the Madonna of the Rocks, versions of which are i n the Louvre, Paris,
Christ Child. and the National Gallery, London), as does the thrusting pose o f
Although no finished work o f this particular subject is the young Baptist, which, as Michael Hirst (1983) has pointed
known, the drawing fits well, i n both style and iconography, out, was also used for one o f the children i n the red-chalk
w i t h a series o f drawings o f the Madonna and C h i l d made by Bacchanal i n the Royal Library, Windsor Castle, o f c. 1533 (inv.
Michelangelo around 1530-32 (see Tolnay 1976-80, vol. 2, 12777; ibid., no. 338).
nos. 239-48), and he may have been contemplating a painted The inscription Tempo verra ancor (time w i l l come again)
composition o f this theme at around this time. O f the many on the verso is from the third stanza o f a canzone by Petrarch
comparisons i t would be possible to make w i t h this group o f {Canzoniere, no. 126), i n which the poet dreams o f being laid to
works, two sheets are particularly worthy o f discussion. The first rest i n the place where he first met his beloved Laura. As
is a double-sided drawing i n the Louvre, Paris (inv. 629; ibid., Michelangelo's pupil and biographer Ascanio Condivi informs
no. 246), the verso o f which again shows the H o l y Family w i t h us (1553, fol. 45v), the artist knew most o f Dante's Divine Comedy
Saint John the Baptist (see fig. 28b). Although the V i r g i n is by heart and was almost as familiar w i t h Petrarch. M a n y sheets
seated w i t h the Christ C h i l d on her lap and he is not suckling i n the recognized corpus o f drawings contain such fragments o f
but instead blesses the Infant Saint John, certain details suggest poetry, including a drawing i n the Louvre o f as early as 1501-2,
that the drawing must have been made close i n time to the Getty w i t h a rendering o f the opening words o f Petrarch's famous
drawing and may even have been a preliminary idea for the scene late sonnet 269, "Rotta b l'alta colonna" (inv. 714 recto; Tolnay
more fully elaborated there. The Virgins left forearm i n the 1976-80, vol. i , no. 19 recto). Although the attribution o f the
Getty drawing was, as discussed above, originally drawn low Getty inscription has i n the past been questioned, i t neverthe
ered, i n a pose exceedingly similar to that o f the V i r g i n i n the less seems likely to us that the artist himself penned the quote,

MICHELANGELO fa Italian School 73

28 V E R S O
almost as a verbal doodle, i n a neater, more regularized version
of his normal script.
The drawings on the verso have also raised doubts i n terms
of their attribution to Michelangelo, but the simplified, geomet
ric style finds many parallels w i t h his undoubtedly authentic
drawings from the third Florentine period. The contrast between
the erudite quotation, w i t h its Neoplatonic overtones, and the
erotic revelry o f the putti on the same sheet (the head and beak
of the bird, furthermore, seeming to make punning reference to
the erect penis o f the putto below), is an irony entirely typical o f
Michelangelo's complex character.
Originally from the group o f drawings bequeathed by
Michelangelo to his nephew Leonardo Buonarroti, the Getty
drawing was among those sold by their descendant Filippo Buo
narroti (1761-1839) to Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Wicar, the notori
ous French painter-collector and Napoleon's official agent i n
charge o f requisitioning works o f art from Italy. Wicar sold the
Michelangelo drawings i n Rome i n 1823 to Samuel Woodburn,
from w h o m they were purchased by the collector Thomas
Dimsdale, for the sum o f 3,000 English pounds. His immediate
death then permitted his rival, the English painter-collector Sir
Thomas Lawrence, to acquire the group, but he himself died
shortly afterward, i n 1830. Lawrence's creditor, Woodburn, then
arranged all the Lawrence material into a series o f exhibitions, i n
the hope that the legendary collection would be bought en bloc
by the British government or some other national institution, at
the greatly reduced price stipulated i n Lawrence's w i l l , an oppor
tunity tragically not seized by any appropriate national body.
Woodburn reluctantly abandoned his aim o f preserving the
Raphael and Michelangelo series intact and i n 1838 resorted to
the sale of 111 drawings by these artists to K i n g W i l l i a m I I of H o l
land. The present drawing may also have been sold at this time.
A number o f Michelangelo drawings from the 1836 exhibition
(including some bought back by Woodburn at K i n g W i l l i a m o f
Holland's sale i n 1850) were included i n Woodburn's posthumous
sale o f drawings from Lawrence's collection, held at Christie's i n
June i860, but the present example was not among them.

MICHELANGELO ?f Italian School 75

Morazzone (Pier Francesco Mazzucchelli)
Morazzone 1573-1625/26

orn i n Morazzone i n Lombardy, Pier Francesco romeo. Morazzone is perhaps best known for his illusionistic
Mazzucchelli moved to Rome as a young man. frescoes that served as backdrops for terra-cotta figure sculp
Thereafter he probably studied w i t h the Sienese tures i n the sacri monti (sacred mountain sites) at Varese, Varallo,
painter Ventura Salimbeni (1568 -1613) and perhaps also w i t h the and Orta. A r o u n d 1612 Morazzone completed four paintings
Cavaliere d'Arpino (1568-1640). By 1598 he had returned to devoted to the Life o f the V i r g i n for the Cappella della Cintura,
Lombardy, where he spent the remainder o f his career painting Sant'Agostino, Como. His illusionistic skills are perhaps most
frescoes and altarpieces for churches and other religious organi evident i n the daring foreshortening o f The Pentecost o f c. 1615
zations throughout the region. H i s w o r k was strongly affected (Milan, Castello Sforzesco), originally painted for the vault o f
by the piety and mysticism o f the teaching o f Saint Carlo Bor- the Sala delle Congregazioni, M i l a n .

29 A Banquet (EHher before THE S U B J E C T O F T H I S D R A W I N G has been identified as the

Marriage at Cana, but this cannot be correct since the key figure
Ahasuerus?) o f Christ is absent and the main focus is o n the woman declaim
ing i n the foreground, whose presence cannot be explained i n
Gray and brown wash over black chalk, heightened with
white body color, lightly squared in black chalk, on two terms o f the New Testament story (she is surely not the Virgin).
sheets of paper; H : 35.6 cm (14 in.); W: 84.5 cm (33 A in.)
Morazzone d i d paint the Marriage at Cana (the picture is i n the
Cappella della Cintura, Sant'Agostino, Como, w i t h two related
90.GG.117 modelli i n British private collections; Young 1976, figs. 80, 81),
but as one would expect, Christ and the V i r g i n are not only pres
ent but are also the pivotal figures i n the composition. The
Private collection; sale, Christie s, London, 8 December 1987,
lot 100; art market, London. scene represented i n the present drawing is more likely an O l d
Testament story such as that o f Esther, w h o interceded for the
EXHIBITIONS Jews at the banquet she prepared for K i n g Ahasuerus and his
European Drawings: Recent Acquisitions, Hazlitt, Gooden & chief minister, Haman.
Fox, London, 1988, no. 21; New York 1993, no. 76; London
The drawing is closely related to an oil modello attributed to
1993-94, no. 29.
Morazzone i n a private collection i n Rome (Varese 1962, no. 81,
BIBLIOGRAPHY pi. 219). I n view o f the fact that i t is among the most finished o f
Journal 19 (1991), p. 158, no. 49. Morazzone's drawings and is squared for transfer, i t is not sur
prising that the oil sketch adheres to this design almost exactly,
departing only i n the inclusion, above and behind the figures, o f
a grandiose architectural structure, which provides an appropri
ate setting for the narrative. I t is not impossible that this picture
is after a lost original.
M i n a Gregori (in ibid., p. 102, under no. 81) dated the w o r k
late i n Morazzone's career, to the early 1620s.

76 Italian School ?f MORAZZONE

Attributed to Francesco Morone
Verona 1471-1529

F rancesco Morone was born i n Verona, where he

spent his entire career. He was taught by his father,
Domenico Morone (c. 1442-c. 1518), though from
the very outset his w o r k displayed two fundamental characteris
tics that originated elsewhere: a robust feeling for form, from
Montagna (c. 1450-1523) and Giovanni Buonconsiglio (1465/
7?-535/38?). His style d i d not develop much during the three
decades o f his activity. His two dated altarpieces, o f 1502 (Milan,
Brera) and 1503 (Verona, Santa Maria i n Organo), both repre
senting the V i r g i n and C h i l d Enthroned w i t h Saints, show the
Mantegna (q.v.), and a fine sense o f color, deriving predomi woodenness o f his figures and his liking for geometrically
nantly from the w o r k o f two Vicentine painters: Bartolommeo arranged compositions. His w o r k as a draftsman is little known.

30 Standing Saint intended to occupy a relatively high position, has not been car
ried through i n the upper reaches, which i n fact are flimsily
Red chalk; H : 18.8 cm (7% in.); W: 9.8 cm (3% in.) drawn, w i t h particularly poor articulation at the elbows and at
the junction between the head and shoulders. W h e n acquired,
the drawing was thought to date from the late fifteenth century

and to echo the style o f the Venetian Giovanni Bellini (q.v.),
Zaccaria Sagredo (?) and thence by descent in the Sagredo although only a handful o f red-chalk drawings were produced i n
family, Venice; Jean-Jacques de Boissieu(?), Lyon; private Venice at this date.
collection, Lugano; art market, Zurich. Mauro Lucco (letter to the department, August 1996) has
pointed out the unquestionable similarity o f the drawing to the
work of the Veronese painter Francesco Morone, whose paintings
combine the influences o f the Vicentine painters Bartolommeo
BIBLIOGRAPHY Montagna and Giovanni Buonconsiglio w i t h those of Mantegna,
Journal 20 (1992), p. 162, no. 55 (as attributed to Cima da Carpaccio (q.v.), and Antonello da Messina (c. 1430-1479). The
Conegliano). same delicate figures w i t h large heads, small hands, and flimsy,
even flattened, articulation o f the anatomy are found i n several
pictures by Morone. Virgin and Child with Two Female Saints,
THE SAINT, H O L D I N G A leather-bound volume and a quill formerly w i t h the Schaeffer Gallery, New York, offers particu
pen, is standing on what appears to be a stone pedestal, some larly compelling parallels not just i n the type o f figure but also
what abstractly drawn. W h i l e this may give the impression o f a in the finely wrought folds o f the drapery, especially o f the left-
sculptural project, the figure itself does not seem to have the nec hand saint, and the protruding semicircular construction o f the
essary physical substance, and the drawing is more likely con steps o f the Virgins throne. The haughty facial expression o f the
nected w i t h a painting, perhaps a sacra conversazione. Such saint i n the Getty drawing, w i t h downcast eyes and slight expres
architectural elements were frequently introduced into altar- sive tilt to the head, is echoed i n that o f the V i r g i n i n The Virgin
pieces o f the period, precisely to enhance the impression o f and Child with a Goldfinch i n the Bodemuseum, Berlin. A draw
monumentality or to elevate the central devotional subject above ing assumed to be by Morone i n the Albertina, Vienna (inv.
subsidiary figures. The low perspective i n the bottom half o f 17019; Venice 1971, no. 2), makes further interesting comparison.
the drawing, which suggests that the eventual painting was

78 Italian School ATTRIB. TO MORONE

Girolamo Muziano
Acquafredda, near Brescia, 1532Rome 1592

orn i n Acquafredda, near Brescia, Girolamo M u best known for his altarpieces and other religious compositions,
ziano was trained i n Padua from 1544 to 1546 and such as The Raising of Lazarus o f 1555 (Rome, Pinacoteca Vati-
came into contact w i t h the w o r k o f Lambert Su- cana), which show the influence o f Michelangelo (q.v.). M u
stris (c. 1510/15-after 1560) and Domenico Campagnola (1500- ziano worked not only i n Rome but also i n Orvieto, Foligno,
1564); until 1549 he was i n Venice, where he was influenced by and Ferrara i n the late 1550s and 1560s. A m o n g his last paintings
T i t i a n (485/9?-576). From 1549 he worked i n Rome as a is The Donation of the Keys to Saint Peter o f c. 1584 (Rome, Santa
landscape painter. Responding to the growing market for popu Maria degli Angeli). Muziano s landscape style, which owes
lar devotional images, he also supplied compositional drawings much to T i t i a n and Campagnola, was disseminated by Cort s
for engravings to Cornells Cort (1533-1578). As a painter, he is engravings and was widely imitated by northern artists.

31 Rocky Landscape with a Waterfall sold at Sotheby's, London [28 March 1968, lot 20], but this
information is incorrect).
Pen and brown ink; H : 48 cm (i8 /i6 in.); W: 38.3 cm

Three further variations o f this composition exist. The

(15/16 in.); a crease bisects the sheet horizontally.
most complete, i n that it includes a saint standing near a cross i n
the bottom left corner, is i n the Frits Lugt Collection, Fonda-
tion Custodia, Institut Neerlandais, Paris (fig. 31a; Byam Shaw
PROVENANCE 1983, vol. i , no. 133); the landscape on the right, however, seems
Jonathan Richardson Sr., London (Lugt 2184; his mount[?], less resolved than it appears i n the present sheet. James Byam
cut down); E. Parsons & Sons(?) (five-pointed star mark like Shaw suggested that the saint i n the Paris drawing, w h o m he
Lugt 2881 and Suppl., but in pink); Kurt Meissner, Zurich;
tentatively identified as Saint Hilary (on account o f the inscrip
British Rail Pension Fund, London (sale, Sotheby's, London,
tion, S. Larion, i n the lower left corner), may have been added
2 July 1990, lot 20); art market, London.
later, i n a space left blank for this purpose, since the color o f the
EXHIBITIONS ink used for the figure differs from that used i n the rest o f the
Bremen and Zurich 1967, no. 63; Stanford, Detroit, and New drawing. A drawing i n the Fogg A r t Museum, Cambridge,
York 1969-70, no. 23. Massachusetts (inv. 1918.15; Mongan and Sachs 1940, vol. 1, no.
130; Cleveland 1981, no. 56, repr.), is an almost exact replica o f
Haverkamp-Begemann 1972, pp. 165-66; Byam Shaw 1983, the Fondation Custodia study but w i t h a blank space where the
vol. i , under no. 133; Journal z\ (1993), p. 134, no. 53; Bremen saint should be. This is most likely a copy o f the Lugt sheet,
1994, p. 143, under no. 66. omitting the figure o f the saint (the outline o f the saint's raised
left hand and the protruding fold o f his drapery below are
On the old mount, inscribed along the bottom, just left of
already anticipated by the shape o f the blank space). A third
center, and repeated lower and to the right, in graphite, Steph.
variant, i n which the composition is curtailed on all four sides
Delia Bella.
and which may therefore have been trimmed at the edges, is i n
the Uffizi, Florence (inv. 521p; D a Como 1930, repr. p. 33). I t
appears, from fragmentary marks at the left edge, that i n this
THE DRAWING S H O W S a stream descending between rocky drawing too a space may have been left for the saint.
banks i n a mountain landscape, w i t h a small waterfall i n the cen The Getty and Fondation Custodia drawings may have been
ter, spanned by a bridge. A protruding ridge on the far bank made as preparatory studies for a print similar i n type to the
leads the eye to a craggy peak i n the distance. The foreground o f series o f seven penitent saints i n large-format landscapes made
the drawing has not been worked up to the same degree as the by Cornells Cort after designs by Muziano, traditionally assigned
rest, particularly i n the left corner. A copy o f the present draw to the period 1573-75 (Bierens de Haan 1948, nos. 113-19;
ing, inscribed Del Tempesta, was sold at Sotheby's, London Florence and Amsterdam 1995-96, p. 156 n. 6). The present
(9 A p r i l 1970, lot 265; this catalogue cites another copy, formerly drawing is almost precisely the same size as the preparatory
i n the collection o f Mrs. Peter Somervell, also said to have been studies for two o f these prints, also i n the Fondation Custodia

80 Italian School & MUZIANO

The differences between the Fondation Custodia and Getty
drawings can be explained i n terms o f an attempt by Muziano
to clarify the various elements o f his landscape. I n the present
study, which concentrates more on the effects o f light than on
descriptive detail, Muziano smoothed and enlarged the planes o f
the rocks, abandoned the elongated triangular form (a segment
of rock or flowing water?) between the main cliff to the left and
the protruding rock, and omitted the stones that make up the
arch o f the bridge. There would have been no need for h i m to
work up the left foreground because that passage had already
been resolved elsewhere.
The reason the composition was not ultimately engraved
remains unknown. As Sonja Brink has pointed out, there are
several finished pen-and-ink drawings by Muziano o f large-
format landscapes w i t h saints from this same series for which no
corresponding print exists (Bremen 1994, p. 143, under no. 66).
Besides the Saint Jerome i n the Kunsthalle at Bremen (inv. 37/118;
ibid., no. 66), which she published for the first time, these
include Saint Benedict i n the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam (inv.
RP-T-1954-144; Amsterdam 1981, no. 92; Florence and Amster
dam 1995-96, p. 156 n. 8); Saint Jerome at Chatsworth (inv. 228;
Jaffe 1994, Venetian and North Italian Schools, no. 895); and Saint
FIGURE 31A. Girolamo Muziano (15321592). Saint in a Rocky Jerome with Two Angels i n the Musee de la Ville, Rennes (inv.
Landscape. Pen and brown ink, with gray wash. H : 51.1 cm (1974
19/3; Modena and Rennes 1990, no. 41).
in.); W: 37.4 cm (14% in.). Paris, Frits Lugt Collection, Institut
Neerlandais inv. 3875. Another landscape drawing by Muziano, i n the Rijksmu
seum, is close i n style to that i n the Getty, showing a similar
composition but i n horizontal format, including the motifs o f a
waterfall to the left, this time emerging from beneath an arched
(inv. 4482A-B; Byam Shaw 1983, nos. 131-32), and given the rock, and a serpentine ridge to the right (inv. RP-T-1981-33;
engraving-like style, i t is likely that i t was conceived i n the same Florence and Amsterdam 1995-96, no. 69). Whether it repre
connection. The amount o f work required to prepare a large- sents the germ o f the idea pursued i n the Getty and Lugt draw
scale copperplate engraving is easily forgotten today. I t should ings is perhaps worth further consideration.
come as no surprise, therefore, that an artist who furnished Finally, i t is interesting to note that both the Lugt and the
designs for a whole series o f such compositions would explore Getty drawings passed through the hands o f the London dealers
each one carefully before passing on his finished designs and that E. Parsons & Sons (they both bear the Parsons stamp), though
he would render the drawing i n a technique readily translatable presumably not at the same time, since they bore different old
to the engraved line, as i n the present study. attributions, one to T i t i a n and the other to Stefano della Bella.

82 Italian School ?f M U Z I A N O
Circle of Pietro Novelli, called il Monrealese
Monreale 1603-Palermo 1647

ietro Novelli was born i n Palermo, where he have occurred between 1622 and 1625, and he was again i n Rome
trained w i t h his father, Pietro Antonio Novelli and i n Naples around 1630-33. O f lasting impact were the
(1568-1625). I n his youth he may have partici works he saw i n Rome, the paintings o f Raphael (1483-1520),
pated, w i t h Domenico Fiasella (1589-1669) and Nicolas Tour- Caravaggio (1573-1610), and the Emilians Giovanni Lanfranco
nier (1590-1638/39), i n the cycle o f paintings i n the oratory o f (1582-1647) a n
d Domenichino (q.v.). O n his return to Sicily i n
San Stefano, Palermo. O f crucial importance to Novelli s artistic 1637 Novelli soon established himself as the most important
development was the visit to Sicily i n 1624 o f the Flemish painter on the island, practicing a style strongly redolent o f
painter A n t h o n y van Dyck (1599-1641), whose altarpiece The Caravaggio and Jusepe de Ribera (q.v.), but w i t h reminiscences
Madonna of the Rosary (Palermo, Oratory o f Santa Maria del of the sweetness and elegance of van Dyck s manner.
Rosario) is still i n situ. Novelli s first journey to Rome seems to

32 The Agony in the Garden spirit he prayed the more urgently; and his sweat was like clots o f
blood falling to the ground."
Pen and brown ink and brown wash over traces of black W h e n acquired, the drawing was given to a Spanish painter
chalk; remnants of old ruled framing lines in dark brown ink active i n Cordoba and Seville, Juan Valdes Leal (1622-1690),
along all four edges; H : 28.8 cm (11% in.); W: 21.3 cm (8% in.)
and was tentatively published as such i n the Getty Journal. This
94.GA.96 attribution was advanced largely by comparison w i t h his painted
works, since he is little known as a draftsman. Two pictures i n
PROVENANCE particular were cited as showing some compositional and sty
Anton Schmid, Munich and Vienna; art market, New York. listic parallelsThe Liberation of Saint Peter o f c. 1656 i n the
cathedral at Seville (Brown 1991, pp. 267-68, fig. 253) and The

None. Annunciation o f c. 1661 i n the University o f Michigan Museum

of Art, A n n Arbor (Mallory 1990, p. 263, fig. 203)both o f
BIBLIOGRAPHY which share the same visionary subject matter and dynamic
Journal $ (1995), p. 80, no. 33 (as attributed to Valdes Leal). treatment o f the figures.
I n its lightness o f touch and i n the gracefulness o f the
Inscribed by the artist on the banderole held by the two
figures, there is unquestionably a "Spanish" feel to the drawing,
winged angels in the upper center of the sheet, in brown ink,
ambulabis in fortitudinis usque ad mortem; in the bottom left but these stylistic traits are perhaps better placed w i t h i n the
corner, traces of an inscription, scratched out. On the reverse ambit o f the Palermitan Pietro Novelli, called i l Monrealese, the
of the old backing, top left, in black chalk, now largely leading painter o f the seventeenth century i n Sicily, which,
illegible, inscribed Caisse a 2 G (underlined twice), followed together w i t h Naples, was then under the suzerainty o f Spain.
by a symbol like a raised plus (also underlined twice), net,
The Parmese artist Giovanni Lanfranco (1582-1647), long active
and three quarters down, to the left of center, also in black
chalk, 211; below this, in an old hand, in brown ink, in Naples during his later career, as well as the Neapolitan Mas
Gesii nelVorto / di Correggio (presumably a reference to the simo Stanzione (1585?1656?), seem to have had a strong impact
composition of Correggio s well-known picture, today in on Novelli s style as a draftsman. Some o f the characteristics o f
Apsley House, London). Novelli s economical, somewhat abstract use o f line, w i t h its
graceful curves and shorthand abbreviations for various forms
(including, for example, the features o f the face rendered as little
THE SUBJECT IS TAKEN from the Gospel o f Saint Luke circles, particularly distinctive i n the head o f Christ), seem
(22:41-44): "He himself [i.e., Christ] withdrew from them [the echoed i n this drawing. These stylistic features compare well
sleeping Apostles] about a stone s throw, knelt down, and began w i t h Novelli s Saint Francis and the WolfofGubbio, the composi
to pray: 'Father, i f it be thy w i l l , take this cup away from me. Yet tion i n the upper section o f the verso o f a double-sided sheet i n
not my w i l l but thine be done.' A n d now there appeared to h i m the Palazzo Abatellis, Palermo (inv. 5254; Palermo 1995-96, no.
an angel from heaven bringing h i m strength, and i n anguish o f 76), the other side o f which is connected w i t h his fresco Daniel

C I R C L E O F N O V E L L I ?f Italian School 83

in the Lions Den, painted i n 1629 on the ceiling o f the refectory called i l Monocolo d i Racalmuto (1579-1647), whose pen-and-
of San Martino delle Scale, Palermo; other parallels may be wash study The Rest on the Flight into Egyptalso i n the Palazzo
found i n the pen drawing Scene of Sacrifice, formerly on the Lon Abatellis (inv. S.L.M. "D'Anna," n. 26; Palermo 1995-96,
don art market (sale, Sotheby's, 13 March 1975, lot 39). no. 75)has the same erratic shading w i t h the pen i n some o f
There are perhaps even stronger links w i t h the style o f the areas o f wash, the same angular draperies, and the same del
Novelli s older contemporary and fellow Sicilian Pietro d'Asaro, icate but impossibly positioned fingers.

84 Italian School ?f CIRCLE OF N O V E L L I

Lelio Orsi
Novellara c. 15111587

orn i n Novellara, Lelio Orsi is recorded i n 1536 as Venice i n 1553 and to Rome the following year. H e returned to
having decorated the triumphal arches erected for Novellara i n 1555 and worked there on several architectural and
the entry into Reggio Emilia o f Ercole d'Este. decorative programs, including the fresco decorations for the
The fresco decoration o f the Castello della Querciola (Reggio Casino d i Sotto o f 1563-67, a villa near Novellara commis
Emilia) o f c. 1535 is also attributed to the young Lelio. I n 1546 he sioned by Alfonso Gonzaga, who was count o f Novellara. Orsi s
was banished from Reggio for his alleged complicity i n the mur rather personal, i f not eccentric, style was formed under the
der o f Count Gian Paolo Boiardo and took refuge i n Novellara, influence o f Correggio (q.v.), Michelangelo (q.v.), and Giulio
where he was protected and employed by Francesco I I Gonzaga. Romano (q.v.).
Accompanying Alfonso and Camillo Gonzaga, he traveled to

33 Design for a Frieze with A N U M B E R O F W O R S H I P E R S approach a statue of Jupiter at

the right, bearing various gifts, including a sheep and a ram, as
Worshipers Bringing sacrificial offerings. The design imitates an antique carved bas-
Sacrificial Offerings relief, and the exaggerated chiaroscuro contributes to this effect,
although the rather robust, squat figure types, combined w i t h a
Pen and brown ink and brown wash, heightened with white certain linear delicacy, mitigate the classical feel. This eccentric
body color, partially squared in black chalk, on ocher paper; ity is very much a feature o f the later phase o f Orsi's career. The
H : 22.8 cm (9 in.); W: 40.9 cm (16% in.)
large-headed, gross-featured youth at right, who holds out the
point o f his knife for a woman to touch, is one o f his character
Unidentifiable symbol (a stag or unicorn?). istic types, similar to the satyr i n the d r a w i n g ^ Youth and a Girl
on Horseback i n the National Gallery o f Scotland, Edinburgh
90.GG.132 (inv. D.1622; Reggio Emilia 1987-88, no. 51).
The fictive relief is set into an architectural structure and is
flanked by telamones supporting an entablature. Telamones par
Nathaniel Hone, London (Lugt 2793); private collection,
Lugano; art market, Boston. ticularly similar to that on the right occur i n two drawings i n the
Louvre, Paris (inv. 11116, I I I I 6 B ; ibid., nos. 56, 57), and one i n
EXHIBITIONS the Staatliche Graphische Sammlung, M u n i c h (inv. 12739; ibid.,
Reggio Emilia 1987-88, no. 27. no. 58), although these figures are on ornamental strapwork.
M a n y designs by Orsi for friezes, similarly squared, exist (see, for
example, ibid., nos. 2a-b, 7, 21-26; the drawings are two for
Journal 19 (1991), p. 157, no. 46.
merly i n the collection o f C. R. Rudolf and three i n the Louvre
On the verso, inscribed above the center in brown ink, lelio da [inv. nos. 10405-6,10446, and 10502-5]).
Nuvolara 1/2 (followed by an inverted triangle, the symbol for The drawing may date from the period following Orsi s visit
scudo, i.e., the old price of the drawing). Also on the verso, in
to Rome, i n 1554-55. O n his return, and through the 1560s, he
the top right corner, an unidentified collector s mark, F, L , or
Z(?), stamped in purple ink. completed several architectural and decorative projects i n Novel
lara, the majority o f which no longer survive. The influence o f
Correggio s friezes i n the nave o f San Giovanni Evangehsta i n
Parma, also depicting scenes o f sacrifice, may be detected. The
technique o f pen and brown wash heightened w i t h white on
ocher-colored paper suggests a knowledge o f the drawings o f
Giulio Romano (q.v.) and perhaps o f those i n the same medium
by the Cremonese painter Giulio Campi (q.v.) as well.

ORSI ?f Italian School 85

Francesco Panini
Rome 1738-?

orn i n Rome, Francesco Panini received his artis drawings and paintings show elegant figures i n elaborate archi
tic training from his father, the painter o f views tectural or landscape settings. He supplied drawings to many o f
and ruins Giovanni Paolo Panini (1691-1765). the successful engravers o f the day, including Giuseppe Vasi
Although Francesco's painted oeuvre has not been fully explored, (1710-1782) and Giovanni Volpato (1735-1803). A m o n g them
he seems to have worked i n the style o f his father, as i n The are various views o f Rome, which provide an important record
Interior of Saint Peters o f after 1754 (Cambridge, Fitzwilliam of the city i n the eighteenth century.
Museum). Insofar as i t is possible to ascertain, his independent

34 View of the Farnese Gallery, Rome toward the fresco Perseus and Andromeda, painted by Dome
nichino (q.v.) i n collaboration w i t h Annibale Carracci (1560-
Pen and black ink and gray wash over black chalk, with 1609), on the end wall. The remaining five etchings i n the
occasional touches of white body color; some pinholes; series each illustrate one o f the four walls and the ceiling o f the
H : 42.5 cm (i6 A in.); W: 27.7 cm (10 A in.)
5 7

gallery. The prints were intended to be hand-colored i n body

92.GG.16 color (or gouache), as i n the set i n the Museo d i Bassano, their
bright blues, pinks, and oranges (for the gilding) approximating
PROVENANCE the brilliant colors o f Annibale's well-known ceiling fresco (see
Unidentified collector (his mark, bottom left corner); ibid., p. 47, for a color plate o f the print corresponding to the
Hippolyte Destailleur (sale, Hotel Drouot, Paris, 19 May
Getty drawing).
1896, lot 476); Dr. Walter Hugelshofer, Zurich; private
collection, Munich; private collection, New York (sale, The beautiful rendering o f sunlight streaming through the
Christie's, London, 3 July 1990, lot 94); art market, London. tall windows i n the present drawing, and indeed almost all indi
cations o f shadow (as i n the door recesses and the far room), are
EXHIBITIONS lost i n the first state o f the print (ibid., fig. 207), since Volpato
None. originally intended these effects to be conveyed by the coloring.
The task o f tinting the prints from this first state by hand was
"Notable Works of Art Now on the Market," Burlington assigned to Panini, who is also documented as the colorist o f
Magazine no (suppl.) (December 1968), pi. LXII; Stillman Volpato's previous series of prints, Pilastri delle Logge di Raffaello,
1970, p. 77, fig. 5; Vitzthum 1971, p. 61 (actually unpaginated), published between 1772 and 1776 (ibid., p. 23; H a m i l t o n 1879,
fig. 33; Bassano del Grappa and Rome 1988, p. 133, under pp. 34, 41). The plate was eventually worked up by Pietro Bet-
no. 207; Weston-Lewis 1992, p. 307 n. 14, fig. 4; Journal 21
telini (Martin 1965, fig. 34), whose name replaces those o f Panini
(1993), p. 138, no. 60.
and Teseo on all subsequent impressions.
Inscribed in the lower right corner, in black chalk, No. 529, I n a letter from Gavin H a m i l t o n (1723-1798) to Lord
and, in a different hand, itftf (?); along the bottom, to the left Edmond Fitzmaurice, written from Rome on July 13, 1776, the
of center, traces of an erased black chalk inscription. On the set o f prints is cited i n some detail (Hamilton 1879, p. 41,
verso, along the bottom, is another inscription, covered by
letter 28):
modern tape and therefore indecipherable.
This is to acquaint you that I have secured one o f the first
and choicest copies o f the Caracci Gallery coloured. This
T H I S I S A P R E P A R A T O R Y drawing for the first o f Giovanni I t h i n k is the finest w o r k that has yet appeared o f this kind.
Volpato's series o f six etchings, published i n 1777, depicting I t is engraved by Volpato and coloured by Panini. I have
views of the interior of the famous gallery i n the Palazzo Farnese, advanced them the price o f the work, 25 Zechinis, upon
Rome (Bassano del Grappa and Rome 1988, nos. 207-12). The this condition that your Lordship's copy be all finished w i t h
etchings were executed by Volpato after drawings made by his his own hand and retouched from the original w i t h m y
apprentices Francesco Panini and Ludovico Teseo, as the first inspection. The w o r k is now far advanced and w i l l be fin
states o f the prints attest. The general view, which opens the ished i n the m o n t h o f October. I have taken this liberty that
series, is taken from the north end o f the gallery, looking south your Lordship may be first and best served.

PANINI ?f Italian School 87

Throughout the drawing Panini provided rudimentary
indications o f decorative detail, particularly moldings (such as
the ribs o f the ceiling or the frame o f Andromeda), to give the
printmaker some idea o f how to proceed, but he d i d not bother
to complete them. Even i n passages where he d i d not supply
any indication o f decorative detail, as i n the surrounds o f the
panels o f the basamento, Volpato went on to elaborate these i n
the print itself. Paninis master also altered the somewhat
ambiguous pose o f the visitor i n the right foreground o f the
drawing, reversing the orientation o f his legs and giving h i m a
much more stable stance.
The decorations o f the Farnese Gallery, commissioned by
Cardinal Odoardo Farnese to house his collection o f antiquities,
were designed and executed by Annibale, who began w o r k i n
1597 or 1598 a n d w i t h the assistance o f his brother Agostino,
Domenichino, and other members o f their circleconcluded
the project by 1603-4 (Posner 1971, vol. 2, nos. 111, 140, repr.).
Famous i n its own day, the gallery attracted large numbers o f
visitors, artists, and connoisseurs, such as those admiring the
work i n the drawing. Volpato s series o f engravings was the third
devoted to this prestigious subject, following on the heels o f Gio
vanni Pietro Bellori's Argomento della Galleria Farnese dipinta da
Annibale Carracci, w i t h engravings by Carlo Cesi (622?-682?),
published i n 1657; and Pietro Aquila s illustrated Galeriae Farne-
sianae icones, w i t h a frontispiece by Carlo Maratti (1625-1713),
published i n 1674.

PANINI ?f Italian School 89

Pietro da Cortona (Pietro Berrettini)
Cortona 1596Rome 1669

orn the son o f a stonemason i n the Tuscan town settled i n Florence from 1640 to 1647 t o
work on the extensive
o f Cortona, Pietro Berrettini entered the work painted ceiling decorations o f a suite o f rooms on the first floor
shop o f the Florentine painter Andrea C o m m o d i o f the Palazzo Pitti, commissioned by the grand duke. From
(1560-1638) around 1611. About two years later he followed 1647 until his death he was again i n Rome, and works o f this
C o m m o d i to Rome, where he worked for the Barberini pope period include the frescoes i n the ceiling o f the apse, cupola, and
Urban V I I I and his family. Cortona's most important commis nave o f the Chiesa Nuova (1647-65), as well as various altar-
sion for them was the vast illusionistic fresco Allegory of Divine pieces, portraits, landscapes, and mythological scenes. Cortona
Providence on the vaulted ceiling o f the Gran Salone o f the also practiced as an architect and was second only to Gian
Palazzo Barberini (1632-39). W h i l e working on this commission, Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) i n terms o f his artistic versatility
Cortona returned to Florence i n 1637 t o
begin the decoration o f and importance i n Baroque Rome. A m o n g his principal archi
the Camera della Stufa i n the Palazzo Pitti, w i t h frescoes o f the tectural projects is the church o f Santi Luca e Martina, Rome,
Four Ages o f M a n , for Grand Duke Ferdinand I I de' Medici. He which occupied h i m intermittently from 1634 t o

3$ ChriH on the Cross with the T H E D R A W I N G is A preparatory study for the picture above
the high altar i n the church o f San Tommaso da Villanova at
Virgin Mary, Mary Magdalen, Castelgandolfo, the summer residence o f the popes near Rome
and Saint John (Briganti 1962 and 1982, no. 20, fig. 286). Commissioned by
Pope Alexander V I I , the church was built between 1658 and 1661
Pen and brown ink and gray wash over black chalk, according to designs by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. The principal
heightened with white body color, on light brown paper, altarpiece w o u l d probably have been i n place i n time for the con
squared in black chalk; the oval only reinforced in red chalk; secration i n May 1661, or shortly thereafter. Still i n situ, i t is set
H : 40.3 cm (15% in.); W: 26.5 cm {loVie in.)
into Bernini's high altar, mounted i n an oval frame supported by
angels, w i t h G o d the Father above. These figures were executed
92.GB.79 (see plate 4)
i n stucco by Bernini's pupil Antonio Raggi (1624-1686).
PROVENANCE The oval shape o f Bernini's frame is clearly anticipated i n
Thomas Coke, first earl of Leicester, Holkham Hall (his the red chalk outline o f the present drawing, indicating that
mount); by descent to the present viscount, Edward Coke the sculptor and the painter, notorious for their rivalry, were i n
(sale, Christies, London, 2 July 1991, lot 30); art market,
this instance coordinating their efforts. Subsequently Cortona
adapted the contours o f the composition by inserting oblong

frame lines i n i n k (two slightly different-sized alternatives are
London 1938, no. 423; London 1948, no. 2; Old Master evident). These accretions can be explained by the existence o f
Drawings from Holkham Collected by the First Earl ofLeicester a second rectangular version o f the composition, which the
(16971759), Thomas Agnew & Sons, London, 1977, no. 44; artist painted for the church o f Santa Maria i n V i a Lata, Rome,
New York 1993, no. 83; London 1993-94, no. 35.
built i n 1660 to Cortona's own design. Covering the entire sheet,
the squaring on the drawing could be applied to either format
and was almost certainly used to transfer the design to canvas
Popham 1938, p. 19, pi. 1, c; Brigand 1962, p. 264, under
no. 137, p. 304; Briganti 1982, p. 264, under no. 137, p. 290; i n both cases.
Davis 1982, p. 105 n. 62; Popham and Lloyd 1986, no. 107; A drawing based on the present composition, but i n reverse,
Lo Bianco 1990, vol. 2, pp. 126,144 n. 49; Journal (1993), is i n the British Museum, London (inv. 1895-9-15-665; Turner
p. 137, no. 58. 1980, no. 25). Identified by Nicholas Turner as the work o f one
of Cortona's pupils, Ciro Ferri (c. 1634-c. 1692), i t is a finished
On the old Holkham mount, numbered in the bottom right
design for an engraving by Cornells Bloemaert (1603-c. 1692)
corner, in brown ink, 30.; on the reverse of the mount,
inscribed upper center, in brown ink, P: Cortona (for the (Hollstein 1949-, vol. 2, p. 72, no. 33), which was included
mount and inscription, see also cat. no. 11). among the illustrations i n the Missale Romanum, published i n

90 Italian School ?f PIETRO DA CORTONA

Rome, again under the aegis o f Alexander V I I , i n 1662. I n the
figure o f the Magdalen, Ferri makes reference to the additional
female figure i n Cortona s fresco The Crucifixion, painted thirty
years earlier, i n 1631-32, i n the chapel o f the Palazzo Barberini i n
Rome (Briganti 1962 and 1982, no. 44, fig. 121). Cortona himself
clearly had this work i n m i n d when designing the present com
position, since the figures o f the V i r g i n and the Magdalen are
virtually unchanged.
The main difference between the drawing and the finished
work is that i n the former Christ looks upward, i n the direction
o f the heavenly light emanating from above, as i n the earlier Bar
berini fresco. This w o u l d have made sense i n terms o f the high
altar ensemble, connecting the figure o f Christ i n the painting
w i t h the sculpted G o d the Father i n the summit o f the structure.
For some reason Cortona decided to change this detail, and i n
the painted version Christ's head hangs down on his chest, pre
sumably indicating that he is already dead.

92 Italian School ?f PIETRO DA CORTONA

Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci)
Pontormo 1494-Florence 1557

Jacopo Carucci, called Pontormo after his native v i l - elongated, simplified forms and bright, unnaturalistic colors
lge, near Empoli in Tuscany, was orphaned as a exemplifies the complexity o f his compositions. A m o n g the
youth and moved to Florence around 1506. Accord- most important o f Pontormo s patrons were the Medici, who
ing to the artist-biographer Giorgio Vasari (q.v.), he commissioned h i m to carry out the fresco decoration o f the fam
trained i n the studios o f Leonardo da V i n c i (1452-1519), Piero d i ily's country villa at Poggio a Caiano (see cat. no. 3 6 ) . Between
Cosimo (1461/62-1521?), Mariotto Albertinelli (1474-1515), and 1546 and 1556 he painted biblical scenes i n the choir o f the
Andrea del Sarto (q.v.). His youthful works, including The Visi Medici church o f San Lorenzo i n Florence (now destroyed),
tation o f 1 5 1 4 - 1 6 (Florence, S an tissima Annunziata), reflect the which were completed after his death by his pupil and lifelong
classicizing influence o f Sarto and Fra Bartolommeo (1472- friend Bronzino (q.v.). M a n y o f his elegant, fluent drawings sur
1517). His admiration for Michelangelo (q.v.) and the prints o f vive, constituting one o f the most impressive graphic oeuvres o f
Albrecht Drer (1471-1528) further influenced his development. any Renaissance artist.
The Deposition of 1526-28, i n Santa Felicita, Florencewith its

36 Seated Figure (recto); THE DRAWINGS O N BOTH RECTO and verso are nude

studies from life for the lunette fresco Vertumnus and Pomona
Reclining Figure (verso) painted by Pontormo i n the Medici villa at Poggio a Caiano
in 1520-21 (repr. Costamagna 1994, pp. 156, 1 6 0 ) . M a n y draw
Red chalk with some stumping; H : 29.4 cm (11 V\s in.);
W: 20 cm (7% in.) ings survive for this project, illustrating the almost obsessive
process o f revision to which Pontormo submitted his ideas
90.GB.34 for the fresco, as recorded by Giorgio Vasari (Vasari/Milanesi
1 8 7 8 - 8 5 , vol. 4 , pp. 2 6 4 - 6 5 ) .
The figure on the verso may have been drawn at a relatively
Private collection, Geneva; art market, New York.
early stage o f the design process, when Pontormo was thinking
EXHIBITIONS of including a reclining male figure w i t h one arm raised o n
Oberlin, Brunswick, and Hanover 1991-92, no. 36. either side o f the oculus (Florence, Uffizi inv. 454F; Cox-Rearick
1981, no. 131). H e retained part o f this initial idea i n the torso
and legs (particularly the left leg) o f the youth on the left side
Journal 19 (1991), pp. 154-55, - 4; Costamagna 1994,
n o

of the fresco who looks up to the left, his hand resting on the
pp. 11,159, under no. 34.
handle o f a basket.
Inscribed in the center, with sheet turned upside down, in The idea o f the reclining figure propping up one arm on a
black ink, Ex [? a] /?. GJ5.3.Q), below a check mark or capital staff recurs elsewhere i n the preparatory drawings that survive
V. Above this a large circular stamp has been scratched out for this project as well as i n the finished work. Another red-chalk
and touched in to match the color of the paper. The lower left
life study i n the Uffizi (inv. 6514F recto; ibid., no. 146) shows
corner of the sheet was clearly torn away and later invisibly
repaired, though this is clear only from the verso. how Pontormo experimented w i t h the same pose but i n reverse.
The configuration o f the figure reclining to the rightresting
on the left elbow and w i t h the lower leg folded under the upper,
outstretched onewas then worked up by Pontormo into the
female attendant o f Pomona i n the bottom right o f the finished
composition. Two other drawings i n the Uffizi, this time i n black
chalk, show how he developed the figure further (inv. 6515F

verso, 6673F verso; ibid., nos. 147,148).

The relationship o f the life study on the recto to the other

studies for the project at Poggio a Caiano is similarly complex.
Pontormo seems to have used and reused aspects o f this pose
for several different figures i n the fresco. The configuration is

PONTORMO ?f Italian School 93

36 R E C T O
36 V E R S

most like the studies for the two p u t t i at the top o f the fresco i n the figure o f Vertumnus, a good example o f which is also i n the
a double-sided sheet i n the Louvre, Paris (inv. 2903 recto and Uffizi (inv. 6599F recto; ibid., no. 137).
verso; ibid., nos. 155, 154). The drawing shares significant fea To conclude, i t appears that these two red-chalk life studies
tures w i t h several studies for other figures i n the fresco, however, may have been made relatively early i n the preparatory process,
particularly another i n the Uffizi for the putto below the w i n after Pontormo had established the general idea for the compo
dow to the right (inv. 6512F; ibid., no. 158). Finally, the m o t i f o f sition as a whole. Having made studies from life, he then experi
the leg drawn up onto the ledge was one that Pontormo explored mented w i t h many different permutations i n the course o f
at an early stage i n his preparations for the fresco, i n studies for reaching the final stages o f his design.

PONTORMO ?f Italian School 95

Ascribed to Pontormo (Bronzino?)
Pontormo 1494-Florence 1557

57 Reclining Youth
Black chalk; H : 15.8 cm (6 /i in.); W: 27.5 cm (10% in.)

Pear and two leaves on stem.


Pierre Crozat (his number[?] 3/; a remnant of a border ruled
around the edge of the drawing in brown ink [from his
mount?]); Sir Max Michaelis, Cape Town; sale, Christie's,
London, 4 July 1989, lot 6; art market, London.


Journal19 (1991), p. 155, no. 41; Pilliod 1992, pp. 77-88, fig. 1.

Inscribed at the bottom edge in the center, in red ink, Jacopo

da Pontormo; in the bottom right corner, in Crozat s hand(?),
in black ink, 31; and in the upper left corner; in a third hand,
in brown ink, a/a. On the verso, various trials in black and F I G U R E3 7 A . Agnolo Bronzino (1503 -1572). Study for a Figure of
red chalk. Saint Sebastian. Black chalk on gray paper. : 34.6 cm (i3 /s in.);

W: 16.5 cm (6/2 in.). Florence, Gabinetto disegni e stampe degli

Uffizi inv. 6674F.

NICHOLAS TURNER WAS the first to point out the con out an alternative position for the head farther to the right and
nection between this drawing and the Saint Lawrence painted by more i n profile (another attempt at the outline o f the left cheek
Bronzino i n a lunette above a doorway i n the Certosa d i Gal- is clearly evident to the right o f the head, together w i t h a sugges
luzzo, near Florence (Pilliod 1992, figs. 2, 8). H e suggested that i t tion o f the lips; what appears to be an alternative i n a lower posi
was made by Pontormo to help his young pupil Bronzino (q.v.) tion for the right eye is instead probably the outline o f the right
in the preparation o f one o f his earliest works, datable to ear o f this abandoned version, especially since no comparable
1525-26. Bronzino had accompanied Pontormo to the Carthu alternative for the left eye is present). There are also pentimenti
sian monastery during an outbreak o f plague i n 1523, and i n the for both arms and hands. The draftsman had already anticipated
course o f their stay Pontormo painted five scenes from the Pas that the figure would be holding a palm i n his left hand, and the
sion i n lunettes i n the monastery cloisters. models thumb and fingers are arranged accordingly. H e studied
Although the painting, carried out i n o i l and gesso, is his youthful model stripped to the waist i n order to establish the
much damaged and underwent extensive repainting i n the m i d - details o f the saints torso. A small fold o f drapery arranged over
nineteenth century (and more recently; see ibid., p. 81 and the youths breeches is most likely a preliminary idea for the
nn. 18-19), the overall resemblance between i t and the present loincloth worn by the saint i n the painting.
drawing is convincing. The pose o f the model i n the drawing is A double-sided sheet w i t h two red-chalk drawings by Pon
similar to that o f the saint, except that his head faces outward tormo (one on either side) o f a figure i n a very similar pose is i n
(his painted counterpart is turned to the right, i n the direction the Uffizi, Florence (inv. 6529F; Cox-Rearick 1981, nos. 198,
o f a putto bestowing his martyrs crown and palm). Interesting 202). Elizabeth Pilliod (1992, pp. 82-84) plausibly suggested
pentimenti appear to indicate, however, that the draftsman tried that these represent Pontormo s early ideas for Bronzino s com-

96 Italian School fa ASCRIBED TO PONTORMO


position. Although i n some ways closer to the pose o f the contempqrary drawings by Pontormo, i t should not be com
finished fresco, particularly i n the orientation farther to the right pletely discounted that this may be a very early drawing by
and above the heads i n both these studies, there is a wiriness and Bronzino. I n support o f this is the resemblance to Bronzino's
spontaneity about the sketches that put them at some remove half-length study o f Saint Sebastian (fig. 37a), which relates to a
from the Getty drawing. The latter, however, seems more com painting i n the Thyssen Bornemisza Museum, Palacio de Villa
patible i n feel w i t h the painting itself. I n addition, the position hermosa, Madrid. Although this drawing has been dated to the
of the arms, and particularly the right hand, o f the model and early 1530s, a little later than the present work (ibid., p. 159),
his overall posture, stretched out on his right side, are closer to both the pose and the facial features o f the figure and the
the attitude o f the figure i n the fresco than to Pontormos smudgy modeling and somewhat deliberate outlines (quite dif
sketches i n the Uffizi. ferent from Pontormos characteristically rapid and sure style)
I n view o f the undoubted relationship between the drawing are so similar as to make the conclusion that both works are by
and the painted lunette, and the uneasy comparison w i t h other the same hand compelling.

ASCRIBED PONTORMO ?f Italian School 97

Attributed to Andrea Previtali
Berbenno, near Bergamo, c. 1480-Bergamo 1528

robably born i n Berbenno, near Bergamo, i n the Bergamo, including Saint Benedict Enthroned with Two Saints
Val Imagna, Andrea Previtali moved to Venice i n (1524), i n the cathedral, and The Crucifixion (1523), i n the sac
the late fifteenth century. Between 1490 and 1500 risty o f the church o f Sant' Alessandro della Croce. H e also
he joined the workshop o f Giovanni Bellini (q.v.), whose influ painted several portraits, including Portrait of a Man o f c.
ence appears i n his early works, such as Virgin and Child with 1508-10 (Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum). His distinctive
Donor o f 1502 (Padua, Museo Civico). I n 1512 Previtali was i n style combines Bergamesque and Venetian elements, the latter
Bergamo, where he became the most important local painter including landscape settings i n the manner o f Giorgione
together w i t h Lorenzo Lotto (c. 1480-1557), who joined h i m (1477/78?-i5io). He died i n Bergamo o f the plague.
there i n 1513. Previtali provided altarpieces for many churches i n

38 Portrait of a Young Woman On the mount, inscribed in the bottom left corner, in
graphite, Sebas: del Piombo; on the reverse of the mount,

Black chalk, heightened with some white chalk; H : 34.7 cm inscribed by Robinson, in brown ink, "S del Piombo"
( i 3 / i 6 in.); W: 25.9 cm (loYic
in.) (underlined) / / Richardson I from the Duke ofArgyles coll "l

Lord Palmerston Iformed 1770-1801I Soldat Christies apl 24

94.GB.36 1891/ JCRobinson, and toward the bottom left, in a later hand,
in graphite, Lorenzo Lotto/ 23 i8.
Jonathan Richardson Sr., London (Lugt 2184; his mount[?],
though far from characteristic); John, duke of Argyll (sale,
THE I D E N T I T Y O F T H E S I T T E R is unknown. The format is
T. Philipe, London, 21-23 May 1798, lot 164); the second
typical o f north Italian portraits o f the early sixteenth century,
viscount Palmerston, thence by descent to the Hon. Evelyn
Ashley (sale, Christies, London, 24 April 1891, lot 179); w i t h the woman wearing a schuffa, or headdress made o f hair.
Sir J. C. Robinson, London (Lugt 1433) (sale, Christie's, The drawing was probably made as a study for a painted por
London, 12 May 1902, lot 194); John Postle Heseltine, trait, though no such picture is known to survive.
London (Lugt 1507); Henry Oppenheimer, London (sale, There is some agreement that the drawing was executed
Christie's, London, 13 July 1936, lot 154); purchased from
around Bergamo i n the 1520s, although the precise attribution
Matthiesen, 1943; Baron Paul Hatvany (sale, Christie's,
London, 24 June 1980, lot 10); Roberto Ferretti, Ontario, remains a matter o f debate. The one to Previtali, first proposed
Canada; art market, London. by Baron Detlev von Hadeln, is based on analogies w i t h the
artist s painted portraits and has achieved general acceptance i n
EXHIBITIONS the last few decades. Von Hadeln compared the drawing w i t h
London 1895, no. 14 (as Lorenzo Lotto); London 1930,
the portrait o f Agnes Casotti i n the Madonna Casotti i n the
no. 861 (as attributed to Lotto); Toronto and New York
Accademia Carrara, Bergamo (Berenson 1957, vol. 2, p i . 753).
1985-86, no. 9 (as Andrea Previtali).
More recently, David McTavish (in Toronto and New York
BIBLIOGRAPHY 1985-86, no. 9, n. 5) has suggested that i t compares well w i t h
Heseltine 1906, no. 15, repr. (as Lorenzo Lotto); von Hadeln Previtali s Family Group i n the collection o f the Conte M o r o n i ,
1925, p. 65, pi. 85 (as Andrea Previtali); Venturi 1926, Bergamo (Berenson 1957, vol. 2, p i . 754). Earlier i t had been
pp. 10-13, fig- ( Lotto); Holmes 1927, p. 113 (as Lotto);
12 a s

attributed to Lotto, whose influence is manifest.

Venturi 1927, p. 268, fig. 168 (as Lotto); Venturi 1929, p. 87,
fig. 78 (as Lotto); ttinger 1930, p. 12, pi. 10/1 (as Lotto); We are uncertain as to how to interpret the chalk lines i n
Popham 1931, no. 259, pi. CCXVIa (as attributed to Lotto); the bottom left corner, though i t is possible that they are an
Tietze and Tietze-Conrat 1944, pp. 241-42, no. A 1373; Band abandoned attempt at drawing one o f the sitters hands or the
and Boschetto 1953, p. 83, under no. 87 (reject attribution to upper sleeve o f her drapery.
Lotto); Heinemann 1962, vol. 1, p. 146, no. s.381, vol. 2,
fig. 525 (as Previtali[?]); Meyer zur Capellen 1972, pp. 90-91,
193, no. Z3; Journal23 (1995), p. 70, no. 13 (as Andrea

98 Italian School & ATTRIB. TO P R E V I T A L I

Circle of Guido Reni
Bologna 1575-1642

G uido Reni first trained i n his native Bologna

under the Flemish painter Denys Calvaert
(c. 1540-1619) and then at the academy o f the
Carracci family, the Accademia degli Incamminati, where draw
ing from nature and the nude model were taught and where he
in Reni's Crucifixion of Saint Peter, i n the Vatican. M a n y o f
Reni's Roman altarpieces and frescoes, especially his fresco
Aurora (1613-14) i n the Casino Rospigliosi-Pallavicini, Rome,
show his revival o f Raphael's classicism i n the light o f the more
recent developments i n painting o f around 1600. Following the
inherited their tradition o f clear, firm draftsmanship. I n 1601 he death o f Ludovico Carracci i n 1619, Reni became the leading
moved to Rome, coming into contact w i t h Raphael (1483-1520) painter i n Bologna, where he remained for the rest o f his career,
and the antique as well as w i t h the work o f contemporaries such except for a few brief interruptions. The influence o f his pol
as his Bolognese compatriot Annibale Carracci (1560-1609) a n <
i ished classical style upon his contemporaries was considerable
Caravaggio (1573-1610), whose influence is especially apparent and attracted numerous pupils and followers.

3p The Assumption of the Virgin tion to Guido Reni is i n fact closer to the mark. The composi
tion is loosely based on that o f Guido 's painting The Assumption
Pen and brown ink and brown wash over black chalk; of the Virgin o f 1607 i n the National Gallery, London (Pepper
H : 30.6 cm (12Zw in.); W: 21.8 cm (8 A in.)

1988, p. 226, no. 26, fig. 25), while the fluid, pen-and-wash style
is similarly a reflection o f this Bolognese master's work, bringing
to m i n d his drawings o f the 1620s and 1630s. The as-yet-
PROVENANCE unidentified hand is found i n a number o f other sheets, also
Antoine-Joseph Dezallier d'Argenville, Paris (his inscription at once i n Dezallier d'Argenville s collection, where they too were
the bottom of the sheet [see below]); Franois Renaud (Lugt given to Guido. A m o n g them are Death Seizing Beauty from the
Suppl. 1042); private collection, Munich. Arms of Time i n the Hermitage, Saint Petersburg (inv. 14267;
Labbe and Bicart-See 1996, p. 194, under d'Argenville's no. 1104),
None. and The Flight into Egypt i n the Albertina, Vienna (inv. 2212;
ibid., p. 195, under d'Argenville's no. 1106; Birke and Kertesz
BIBLIOGRAPHY 1992-95, vol. 2, p. 1162, as circle o f Guido Reni). There are two
Journal23 (1995), p. 79, no. 31 (as Francisco de Herrera the further drawings i n the Albertina, both studies for a composi
Younger). tion o f Sleeping Woman with Two Infants (Allegory of Sleep),
which, judging from the inscriptions just discernible i n repro
Inscribed in the bottom left corner, in the hand associated
with inscriptions on drawings from the Dezallier d'Argenville duction, may also once have come from this same Dezallier
collection, in black chalk, partly cut away, [Guido?] Reni; at d'Argenville series (inv. 2231-32; Birke and Kertesz 1992-95,
the bottom edge, to the left, also partly cut away, Dezallier vol. 2, pp. 1170-71, as anonymous). A fifth drawing, also a Sleep
d'Argenville's inventory number, followed by his paraph, 1103. ing Woman with Two Infants (Allegory of Sleep), and a variant of
On the reverse of the old backing, near the bottom, to the
the first o f the two Albertina drawings just mentioned, was
left, inscribed in brown ink, [5?] 12 dI[b?] 81/2 d; in the
recently on the London art market (sale, Sotheby's, 18 A p r i l
bottom left corner, in the same hand, in brown ink, Lo; and
to the right of this, in graphite, Guido Reni. 1^4. Ecole de 1996, lot 135, as Bolognese School, seventeenth century).
Bologne. W h i c h o f Reni's many pupils and followers was responsible
for this group o f drawings remains a matter o f conjecture. Some
resemblance i n handling and conception may be found i n the
T H E R E C E N T A T T R I B U T I O N o f this drawing to the Spanish drawings o f Simone Cantarini (1612-1648), Giovanni Andrea
painter Francisco de Herrera the Younger, called E l Mozo (1627- Sirani (1610-1670), Giovanni Giacomo Sementi (1580-1636),
1685), was the result o f a misreading o f the Dezallier d'Argenville and Francesco Gessi. Gessi's study The Martyrdom of Saint
number i n the lower center as Mozo, the artist's nickname, Bartholomew, i n the British Museum, London (inv. 1946-7-13-
meaning "young man." The old Dezallier d'Argenville attribu 1468), seems especially close i n style to the present sheet.

100 Italian School ?f CIRCLE OF RENI

Sebastiano Ricci
Belluno 1659-Venice 1734

orn i n Belluno, Sebastiano Ricci reportedly trav for Lord Burlington and Lord Portland. A m o n g the major paint
eled to Venice at the age o f twelve, becoming a ings o f his English period is The Resurrection (c. 1715-16) i n the
pupil o f Federico Cervelli (c. 1625-1700). I n 1681, chapel o f the Royal Hospital, Chelsea. Returning to Venice i n
after being briefly imprisoned for attempting to poison his preg 1716, Ricci stopped i n Paris, where he was made a member o f the
nant mistress, he left Venice for Bologna. From 1684 to 1695 he Academie de France. Between 1724 and 1733 he completed a
lived a peripatetic life, working variously i n Piacenza, Parma, series o f important paintings for the House o f Savoy, including
T u r i n , Rome, Venice, Florence, Modena, M i l a n , and Bologna. The Expulsion of Hagar and Solomon Worshiping the Idols, both of
I n 1701/2 he worked at Schnbrunn Palace, outside Vienna; 1724 (Turin, Galleria Sabauda). I n 1733-34 he completed his last
from 1706 to 1707 he decorated the Palazzo Marucelli i n Flor great commission, The Assumption of the Virgin, for the Karls-
ence and then the Palazzo Pitti (1707-8); and i n 1708 he prob kirche i n Vienna. W i t h his bravura handling, brilliant sense o f
ably also painted the altarpiece The Virgin and Child with light and color, and mastery o f illusionism, Ricci was one o f the
Saints for San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice. I n 1712 he followed his leading decorative painters o f his era.
nephew Marco Ricci (1676-1730) to England, where he worked

40 The Death of Seneca (recto); wrists, while two scribes record his last thoughts. The subject
was popular i n the seventeenth century, reflecting the revival o f
Study of a Man (verso) interest i n Stoic philosophy.
A single painting o f this subject by Ricci is known, one o f a
Pen and brown ink, brown wash, and black chalk (recto); pen
and brown ink (verso); H : 17.9 cm (7 in.); W: 17.5 cm (6 A in.)
7 pair o f oval pendants, first published by Pietro Zampetti (Tri
este, Raccolta Tamara; Zampetti 1973, p. 37) and dated to the
92.GA.32 first decade o f the eighteenth century, c. 1705, by Jeffery Daniels
(1976, p. 119, nos. 430 a - b ) . Although the philosopher is simi
larly posed i n both the painting and the drawing, the rectangular
Private collection, Geneva; art market, Boston.
format o f the latter and its different cast o f characters (in the
EXHIBITIONS painting only one scribe is present, while two figures assist
None. Seneca and another looks on through the grille o f a small arched
window) suggest that i t is unrelated to this project. The subject o f
the paintings pair, Alexander and Diogenes, was one that the artist
Journal 21 (1993), p. 137, no. 59.
treated on several other occasions i n conventional rectangular
Inscribed in brown ink, in the upper right corner, Ba .\E,
format, and i t is likely that the same holds true for the Seneca.
and along the bottom edge to the right, n 61, and, in another The sketch on the verso shows a bearded figure o f similar
hand, B. Rizzi. On the verso, with the sheet turned upside type to the protagonist on the recto, but the pose suggests that
down, inscribed in the top left corner, in brown ink, Rizi, and
this is not an alternative study for the philosopher. Rather, the
along the bottom edge, in graphite, Der sterbende Seneca and
straddling limbs and the low viewpoint recall figures frequently
Sebastian Rizzi 1659 + 1734 I von Belluno. In black ink(?), to
the right of the figure, is an unknown collector's mark, recurring i n Ricci s ceiling decorations.
FralousQ). I n style, the Getty sheet compares well w i t h drawings o f a
slightly later period, such as Christ and the Samaritan Woman o f
1718connected by Francesco Valcanover w i t h fresco decora
tions i n the Villa Belvedere, Bellunowhich is i n the Accade-
A s D E S C R I B E D I N T H E Annals o f Tacitus (15:64), the Stoic mia, Venice (Sebastiano Ricci album, p. 24, below; Udine 1975,
philosopher Seneca, upon being charged w i t h conspiracy, com no. 48), though a sound chronology for Ricci s drawings has yet
mitted suicide rather than face the humiliation o f execution. H e to be established.
is shown being helped into a bath o f warm water after slitting his

102 Italian School ?f RICCI

40 V E R S O
Niccolo Ricciolini
Rome 1687-1772

iccolo Ricciolini was a pupil o f his father, the of some o f the chapels and antechapels o f the nave. H e was
Roman painter Michelangelo Ricciolini, and especially influenced by the Roman painter Francesco Trevisani
by the age o f nineteen was already a compe (1656-1746), whose niece he married. Niccolo s paintings are
tent draftsman. His early work as a painter was done i n collabo characteristic o f the elegant late Roman Baroque style and are to
ration w i t h his father, for example, the nudes i n monochrome at be found i n several Roman churchesincluding Santa Maria
the sides o f the ceiling o f the gallery o f the Palazzo Orsini a degli Angeli, Santa Maria delle Grazie alle Fornaci, San G i u
Monterotondo, Rome (c. 1712). I n 1718 Niccolo s long period o f seppe alia Lungara, and Santo Nome d i M a r i a a n d i n the con
employment by the Fabbrica o f Saint Peters began, and, among vent o f Santa Maria i n Traspontina.
other works, he furnished cartoons for the mosaic decoration

41 The Entombment A L T H O U G H A C Q U I R E D AS by the Flemish painter and fol

lower o f Rubens Cornells Schut (15^7-1655), to w h o m i t had
Brush drawing in light brown wash over black chalk, traditionally been attributed, this drawing is surely by the early
heightened with white and some pink body color, with eighteenth-century Italian painter Niccolo Ricciolini, whose
occasional touches of pen and brown ink; some framing lines
work as a draftsman has only recently been rediscovered and
ruled in brown ink at the edges of the sheet; H : 38.4 cm
(15% in.); W: 25.4 cm (10 in.) assessed (Casale 1992, p. 171). The drawing exactly fits the style
of those that can be attributed to Ricciolini w i t h certaintyfor
87.GG.14 example, The Supper at Emmaus and Moses Striking the Rock
in the Accademia d i San Luca, Rome (inv. 1702, i Premio I I
classe, dis. 132; inv. 1703, i Premio I I classe, dis. 141; Borsoi
Sir Thomas Lawrence (Lugt 2446); Samuel Woodburn
1988, p. 161, figs. 1-2)as well as a group o f drawings i n the
(sale[?], Christies, London, 6 June i860, lot 456: "the rape
of Europa, & c , C. Schut"); private collection, London (sale, British Museum, London, including Design for an Altarpiece
Sotheby's, Amsterdam, 18 November 1985, lot 30); art market, (inv. 1946-7-13-1516) and Female Saint Performing a Miracle
London. (inv. 1946-7-13-1513).
Although the drawing is evidently a modello, no painted
composition corresponding to i t has so far been found (though
up until now our research i n this connection has been limited).
BIBLIOGRAPHY Obvious analogies i n design and treatment are found i n The
Journal 16 (1988), p. 165, no. 41 (as Cornells Schut). Deposition from the Cross i n the church o f San Giuseppe alia
Lungara, Rome (ibid., p. 174, fig. 23; Sestieri 1994, vol. 3, fig.
On the verso, inscribed in the center of the sheet, in brown
978). The chiaroscuro effect, w i t h the disciple on the left carry
ink, By Cornells Schut/From Woodburns collection; at the
ing a flaming torch to light the way for the corpse-bearing
bottom, in graphite, are later inscriptions: Thomas Lawrence
and, in another hand, The Entombment I Bistre heightened figures, finds several parallels w i t h the radiance surrounding the
with white and . . .from Woodburn Collection]. infant Christ i n The Adoration of the Shepherds i n the church
of Santa Maria delle Grazie alle Fornaci, Rome (Borsoi 1988,
p. 174, fig. 22), for which there is a preparatory study i n the
Crocker Museum and A r t Gallery, Sacramento (inv. 1871.273).
Niccolos milieu included such artists as Francesco Tre
visani, Agostino Masucci (1691-1758), and Sebastiano Conca
(1680-1764), whose compositions and figure types are distantly
echoed i n this drawing.

RICCIOLINI ?f Italian School 105

Giuseppe Salviati (Giuseppe Porta)
Castelnuovo di Garfagnana c. 1520Venice c. 1575

orn i n Castelnuovo d i Garfagnana, Giuseppe Porta Venice. A m o n g the more important o f his Venetian commis
traveled to Rome i n 1535 to study w i t h the Floren sions are his paintings for the Libreria Marciana (1556-57) and
tine painter Francesco Salviati (1510-1563), whose Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari (c. 1548). His work combines
surname he later took. I n 1539 Giuseppe followed his master to Venetian colorism w i t h a figure style shaped by the Florentine
Venice via Florence and Bologna. Except for a short visit to Padua mannerism o f his master. H e also made designs for woodcuts for
around 1541 and a period i n Rome i n 1563, when he painted the the publisher Francesco Marcolini (c. 1500-after 1559) and
fresco The Reconciliation of Pope Alexander III with Barbarosa i n designed cartoons for the mosaics o f San Marco, Venice.
the Sala Regia i n the Vatican, he spent the rest o f his life i n

42 ChriU the Savior above Saints from Girolamo s w i l l . David McTavish (1981, pp. 289-93) was
the first to point out that the names o f three o f the saints repre
John the BaptiH, Jerome, sented i n the altarpiece correspond to the Christian names of the
Catherine, and Thomas Bragadin family members, and he surmised that the fourth, the
only one not immediately identifiable by an obvious attribute,
Pen and brown ink and brown wash over traces of black must be Saint Thomas, standing for Girolamo's other son.
chalk, heightened with white body color, on blue paper; McTavish is probably correct i n suspecting that the saints i n the
H : 20.8 cm (SYi6 in.); W: 10.9 cm (4/4 in.)
altarpiece are portraits o f the family. The elderly parents are
depicted i n the foreground, while the sons stand behind, one
indicating and the other contemplating the crucified Christ.
PROVENANCE The drawing represents an early phase i n the design process.
John Brophy; sale, Sotheby's, London, 25 November 1971, lot Although the shape o f the altarpiece had been selected, the rela
158; sale, Christies, London, 15 April 1980, lot 2; Roberto tive positions and gestures o f the four protagonists had yet to be
Ferretti, Ontario, Canada.
fully determined. A t this early stage the representatives o f the

younger generation are depicted i n the foreground, w i t h Saint
Toronto and New York 1985-86, no. 15. John the Baptist, the name saint o f the elder son, seated promi
nently on the left (he holds a lamb and a reed cross), apparently
BIBLIOGRAPHY in dialogue w i t h Saint Thomas, who kneels to the right. If, as
Journal 23 (1995), p. 73, no. 17.
McTavish suggested on the basis o f style, the altarpiece dates
from the 1550s, sometime after the death o f the paterfamilias,
Girolamo, this could explain the indecision about the relative
T H E D R A W I N G I S A S T U D Y for the altarpiece i n the Bragadin prominence o f the two generations. I t is worth noting that Saint
family chapel i n San Francesco della Vigna, Venice. A slab i n the Jerome was transformed from the disheveled penitent w i t h a
chapel floor identifies the tomb o f Girolamo Bragadin, procura rock i n the drawing to the more statesmanlike figure holding a
tor o f San Marco, who died i n 1545, and also mentions his wife, book i n the altarpiece.
Caterina, and son Tommaso. Another son, Giovanni, is known

SALVIATI ?f Italian School 107

Andrea del Sarto (Andrea dAgnolo di Francesco)
Florence i486-1530

T he nickname "del sarto" ("of the tailor") de

rives from the profession o f the painter s father,
Agnolo d i Francesco. Andrea was born i n Flor
ence and served as an apprentice to the painter Piero d i Cosimo
(1461/62-1521?) from about 1498 to 1508. H e entered the artists'
ized by rich effects o f tone and color and a strong poetic feeling.
Sarto was responsible for numerous prestigious paintings and
frescoes i n Florence, including the cycle The Life of Saint John
the Baptist o f 1512-26 i n the Chiostro degli Scalzi, the Birth of
the Virgin o f 1513-14 (Florence, Santissima Annunziata), and the
guild o f the "Medici e Speciali" i n 1508 and shared a workshop Madonna of the Harpies o f 1517 (Florence, Uffizi). I n 1518-19 he
w i t h Franciabigio (1482-1525). Although he was strongly influ resided i n France at the invitation o f K i n g Francis I , but he soon
enced by older Florentine contemporariesespecially Leo returned to Florence, where his wife had remained. He
nardo da V i n c i (1452-1519), Fra Bartolommeo (1472-1517), and influenced the next generation o f Florentine painters, especially
Michelangelo (q.v.)he developed a distinctive style character his pupil Pontormo (q.v.) and Rosso Fiorentino (1494-1540).

43 Studies of Figures behind a division, which accentuates the contrast between the lower and
upper halves.
BaluHrade (recto and verso) We agree w i t h the suggestion made by the compilers o f the
London exhibition catalogue, cited above, that the studies could
Red chalk; H : 17.5 cm (6 A in.); W: 20 cm (y A in.)
7 7

be for the Evangelists i n the border o f the Paramento Passerini,

92.GB.74 (see plate 5) the embroidered altar frontal o f c. 1522, now i n the Museo
Diocesano, Cortona (Freedberg 1963, vol. 1, figs. 158-62; Flor
PROVENANCE ence 1986-87, no. X I V ) . This and a vestment were commis
Private collection, Lugano; art market, Munich.
sioned for the D u o m o by Cardinal Silvio Passerini, probably for

the occasion o f his investiture there on A p r i l 2,1522, as bishop o f
Drawing in Florence, i$oo i6$o, Katrin Bellinger Cortona (though he had been appointed to this office on
Kunsthandel, Harari and Johns, London, 25 June-12 July November 21 o f the previous year; ibid., vol. 2, pp. 136, 139).
1991, no. 2; New York 1993, no. 3; London 1993-94, no. 1. The five tondi are spaced out at intervals along the border:
Saints M a r k and John are to the left, w i t h Saints Matthew and
Luke to the right, each pair facing toward the Madonna and
Journal 21 (1993), p. 132, no. 50.
C h i l d i n the center. Although the figures i n the altar frontal are
half-length and are placed w i t h i n circular frames, there are a
number o f similarities that justify a relationship between the
BOTH T H E R E C T O A N D the verso o f the sheet have been drawing and the frontal.
divided into two compartments, each containing a male figure The pair o f figures on the recto can be loosely associated, i n
behind a balustrade. O n the recto the architectural construction reverse, w i t h those o f Saint M a r k and Saint John i n the tondi o f
o f the balustrade is more precisely delineated, the horizontal rail the embroidery. The only other surviving red-chalk study for
resting on square balusters w i t h capitals and bases clearly i n d i the tondi, the study for the drapery o f Saint Matthew i n the
cated. A vertical element, possibly a column or pilaster, rises Uffizi (inv. 6447F; Florence 1986-87, p. 247, no. 41), is also i n
behind the back o f either figure. O n l y the figure on the right o f reverse. The bent arm and bowed head o f Saint John i n the altar
the verso is shown seated upon, instead o f standing behind, the hanging (or antependium) find a parallel i n the left-hand study
balustrade. Sarto seems to have been laboring at establishing the o f the Getty drawing, while the more upright pose o f the figure
poses o f the four figures w i t h i n a restricted format, experiment on the right holding the book propped up i n front o f h i m reflects
ing w i t h a variety o f checks and balances, leverage and contrap- Saint Mark; a pentimento for the head i n profile underscores the
posto. The numerous pentimenti show the fecundity o f his ideas. connection. A further analogy may be drawn between the more
The process o f making the drawing seems to have revealed to finished o f the two verso studies and the Saint Matthew, shown
h i m the problem o f showing the figures full-length, as he failed seated on the parapet i n both works. Toward the end o f the
to vary sufficiently the legs o f each (see especially the figure on preparatory process the designs must have been switched, since
the right o f the recto), a difficulty aggravated by the horizontal the two surviving cartoons o f Saint Luke and Saint M a r k i n

ANDREA D E L SARTO & Italian School 109

43 R E C T O

the Gabinetto dei Disegni, Rome (inv. FC 1 3 0 4 6 7 ; Shearman pluvial, part o f this same parament, which is also i n the Getty
1965, vol. 2, pp. 152, 358, 383, fig. 9 5 b ; Rome 1 9 7 9 , no. 4 3 ) , and i n Museum (inv. 89.GB.53; Goldner and Hendrix 1 9 9 2 , no. 1).
the usee des Beaux-Arts, Lille (inv. Pi. 253; Shearman 1965, A n alternative suggestion i n the London exhibition cata
vol. 2, pp. 3 4 9 , 359, 383, fig. 95a; Lille 1989-90, no. 34), respec logue is that the drawing may have been made i n connection
t i v e l y n o w generally given to Sarto, are i n the same direction w i t h a project celebrating the triumphal entry into Florence o f
as the embroidered figures. En suite w i t h the Rome and Lille Leo X i n 1515. The list o f expenses o f the O t t o d i Pratica on this
drawings, except for the absence o f pricking, are the cartoons occasion records that Sarto collaborated w i t h Sansovino i n deco
o f Saint Matthew and Saint John the Evangelist i n the Uffizi rating the fagade o f the D u o m o , and another early source adds
(inv. 14421F, 14422F; Florence 1986-87, nos. 39-40); the author that these decorations included "tavole dipinti tra l i spatii con
ship o f these drawings is harder to determine on account o f their figure grandi i n certe tribune" (painted panels i n between the
poor condition, and they have been judged both as copies (Freed- open spaces, w i t h large figures on certain platforms [or i n
berg 1 9 6 3 , vol. 2 , p. 139) and as original works by Sarto himself niches]; P. Parenti, "Istorie," MS. cited i n Shearman 1965, vol. 2 ,
(Shearman 1965, pp. 358-59; Petrioli Tofani, i n Florence 1986- p. 317, A v). The description is at least evocative o f the shallow
8 7 , nos. 39-40). space occupied by the figures i n the Getty sheet, but i n view o f
I n support o f a connection between the present drawing the complete lack o f visual evidence o f the appearance o f the
and the Passerini embroideries are the stylistic parallels w i t h ephemeral fa$ade decorations and the strong links between the
other red-chalk drawings for this commission, including the present drawing and the paramento, i t seems to us a far less per
drapery study on the verso o f a double-sided sheet for the figure suasive hypothesis.
of Moses i n The Transfiguration, the scudo o f the embroidered

no Italian School ?f ANDREA D E L SARTO

43 V E R S O
Sassoferrato (Giovanni Battista Salvi)
Sassoferrato 1609-Rome 1685

G iovanni Battista Salvi was born i n Sassofer

rato, i n the Marches, hence his name, and
was taught painting by his father, Tarquinio
Salvi, and subsequently by Domenichino (q.v.) i n Naples. By
1641 Sassoferrato was i n Rome, where he painted the ceiling o f
Rapacciolo (1643-44; Sarasota, Florida, Ringling Museum),
Monsignor Ottaviano Prati (c. 1650; Rome, Palazzo Barberini),
and Cardinal Ottoboni (c. 1652; Padua, Museo Civica). Another
of his specialties was the production o f religious pictures, among
them numerous images o f the Virgin. O f popular devotional
the sacristy o f San Francesco d i Paolo (1641) and the Madonna appeal, these Madonnas have a tranquil grace and somewhat
del Rosario (from 1643). I n 1642 he was commissioned to paint gelid classicism that owe much to Bolognese prototypes by
the portrait o f the princess o f Rossano, and the painting o f por Guido Reni (q.v.) and Domenichino. Most o f his oeuvre o f reli
traits became an important part of his activity i n Rome through gious pictures consists o f stock designs that he repeated several
out the 1640s and 1650s. H e was particularly successful w i t h times over.
ecclesiastical commissions, examples o f which include Cardinal

44 Saint Joseph Leaning on a Table THE F I G U R E W A S P R O B A B L Y intended to represent Saint

Joseph i n a composition o f the H o l y Family. The saint would
have appeared leaning against a balustrade at one side o f the
Black chalk, heightened with white chalk, on beige paper,
squared in black chalk; H : 25.1 cm (9% in.); W: 18.4 cm space, a little detached from the main group o f the V i r g i n and
(7/4 in.) C h i l d but tenderly engaged w i t h them by his glance and the
general posture o f his body, which bends gently forward. Sasso
90.GB.68 ferrato is well known both for copying from old masters and for
mass-producing devotional images. This emphasis on reproduc
Edward Clive, first earl of Powis; by descent to Robert tion is reflected i n his drawn oeuvre by the fact that most o f his
Windsor-Clive, third earl of Plymouth (sale, Christie s, studies are squared. The present example may have been prepar
London, 1 July 1986, lot 130); art market, London. atory to a picture, though no such work is known. Saint Joseph
is represented i n a similar pose, but half-length and i n reverse, i n
another drawing by Sassoferrato, The Rest on the Flight into
Edinburgh 1972, no. 102; European Drawings: Recent
Egypt, i n the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (inv. I I 945).
Acquisitions, Hazlitt, Gooden & Fox, London, 1988, no. 30.
A date o f around 1650 has been suggested for the Getty
BIBLIOGRAPHY drawing {Journal19 [1991], p. 158, under no. 51). The dating o f
Journal 19 (1991), pp. 158-59, no. 51. Sassoferrato s drawings is, however, somewhat difficult, since
they all roughly conform i n type, invariably being i n black and
white chalk on tinted paper, like this example, and show little
stylistic development.

112 Italian School ?f SASSOFERRATO

Andrea Schiavone (Andrea Meldolla)
Zara (now Zadar) i5io(?)-Venice 1563

orn Andrea Meldolla i n Zara on the Damaltian which evokes the handling o f his paintings o f this period, such
coast, to a family originally from Meldolla, as The Adoration of the Magi (Milan, Pinacoteca Ambrosiana).
Romagna, the artist had, by the late 1530s, prob I n a letter o f 1548 Pietro Aretino praised Schiavone for his inven
ably moved to Venice, where he was given the nickname "Schia tion but complained about his swiftness o f execution and lack o f
vone" (the Slav). Largely self-taught, he formed his style through finish. This freedom o f touch, so appealing to the modern
the study o f prints by Parmigianino (1503-1540) and the paint viewer, is readily seen i n such works as the three allegorical tondi
ings o f T i t i a n (1485/'^-^). Schiavone was a well-established painted i n 1556 for the ceiling o f the Libreria Marciana, Venice.
painter i n Venice by 1540, when Giorgio Vasari (q.v.) commis Among the principal commissions o f his late career is the
sioned h i m to paint a large battle scene between Charles V and painted decoration o f the choir loft o f the church o f the
Sultan Barbarossa (now lost). Schiavone was active both as a Carmine i n Venice, o f 1560, only three panels o f which survive:
printmaker and as a painter. His only signed and dated print is The Annunciation, The Nativity, and The Adoration of the Magi.
an etching o f 1547, The Abduction of Helen, the free line work o f

4$ The Myiiic Marriage of Saint The eighteenth-century English mount on which the drawing
is laid down is, as Alan Donnithorne has pointed out (in
Catherine with Saints and a Doge conversation, February 1996), similar in type to those in the
Royal Library, Windsor Castle, which were made during the
Pen and brown ink and gray wash, heightened with white reign of George I I I on the instructions of the royal librarian,
body color; H : 27.4 cm (10% in.); W: 31.8 cm (12/2 in.) Richard Dalton (i7i5?-i79i).


S A I N T C A T H E R I N E K N E E L S on a ramp o f steps, at the top of
Sir J. C. Robinson, London (Lugt Suppl. 2141b); John
Malcolm, Poltalloch; given by Malcolm to the Hon. Alfred E. which are seated the Madonna and Child. The C h i l d reaches
Gathorne-Hardy between 1869 and 1876; by descent to the forward to place a ring on Saint Catherines finger, symbolizing
Hon. Robert Gathorne-Hardy, Donnington Priory (sale, her spiritual betrothal to God. I n the bottom right corner, an
Sotheby's, London, 28 April 1976, lot 18); British Rail Pension angel holds her attributes o f a wheel and a martyrs crown. To
Fund (sale, Sotheby's, London, 2 July 1990, lot 14); art
the left is the kneeling figure o f a doge, identifiable by the pres
market, London.
ence o f his onomastic saint, Francis, as Francesco Donato
EXHIBITIONS (r. 1545-53). They are accompanied by Saint Mark, patron saint
Venice 1980, no. 29. of Venice, together w i t h his identifying attribute, the lion, also a
symbol o f the city.
Detlev von Hadeln published the drawing as a design for a
Robinson 1869, no. 408; Gathorne-Hardy 1902, no. 53;
votive painting commissioned by Donato, which was recorded
von Hadeln 1925, pp. 135-38; von Hadeln 1926, p. 23, pi. 10;
Frlich-Bum 1930, p. 358; Tietze and Tietze-Conrat 1944, in 1563 i n the Sala del Collegio o f the ducal palace, though the
no. 1426, p. 250; Richardson 1980, no. 165, fig. 159, p. 38; paintings author is not mentioned. Following the fire i n 1574,
journal 20 (1992), p. 165, no. 60. this painting was replaced by one o f the same subject, The Mys
tic Marriage of Saint Catherine, by Tintoretto (Pallucchini 1982,
On the border of the old mount, inscribed in the bottom left
no. 419, as attributed to Jacopo and Domenico Tintoretto, and
corner, in brown ink, Meldolla. On the reverse of the mount,
dated 1581-82). Tintoretto's picture certainly does seem to con
inscribed in the center, in Robinson's hand, in brown ink,
JCRobinsonl 11 dec 1858. and, below to the left (underlined), tain echoes o f the composition recorded i n Schiavone s drawing,
Meldolla-, numbered in the right center, in graphite, 48; in the but i n reverse, and i t was the visual parallels that originally
lower right corner, also in graphite, no 355. prompted von Hadeln to suggest such a connection. Hans Tietze
and Erika Tietze-Conrat were characteristically cautious about
endorsing this relationship i n the absence o f documentary evi
dence. They denied any compositional similarity between Schia-

114 Italian School ?f SCHIAVONE

vone's drawing and the Tintoretto picture and consequently for the clouds above. The style o f the two drawings also points
questioned whether a painting by Schiavone was ever actually to a similar moment o f execution, demonstrating the same use
executed. Instead, they surmised that the drawing represents a o f gray wash to flesh out the initial idea, subsequently gone over
project for the commission presented to the authorities during w i t h rather fluid, disconnected pen strokes for greater definition.
Titian's absence from Venice but never executed. I n view o f the Although the composition o f the Getty drawing is worked out
parallels between the drawing and the Tintoretto picture, and in its entirety, i t nevertheless does not have the overall finish o f a
given the fact that such an image exists, it seems reasonable to presentation drawing, the upper right corner being somewhat
follow von Hadeln and Francis Richardson i n supposing that loosely executed.
Schiavone d i d paint the picture destroyed i n the fire. The Getty drawing may also be compared w i t h another
The drawing is very similar i n a number o f ways to another drawing i n the British Museum, i n which the Mystic Marriage
carried out by Schiavone i n connection w i t h a papal commis of Saint Catherine is again represented, although the compo
sion, now i n the British Museum (inv. 1938-12-10-2; Richardson sition is i n reverse and the doge and attendant saints are not
1980, pp. 125-26, fig. 140), a design for apaliotto, or embroidered shown (inv. 1853-10-8-6; Richardson 1980, p. 127, no. 78). The
antependium, for the high altar o f San Marco. This analogy was figures of the Madonna and C h i l d are especially close i n pose,
pointed out by the Tietzes (1944, p. 250), notwithstanding their and there is an interesting variation o f the figure o f the angel
somewhat reluctant attribution o f the British Museum sheet to restraining a curtain.
Giuseppe Salviati (q.v.), based on an old inscription. Although As Richardson has pointed out, the present drawing cannot
the thrust o f the composition is reversed, one might compare definitively be said to have been executed before Doge Donato s
the respective lions (being crowned by the figure o f Fortitude death i n 1553, since many such votive pictures were executed
in the British Museum drawing and by an angel i n the Getty posthumously (thepaliotto design depicting Doge Grimani being
drawing) and the views o f Venice and the lagoon i n the back a case i n point). A date i n the early 1550s seems plausible, how
ground o f each drawing, which include boats w i t h the same dis ever, for both the Getty and the two British Museum drawings.
tinctive, swooping sails and similar schematic circling notations

116 Italian School ?f SCHIAVONE

Francesco Solimena
Canale di Serino 1657-Barra 1747

F rancesco Solimena was taught by his father, Angelo

Solimena (1629-1716), a painter o f altarpieces and
fresco decorations active i n the region immediately
to the south o f Naples. I n 1674, w i t h the encouragement o f Car
dinal Pierfrancesco Orsini, Francesco moved to Naples, where
Paolo Maggiore, Naples, a composition o f numerous figures
which spreads across the entire area o f the picture space, a
tumult o f bright colors and elaborately posed figures. H e was
one o f the most active and successful o f the painters working i n
Naples during the first half o f the eighteenth century and one o f
he continued to collaborate w i t h his father while at the same the great figures o f Neapolitan Baroque painting. The work o f
time furthering his artistic training. A m o n g his early indepen Luca Giordano (1634-1705) and Mattia Preti (1613-1699) influ
dent works are the frescoes i n the chapel o f Santa Anna al Ges enced the formation o f his style, which, following the prevailing
Nuovo (1677). The height of his mature period is marked by the taste o f his times, became more classical as it progressed.
fresco The Fall of Simon Magus (1689-90) i n the sacristy o f San

46 Venus Receiving from Vulcan T H I S I S A P R E P A R A T O R Y study for the painting o f the same
subject, dated 1704, also i n the Getty Museum, together w i t h its
the Arms of Aeneas pendant, Titon Dazzled by the Splendor of Aurora. The paintings
are part o f a series o f pictures on the theme o f love and mar
Pen and brown ink and brown wash over black chalk;
H : 21 cm (8/4 in.); W: 14.2 cm (5% in.) riage by Solimena, thought to have been painted for Gerolamo
Canale, who was elected procurator o f San Marco i n Venice i n
91.GG.72 1702 (Hersey 1994, pp. 129-42). The subject is inspired by a
passage i n Virgil's Aeneid (8:370-85), i n which Venus visits her
husband Vulcan i n his w o r k s h o p on M o u n t Etna and asks him
Private collection, France; art market, Paris.
to forge a set o f arms for her son Aeneas. Solimenas composi

tion shows Vulcan, having already carried out her request, pre

Dessins anciens des ecoles du Nord, frangaises et italiennes, senting to Venus the arms fashioned i n the forge, which is visible,
Haboldt and Co., Paris and New York, 1990-91, no. 32. w o r k e d b y Cyclopes, in t h e b a c k g r o u n d of t h e p i c t u r e .

Although the painting follows the drawing i n the pose o f

Vulcan and i n terms o f the general composition, Solimena made
Journal (1992), p. 171, no. 70.
several adjustments, most notably i n the position o f Cupid and
in the scale o f the three main figures, which are more monu
mental i n the painting, being arranged i n closer proximity both
to one another and to the picture plane.
The drawing is typical o f Solimenas preparatory studies,
such as Study for the Allegory of Louis XIV, c. 1700, i n the British
Museum, London (inv. 1946-7-13-910, recto and verso).

SOLIMENA & Italian School 117

4 6
Bernardo Strozzi
Genoa 1581Venice 1644

ernardo Strozzi was born i n Genoa, where he Lombard influences then present i n Genoa, most notably that
trained w i t h the Sienese painter Pietro Sorri of the Milanese painter Giulio Cesare Procaccini (1574-1625),
(1556-1621), active there i n 1595-97. I n 1598 he though around 1620 his style changed increasingly i n the direc
became a Capuchin monk, hence the later nicknames " i l Prete tion o f Caravaggio and his followers. One o f Strozzis best-
Genovese" (the Genoese priest) and " i l Cappuccino" (the Capu known works is The Cook (c. 1625), i n the Palazzo Rosso, Genoa.
chin), entering the monastery o f San Barnaba, where he contin I n 1631 he was forced to flee Genoa, settling i n Venice, where he
ued his work as a painter. His individual stylecharacterized pursued the idiom o f the great sixteenth-century Venetians,
by rich, luminous colors and broad, parallel brushstrokes especially Veronese (q.v.).
drew inspiration from Sorri as well as from various Tuscan and

4j Head of Saint Francis (recto); four known variants), and Saint Francis in Ecstasy (primary ver
sion i n the Philbrook Museum o f Art, Tulsa [Mortari 1995, no.
Studies of the Head of Saint 1.160], w i t h one known variant). I t should be said at once that
Francis, Head of an Old Man, the drawing has none o f the spontaneity or exploratory qualities
of a preparatory study. Its precise style and somewhat rigid, two-
and Two Right Hands (verso) dimensional appearance (see, for example, the odd intervals,
particularly between the eyes and the bridge o f the nose, and the
Black chalk heightened with white chalk; : 38.9 cm
unforeshortened row o f teeth) indicate that i t must be a copy or
(i5 /i6 in.); W: 25.9 cm (io /i6 in.)
5 3

ricordo made by Strozzi himself after one o f his own paintings.

WATERMARK Elements o f both painted compositions are present i n the study.
Details such as the ear lost i n shadow and the tuft o f hair
Fleur de lis(?) within a circle.
beneath the saint s lip seem to refer to the Tulsa picture. I n terms

91.GB.40 of overall structure, however, the proportions o f the face, the

orientation o f the shoulders, and angle o f the nose all seem more
Zaccaria Sagredo(?) and thence by descent in the Sagredo reminiscent o f the Palazzo Rosso work. The precise relationship
family, Venice; Jean-Jacques de Boissieu(?), Lyon; private between the drawing and the two painted compositions must
collection, Lugano; art market, Zurich. remain an open question.
O f the studies on the verso, the tonsured head o f Saint
Francis on the right, although more freely drawn than the recto
New York 1993, no. 106; London 1993-94, no. 45.
study, is almost certainly copied from a painted composition,
BIBLIOGRAPHY again as an aide-memoire. The figure derives from Saint Francis
Scarpa 1987, p. 398; Journal 20 (1992), p. 170, no. 68; Genoa Leaning on a Crucifix, i n the Palazzo Rosso, Genoa (Mortari
1995, under nos. 47, 79, 107, p. 324; Townsend 1996, 1966, fig. 16, w i t h two known painted variants and one drawing,
pp. 459-62.
for which see Genoa 1995, repr. p. 312), a fact confirmed by the

Inscribed near the bottom left edge, in brown ink, Prete study o f the hand holding a rosary bead i n the bottom left, from
Genovese. On the verso, inscribed along the same edge, also the same painting. The two diagonally oriented heads on the
in brown ink, PG. n: 41 (i.e., the forty-first item from verso must have been made after the sheet had been folded i n
the album of drawings by the "Prete Genovese"; for a half, i n the manner o f a notebook. The drawing was evidently
reconstruction of this album, see Genoa 1995, app., p. 324).
kept folded for some length o f time, since the upper part o f the
head on the recto has been offset on the lower half o f the sheet,
and i t may therefore once have formed part o f a sketchbook or
THE DRAWING O N T H E R E C T O is related to two different portfolio belonging to the artist.
compositions, both o f which show Saint Francis gazing upward The figure on the left has been related to a much later
to the left. These are Saint Francis Adoring the Cross (primary painting o f Saint Jerome i n the Accademia, Venice (Scarpa 1987,
version i n the Palazzo Rosso, Genoa [Genoa 1995, no. 47], w i t h p. 398; Genoa 1995, no. 79), as has the hand, w i t h the sheet

STROZZI & Italian School 119

47 R E C T O
47 V E R S O

turned upside down (Townsend 1996, p. 460 n. 12). Since there recently, Townsend 1996, p. 460). I n view o f the fact that the
can be no doubt that the studies on the verso were all done various Franciscan pictures on which the studies seem to depend
around the same time, however, i t is therefore probable that were made considerably earlier, during Strozzi s Genoese period
in this instance the drawing, or another like it, acted as the start (their precise dates are still very much open to debate), i t seems
ing point for the later painting. I n any case, the angle o f the more likely that the ricordi were also made at this earlier stage,
head and other details i n the painting are slightly different, and while Strozzi still had access to the original paintings and was
in fact this generic type o f old man crops up repeatedly i n involved i n the production o f replicas and variants o f this popu
Strozzi s oeuvre. lar theme (the same would apply to the aforementioned Rotter
O n the verso o f a drawing i n the Museum Boijmans Van dam studies o f hands, item no. 68 i n the former Sagredo album).
Beuningen, Rotterdam (inv. 1.66; Genoa 1995, no. 107), are three I t seems likely that Strozzi, whose livelihood depended upon the
studies o f hands similar to those on the Getty sheet, including diffusion o f his popular compositions, would have taken w i t h
both hands o f the saint from Saint Francis Leaning on a Crucifix, h i m or had sent on to Venice at least a selection from his stock o f
usually dated to the second decade o f the seventeenth century. drawings (conveniently transportable, after all), as models or
The hand holding the rosary bead on both the Rotterdam and patterns for future works.
Getty sheets is isolated (literally disembodied) by the surround Another, fresher drawing, from the same Sagredo album
ing hatching, an indication that i t may be copied from another (no. 20), Saint Francis Holding a Crucifixconnected with a
work (and by the same token easily inserted elsewhere), i n con composition whose primary version, dated 1625-30 by Luisa
trast to a study from life. Mortari, is i n the National Museum and Gallery, Cardiff (with
The annotations on the drawing indicate that i t was once i n one known variant)was recently on the New York and London
an album formerly i n the Sagredo collection, and this Venetian art markets {OldMaster Drawings, Thos Williams [Fine Art] L t d .
provenance has led some scholars to suppose that the studies and W. M . Brady & Co., Inc., New York, October-November
on i t were made after Strozzi s transfer to Venice i n 1633 (most 1995, and London, November-December 1995, no. 15).

STROZZI ?f Italian School 121

Tanzio da Varallo (Antonio d'Enrico Tanzio)
Riale d'Alagna 1575/80-1632/33

T anzio da Varallo was born A n t o n i o d'Enrico

at Riale d'Alagna, i n Valsesia, Lombardy. His
rural Lombard style was transformed by a visit
to Rome, where he came into contact w i t h the work o f Caravag-
gio and his followers at some date before 1615. I n 1616 and 1618
their dramatic power and tight, somewhat obsessive h a n d l i n g
for example, SaintJohn the Baptist in the Desert (Tulsa, Philbrook
Museum o f A r t ) . One o f the most emotional o f Tanzio's later
works is The Battle of Sennacherib, painted i n the Chapel o f the
Guardian Angel i n San Gaudenzio at Novara i n 1627-29, w i t h
Tanzio painted two o f the chapels at the Sacro M o n t e at Varallo, its foreground crowded w i t h contorted figures, illuminated by
where his brother Giovanni d'Enrico (active 1610-44) d i d the an unnatural light.
sculptures. His paintings i n oil o f this time are remarkable for

48 Study for the Virgin Kneeling the basis o f the remarkably similar treatment o f Tanzio's Visita
tion i n San Brizio, Vagna, o f c. 1627 (or i n any case after 1620),
Red chalk on pink prepared paper; H : 31.9 cm (12V\e in.); T i o l i plausibly suggested that the Annunciation was from the
W: 24.1 cm (9 Vi in.) same later period o f the artist s career.
The drawing compares well w i t h one o f a friar kneeling,
formerly i n the collection o f Janos Scholz, N e w York, and now
Circle with a cross above it.
i n the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York (inv. 1978.2; T u r i n
90.GB.115 1959-60, no. 44), not just i n terms o f the pose (although i n
reverse) but also i n the contrast between the detailed modeling
o f the drapery and the lightly summarized head and hands. I n
Perocino family, Valsesia(?); private collection, Geneva; art
other drawings the focus is switched the other way, so that only
market, London.
heads, hands, and feet are studied i n depth and the drapery is
EXHIBITIONS left almost blank (three, for instance, are i n the Pinacoteca,
European Drawings: Recent Acquisitions, Hazlitt, Gooden & Varallo: inv. 1027,1033,1174; ibid., figs. 131,134,135).
Fox, London, 1988, no. 23; New York 1993, no. 107; London As Testori has pointed out, the plasticity o f drapery studies
1993-94, - 46
n o

such as the present drawing bears witness to Tanzio's training

i n his fathers sculpture workshop and his collaboration w i t h
Journal19 (1991), p. 158, no. 50; Testori 1995, pp. 119-20, his brother Giovanni d'Enrico, also a sculptor, i n the creation
123 n. 2,fig.9. o f some o f the extraordinary tableaux-vivants, a combination
o f frescoes and terra-cotta statues, representing the Passion o f
Christ, i n the Sacro Monte, Varallo (ibid., figs. 7-21, 3 0 - 4 8 ,
THE DRAWING I S A S T U D Y for the V i r g i n i n the Annuncia 6 8 - 8 2 , pis. I I - I V , V I I I ) .
tion commissioned by Bishop Bascape for the Cappella della Testori (p. 120) also cites an Annunciation (Viale 1968,
Concezione i n San Bartolomeo, Villadossola, last seen by Laura pi. V I I I ) , one o f the cycle o f frescoes painted by Gaudenzio Fer
T i o l i i n a storeroom i n the church i n 1939 and presumed lost rari i n 1513 for Santa Maria delle Grazie i n Varallo, as the proto
i n the Second W o r l d War (Testori 1995, p. 119 and n . 19). A type for Tanzio's composition, but there seems no substantial
nineteenth-century copy is i n a Milanese private collection. O n correspondence between the two works.

122 Italian School fa TANZIO DA VARALLO

Francesco Vanni
Siena 1563-1610

orn i n Siena, Francesco Vanni was the stepson and Annunciation o f 1589 (Siena, Santa Maria dei Servi). D u r i n g the
stepbrother, respectively, o f the Sienese painters 159os he became the leading figure i n the artistic life o f Siena.
Arcangelo Salimbeni (d. 1590) and Ventura Salim- A r o u n d 1600 he worked for several Roman patrons and i n 1603
beni (1568-1613). A r o u n d 1575 Vanni was i n Bologna, where he secured a highly prized commission for one o f the altarpieces i n
is thought to have studied w i t h Bartolomeo Passarotti (1529- Saint Peters. Shortly thereafter, however, he returned to Siena
1592). M o v i n g to Rome i n 1579, he joined the studio o f Gio to devote himself to local commissions. H e was widely praised
vanni de' Vecchi (1536/37-1615). W h i l e i n Rome he was greatly during his lifetime for his tender devotional images, such as The
influenced by the w o r k o f Federico Barocci (q.v.), as seen i n his Madonna and Child with Saints (Rome, Galleria Borghese).

4P The Nativity T H E D R A W I N G I S S Q U A R E D and was most likely made as a

modello for a painting, although there is no known work that
Red wash over black chalk, heightened with white body color, corresponds precisely to i t . Two more schematic preparatory
on an ocher prepared ground, squared in black chalk; H : 28.9 studies for the lower half o f the same composition, however, one
cm (11% in.); W: 19.5 cm ( 7 % in.)
in black chalk and the other i n pen and ink, are i n the Uffizi,

91.GG.52 Florence (inv. 4761s, 4833s; Florence 1976, nos. 67, 68). The
prominence o f the hay manger (a feature reminiscent o f Barocci s
PROVENANCE Nativity o f 1597, now i n the Prado, Madrid), as well as the poses
Pascalis, Marseilles (Lugt Suppl. 2707, numbered in black ink, o f the V i r g i n and Joseph, w i t h the ox and the ass i n the left back
[?]6) (sale, Marseilles, 20 December 1869, lot 5); private
ground, clearly l i n k all three drawings to the same project.
collection, Paris (sale, Hotel Drouot, Paris, 10 November 1988,
The figures o f Saint Joseph and the central angel holding
lot 209); art market, London.
a scroll i n the Getty drawing recur i n Vannis painting The
EXHIBITIONS Adoration of the Shepherds i n the Franciscan Church i n Salzburg
New York 1993, no. 114; London 1993-94, no. 51. (Kurz 1944, p. 89). Despite these shared elements, the composi
tion o f the painting is different enough, both i n subject and con
tent, to rule out any connection w i t h the group o f drawings
Journal 20 (1992), p. 169, no. 67.
already discussed.
On the verso, inscribed in the bottom right corner, in faded The present drawing is among the most highly wrought o f
gray ink, Vanios. Vanni s known oeuvre and is especially notable for its rendering
o f the supernatural light that emanates from the Christ C h i l d
and from the celestial regions behind the angels (again the influ
ence o f Barocci, as well as that o f Correggio s La Notte [Dresden,
Gemldegalerie], can be detected). Anecdotal details, such as the
putto standing i n the manger above the Christ C h i l d and the ass
feeding from i t , further enliven the composition.

124 Italian School VANNI

Giorgio Vasari
Arezzo 1511-Florence 1574

G iorgio Vasari came from a family o f potters

i n Arezzo, where he received his early training
from the French fresco painter and designer o f
stained glass Guillaume de Marcillat (1475-1529/37). I n 1524
Vasari moved to Florence, working first under Andrea del
celleria, Rome. I n 1554 he was back i n Florence working for the
Medici, who continued to employ h i m for the rest o f his life. For
Cosimo I he carried out the remodeling and decoration o f the
Palazzo Vecchio, including the Quartiere degli Elementi (1555-
59), the Quartiere d i Leone X (1556-62), the Quartiere d i Eleo-
Sarto (q.v.) and then under Baccio Bandinelli (1493-1560). H e nora (1559-62), and the Salone del Cinquecento (1563-72). I n
returned to Arezzo i n 1527 to escape the political troubles i n Flor 1570-71 he decorated three chapels for Pope Pius V i n the Vati
ence that resulted from the expulsion o f the ruling Medici fam can, Rome. As soon as he had completed the chapels, he began
ily; he left the city again i n 1529, traveling to Pisa, Bologna, and the preparations for the fresco decoration o f the cupola o f the
Arezzo. I n early 1532 he was i n the service o f Cardinal Ippolito cathedral i n Florence (see cat. no. 53), though he returned to
de' Medici i n Rome, where he studied the works o f Michelan Rome late i n 1571 to help finish the frescoes i n the Sala Regia i n
gelo (q.v.), Raphael (1483-1520), Perino del Vaga (1501-1547), the Vatican. The decoration o f the cupola remained unfinished
and Polidoro da Caravaggio (c. 1499-c. 543) Returning to Flor

at Vasari's death and was later completed by Federico Zuccaro
ence i n the summer o f 1532, Vasari worked for Ippolito s brother (1540/42-1609). Vasari is perhaps best k n o w n for his Vite de'
Alessandro de' Medici. Vasari's first important commission was pi eccellenti pittoru scultori et architetti (Florence, 1550; 2d ed.
the altarpiece The Crucifixion o f 1537 for the monks at Camal- 1568), a fundamental source for the history o f Italian Renais
doli, north o f Arezzo. For the next fifteen years he traveled sance painting. H e was also one o f the first collectors o f draw
throughout Italy, during which time he decorated his house i n ings, assembling his Libro dei disegni while engaged i n writing
Arezzo, the refectory o f the monastery o f Monteoliveto, Naples the biographies.
(see cat. nos. 50-51), and the Gran Salone o f the Palazzo Can-

Jo Bearded Man Filling a Glass T H E DRAWINGS A R E H I G H L Y finished studies for the lateral
sections o f a tripartite composition painted on panel, one o f two
$1 Youth Running executed by Vasari i n 1544 - 45, to hang at either end o f the refec
tory i n the monastery o f Monteoliveto i n Naples. H e described
Pen and brown ink and brown wash over traces of black
the corresponding work as follows: "La storia b partita i n tre qua-
chalk, heightened with white body color, on blue paper;
dri: nel mezzo e la cena, a man ritta una bottigliera con una cre-
H : 44.9 cm ( i 7 / i 6 in.); W: 19.7 cm (y A in.) each
n 3

denza piena d i vasi i n varie forme e stravaganti, ed a man sinistra

94.GA.33.1 and 94.GA.33.2 uno scalco che conduce le vivande" (The story is divided into
three pictures: i n the center, the supper; on the right, a buttery
w i t h a credence full o f vases i n various fantastic forms; and on the
Paul Sandby, London (Lugt 2112, on 94.GA.33.2 only); sale,
left, a steward, who is bringing up the viands; Vasari/Milanesi
Sotheby's, London, 9 July 1981, lot 7; Roberto Ferretti,
Ontario, Canada; art market, London. 1878-85, vol. 7, p. 675). The paintings were originally situated
at the top end o f the long room, opposite the entrance. The cen
EXHIBITIONS tral panel, The Feast in the House of Simon, is now lost, but its
Toronto and New York 1985-86, nos. 12,13. appearance is recorded i n another polished compositional study
i n the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam (inv. 1951.1; Amsterdam 19 81,
no. 155). The side panels, for which the Getty drawings are
Amsterdam 1981, p. 72, under no. 155; De Castris 1981, p. 84
n. 16, fig. 5; Monbeig-Goguel 1982, p. 70, fig. 8; Corti 1989, preparatory, are now i n the Museo d i Capodimonte, Naples (De
p. 51, under no. 32; Florence and Amsterdam 1995-96, p. 103 Castris 1981, pp. 6 0 - 6 1 , figs. 3, 4); they deviate very little from
n. 7, under no. 12. the compositions established i n the drawings.
Vasari was initially reluctant to take on the commission for
On the reverse of the old backing of 94.GA.33.1, inscribed
the Olivetan refectory on account o f its archaic construction,
bottom center, in graphite, G. Vasari.
Gothic vaulting, and poor natural light ("tutta quella vecchiaia e

126 Italian School ?f VASARI

50 5i
goffezza d i sesti" [all the old-fashioned and clumsy appearance catching trick i n the manner o f an antique relief, aptly dramatiz
o f those arches]; Vasari/Milanesi 1878-85, vol. 7, p. 674). The ing the stewards' haste as they rush the hot food to the table.
artist felt that only a complete transformation o f the refectory, The panel paintings for the opposite end o f the refectory,
according to the principles o f the "maniera moderna" (of which above the entrance, depicted the Gathering o f Manna, but again
his Vite is a manifesto), w o u l d do his reputation justice. His aim only the lateral sections o f this composition survive, i n the
was literally to dazzle the spectator, not just w i t h a revisionist Museo Diocesano, Palazzo Arcivescovile, Palermo (De Castris
framework o f brilliant white stucco but also w i t h his own skill: 1981, pp. 6 2 - 6 3 , figs. 6, 7). The elaborate decorations for the
"con gran copia d'ornamenti, gli occhi abbagliando d i chi avea a vault, w i t h allegorical figures painted i n fresco, framed by gilded
vedere quell'opera con la variet d i molte figure" (with a great stuccowork and grotesques, are still i n situ, and related drawings
abundance o f ornaments, dazzling the eyes o f all who might see include the studies Abundance, i n the British Museum, London
the work w i t h a variety and multitude o f figures; ibid., p. 674); (inv. 1900-5-15-3; London 1986, no. 135), and Prudence, i n the
elsewhere he speaks o f embellishing the istorie w i t h "diversit Fondation Custodia, Paris (inv. 7777; Byam Shaw 1983, no. 30).
d'attitudini e vestiti" (a variety o f attitudes and vestments) as Vasari reused the figures i n the left-hand drawing, w i t h only
well as emotional content ("affetto") (ibid., p. 675). slight modifications, at the left o f The Marriage of Esther and
The Getty drawings not only reflect Vasari s clever adapta Ahasuerus, painted for the Badia at Arezzo i n 1549 and now i n
tion o f his designs to the awkward shape o f the refectory but also the Museo Civico (De Castris 1981, p. 65, fig. 9). The running
epitomize his quest for skill and variety, i n such virtuoso pas youth at the right is a variation, i n reverse, o f a figure from an
sages as that o f the wine, poured from a boldly foreshortened earlier composition by Vasari, his Christ in the House of Mary
flask, splashing into a glass goblet, i n the left section, or i n the and Martha o f 1539, for San Michele i n Bosco, Bologna (Baroc-
180-degree contrapposto o f the main figure on the right, an eye chi 1964, pi. I V ) .

128 Italian School ?f VASARI

Giorgio Vasari
Arezzo 1511-Florence 1574

$2 Studies of a Male Nude, I n the painting the figure's head is turned i n profile to the
left. W i t h his right hand he tugs on his beard, while his left rests
a Drapery, and a Hand on the hilt o f his sword. The figure wears a transparent alVantica
cuirass, revealing the musculature o f his torso, which is w h y
Red chalk; H : 36 cm (14Me in.); W: 24.3 cm ($\6 in.)
Vasari studied this figure from the nude model. I n the drawing
92.GB.36 details o f the figure's head and right knee have been left sketchy;
the position o f the head had yet to be established, but Vasari was
PROVENANCE already anticipating that the knee would be masked from view i n
Sale, Sotheby's, New York, 12 January 1990, lot 33; art market, the painting by a shield on which San Giovanni is represented
by the Florentine baptistery. The position o f the hands was fol

lowed closely i n the painting, even though neither the beard nor
None. the hilt o f the sword is explored i n the drawing. The drapery
studied at the top right o f the sheet appears to relate to that cov
BIBLIOGRAPHY ering the figure's upper arm i n the painting.
Journal 21 (1993), p. 133, no. 52.
The program for the ceiling was established by Vincenzo
Borghini, w i t h interventions from Duke Cosimo himself,
Inscribed near the bottom right corner, in brown ink, Michel
Angelo; numbered farther to the left, iii J)rown ink, 143, and assisted by his secretary, Giambattista Adriani. W o r k on the
in the bottom right corner, in purple ink^ jz. The drawing is thirty-nine paintings for the ceiling compartments o f the Salone
laid down onto a piece of car4; fragments of paper that once began i n August 1563, and the whole was unveiled i n December
formed an engraved ornamental border are visible in places
1565, i n time for the nuptials o f Ferdinando de' Medici. Three
along the two lateral edges. Inscribed just above the center of
diagrams by Vasari for the arrangement o f the ceiling survive,
the cardboard support, in graphite, N. 96 B. Attached to this
side of the card is a late nineteenth-century backing that was only the first o f which is dated(?), March 3, 1563; the roundel
once laid down onto blue paper, fragments of which are still containing the quartieri o f Santa Maria Novella and San Gio
attached at the four corners. On the paper backing are the vanni was planned to occupy its present location, above the
following inscriptions: near the bottom left corner, in brown Udienza, from the start. I n the second o f the three diagrams the
iiik, Hyllan II; below, in graphite, 9 [a long line] page 35; and
positions o f the two quartieri are reversed, w i t h that o f San Gio
along the bottom edge, Michel Angel-bona (the rest covered
by tape). vanni appearing on the left instead o f the right. The life drawing
for this allegorical figure was therefore probably made after
Vasari had submitted, and Cosimo had approved, the third and
final scheme.
THE DRAWING IS A STUDY from life fof the "caporione I n type the drawing recalls Michelangelo's red chalk studies
arrnato" (armed ringleader) representing the quartiere (district) for the ignudi on the ceiling o f the Sistine Chapel, such as that
of San Giovanni, \n the roundel depicting the quartiert o f Santa in the Albertina, Vienna (inv. 120 recto; Tolnay 1976-80, vol. 1,
Maria Novella and San Giovanni at the west end o f the great no. 144 recto), i n which the male model is likewise studied i n
coffered ceiling o f the Salone del Cinquecento i n the Palazzo varying degrees o f detail.
Vecchio, Florence (Muccini 1990, repr. p, 98).

VASARI ?f Italian School 129

Giorgio Vasari
Arezzo 1511-Florence 1574

53 Compositional Study for the signor D i o , della cupola, da' p r i m i ochi i n su, son fatti et finiti
benissimo, talche ogni persona pratica gli potrebbe condurre"
Southeast Section of the Cupola ( W i t h G o d s grace all the drawings o f the cupola, from the first
of Florence Cathedral oculi up, are done and well finished, to such an extent that any
experienced person could execute them; Gaye 1840, vol. 3, p.
Pen and brown ink and brown wash over some traces of black 368). Following Vasari s death i n 1574, the commission was taken
chalk; H : 41.2 cm (16/4 in.); W (bottom edge): 21.8 cm (8TU; over by Federico Zuccaro, who began work i n 1576 and brought
in.); W (top edge): 10 cm (4 in.)
the frescoes to completion by 1579, when the decoration was

91.GA.80 finally unveiled (Lapini 1900, pp. 193, 201).

The Museums drawing is for the southeast face o f the
PROVENANCE cupola (above the entrance to the O l d Sacristy), immediately to
Private collection, France(?); private collection, Lugano; art the right o f Christ in Judgment i n the east. I t corresponds closely
market, London. to Borghini s project for this section (the third, according to his
description) and to Vasari s own schematization after it, which
London 1990, no. 14. also survives (his "angolo ottavo"; Vasari/Milanesi 1878-85,
vol. 8, pp. 224-25). I n the alcove at the top o f the sheet is an
BIBLIOGRAPHY Elder o f the Apocalypse (with two others i n the background).
journal (1992), p. 167, no. 63. Below two angels carry aloft the lance and the chalice, symbols
of the Passion and the Redemption, respectively. Beneath them
In the bottom right corner, unidentified collector's mark
is a semicircle o f angels, "ornate con celate i n testa, et croci rosse
(LF?) blind-stamped. On the verso, numbered above the
center, in graphite, 187; inscribed below, also in graphite, in su l'arme" (adorned w i t h sallets [light helmets] on their heads
Wl Guigo[u or n] - Maurel. . . a Marb[a or e]th 112 g .77^)1
and red crosses on their armor; Borghini, i n Guasti 1857, p. 139),
inscribed in the bottom left, in a late sixteenth-century hand, representing the Virtues. I n the third zone is a company o f mar
in brown ink(?), e di - giorgio [vdsari+ inserted above] de tyred saints, among w h o m can be distinguished Saint Lawrence,
arezo\ in the bottom right, in graphite, an unidentifiable
Saint Stephen(?), and Saint Sebastian. Below again is Fortitude,
price; and below and to the right, in blue crayon, 337-.
one o f the seven Gifts o f the H o l y Spirit, flanked on the left
by Patience, holding a yoke, and, on the right, by a figure rep
resenting the second o f the Eight Beatitudes, Beati qui lugent
("Blessed are they that mourn"; Matthew 5:4). The lowest realm
T H I S I S A C O M P O S I T I O N A L study for one of Vasari s last great shows the damned being thrust into the jaws o f hell to the right
projects, the fresco decoration of the interior of the cupola of the while the elect are resurrected and raised heavenward to the left.
cathedral i n Florence (see Monbeig-Goguel 1972, pp. 17-21, for According to Borghinis program and to all subsequent descrip
reproductions o f the entire cupola and the individual faces). tions o f the cupola decorations, the sin for which the con
The fresco depicts the Last Judgment and is organized according demned souls i n this section are being punished is that of Wrath.
to a complex program devised by the Florentine humanist and I n his program Borghini made the following suggestion for
antiquary Vincenzo Borghini (for the text, addressed to Vasari, the depiction o f the realms o f hell: "Et i n qualche di quegli
see Guasti 1857, pp. 132-40). The overall scheme consists o f anguli farei bocche infernali, i n forma d i animali corrispondenti
five concentric zones surrounding Filippo Brunelleschi s famous a' v i t i i " ( A n d i n some of these corners I would do mouths of hell
lantern. O n account o f the octagonal shape o f the dome, the in the form o f animals corresponding to the vices; p. 133), mean
decoration is further divided vertically into eight spichi, or com ing literally the jaws o f the animal most appropriate to each par
partments, which, though iconographically distinct, harmonize ticular sin. I n the Getty drawing Vasari apparently followed
w i t h the general system o f ascending realms. Borghinis more detailed recommendation for the southeast
The drawing would have been executed between August facet: "ove si figurer la bocca infernale con quella d'un orso
1570, when the idea for the commission was first broached i n a cane" (where one w i l l depict hells m o u t h as that o f a bear or
letter from Borghini to Vasari, and March 6, 1573, when Vasari dog; p. 137). M a n y drawings exist by Vasari showing souls being
himself asserted i n a letter to Borghini that, w i t h the exception thrust into a variety of such bocche (cf. Paris, Louvre inv. 2118 ter,
of those for the eastern face, "tutti e disegni, con la gratia del 2140, 2146, for Avarice i n the southwest; 2113, for Gluttony i n

VASARI ?f Italian School 131

the south; 2185 bis, for Lust i n the northwest; 2185, for Wrath i n
the southeast; 2109, for Pride i n the west; D i j o n , Musee des
Beaux-Arts inv. 299, for Envy i n the northeast). Apart from the
jaws for Gluttony, however, which are tusked, denoting a pig or
boar, they are largely indistinguishable and would have made for
a somewhat repetitive design. W h e n Zuccaro took over the proj
ect, he departed from the iconography established by Borghini
and Vasari most particularly i n this point, replacing the some
what retrogressive solution o f the bocche w i t h more naturalistic
rocks and boulders, thus permitting a greater variety o f poses
among the devils and sinners i n hell. Zuccaro paid lip service to
Borghini s original program by including an animal i n each hell
scene symbolizing the relevant Deadly Sin. Drawings for Zuc
caro s revised vision o f hell are i n the British Museum, London
(Gere and Pouncey 1983, nos. 3 0 2 - 6), and the Albertina, Vienna
(inv. 14331-33,14335, 33%) Two (British Museum inv. 1862-10-
11-186 [ibid., no. 302] and Albertina inv. 14338) are for the same
southeast face for which the Getty drawing is preparatory,
although both differ from the finished fresco i n mistakenly rep
resenting an ass, symbolic o f the sin o f Sloth, rather than the F I G U R E53A. Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574). Study for the Hell Realms in the
bear appropriate to Wrath. Cupola of the Florence Cathedral. Pen and brown ink, brown wash, over black
chalk. H : 19 cm (7/2 in.); W: 19.5 cm ( in.). Paris, Louvre, Departement

A large number o f drawings by Vasari survive for this proj

des Arts Graphiques inv. 2185.
ect, including no fewer than fifty-eight i n the Louvre. Seven o f
these (inv. 2115-19, 2183 bis, 2185) also relate to the southeast
face, and their relationship to the Getty drawing is pertinent. for the southwest face); the Louvre (inv. 2144; V i t z t h u m 1965, p i .
Four o f them are small drawings, minutely squared, which repli 48b; for the north face); the Albertina, Vienna (inv. 14328; Stix
cate w i t h remarkable fidelity the four corresponding zones i n the and Frlich-Bum 1932, vol. 3, no. 266; for the east face); and the
Getty composition drawing, excluding that o f the Elders o f the Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth (inv. 200; Jaffe 1994, Ro
Apocalypse at the top (in descending order, inv. 2119, 2183 bis, man and Neapolitan Schools, no. 388; also for the east face). His
2118, and, for the hell realm, 2185 [fig. 53a; also repr. i n Acidini designs for the upper zones appear much more hieratic than
Luchinat 1989, fig. 22b]). The drawings appear to be autograph Vasari s, w i t h greater emphasis placed on the horizontal bands,
but are less organic and fluent i n style than the present example, giving priority to clarity over aesthetic design. The present sheet
the wash barely touched i n . I n addition, three larger, more is much more attractive and compositionally satisfying as a
detailed drawings, also squared, record w i t h more precision the drawing, but some o f Borghini s recommendations adopted by
poses o f the figures i n the central three zones (in descending Vasari, such as diminishing the size o f the figures as the zones
order, inv. 2117, 2115, 2116, the latter w i t h the principal figures ascend, turned out to be impractical and were adapted when the
clearly marked PATIENTIA, DONO DI FORTEZZA, and QUI fresco came to be painted.
LUGENT). These drawings obviously represent the transition A t the time o f Vasari s death i n 1574, only the lantern is
between the initial scheme, sketched out i n the composition recorded as having been completed (Lapini 1900, p. 193), but
drawing, and the solutions o f the finished fresco, which on the as John Gere and Philip Pouncey have pointed out, evidence
whole they resemble more closely. suggests that Vasari's designs were i n fact followed i n four o f
The Getty drawing was made on a piece o f paper cut to the the eight faces (the north, northeast, southeast, and south). The
exact shape o f the facet o f the dome, tapering more sharply at present drawing supports this theory, corresponding remarkably
the top. O n l y two other compositional drawings for the greater closely to the central three zones o f the finished fresco on the
part o f a spichio are known: one is i n the Musee des Beaux-Arts, southeast face. Exceptions are the Elder holding a cithara (cf.
D i j o n (inv. 171; V i t z t h u m 1965, p i . 48; for the northeast face), Borghini s recommendation, i n Guasti 1857, p. 140, that the
though this lacks the uppermost zone, containing the Elder o f Elders should be represented w i t h "le cetere accanto" [citharas
the Apocalypse; the other, omitting both the uppermost and the beside them]) i n the uppermost zonetransferred i n the fresco,
lowest zone, is i n the Louvre (inv. 2148; Paris 1965, no. 62; for presumably by Vasari himself, to the east face, above Christ in
the east face). There are composition drawings by Zuccaro on Judgmentand the left side o f the second zone, which i n the
similarly shaped sheets i n the Metropolitan Museum o f A r t , fresco is rolled back to reveal the elect i n Paradise. The lowest
New York (Rogers Fund 1961.53; Acidini Luchinat 1989, fig. 23; zone was completely redesigned by Federico, as described above.

VASARI ?f Italian School 133

Paolo Veronese (Paolo Caliari)
Verona 1528-Venice 1588

orn i n Verona, Paolo Caliari received his artistic bara (now Volpe), a program o f decoration noted for its brilliant
training there from Antonio Badile I V (1518 - illusionistic effects. Veronese was also a successful portraitist,
1560) and Giovanni Caroto (1488-1563/66). Vero who typically imparted a serene, imposing air to his richly cos
nese's early fresco decorations o f 1551 for the Villa Soranza near tumed subjects and enriched his portraits w i t h fine details o f
Castelfranco suggest a knowledge o f the work of Correggio (q.v.), color and texture, as can be seen i n Portrait of a Woman with a
Parmigianino (1503-1540), and Giulio Romano (q.v.). I n 1553 he Dog o f 1563-65 (Paris, Louvre). A m o n g his best-known works
transferred to Venice, where he worked i n the Sala del Consiglio are the large banquet scenes i n sumptuous architectural settings
dei Dieci i n the Palazzo Ducale and began a series o f decorations painted for Venetian refectories, such as The Marriage at Cana
for the church o f San Sebastiano, including The Triumph of of 1562-63 for San Giorgio Maggiore (Venice, Accademia) and
Mordecai (1556). His early work culminated around 1561 w i t h the Feast in the House of Levi o f 1573 for Santi Giovanni e Paolo
the mythologies and allegories painted i n Palladios Villa Bar (Paris, Louvre).

$4 CoHume Studies for Sophocles' and, with the sheet turned vertically, in another contemporary
hand, in black ink, AI Cl Sig. il Sig f Vettor Sorafnjzo mio.
mo or or

'Oedipus Tyrannus" S. epatro[ne]f Oss. / Venetial in frezzaria in Cale d[e]l Caro;


in the bottom left corner, in a more modern hand, in dark

Pen and brown ink, with brown wash in the upper-right brown ink, pp$., preceded by a notation like c=, and, farther
study only (recto); pen and brown ink (verso); H : 21.3 cm to the right, in graphite, B.
(8 /s in.); W: 30.3 cm (11% in.)

THE SHEET CONTAINS a number o f sketches o f costumes
Angel with a circle with a star above it (somewhat similar to
for the inaugural production o f Sophocles' Oedipus Tyrannus,
Briquet 1966, vol. 1, nos. 660-63).
staged, i n a new translation by Orsatto Giustiniani, to mark the
91.GG.3 opening on March 3, 1585, o f Andrea Palladios famous Teatro
Olimpico i n Vicenza. Although Veronese's intervention is not
documented, Janos Scholz was the first to notice the connection
Alcide Donnadieu, London; private collection,
between drawings by the official designer for the production, the
Buckinghamshire; sale, Christie s, London, 1 July 1986, lot 30;
art market, Boston. Vicentine artist Giovanni Battista Maganza (c. 1509-1586), and
a double-sided sheet o f costume studies by Veronese, similar to
EXHIBITIONS the present drawing, i n the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris (inv. 415;
Venice 1980, no. 31; Washington, D.C., 1988-89, no. 84. Cocke 1984, nos. 113,113V; Venice 1988 and Paris 1990, no. 18). I n
fact, all the designs by Maganza that have so far certainly been
identified for this project clearly depend upon one or another o f
Rinaldi 1981, pp. 75-81; Cocke 1984, pp. 267-69, nos. 114,
114V; Byam Shaw 1985, p. 309 and n. 7; Coutts 1986, p. 402; the two sheets o f rapid sketches by Veronese, whose assistance
Puppi 1987, pp. 199-200, nn. 53, 58,fig.6; Venice 1988 and may have been sought o n an unofficial basis. Contemporary
Paris 1990, under nos. 18, 19; Journal 20 (1992), pp. 168-69, accounts o f the lavish production and huge cast o f Oedipus
no. 66.
imply that further studies by both artists must once have existed.
As Roger Rearick pointed out (in Washington, D . C . , 1988-89,
Inscribed above each of the costume studies, in a sixteenth-
century hand, in brown ink, Citadino di riputation; fattal p. 168, under no. 84), the note made after the drawing, at the top
Donzela servente; Unafglija dela Reg fanciulina; Un
of the Beaux-Arts page, referring to 1583 as pasato (i.e., last year)
no[n]cio dela Cittal Fatto; Un no[n]cio; forestiero; Un nofnjcio and 1584 as questo anno (this year), suggests a date early i n 1584
dila Citta giovene; Un Patro[ne] vechiol Fatto; Un uomo nobile/ for Veronese's sketches.
Fato; between the two studies in the bottom right, Ellipo
Each rapid sketch is labeled, either by Veronese or Maganza,
vechiol Chreonte; with the sheet turned vertically, beside the
heads of the third study in the top row, d 6$ L 40$/403 and w i t h the name o f the character for w h o m the costume was
L 4$. On the verso, inscribed above the main figure study, also intended. References to Oedipus and Creon between the two
in the artists hand, in brown ink, Chreo[n]te di mezalEtta; sketches i n the bottom right o f the recto establish w i t h certainty

134 Italian School ?f VERONESE

54 RECT<

the play i n question. The note fatto (and variants), inscribed merly i n the Scholz collection and now i n the Pierpont Morgan
next to some o f these annotations, appears to indicate that these Library, New York (inv. 1993.156; Cocke 1984, fig. 84; from the
particular costumes were indeed realized. I t seems more logical uomo nobile, lower right o f the Getty sheet, and the fanciulo
that these additional notes should be attributed to Maganza, as a nobile de la Regina, on the verso o f the Paris sheet); and another
system o f ticking off the costumes he actually selected and used. in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris (inv. M.2667; Venice 1988,
The sheet was once folded into eighths, and the inscription on no. 19; from the Donzella servente, top row, second from left, o f
the verso (in another hand?) indicates that at some time i t acted the Getty sheet, and the Dona de Governo, on the recto, bottom
as the wrapping or envelope o f a letter addressed to a certain right, o f that i n Paris)-indicating that Maganza had both o f
Vettor Soranzo i n "Cale d[e]l Caro" i n Venice. Veronese's designs to work from simultaneously. Another draw
Several o f Maganza's more detailed sketches, presumably ing formerly i n the Scholz collection (Pierpont Morgan Library
made as working drawings for the costumiers, survive i n various inv. 1993.157; Cocke 1984, fig. 83), showing a blind man (presum
collections. Those corresponding to the Getty sheet are i n the ably Tiresias) being led by a page, relates to the Paris sheet alone.
Yacovleff collection, London, based on the Citadino di riputa- Rinaldi suggested that a drawing by Maganza, Soldier Holding a
tion, top left (Puppi 1962, fig. 16), and a drawing formerly i n the Sword and a Spear, Seen from the Rear, recently on the New York
Rudolf collection, London, derived both from the Patro[n]e art market (sale, Sotheby's, New York, 14 January 1992, lot 47),
vechio, bottom row, second from the right, and the no[n]cio dela may be a further addition to this group o f designs, although i t
Citta, top right (Cocke 1984, fig. 85). Two more drawings com does not correspond to any o f Veronese's surviving sketches.
bine figures from both the Getty and the Paris sheetsone for

VERONESE ?f Italian School 135

54 V E R S O
Taddeo Zuccaro
Sant'Angelo in Vado 1529-Rome 1566

T he son o f the painter Ottaviano Zuccaro (b. c.

1505), Taddeo was born i n Sant'Angelo i n Vado
i n the Marches and at the age o f fourteen went
by himself to Rome. H e was especially influenced by the paint
ings o f Raphael (1483-1520), Perino del Vaga (1501-1547), and
Most were painted by Taddeo i n 1560, but the rest were eventu
ally completed by his brother Federico (1540/42-1609). Taddeo s
altarpiece The Conversion of Saint Paul o f 1563, for the same
chapel, is a brilliant example o f the complexity and ingenious-
ness o f his high mannerist style. I n 1559 he began working at the
Polidoro da Caravaggio (c. 1499-c. 1543). A r o u n d 1553 Taddeo Villa Farnese i n Caprarola, which occupied h i m intermittently
collaborated w i t h Prospero Fontana (1512-1597) i n painting fres until his death. His late work includes the intensely spiritual
coes for the villa o f Pope Julius I I I outside the Porta del Popolo. Dead Christ Supported by Angels o f 1564-65 (Urbino, Galleria
H e was commissioned i n 1557 to paint frescoes o f the Life o f Nazionale), originally intended for the chapel o f the villa.
Saint Paul i n the Frangipani Chapel, San Mar cello al Corso.

# Design for a Circular Dish T H E S T U D I E S O N T H E V E R S O o f this sheet are all connected

w i t h paintings i n the Mattei Chapel, i n the church o f Santa
(recto); Figure Studies (verso) Maria della Consolazione, Rome, the decoration o f which was
begun by Taddeo i n 1553 and finished i n 1556. The two seated
Pen and brown ink and brown wash over stylus underdrawing
female figures are studies for the left-hand sibyl i n the lunette
and black chalk, with traces of red chalk offset (recto); red
and black chalk (verso); H : 35.2 cm (13% in.); W: 26.3 cm above the altar (Gere 1969, p i . 65); the large-scale head is a study
(10% in.) for the man on the extreme right of Christ Washing the Disciples'
Feet, on the ceiling (ibid., p i . 70); and the running figure is for
one o f the soldiers or the fleeing nude young man who throws a
Crossed arrows.
cloak about his shoulders i n the right foreground o f The Betrayal

91.GB.58 (see plate 6) of Christ, also on the ceiling (ibid., p i . 57). The three less fully
resolved, smaller studies i n the bottom right may be related to
PROVENANCE the decoration as follows: the figure seen from the rear, bend
William Young Ottley, London (sale, T. Philipe, London, ing forward, i n the bottom center, may be for the man ascending
6 June 1814, lot 1490); Thomas Lawrence, London (Lugt 2445,
the steps i n The Last Supper (ibid., p i . 71); the torso o f a reclin
on verso); Samuel Woodburn, London; Sir Thomas Phillipps,
ing nude, to the left o f the previous study, is probably for the
London; T. Fitzroy Fenwick, London; A. S.W. Rosenbach,
New York; Rosenbach Foundation, Philadelphia; British Rail right-hand sibyl i n the lunette above the altar; and the figure fac
Pension Fund, London; sale, Sotheby's, New York, 11 January ing left, w i t h his left arm outstretched, i n the bottom right cor
1990, lot 21; art market, London. ner, may be for one o f the soldiers i n the background o f The
Betrayal of Christ.
Numerous preparatory drawings for these decorations exist,
New York 1993, no. 123; London 1993-94, no. 55.
including several for the same left-hand sibyl, i n the Kunsthalle,
BIBLIOGRAPHY Hamburg (inv. 21058, recto and verso; ibid., no. 85); the British
Gere 1969, no. 211, pis. 44, 46, pp. 64-65; Gere 1970, Museum, London (inv. Pp.2-127; ibid., no. 98); and one for
pp. 12627, no. 2; An Exhibition of Old Master Drawings, merly w i t h Colnaghi, London (Gere 1995, no. 264-j, recto and
Colnaghi, London, 28 June-21 July 1984, under no. 4;
verso). One for the right-hand sibyl, formerly i n the collection
Journal zo (1992), p. 166, no. 61.
o f M r . John Carter Jonas, was recently donated to the British
Museum (inv. 1993-12-11-11; Gere 1969, no. 125). As Gere (1970)
pointed out, the principal studies on the present sheet corre
spond so closely to the figures i n the paintings that i t is likely
they were made at a relatively late stage i n the design process,
despite their sketchy appearance. Conversely, the studies for the
left-hand sibyl, on the recto o f the Hamburg sheet and at the
British Museum, are much more carefully executed, w i t h ample

ZUCCARO fa Italian School 137

55 R E C T O
55 V E R S O

applications o f wash and white highlights, but these were clearly one to the other as he explored the problem o f how to accom
made earlier, while the artist was still exploring different permu modate dynamically posed figures w i t h i n a curving frame.
tations for the figure s pose, as he was also i n the more swiftly A more carefully finished version o f the recto, also by Tad
executed pen sketch formerly w i t h Colnaghi. deo, is i n the Kunstmuseum, Dsseldorf (inv. F.P. 160; Gere
O n the recto is a circular design for a maiolica dish or 1969, no. 27). The group o f the triton embracing the nymph at
metalwork salver. That Taddeo made maiolica designs is con the top o f the sheet may be derived from an antique prototype, a
firmed by Vasari (Vasari/Milanesi 1878-85, vol. 6, p. 581), who Roman sarcophagus once visible on the Quirinal i n Rome and
mentions a set carried out by h i m for the duke o f Urbino, now i n Grottaferrata (Bober and Rubinstein 1986, no. 102). The
c. 1560-62 (these quite different historical narratives, scenes m o t i f o f the fighting sea monsters i n the bottom left quarter cor
from the life o f Julius Caesar, are discussed i n Gere 1963). The responds to a lost drawing by Perino del Vaga, o f which more
reclining female figure at the top o f the present drawing has cer than one copy is known (e.g., Pouncey and Gere 1962, no. 192).
tain features i n common w i t h the studies for the sibyl on the A humorous touch is provided by the grotesque face glowering
verso, and one can see how the artist proceeded naturally from up from the bottom o f the dish at the eventual user.

ZUCCARO ?f Italian School 139

Central Italian School
Early Sixteenth Century

$6 The Hunt of Diana (?) (recto); the sheet, the nymph on the extreme left turns her head to the left
as i f i n conversation w i t h a companion now no longer present.
Two Studies of a Pair of Reclining The purpose o f the study on the recto is not known, though
River-Gods ft); a Sarcophagus one could imagine a more fully realized treatment o f the design
as a painting or print. The pose o f the central figure carrying a
Front(?) (verso) staff w i t h dead game and the treatment o f the draperies compare
well w i t h a drawing by Amico Aspertini (c. 1474-1552), Two
Pen and brown ink with light brown wash; H : 34.5 cm
Women and a Child, Seen from the Rear, i n the SzepMveszeti
(13% in.); W: 24.3 cm (9%; in.)
Muzeum, Budapest (inv. 2106; Faietti 1991, p. 148, fig. 3; Faietti
WATERMARK and Scaglietti Kelescian 1995, pp. 278-80, no. 65), though the
Unidentifiable symbol. handling seems rather different and less expressive. A better com
parison is w i t h the drawing style o f another Emilian artist o f the
period, Marcantonio Raimondi (c. 1480-c. 1534).
The two pairs o f reclining male figures faintly drawn on
Unidentified collector (Lugt 2593); art market, London (i.e., the verso recall the pair o f river gods that Michelangelo had
Hazlitt Gallery, 1948 [as Titian], according to caption on an intended to place at the base o f the tomb o f the Magnifici i n the
old photograph of the drawing in the Witt Library, Courtauld Medici Chapel, Florence, though this was never carried out: a
Institute of Art, London); Mr. and Mrs. Hugh N . Squire,
funerary context for the pair o f figures i n the drawing is sug
London (anonymous sale, Sotheby's, London, 4 July 1975,
gested by the third study on the verso, a slight sketch o f what
lot 57); art market, Boston.
appears to be a sarcophagus front, w i t h a circular wreath at the
EXHIBITIONS center supported by a kneeling winged angel to the right.

Consigli Valente 1988, p. 142 n. 161 (as circle of Marcantonio
Raimondi); Journal 21 (1993), p. 131, no. 47 (as Aspertini);
Faietti and Scaglietti Kelescian 1995, p. 323, no. 34R (reject
attribution to Aspertini).

On the verso, inscribed upper center, in graphite, No. 41; the

same inscription, also in graphite, is repeated just above the
center with the sheet turned upside down; also with the sheet
turned upside down, inscribed in graphite, 1$ cent.

THE HUNTERS I N T H E foreground appear to be female,

including the figure w h o seems to be directing the activities,
seen i n profile at the left, who wears a wreath on her head and
holds a bow. Although she hardly conforms w i t h conventional
representations o f the goddess, the possibility that she is Diana
should not be ruled out. Apart from the presence o f women
hunters, an identification o f the scene as the H u n t o f Diana finds
additional support i n the group o f nymphs bathing i n a pool i n
the middle ground to the left, apparently watched by three other
figures, one (who may be Actaeon) w i t h horns or antlers.
The composition must originally have extended farther on
both sides. A third o f the way up the right edge o f the sheet is the
disembodied head o f a n y m p h carrying the hindquarters o f a
dead boar, and i n the corresponding position on the other side o f 56 V E R S O

140 Italian School ?f CENTRAL ITALIAN

56 R E C T O
Florentine School
Late Fifteenth Century

57 Seated Young Man

Metalpoint heightened with white body color, on light
pinkish gray prepared paper; H : 19.8 cm (y A in.); W: 9.8 cm

(3 7s in.)


Double-Numbering Collector; unidentified collector
(overinked collectors stamp: illegible letters in rectangle);
private collection, Lugano; art market, Zurich.


Journal zo (1992), p. 161, no. 54 (as circle of Lorenzo di Credi).

Numbered in the hand of the so-called Double-Numbering

Collector, in brown ink, in the upper left corner, 24$., and in
the lower right corner, duecento quaranta cinque; inscribed in
the upper right corner, also in brown ink, Z, and in a different
hand, di Rajfaelle d'Urbino; along the bottom of the old
mount, in graphite, Raphaels . . . /OC(?). On the reverse of
the mount, inscribed in graphite above the center, 1116, and
toward the bottom, Raphaels own portrait, followed by a
monogram, /OC(?).
F I G U R E57A. Francesco Granacci (1469 -1543). Study ofa Draped Youth and
a Head. Silverpoint and white body color on pinkish buff ground. H : 29 cm
(n7i6 in.); W: 15 cm (5% in.). Florence, Gabinetto disegni e stampe degli Uffizi
THE O L D , S E V E N T E E N T H - C E N T U R Y ( ? ) attribution to Ra inv. 257E verso.

phael is understandable given the general similarity to his draw

ings i n metalpoint on pinkish prepared paper, such as Saint Paul Lille (inv. Pluchart 233; Benvignat 1856, no. 248, as Finiguerra),
Rending His Garments i n the Getty Museum (inv. 84.GG.919; given to Granacci by Popham (on the British Museum's Gerns
Goldner 1988, no. 39). A later, English hand, presumably nine heim Corpus mount, no. 18085).
teenth century, goes so far as to identify the sheet as "Raphael's Although the youth seems at first sight to be standing, he
own portrait." must be seated on a stool or bench, since the one leg that has
Acquired as from the circle o f Lorenzo d i Credi (1457 been drawn appears at an angle; the vertical lines above his ankle
1536), the drawing may also be compared w i t h a sizable group thus define part o f the object on which he is seated, perhaps
o f studies now usually given to Francesco Granacci (1469-1543), the leg o f a stool, w i t h a horizontal possibly indicated under his
a younger contemporary and fellow painter o f the Florentine backside. The study may have been made for a figure i n an
School, whose w o r k i n metalpoint is sometimes extremely close unidentified painting or simply for its own sake, as an exercise
to Credi's own. A good comparison, particularly i n terms o f the i n drawing drapery i n metalpoint, since the main focus is the
highlighting, may be made w i t h a silverpoint drapery study o f voluminous swathe o f fabric arranged over the figure s left shoul
a very similar youth, usually attributed to Granacci, i n the der. The drawing is typical o f drapery studies i n this technique
Uffizi, Florence (fig. 57a; Berenson 1938, no. 933). Another sil made i n the Florentine workshops o f Andrea del Verrocchio
verpoint drawing i n the Uffizi attributed to Granacci (inv. 293E; (1435-1488), Lorenzo d i Credi, Domenico Ghirlandaio (1448/
ibid., no. 938), w h i c h contains several sketches, including one o f 4 9 - 1 4 9 4 ) , and their circles, and i t may date from the late 1480s
a youth seated on a stool, also has elements i n common w i t h the or early 1490s, possibly coinciding w i t h the time o f Granacci s
present drawing, as does one, particularly i n the drapery pas apprenticeship i n the Ghirlandaio workshop, one o f the most
sages, o f a standing young man i n the Musee des Beaux-Arts, active i n late fifteenth-century Florence.

142 Italian School ?f FLORENTINE

North or Central Italian School
Fourteenth Century(?)

$8 A Draped Figure Holding a Book reference to Abate Luigi Lanzi s Storia pittorica della Italia,
(Florence, 1822), vol. 1, p. 8, translated from the Italian by
Point of the brush, heightened with white body color, on Thomas Roscoe (1791-1871), fifth son of William Roscoe, in
greenish blue prepared paper; H : 19.4 cm (7 A in.); W: 11.2 cm
5 1828]/ Lanzi commences his series of the Florentine school! with
(4% in.) this master, who was prior to Cimabue.; in the bottom left
corner, in brown ink, 104.

PROVENANCE A D R A W I N G C O M P A R A B L E i n style, size, and subject matter,

Padre Sebastiano Resta, Rome; Jonathan Richardson Sr., clearly by the same hand, is i n the Teylers Museum, Haarlem
London (Lugt 2183, 2992; his mount); Arthur Pond, London
(fig. 58a; Florence and Rome 1983-84, no. 45). I t shows a simi
(Lugt 2038); John Thane, London (Lugt 1544); John Barnard,
larly draped male figure, also standing i n three-quarters profile
London (Lugt 1419,1420); William Roscoe, Liverpool (sale,
Winstanley, Liverpool, 23 September 1816, lot 8); William to the left, holding a bow i n his right hand and an arrow i n his
Esdaile, London (Lugt 2617) (sale, Christie's, London, 18 June left. Like the Getty drawing, i t too bears an old attribution to
1840, lot 7); private collection (sale, Christies, New York, Giunta Pisano on the verso (Giunta Pisano dipins dal 1208 al
13 January 1993, lot 5); art market, London.
1236), arid the two sheets probably once formed part o f a series
w i t h other drawings. The inscription on the back o f the old

Journal 23 (1995), p. 69, no. 12.

Inscribed in the bottom right corner, in brown ink, /. 6.

[Padre Resta's inventory no., i.e., Libro J, item 6, as recorded
by Richardson in MS. Lansdowne 802, Department of
Manuscripts, the British Library, London]. On the old
Richardson (?) mount, at bottom center, inscribed in Jonathan
Richardson Sr.'s hand, in gray ink, Gionta Pisano.; in the
bottom left corner of the mount, in Esdaile's hand, in brown
ink, 42 3 -I8I6 Roscoe; the Esdaile inscription continues to
the right of Richardson's attribution to Giunta Pisano, fl 1210

prior to Cimabue.; at the right edge, also in Esdaile's hand(?),

in graphite, vide the back, and, beneath the attribution to
Giunta Pisano, St. John. On the back of the mount, at the top
center, in brown ink, Richardson's shelftnarks, A.59. (this is
the album reference to one of the four "Giunta" drawings in
Richardson's collection, recorded in MS. Lansdowne 803) and,
below, I.33.; below this, in Richardson's hand, copied from a
text by Padre Resta, -Giunta Pisano, nom.- incognito al Vasario.
Pittore Antecessore a Cimabii. Ifurono trovati qti Disegni (there
were about 6 of them) di Manier a Gre-I canica de tempi Bassi
delPrincipio del Secolo duodecimo in un repostigliol d'una casa
che fu di Pietro Perugino pervenuta circa Vanrio 1683. nelli-l P.P.
delVOrio di S. Filippo di Perugia assiem. - d'altri Disegni tra
qualil uno di Pietro della Francesca-I P. Resta; below again,
what is probably a further Richardson shelfmark, k.; below
again, Barnard's monogram followed by his measurements,
in brown ink, 7 1/2 by 4 1/4; below again, an unidentified
monogram, in blue ink, GHP; in the bottom center, in
brown ink, Pond.; to the left of this, in Esdaile's hand, in F I G U R E5 8 A . North or Central Italian School. Standing Figure with Bow
brown ink, Formerly in the coll of Padre Resta, Richardson

and Arrow. Metalpoint, heightened with white body color, on green prepared
PondI& Barnard. 11816 WE. Roscoe s coll. 81-N42 and, paper. H : 18.4 cm (7/4 in.); W: 10.6 cm (4/16 in.). Haarlem, Teylers Museum
to the right, also in Esdaile's hand, Vide Lanzi 18 [i.e., a inv. A I .

144 Italian School ?f NORTH OR C E N T R A L ITALIAN

mount o f the present work, copied from a note by the Italian
collector Padre Resta (1635-1714), records that i t was discovered
among a cache o f drawings i n Perugia, around 1653, and the
Haarlem drawing probably derives from the same source. The
figures may be allegorical representations or saints; i n the 1840
Esdaile sale catalogue, and i n a pencil annotation o n the mount,
the Getty drawing is identified as a "St John [the Evangelist]."
Resta believed the drawings predated the time o f Cimabue
(c. 1240-1302?), a view echoed by Richardson's attribution on
the mount o f the Getty drawing to Giunta Pisano (Giunta d i
Capitino; fl. 1236-54), one o f the most important and influen
tial figures i n Italian painting o f the first half o f the thirteenth
century and among the first to reject the influence o f Byzantine
painting. I n spite o f the long tradition connecting the Getty and
Haarlem drawings to early Tuscan painting, I . Q . van Regieren
Altena (1966, p. 42, fig. 41), basing his opinion on the former
sheet, believed the artist to be N o r t h Italian, active i n the last
years o f the fourteenth century, perhaps from the circle o f Gua-
riento i n Padua. From this same Haarlem drawing, Bernhart
Degenhart and Annegrit Schmitt were inclined to place the
artist i n the Bolognese School, around the third quarter o f the
trecento (their views are cited i n London 1970, p. 44, under
no. 64, and i n Florence and Rome 1983-84, p. 112, under no.
45), and their suggestion was followed by Luciano Bellosi and
by Bert Meijer and Carel van Tuyll, who, however, prefer to
date the sheet toward the end o f the fourteenth century. More
recently (1996), H e n k van Os returned to the idea that the draw
ing could be Tuscan, suggesting Antonio Veneziano (fl. 1369-
after 13 March 1419?), a painter active i n Pisa from 1384 to 1388,
as the possible author (his opinion is cited i n a letter to the
department from Carel van Tuyll, 22 August 1996).
I n spite o f the enthusiasm o f the early collectors and the
evident antiquity o f the prototypes, the uncertain handling
(point o f the brush, not metalpoint) and poor grasp o f form
seem to suggest that the Getty and Haarlem drawings may be
copybook exercises rather than original working drawings o f the
fourteenth century or earlier.

146 Italian School ?f NORTH OR C E N T R A L ITALIAN

North or Central Italian School
Late Fifteenth or Early Sixteenth Century

$p A Female Figure Holding a logico Nazionale, Naples (inv. 26051; Bober and Rubinstein
1986, no. 31). The gem was i n the collection o f Cosimo " i l Vec-
Cithara and a Male Figure chio" de' Medici, who had i t mounted by Ghiberti around 1428.
The scene depicted on the gem was widely known from impres
Pen and brown ink; H : 19.6 cm (7% in.); W: 12.7 cm (5 in.)
sions taken from i t , which explains why the many copies that
92.GA.114 survive, i n a variety o f media, are always i n the reverse sense to
the original, the present drawing included.
PROVENANCE The smaller-scale male figure i n the bottom right o f the
J. B. F. G. de Meryan, marquis de Lagoy, Paris (Lugt 1710);
sheet may also have been inspired by a classical prototype, and
Benjamin Fileol(?), Antoine-Michel Filhol, or Benjamin
Laurie Fusco (conversation w i t h Nicholas Turner, July 1996) has
Fillon (Lugt 967); Cavaliere Gian-Carlo Rossi(?) (his sale[?],
H . G. Gutekunst, Stuttgart, 17 March and following days, pointed out parallels w i t h a similarly posed youth from a now-
1886); private collection, Geneva; art market, New York. lost gem representing Ceres and Triptolemus, listed i n the 1457
inventory o f the collection o f Cardinal Pietro Barbo, later Pope
EXHIBITIONS Paul I I (Dacos 1972, p. 161, no. 16; Rome 1982, under no. 6).
The female figure i n the drawing is androgynous i n appear

ance, combining the masculine chest and taut pectorals o f the
Journal 21 (1993), p. 129, no. 43. Apollo figure from the gem w i t h female pudenda, small waist,
and curving hips. The hairstylewith its central parting and
Numbered near the lower left, in graphite, 4$. On the old long, flowing locksis, however, borrowed directly from the
backing, where the sheet has been cut away, inscribed at the
Apollo. The cinched-in waist, gothicizing drapery, and almost
bottom right edge, in two different shades of brown ink,
furlike, contoured hatching recall Veronese drawings o f the first
Vieux maitre Italien du XV Steele, (the word Italien having

been written over an erasure, in another hand). On the verso, half o f the fifteenth century (compare A Man Holding a Ball i n
inscribed in the center, in graphite, i$ Steele, and below, also
Christ Church, Oxford [inv. 0256; Byam Shaw 1976, no. 685]).
in graphite, coll lagoy I vente Rossi.
Although we sympathize w i t h David Ekserdjian's suggestion
(conversation w i t h Nicholas Turner, January 1995) that the style
o f the drawing is "near Marcantonio" (i.e., close i n style to the
THE MAIN S T U D Y o f a partially draped female holding a work o f the Bolognese engraver Marcantonio Raimondi [c.
cithara and a scroll or pipe is based upon the figure o f Apollo 1480-c. 1534], whose early drawings somewhat resemble this
from a carnelian intaglio gem representing Apollo, Marsyas, and sheet), the overall character is surely closer i n style to Veronese
Olympus, o f the Augustan period, now i n the Museo Archeo- drawing.

NORTH OR C E N T R A L ITALIAN ?f Italian School 147

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Hans von Aachen
Cologne 1552-Prague 1615

ans von Aachen was born i n Cologne and, M u n i c h , where he was employed at the Wittelsbach court. I n
according to the biographer Karel van M a n - 1592 Emperor Rudolf I I o f Prague named h i m imperial painter,
der (q.v.), became a pupil o f a minor painter but he continued to reside i n M u n i c h until 1596. D u r i n g the
named Georg Jerrigh around 1567-73. Von Aachen, whose sur ensuing years, he traveled on diplomatic missions, at the same
name is derived from his fathers native town, probably joined time acquiring works o f art for the imperial collections. After
the Cologne painters' guild before his departure for Italy around Rudolfs death i n 1612 he continued to be employed at the
1574; i n that year he was i n Venice. By 1575 he was i n Rome, Prague court by Emperor Matthias. Von Aachen was a leading
where he belonged to a circle o f northern artists, including northern exponent o f the highly sophisticated, courtly style o f
Anthonis Santvoort (d. 1600), w h o m van Mander says acted as mannerist painting popular i n the period. H e was an artist o f
his teacher, and Jan Speeckaert (d. 1577), who influenced his great range and inventiveness, producing portraits, mythological
manner o f drawing. I n the mid-i58os von Aachen worked i n scenes, political allegories, and religious paintings as well as
Florence as a portrait painter, and by 1587 he had moved to some o f the earliest genre paintings.

60 The Crucifixion the city o f Jerusalem i n the lower right. Subsequently, he laid i n
the figure groups i n gray wash, making extensive use o f the white
Pen and brown ink and gray wash, heightened with white paper for highlights; finally, he worked over the entire composi
body color, over black chalk; H : 33.4 cm (13%6 in.); tion w i t h relatively sparing touches o f pen and brown ink. The
W: 45.8 cm (18 in.)
luminosity o f the gray w a s h i n combination w i t h the areas o f
blank, white papercomplements the effect o f dramatic spa
ciousness created by the diagonal leading from the good thief at
PROVENANCE the upper left, to Christ, to the bad thief at the right, and finally
Private collection (sale, Gutekunst and Klipstein, Bern, 21-22 outward from the hill o f Golgotha, toward Jerusalem i n the dis
June. 1949, lot 534); private collection (sale, Galerie Kornfeld, tance. The contortions o f the thieves and the use o f the good
Bern, 21 June 1985, lot 1); art market, Boston.
thief as a gruesome repoussoir element call to m i n d German art

of the early sixteenth century but are at the same time infused
None. w i t h a mannerist sense o f preciosity.
Von Aachen made another, closely related drawing o f the
Crucifixion, now i n M u n i c h (Staatliche Graphische Sammlung
Journal n (1993), p. 124, no. 31.
inv. 1928:102; Vignau-Wilberg 1988, p. 304, fig. 7, p. 307 . 26;

On the verso, inscribed at the bottom left in an old Gerszi 1958, pp. 24-25; Weigmann 1933, p. 322, fig. 2, p. 325).
(seventeenth-century?) hand, in brown ink, Joane de Ach en. There are extensive correspondences between the two sheets but
also significant differences. I n the Los Angeles drawing the head
o f the V i r g i n is almost i n profile, w i t h downturned eyes and
VON A A C H E N P R O B A B L Y M A D E this large and impressive closed mouth; i n the M u n i c h sheet the head is turned three-
drawing as a preliminary study for a painting. H e sketched the quarters, w i t h upturned eyes and open mouth. The standing
composition extensively i n black chalk, as is particularly visible soldier w i t h the spear between Christ and Saint John looks
in the torso and hand o f the thief in the upper left corner and i n toward the bad thief i n the Los Angeles sheet and upward at

152 German & Swiss Schools ?f VON AACHEN

Christ i n the M u n i c h drawing. The sheets also diverge i n tech and focusing more attention on the triad o f the Virgin, Christ,
nique and handling; diagonal, angular patches o f luminous gray and Saint John.
wash and reserved paper dominate the Los Angeles example, Various painted versions o f this Crucifixion scene survive,
whereas i n the M u n i c h drawing softly modulated brown wash w i t h the primary one (private collection), signed and dated 1602,
takes a backseat to energetic pen work. Although the M u n i c h essentially reflecting the composition o f the M u n i c h drawing
drawing has evidently been cut down, a copy o f i t i n Vienna (Vignau-Wilberg 1988, pp. 299-308; Gerszi 1958, pp. 22-26).
is only slightly fuller around the edges, suggesting that the The suggestion that the 1602 painting might repeat a composi
M u n i c h sheet has not been severely trimmed (Albertina inv. tion that von Aachen originally devised i n the late 1580s has been
3309; Vignau-Wilberg 1988, pp. 304, 307 n. 27; Tietze et al. 1933, mooted. This is borne out i n the M u n i c h and Los Angeles draw
vol. i , no. 443, vol. 2, no. 443, p i . 149). I f this is the case, then ings, which seem somewhat earlier stylistically than this painting
the M u n i c h drawing represents a change i n the composition and might have been preparatory to one or more earlier versions
insofar as i t eliminates the expansive orthogonal o f the Los o f it (Vignau-Wilberg 1988, p. 305).
Angeles sheet, thereby tightening and compressing the scene

VON AACHEN fa German & Swiss Schools 153

Sebald Beham
Nuremberg 1500Frankfurt am Main 1550

orn i n Nuremberg, Sebald Beham was profoundly year he entered the service o f Cardinal Albrecht o f Brandenburg,
influenced by the w o r k o f Albrecht Drer (1471- archbishop o f Mainz, for w h o m he illuminated the so-called
1528), as is apparent i n early engravings such Prayerbook of Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg (Aschaffenburg,
as Head of a Young Maiden o f 1518 (Bartsch 1803-21, vol. 8, Hofbibliothek MS. 8). From 1532 until his death Sebald resided
no. 204) and i n his production o f stained-glass designs early i n in Frankfurt am M a i n , where his varied activities included the
his career. I t is unclear, however, whether Sebald was actually a production o f prints and book illustrations. H e is particularly
pupil o f Drers. Together w i t h his younger brother Barthel noted for his depictions of peasants, as i n the woodcut Large Vil
(1502-1540) and Georg Pencz (c. 1500-1550), Sebald was ban lage Fair o f 1535 (ibid., no. 168), and for his small, finely worked
ished from Nuremberg i n 1525 for sedition against the Church. engravings. The diminutive size o f the latter prints led to his
After a subsequent expulsion i n 1528 for plagiarizing from inclusion i n a group o f German printmakers known by art his
Drer s unpublished work, he fled to Ingolstadt; he returned to torians as the Little Masters.
Nuremberg i n 1529 and visited M u n i c h i n 1530. I n the following

61 A Standard Bearer rich Thne correctly attributed the present drawing to Beham,
adducing particularly apt comparisons i n the artist s early etch
Pen and black ink; H : 18.1 cm (jYs in.); W: 9.5 cm (3% in.) ings. A m o n g these Foot Soldier o f 1520 (Bartsch 1803-21, vol. 8,
no. 203) affords numerous parallels: for example, i n the overall
modeling o f the thighs (especially the prominence o f short,

PROVENANCE hooked strokes), the gnarled collarbone, and the general similar
Frst von und zu Liechtenstein (sale, Klipstein and Kornfeld, ity o f costume. The drawing also reflects Beham s concern i n his
Bern, 16 June i960, lot 15); private collection (sale, Sotheby's, prints w i t h exploring dark tonalities and shadowy areas through
New York, 13 January 1993, lot 43); art market, London. patches o f dense and varied hatching. Another related image is
his engraving o f 1519 Standard Bearer (ibid., no. 201), i n which
the figure, like the one i n the drawing, stands i n front o f a ver
tically held flag, his head juxtaposed w i t h the shadowed back
BIBLIOGRAPHY side o f the partially unfurled standard. I n comparison w i t h the
Thne 1936, pp. 52-53, pi. 48; Journal 23 (1995), p. 69, no. 11. engraving the drawing gives greater prominence to the flag as a
vehicle for eye-catching penmanship. Beham w o u l d have been
Dated at the top by the artist in black ink, 151p; inscribed in
nineteen when he made this, one o f his earliest surviving draw
the bottom left corner, in black ink, Christof amberger. On
the verso, inscribed at the lower center in ligature, in brown ings. Its high degree o f finish and its emphasis on delicate and
ink, SB, and at the bottom, in graphite, Schaufelein[?] and an intricate pen w o r k suggest that i t might have been made as an
illegible inscription. independent w o r k o f art; alternatively, i t may have served as a
point o f departure for the two above-mentioned prints.
Various aspects o f the drawingsuch as the silhouetting o f
B E C A U S E O F I T S O L D I N S C R I P T I O N , this drawing was for the head against the dark mass o f the flag; the t w i n gestures o f
merly thought to be by the Augsburg artist Christoph Amberger gripping the flagstaff w i t h one hand and the sword hilt w i t h the
(Thne 1936, pp. 52-53, p i . 48). A number o f early German other; and the mustachioed, somewhat careworn face o f the
drawings bear inscriptions by the same hand, presumably that soldierfind precedents i n Albrecht Altdorfer s woodcut Stan
of a collector, including two drawings by an artist o f the Dan dard Bearer in a Landscape of 1515-18 (Winzinger 1963, no. 84).
ube School (formerly called the Historia Master), i n Vienna A m o n g the notable features o f Beham s Standard Bearer is the
(Albertina inv. 3244, D . 225) and i n the Worcester A r t Museum pronounced balance o f the composition, w i t h the massive, verti
(inv. 1991.99), which are both inscribed Hans Schaufele von Ner- cal flag forming a counterweight to the figure, who strikes a
lingen (Berlin and Regensberg 1988, pp. 2 7 0 - 7 1 , no. 173). Fried- classical contrapposto stance. This treatment contrasts w i t h the

154 German & Swiss Schools fa BEHAM

more common tendency to portray the standard bearer as extro i n a contrapposto pose thought to have been inspired by Drer s
verted and i n motion, striding w i t h his flag fully unfurled, as i n drawing o f Saint Roch for the Ober Saint Veit Altarpiece o f
Albrecht Drers engraving^ Standard Bearer o f c. 1502 (Bartsch around 1505 (Frankfurt, Stdelsches Kunstinstitut und Stdtische
1803-21, vol. 7, no. 87; Hale 1986, esp. p. 87; Moxey 1989, Galerie inv. 691; Berlin and Regensberg 1988, p. 38, under no. 11).
pp. 67-100). Beham might have taken inspiration from A l t - I n a wider sense, therefore, the classicizing tendencies i n the
dorfer s engraving o f 1506 Landsknecht Unsheathing His Sword Museum s drawing point to the pervasive influence o f Drer
(Winzinger 1963, no. 100), i n which the mercenary soldier stands upon the young Beham.

BEHAM fa German & Swiss Schools 155

Hans Brosamer
Fulda 1500-Erfurt 1554 or after

F rom around 1520 to around 1545 Hans Brosamer

was active i n Fulda, where he painted portraits o f
distinguished local citizens and designed engrav
ings and woodcuts. H e is later documented at Erfurt, where he
was a miniature painter, decorator o f matriculation books, and
the large woodcut Bathsheba at the Bath, dated 1554 (Hollstein
1954-, vol. 4, no. 71). Brosamer s overall style owes much to the
influence o f Lucas Cranach the Elder (q.v.), Sebald Beham
(q.v.), and Georg Pencz (c. 1500-1550). H e is best known for his
small-scale prints and is part o f the group o f sixteenth-century
designer and cutter o f woodblocks. His last certain w o r k is German printmakers known as the Little Masters.

62 Study of a Pleated Skirt

Pen and black ink; H : 19.6 cm ( in.); W: 15 cm (fA in.)


63 Study of a Hanging Drapery

Pen and black ink; H : 13.2 cm (fAe in.); W: 13.8 cm (fAt in.)


Karl Eduard von Liphart, Dorpat, Bonn, and Florence (Lugt
1687); Freiherr Reinhold von Liphart, "Rathshof," near Dorpat
(Lugt 1758); art market, Switzerland; art market, Hamburg;
art market, Boston.


Journalzi (1993), p. 124, nos. 28-29.

On the verso of 92.GA.2, inscribed at the top in graphite, App.

au Prince No. 4$, and, at the center, les trots dessins, 5 ensemble. 1921, vol. i , p. 17, nos. 5i8a-d). Four i n the Frankfurt group are
On the verso of 92.GA.3, inscribed in graphite, at the top, Au
monogrammed HB i n ligature (inv. 687, 5439, 5443, 5451), i n a
Prin. No.45, and at the center, les trots dessins, ensemble.
manner matching the monogram on a drawing i n Berlin, The
Fall of Man (Kupferstichkabinett inv. K d Z 508), which served as
the model for a woodcut illustration i n the German Bible pub
T H E T W O E X A M P L E S i n the Museum and one i n the Fogg A r t lished by Hans Lufft i n Wittenberg i n 1550 (Hollstein 1954-,
Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts (inv. 1990.21), are the lat vol. 4, nos. 11-67). The above-mentioned drapery studies are
est to surface from an extensive series o f drapery studies, proba among the most widely accepted drawings attributed to Bro
bly from the same sketchbook {Claude Kuhn: Handzeichnungen samer, whose graphic oeuvre awaits systematic study (Stuttgart
Alter Meister [Basel, 1987], nos. 25-27; Thomas Le Claire Kunst 1979-80, vol. i , p. 12). None o f the drapery studies, however,
handel, vol. 4, Meisterzeichnungen, 1500 -ipoo [Hamburg, 1989], appears to be preparatory to any print or painting associated
no. 5). Others include twenty-three i n the Stdelsches Kunstin w i t h Brosamer (for the paintings, cf. Hfler 1996, pp. 863-64;
stitut, Frankfurt am M a i n (inv. 687-88, 5437-57; Schilling and Kunze 1941, pp. 209-38).
Schwarzweller 1973, vol. 1, pp. 23-24, nos. 4 9 - 7 1 , vol. 2, p i . 13, Most i n the group o f drapery studies, including the two i n
vol. 3, pis. 233-34; Frankfurt am M a i n 1994-95, pp. 114-15, the Museum, are drawn i n pen and ink, i n a closely hatched
nos. Z42, Z43), and four i n the Kupferstichkabinett, Berlin (Bock style that renders w i t h great specificity not only the intricate pat-

156 German & Swiss Schools fa BROSAMER


terns o f the folds but also quotidian sartorial details such as the example (inv. 5452), a conical drapery illogically stands upon the
lengthwise seam recorded i n the Museum's Study of a Hanging ground and billows forward like a windblown skirt.
Drapery. As a group they present a fascinating amalgamation o f The other Getty drawing, Study of a Hanging Drapery,
the Diireresque practice o f making pen-and-ink studies o f bro appears to depict a woman's skirt, w i t h the cloth bunched at the
ken drapery folds from life (as exemplified by Drers sheet o f top and flared at the bottom. Even though i t seems to be hang
studies o f draperies and o f the m o u t h o f a cave from the Dresden ing rather than worn by a model, the manner i n which i t is sup
sketchbook [Dresden, Schsische Landesbibliothek MS. R-147, ported at two upper lateral points evokes the gesture o f a woman
fol. 172V]; see Strauss 1972, no. 155; Butts 1988, p. 43) and o f gathering her skirts. One surmises that, i n lieu o f a living model,
costume studies and genre imagery. For the most part Brosamer Brosamer often drew from actual articles o f clothing, which at
appears to have rendered contemporary female costumes, and times led h i m either consciously to arrange them i n a way sug
thus the draperies are generally secular i n feeling and do not pos gestive o f their being worn or instinctively to imbue them w i t h a
sess the explicit l i n k to religious imagery evidenced, for example, sense o f motion. Brosamer's practice o f life drawing and his use
i n the previously mentioned drawing by Drer. o f contemporary clothing as subject matter mark h i m as being
There are several, including Study of a Pleated Skirt, that abreast o f the artistic trends o f his own period. A t the same time
show skirts from the waist down. The surprising, truncated effect his tendency to treat the individual pieces o f drapery as self-
o f the Museums sheet, i n which the columnar skirt seems to contained, outlined forms, shown parallel to the picture plane
stand on its own, as well as a foot peeking out from the bottom and flattened against i t , as well as his evident delight i n using
o f one o f the Frankfurt skirt studies (inv. 5450), indicates that the complexly folded cloth as a vehicle for practicing intricate,
the artist probably drew from a live model and simply omitted tension-ridden pen work, show his drapery studies to be the last
the torso. Other draperies, which were more likely hung on the expressions o f a Northern medieval approach to this type o f sub
wall or thrown over a constructed support, still curiously possess ject, evident, for example, the Museum's drawing by the Master
the effect o f clothing being worn. I n one study i n Frankfurt, for o f the Coburg Roundels (cat. no. 70).

BROSAMER & German & Swiss Schools 157

Lucas Cranach the Elder
Kronach 1472-Weimar 1553

on o f the painter Hans Moller or Maler (d. 1527/ mythological themes, trophies, and hunts; and prints and mural
28), w i t h w h o m he is generally thought to have designs for palaces and hunting lodges. His large workshop
received his initial training, Lucas Cranach the included his sons Hans (c. 1513-1537) and Lucas (1515-1586).
Elder took his surname from his birthplace. A r o u n d 1501 he From 1519 to 1545 Cranach served on the Wittenberg city coun
traveled to Vienna, where he produced his earliest known works, cil and was burgomaster on three occasions. H e and M a r t i n
such as The Crucifixion o f before 1502 (Vienna, Kunsthisto Luther were close friends and godfathers to each others chil
risches Museum). I n their expressiveness and emphasis on the dren. A r o u n d 1550 Cranach went to Augsburg to j o i n his patron,
richness and profusion o f nature, these compositions are early Elector Johann Friedrich o f Saxony, w h o m he accompanied i n
expressions o f the style practiced by artists traditionally grouped 1552 to Weimar, where he died the following year. Cranach was
under the heading Danube School. I n 1505 Cranach became one o f the great German printmakers o f the sixteenth century, as
court painter to Frederick the Wise o f Saxony i n Wittenberg, a exemplified by the woodcut The Penitence of Saint Jerome of 1509
position he maintained under successive electors. I n Wittenberg (Hollstein 1954-, vol. 6, no. 84).
he specialized i n portraits; panel paintings o f religious and

64 Portrait of a Man who published them as such (i960, nos. 90, 91), reiterating Wat
son's observation that they compare closely w i t h the famous
Oil on paper; H : 26.2 cm {IOVK, in.); W: 19.9 cm (7% in.) series o f portraits i n oil on paper i n the Musee de la Ville, Reims
(inv. 795.1.266-78), which Rosenberg believed to be by Cranach
92.GG.91 (see plate 7)
the Elder but which are now thought to be partly or, by some,

entirely by Cranach the Younger (ibid., nos. 77-79, 81, 83-87,
Jan Pietersz. Zoomer, Amsterdam (Lugt 1511); Michael Winch, 89; Zimmermann 1962, pp. 8 - 9 ; Schade 1974, p. 99; Dreyer, i n
Boughton, Monchelsea Place; by descent (sale, Sotheby's, New York 1994-95, pp. 27-28, under no. 5). Recently the over-
London, 11 December 1991, lot 44); art market, New York. painting i n the Museum's portrait, which principally filled i n the
man's beret and his clothing from the neck down, was removed.
This revealed free oil sketching underneath the hat and through
Manchester 1961, p. 34, no. 78; New York 1993, no. 33;
London 1993-94, no. 60; Kronach and Leipzig 1994, p. 343, the collar and restored the original visual emphasis to the face.
no. 165. The contrast between the highly worked, brilliantly l i t face and
the dark ground makes the face seem to come forward out o f
BIBLIOGRAPHY depth, thus enhancing the illusion o f the sitter's living presence.
Rosenberg i960, no. 90; Zimmermann 1962, pp. 8-9, no. 3;
The attribution finds support i n comparisons to other oil
Jahn 1972, p. 156; Journal xi (1993), p. 123, no. 28; New York
1994-95, pp. 27-28, under no. 5. studies by the elder Cranach, such as Head of a Beardless Man
(Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett K d Z 4478), w i t h its delicate shad
owing o f the cheek, glinting highlights around the eyes and nose,
and nuanced contour outline o f the far side o f the face, or Head
THIS AND ANOTHER O I L S T U D Y o f a man (New York, col of a Man Wearing a Hat (London, British Museum 1896-5-11-1),
lection o f M r . and Mrs. Eugene Victor Thaw; New York 1994- w i t h its textural delineation o f the brows and lashes i n pen and
95, pp. 2 6 - 2 8 , no. 5), formerly i n the same private collection, black ink. The beauty o f the modeling as well as the sitters
had been overpainted and made into finished, framed portraits expression, w i t h the upturned eyes illuminating his youthful vis
attributed to Hans Holbein the Younger, when they were spot age, make the Getty sheet one o f the freshest and most affecting
ted by Francis Watson, who recognized them as the work o f o f Cranach s surviving portrait drawings.
Cranach the Elder. H e communicated this to Jakob Rosenberg,

158 German & Swiss Schools fa CRANACH T H E ELDER

Adam Elsheimer
Frankfurt am Main 1578-Rome 1610

orn i n Frankfurt, Adam Elsheimer was a pupil o f teristic o f his painting style is / / Contento o f c. 1607 (Edinburgh,
the local painter Philipp Ufifenbach (1566-1636) National Gallery o f Scotland), a lively, multifigured composition
i n the 1590s. H e is thought to have arrived i n 1598 w i t h dramatic lighting, considered his masterpiece. According to
i n Venice, where he is said to have worked w i t h M u n i c h painter Elsheimers biographer Joachim von Sandrart (q.v.), Goudt had
Hans Rottenhammer (1564/65-1625). H e transferred to Rome the artist thrown into debtors' prison for not delivering enough
i n 1600 and remained there for the last decade o f his life. H e work. Elsheimer is said to have died soon after his release. Despite
shared a house w i t h the D u t c h artist Hendrick Goudt (1583 his small output, his influence was considerable. His work was
1648), who was his follower and patron as well as the engraver o f admired by Pieter Lastman (1583-1633) and Rembrandt van Rijn
some o f his paintings. Elsheimer preferred to paint on small (1606-1669), among others.
copper plates, using a precise, miniature-like technique. Charac

6$ Saint Agnes (recto); Figure net (private collection) contains copies o f Poelenburch's whole
series plus panels showing three additional saints (ibid., p. 148,
Studies (verso) under no. 17). Saint Agnes thus might be a study for a lost
or unexecuted panel from Elsheimer's original series. There are
Pen and brown ink; H : 10 cm (3 /i6
in.); W: 7.5 cm (3 in.)
no other surviving drawings by Elsheimer connected to the
91.GA.2 Petworth-Montpellier panels.
There also exists a possible connection between the present
PROVENANCE example and a rare drawing attributed to David Teniers the
Ann Sutherland Harris, Pittsburgh.
Elder (1582-1649), who was reputed to have been Elsheimer's
pupil i n Rome. This diminutive drawing, whose present loca
None. tion is unknown, depicts Saint Emerentiana o f Rome, the foster
sister o f Saint Agnes (van Tatenhove 1983, pp. 2 0 3 - 4 ) , a n (
BIBLIOGRAPHY appears to have served as the model for an engraving i n reverse
Journal (1992), p. 155, no. 42. of the same subject, published by Galle after Teniers, one i n a
series showing female saints i n landscapes (Hollstein 1949 - , vol.
7, nos. 213-23, 265-68; Duverger and Vlieghe 1971, p. 42). The
ON T H E R E C T O the figure o f Saint Agnes holding a lamb direction o f Saint Emerentiana i n the drawing, her dress and
stands i n a landscape stretching from a rough, shadowed hillock pose (she cradles stones instead o f Saint Agnes s lamb), her plain
on the right to a distant city i n the lower left. The drawing, tive expression, and the landscape setting, w i t h the overgrown
which has only recently surfaced, is o f about the same scale as hillock at the right, are quite similar to features i n Elsheimer's
Elsheimer's series o f copper panels o f saints (eight i n Petworth study. The rather finished manner o f Teniers s drawing is, how
House, West Sussex [National Trust], and one i n Montpellier ever, entirely different from that o f Elsheimer, suggesting that
[Musee Fabre]), which were probably once set into a Kunst- Teniers might have known a painting after Elsheimer's drawing.
schrank (Andrews 1977, pp. 147-48, nos. 17A-1, pis. 55-63, A t the least, the Elsheimer drawing under discussion affirms his
color pi. I V ) . The configuration o f the landscape, the depiction influence upon Teniers.
o f the lamb, and the saint's air o f innocence and vulnerability i n The verso o f the present drawing, containing zigzag and
the Museums drawing are particularly close to Saint John the tangled pen flourishes and forcefully drawn studies o f a muscu
Baptist 2X Petworth (ibid., no. 17A). lar nude and a reclining figure seen i n sharp perspective from
The series, which Andrews dates to around 1605, originally below, compares closely to Large Sheet of Studies by Elsheimer i n
consisted o f at least ten images. A set o f copies by Cornells van Berlin (Kupferstichkabinett inv. K d Z 4636; Andrews 1977, p. 158,
Poelenburch (c. 1494/95-1667) i n the Palazzo Pitti, Florence, no. 34). The cropping o f the figures indicates that Elsheimer cut
consists o f ten panels, while a seventeenth-century D u t c h cabi down and reused a larger sheet when he drew Saint Agnes.

160 German & Swiss Schools fa ELSHEIMER

65 R E C T O 65 V E R S O
Urs Graf
Solothurn c. I485-Basel(?) 1527/29

orn i n Solothurn, Urs Graf received his early returned to Basel the following year, when he was appointed die
training from his father, the goldsmith H u g Graf cutter to the m i n t , an office he held until 1523. His most impor
(d. 1527/30). I n 1507 he served as an apprentice i n tant w o r k as a goldsmith was a reliquary bust o f Saint Bernard
Zurich to the goldsmith Lienhardt Triblin (active 1491-1507). w i t h silver plates engraved w i t h scenes from the life o f the saint,
Graf was also i n Basel, where he designed book illustrations and commissioned i n 1519 by the monastery o f Saint Urban (canton
in 1511 became the assistant to the stained-glass painter Hans of Lucerne); eight plates from i t are known (London, British
Heinrich Wolleb (active 1490-1527). Working as a mercenary Museum [on deposit]; Zurich, Schweizerisches Landesmuseum).
soldier, Graf took part i n campaigns i n Burgundy and Italy peri Graf is known primarily, however, for his prints and drawings o f
odically between 1510 and 1522. I n 1512 he became a citizen o f sometimes violent and unorthodox subjects, drawn i n a lively,
Basel and entered the guild o f goldsmiths. H e fled to Solothurn calligraphic manner.
in 1518 to evade punishment for an attempted homicide. H e

66 Dancing Peasant Couple Rotterdam, and now i n the Pushkin Museum, Moscow (kindly
brought to m y attention by Christianne Andersson; Koenigs inv.
Pen and gray and black ink; pricked for transfer; verso rubbed no. D . I . 24; Elen 1989, p. 120, no. 187). That the series of dancing
with black chalk; H : 20.6 cm (8% in.); W: 14.7 cm (5 /i6 in.)

peasants originally comprised additional sheets is indicated by a

group o f ten early sixteenth-century copies i n the Kupferstich
Fragment (hindquarters) of a bear (close to Picard 1961-, vol. kabinett, Basel (inv. Also related to Graf's origi
15, pt. 2, no. 642 [Solothurn 1516]). nal series is his drawing Bagpipe Player (Ecole des Beaux-Arts inv.
M . 70; Paris and Hamburg 1985-86, pp. 32-33, no. 16).
92.GA.72 A l l o f the drawings i n Graf's series, including the present
example and that o f the bagpipe player, were monogrammed by
the artist and dated 1525. They are all drawn i n a combination o f
Private collection, Switzerland; art market, London.
light gray and black i n k and seem to have come from the same
EXHIBITIONS sketchbook (evident from the old folds across the center o f the
New York 1993, no. 54; London 1993-94, no. 64. sheets and the corresponding stitch holes). Additionally, each
drawing is extensively pricked. W h i l e i t was once thought that
this pricking indicated that the drawings had been made as
Journal21 (1993), p. 123, no. 27.
designs for prints, i t is now generally thought that they were
Signed and dated at the lower center, in black ink, VG pricked much later, i n order to be copied. A t least one o f the
[superimposed monogram and dagger]//pj. drawings i n the Ecole des Beaux-Arts (inv. M . 71) has later cor
rections i n black chalk, the contours o f which were followed
when the sheet was pricked, and there are two watercolor copies
THE PRESENT DRAWING came to light only recently. I t on vellum, w i t h the monogram D D and datable to the eigh
belongs to a series o f at least nine other known drawings o f teenth century, preserved i n the Louvre, Paris (inv. 22270-71;
dancing peasant couples: three i n the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris Demonts 1937-38, vol. 1, nos. 2 0 3 - 4 ; Paris 1991-92, p. 152,
(inv. M . 71-73; Paris and Hamburg 1985-86, pp. 28-32, under no. 138). I t is still possible that Graf's original drawings
nos. 13-15), and the others i n the Biblioteca Reale, T u r i n (inv. were made as designs for prints (although no related examples
nos. 16239 a _
b ; Sciolla 1974, pp. 210-11, nos. 2 4 0 - 4 1 ; Major survive), but i t is more likely that they were made as a series o f
and Gradmann 1947, p. 21, no. 40); the usee de Bergues Saint- independent drawings.
V i n n o c q (Parker 1921, p. 208, no. 3); the Kupferstichkabinett, The theme o f peasants engaging i n vigorous and bawdy
Berlin (ibid., no. 7; Bock 1921, p. 44, no. 4243); the Kupfer- dances was common i n German and Swiss art o f the early six
stichkabinett, ffentliche Kunstsammlung, Basel (inv. 1907.91; teenth century. Precedents for Graf's treatment o f the theme
Koegler 1926, no. 118); and one formerly i n the Koenigs include Alb recht Drers engravings Peasant Couple Dancing and
Collection, once i n the Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, The Bagpipe Player (Bartsch 1803-21, vol. 7, nos. 90,91) and Hans

162 German & Swiss Schools fa GRAF

Holbein the Younger s famous frescoes w i t h dancing peasants on pinching her buttock. They are shown dancing upon a feature
the fa$ade o f the Haus zum Tanz, formerly i n the Eisengasse, less strip o f ground signed and dated prominently w i t h Graf's
Basel (destroyed 1909; Rowlands 1985, p. 219, no. L. 4). Another typical dynamic insignia o f his initials w i t h the Dolsch (the Swiss
important parallel is the page o f dancing peasants from Niklaus dagger). The merging o f their lascivious forms at the top and
Manuel Deutschs Schreibbchlein (Basel, Kupferstichkabinett the pyramidal widening o f the compositionwhich emphasizes
inv. 1162.73), which uses the subject as a vehicle for virtuoso pen their lower bodies, muscular legs, andjarge feetconvey a pow
work and also contains similarly explicit sexual references. erful sense o f energy. The then commonplace notion o f peasants
I n contrast to the miniaturization and ornamental character as a reflection o f the rhythms and cycles o f naturebrutal, fer
of Manuel's peasants, however, those i n Graf's series are monu tile, and full o f vital energyis bolstered by Graf's swift and
mentalized. The drawing i n the Museum depicts an interlocking incisive pen work.
couple, w i t h the male peasant obscuring his partner's head and

GRAF fa German & Swiss Schools 163

Joseph Heintz the Elder
Basel 1564-Prague 1609

T he son o f Daniel Heintz (c. 1530/35-1596 or

before), an architect-mason i n Basel, Joseph
Heintz probably received his early training
from his father and the painter Hans Bock (c. 1550-c. 1623).
From 1584 to around 1591 Heintz was i n Italy, visiting Venice,
subjects that reveal a debt to Correggio (q.v.) and Parmigianino
(1503-1540) among others. I n 1597 Heintz traveled to Augsburg
and Freiburg i m Breisgau for the emperor, probably to advise
him on the acquisition o f works o f art. H i g h l y regarded as an
architect during his later career, he undertook various architec
Florence, and Rome. W h i l e i n Rome he copied Renaissance tural commissions, including that o f the east fa$ade o f the new
paintings and ancient sculpture and belonged to a circle o f Ger customs house (Zeughaus) o f Augsburg (1602-7). H e was i n
man and Netherlandish artists that included Hans von Aachen Graz i n 1603-4 t o
paint a series o f portraits o f the Habsburg
(q.v.). I n 1591 he was summoned to Prague to enter the service o f archducal family. After his return to Prague he was sent to Inns
Emperor Rudolf I I , who named h i m court painter on December bruck by the emperor and then went to Augsburg. H e returned
28 and ennobled h i m i n 1602. I n 1592 the emperor sent Heintz briefly to Prague i n 1605, then settled i n Augsburg from 1606 to
back to Rome to draw and copy works o f art and to acquire oth 1607. I n I(
^ 7
0 n e w a s
again i n Prague, where he probably
ers for the imperial collection. W h i l e i n imperial service he made remained until his death.
religious images, portraits, and paintings o f erotic mythological

67 The Toilet of Venus sentation drawings, while the colorful blending o f red and black
chalks frequently appears i n the work o f mannerist draftsmen
Red and black chalk; H : 21.5 cm (8/2 in.); W: 15.1 cm ( 5 % in.) such as the Cavaliere d'Arpino and Taddeo and Federico Zuc-
caro. Heintz evolved this manner during his first stay i n Italy (c.
1584-91), as seen i n his copies after p u t t i from Raphael's Villa

PROVENANCE Farnesina frescoes (Vienna, Albertina inv. 283, 458). By the time
Anton Gasser(?); E. S. Hyde, Cambridge, England (sale, he drew the Museum's sheet, which appears to have been made
Sotheby's, London, 2 July 1990, lot 64); art market, New York. as an independent work o f art, he had developed the technique
into a mode less sculptural and more exquisite and painterly.
This precious handling o f the medium, together w i t h the
New York 1993, no. 59; London 1993-94, n o
- 65.
sensuous subject matter, finds parallels i n Heintz's paintings o f
BIBLIOGRAPHY the period. For instance, the figure o f a n y m p h combing her hair
Zimmer 1988, p. 132, no. A48; Journal 20 (1992), p. 154, no. 40. in his Diana andActaeon (Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum),
a painting on copper which has been dated to the early to m i d -
Signed and dated at the lower center, in black chalk, Ioseph
15905 by Jrgen Zimmer (1971, p. 94, no. Ai6) and to c. 1600 by
HeintzI1594. On the verso, at upper left, illegible inscription
Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann (1988, p. 189, no. 7.20), themati-
in brown ink (obscured by former backing); inscribed at lower
right center, in graphite, 7. cally echoes the figure o f Venus i n the Museum's drawing. The
shallow boudoir scene, w i t h its theatrically parting canopy, con
tinues a type o f erotic image popularized at the Rudolfine court
by Bartolomeus Spranger during the mid-i58os, such as his Her
H E I N T Z P R E S U M A B L Y M A D E this drawing during his second cules and Omphale, also painted on copper (Kunsthistorisches
trip to Italy, on which he embarked i n 1592, having been sent Museum). Additional erotic elements i n Heintz's image include
there by his employer, the H o l y Roman Emperor Rudolf I I , to the unusual presence o f a female cherub (Zimmer 1988, p. 132).
sketch antiquities and acquire works o f art for the imperial col Before its recent reappearance this drawing was known through
lection. Heintz s distinctive use o f chalk assimilates various Ital- a copy by Heintz's pupil A n t o n Gasser, signed and dated 1611
ianate traditions: the refined modeling o f the nudes i n smoothly (Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum inv. H z 4058; see
modulated chalk recalls precedents such as Michelangelo's pre- Stuttgart 1 9 7 9 - 8 0 , vol. 2 , p. 108, under no. M 1 5 ) .

164 German & Swiss Schools fa HEINTZ THE ELDER

Paul Juvenel the Elder
Nuremberg 1579-Pozsony, Hungary (now Bratislava, Slovakia), 1643

aul Juvenel trained w i t h his father, Nicolas (before 1645), Gabriel Weyer (1576-1632), and Jobst Harrich (fl. 1580-
1540-1597), the Flemish portraitist and architec 1617) were commissioned by the Nuremberg city council to
tural painter and a Calvinist refugee to N u r e m restore the mural paintings designed by Albrecht Drer (1471-
berg. A n additional influence on his early style, as seen i n 1528) i n the great hall o f the Nuremberg city hall. Before under
paintings such as The Baptism of Christ (Frankfurt am M a i n , taking the restoration, Juvenel painted a view o f the great hall
Stdelsches Kunstinstitut und Stdtische Galerie), came from (Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum), which is the old
the Netherlander Frederik van Valckenborch, who arrived i n est depiction o f i t and also shows how i t appeared before the
Nuremberg i n 1602. Early i n his career Juvenel began to special destruction i n 1619 o f the west end o f the room. H e is best
ize i n paintings on copper o f architectural interiors, often w i t h known for his ceiling and fagade paintings for patrician houses
biblical Staffage. Sometime before 1613 he traveled to Italy, as evi in Nuremberg, including the facade paintings for the house o f
denced by a drawing o f the walls o f Mantua (Berlin, Kupfer- Bartholomus Viatis, known though a drawing preserved i n the
stichkabinett inv. K d Z 8632), and came under the influence o f Fembohaus, Nuremberg. Juvenel worked i n Nuremberg u n t i l
Adam Elsheimer (q.v.), whose paintings he must have seen i n 1638, when he moved first to Vienna and then to Pozsony (now
Rome. I n 1613 Juvenel, Georg Grtner the Younger (c. 1575/80- Bratislava), where he died.

68 Interior of a Church by Heinrich Geissler (Stuttgart 1979-80, vol. 1, pp. 212-13, n o s

E25, E26): The Visitation, dated 1622 (London, British Museum
Pen and brown ink, blue and gray wash, and black chalk; inv. 1923-1-13-23), and The Presentation in the Temple, dated 1642
: 37.9 cm (14% in.); W: 27 cm (10%; in.)
(Munich, Staatliche Graphische Sammlung inv. 6908). I t is par
ticularly close to the example i n M u n i c h , i n which the figures
Crowned shield with a cursive h (similar to Briquet 1966, are subordinated to an architectural space constructed i n one-
vol. 3, no. 8246 [Magdeburg, 1598]). point perspective, which opens upward into a vaulted church
interior. Like the present sheet, the one i n M u n i c h is drawn i n
92.GG.15 brown i n k w i t h blue and gray wash and generous use o f blank
paper, all o f which give the architecture a sense o f spaciousness
Private collection, Europe; Kurt Meissner, Zurich; private suffused w i t h light. Both sheets are drawn w i t h a thin-nibbed,
collection, Canada (sale, Christie s, London, 3 July 1990, sparsely inked pen; have many ruled lines i n the lower portions;
lot 96); art market, London. and exhibit an interest i n verticality. The abbreviated manner i n
which the crucifix hanging i n the right aisle and the figures i n
the carved capital i n the left aisle are drawn i n the Getty example
Zurich 1984, p. 29, no. 3.
corresponds to that i n a relief on the base o f the large column i n
BIBLIOGRAPHY the London drawing and to the figural decorations i n another
Von Prybram-Gladona 1969, no. 4, p. 13; Kopplin 1984, drawing, Design for the Painted Fagade of the Viatishaus, made
p. 3472; Journal 21 (1993), p. 125, no. 32. between 1615 and 1620 (Nuremberg, Fembohaus, Stadtgeschicht
liches Museen; Austin 1983, p. 74). The pedimented altarpiece,
the doorway w i t h steps leading into the interior, and the l u m i
J U V E N E L , T H E A R T I S T who, together w i t h Hans Vredeman nous vista into the overhead vaulting find parallels i n a painting
de Vries (c. 1526-c. 1606) and the elder and younger van Steen- by the artist i n the Muzeum Narodowe, Gdansk: The Presenta
wijcks (c. 1550-1603; c. 1580-before 1649), translated Nether tion in the Temple, dated 1611, an important early example o f
landish architectural painting into the German idiom, seems to German architectural painting (Drost 1932, pp. 122-23).
be the author o f this drawing ( I am indebted to T i l m a n Falk and The drawing is a preparatory study for a painting (present
Gode Krmer, who kindly confirmed the attribution to Juvenel whereabouts unknown) on copper of nearly identical dimensions
and brought to m y attention the article by M o n i k a Kopplin o f (38 29 cm [ 1 4 % iiVie in.]), auctioned i n 1967 as by Pieter
1984, i n which this attribution is also advanced). The present Neefs the Elder (Cologne, Kunsthaus am Museum Carola van
drawing compares well w i t h two examples by Juvenel published Ham, 18 October 1967, lot 1369), and again i n 1981 as unattrib-

166 German & Swiss Schools ?f JUVENEL T H E ELDER

utecl and bearing the semilegible monogram P.A. and dated The Getty sheet is o f importance as an exceptionally rare
1629 (Stuttgart, Auktionshaus Fritz Nagel, 10-12 March 1981, example o f a drawing preparatory to a painting from the circle
lot 1393). A n attribution o f the painting to Juvenel has been of northern architectural painters o f Juvenel s generation and
advanced by Gode Krmer (generously communicated to me i n the prior one, which includes Juvenels father, Nicolas; the elder
a letter o f 30 March 1997). The painting closely follows the and younger van Steenwijcks; and Pieter Neefs the Elder (1578
drawing, including the wash shading o f the "fish-bubble" rib c. 1656-61). There are no indisputably attributed architectural
bing. The relatively shallow space i n the drawing, however, is drawings by the first three artists and only one known signed
transformed i n the painting by the addition o f Staffage, whose example by Neefs (the drawing attributed to the younger van
dramatic diminishment i n size from foreground to background Steenwijck that is most widely accepted is i n the Frits Lugt Col
lends the edifice a sense o f deep, i f not altogether convincing, lection, Fondation Custodia, Paris, as is the signed example by
recession. Neefs [cf. London, Paris, Bern, and Brussels 1972, p. 130, no. 97,
The structure is a German hall church, whose fish-bubble pp. j6-jj y no. 57]; another purportedly signed architectural
ribbing, distinctive painted roundels at the apexes o f the vault drawing by Neefs, formerly i n the Sperling collection [ibid.,
ing o f each bay (visible i n the connected painting), somewhat p. 77 n. 6, under no. 57] and now i n the Metropolitan Museum
sheer right-hand wall w i t h a crucifix, and double pair o f of Art, New York, is i n fact by a later imitator; I am grateful to
columns framing the view o f the nave were features o f the Carolyn Logan for communicating the information about the
Nuremberg Augustinean Church, built i n 1479-85 and razed i n New York drawing). I n contrast to the van Steenwijcks, who
1819, but known through ground plans and an etching and a appear to have drawn directly on the panel without the aid o f
watercolor made near the time o f its demolition (thanks again to preparatory drawings (Blade 1970, p. 43), Juvenel, as evidenced
Drs. Falk and Krmer for information about this structure; see by the present example, made use o f perspectival "construction"
Austin 1983, pp. 3 9 - 4 0 ; N e w York and Nuremberg 1986, p. 39, drawings, a practice that later was to become central to the
fig. 45; Rosenthal-Metzger 1931, pis. 2 - 4 ; cf. Kopplin 1984, p. working method o f Pieter Saenredam (1597-1665).
3472). The probable influence o f a Nuremberg structure on the
painting and drawing under discussion further supports the
attribution to Juvenel.

168 German & Swiss Schools fa JUVENEL THE ELDER

Daniel Lindtmayer
Schaafhausen 1552-Lucerne 1602/07

orn into a family o f artists active i n Schaffhausen, Stlz i n Konstanz, but he escaped punishment on "grounds o f
Daniel Lindtmayer probably trained there as a insanity." Lindtmayer is documented i n the Swiss city o f Schwyz
mural painter and designer o f stained-glass w i n two years later and i n Lucerne around 1598-1601. About this
dows. I n 1574 he journeyed to Basel and to Feldkirch, i n the Aus time he probably converted to Protestantism. He was i n Wolfen-
trian province of Vorarlberg. He became an independent master schiessen around 1602. Lindtmayer s surviving oeuvre consists
in Schaffhausen i n 1577 and was active there for the next eigh o f approximately 350 drawings, including many designs for
teen years. Occasionally he traveled to other towns to carry out stained-glass windows, seven woodcuts, four etchings, and at
commissions, working i n Knigsfelden i n 1580-81 and i n Para- least one painting.
dies i n 1582-83. I n 1595 he tried to murder a goldsmith named

69 Design for a Marriage Window T H E F R A M E C O N T A I N S personifications o f spring on the left,

holding a basket o f flowers, and summer on the right, holding a
with the Seasons Spring and bundle o f wheat. I n the corners below are a putto holding an
Summer (recto); Study of a anchor (Hope) and one carrying a broken column (Fortitude).
The crested helm above the blank left-hand shield features dou
Helmet (verso) ble wings. The shield on the right has two burning stakes lodged
in two hearts; i t is surmounted by a helm, coronet, and crest o f a
Pen and black and brown ink and gray wash, with color
bust-length bearded man w i t h the same charge on his breast.
notations in black chalk (recto); pen and black ink and gray
wash (verso); H : 39.7 cm (15% in.); W: 29.7 cm ( n / i 6 in.)
n This charge is similar to that o f a coat o f arms o f the Brand
family on a glass panel i n the Schweizerisches Landesmuseum,
WATERMARK Zurich (Ganz 1966, p. 196, fig. 164). The overall designwith
Unidentifiable fragment of a symbol. the double coats o f arms, scrollwork mantling, female figures at
the top, and p u t t i at the bottomresembles that o f a copy after
Lindtmayer, Design for a Window with the Arms ofFulach and von
PROVENANCE Reischach, dated 1596 (London, British Museum inv. 1913-9-24-1;
Hans Jrg Wannewetch I I , Basel; private collection (sale, Thne 1975, pp. 2 2 1 - 2 2 , no. 301, p. 430, fig. 355). Other compa
Sotheby's, Amsterdam, 21 November 1989, lot 34); art market, rable drawings, i n terms o f both the design and the handling o f
New York. the ink and wash, are the Design for a Window with Geometry,
Astronomy, and the Arms of an Unknown Architect (Oxford, Ash-
None. molean Museum inv. 333), which Friedrich Thne (ibid., p. 218,
no. 287a, p. 4 6 1 , fig. 429c) dates to around 1595, and the Design
BIBLIOGRAPHY for a Window with Faith and Fortitude and with the Arms of Fels,
Journal zo (1992), p. 155, no. 41. Konstanz, dated 1595 (Schaffhausen, Museum zu Allerheiligen
inv. B26; ibid., pp. 2 1 6 - 1 7 , no. 284, p. 4 2 7 ,fig.342).
Inscribed along the arch at top, in black ink, FRLING/VER
and SOMER/ABSTAS; above the family crests, in brown ink,
Virtuti om nia parent, in the cartouche at the bottom, also in
brown ink, Hans Conradt von Pfor[t\ [crossed out] Pforburg[?]
zu Dalsberg[?]/Anna von Pforburgp] gebornen Ifflingerin I von
Granneck (for a family history of the barons of Ifflinger-
Granegg, see Schn 1896, pp. 84-86); with color notations
in black chalk and brown ink throughout; and at the lower
center, in brown ink, HJW (initials of the Basel glass painter
Hans Jrg Wannewetch I I [1611-1682]; Ganz 1966, p. 127).

LINDTMAYER ?f German & Swiss Schools 169

69 R E C T O
69 V E R S O
Master of the Coburg Roundels
Active in Strasbourg c. 1470-1500

t is now thought that the Master o f the Coburg other sourcesincluding paintings, engravings, and stained
Roundels may have worked i n Strasbourg, possibly glassand show knowledge o f the work o f D i r k Bouts (c.
in the studio o f the glass painter Peter Hemmel o f 1415-1475), M a r t i n Schongauer (q.v.), and Rogier van der Wey-
Andlau (active 1447-c. 1501). This master is also known as the den (c. 1399-1464). The Masters work as a draftsman is more
Master o f the Drapery Studies because o f the numerous drapery important and extensive than his painted oeuvre, which consists
studies among his more than 150 surviving drawings, the most of some thirty panel paintings, including ten panels o f a Passion
extensive drawn oeuvre o f any northern European artist prior cycle from 1488 i n the Church o f Saint Pierre-le-Vieux,
to Albrecht Drer (1471-1528). The sheets are often copied from Strasbourg.

jo Studies ofChriBs Loincloth T H I S I S O N E o f this masters most beautifully composed and

delicately executed drawings. O n the recto, a tapestry o f nine
(recto); Studies of Bookbindings interlocking studies o f Christ's loincloth, each folded differently
and ofChri&s Loincloth (verso) and oriented i n a different direction, conveys the effect o f rest
less permutation. The artist has added points o f visual interest to
Pen and brown and black ink, brown and gray wash (recto); what otherwise might have been a too uniformly flat ensemble
pen and brown and black ink, brown and gray wash, by modeling four o f the draperies i n wash. The verso demon
heightened with white body color (verso); H : 28 cm (11 in.);
strates a similarly lively visual interplay among its various ele
W: 20.6 cm (8 /sin.)
ments. First, the artist lightly sketched the two studies o f book
WATERMARK bindings, later adding a pair o f more heavily modeled drapery
Gothic with a flower (close to Piccard 1961-, vol. 4, pt. 3, studies as well as a brass corner fitting i n the upper right corner,
sec. 9, no. 1142 [Pfalzel (Trier), Rhineland, 1482,1483]). illusionistically modeled i n wash and body color.
The present drawing is closest overall to another sheet o f
93. GA.10
studies o f Christ's loincloth by the artist, presently i n Strasbourg
PROVENANCE (Cabinet des Estampes et des Dessins inv. XLIX.85), which was
Thomas Lawrence, London (Lugt 2445); Ludwig Maximilian, also formerly i n the Rodrigues and Lawrence collections. Subse
Freiherr von Biegeleben, Vienna (Lugt 385) (sale, C. J. Wawra, quent to discoveries that various drawings by the Master o f the
Vienna, 15 February 1886, lot 2649); Eugene Rodrigues, Paris
Coburg Roundels are copies after stained glass made i n the ate
(sale, Frederik Muller, Amsterdam, 12 July 1921, lot 92);
lier o f the Strasbourg glass painter Peter Hemmel o f Andlau,
Hendrikus Egbertus ten Cate, Almelo, the Netherlands (Lugt
Suppl. 533b); Anton Schmid, Munich and Vienna; art market, Fedja Anzelewsky noted that one o f the loincloth studies i n the
Germany; art market, Boston. Strasbourg sheet corresponds closely to that o f Saint Sebastian i n
the Volckamer W i n d o w i n the church o f Saint Lawrence,
Nuremberg, which is securely attributed to the Hemmel studio
(Anzelewsky 1964, p. 43fT.; Detroit, Ottawa, and Coburg 1983,
BIBLIOGRAPHY pp. 388-89). Countering the long-held assumption that the
Thorlacius-Ussing 1924-25, p. 248; Bchner 1927, pp. 293- Master's drawings generally copy other works o f art, Michael
94, no. 5, fig. 58, p. 296; Winkler 1930, p. no, under no. 29, Roth recently suggested that the Strasbourg study is not a copy
pp. 150, 152; Naumann 1935, p. 19; Hannema 1955, no. 290, after, but rather is preparatory to, the Volckamer Window. This
p. 160; Detroit, Ottawa, and Coburg 1983, p. no, under no. 29,
indicates that the Strasbourg and closely related Getty sheets
pp. 392-93, figs. 27-28; Roth 1988, pp. 122-24, - 44; Roth
n o

were probably made shortly before the Volckamer Window,

1992, pp. 158 n. 22,159; Journal 22 (1994), p. 67, no. 13; U l m
1995, p. 180, figs. 52.1, 52.2, under no. 52; Hendrix 1996, which is generally dated to around 1480-81, and provides addi
pp. 43-50. tional evidence o f the Master's activity i n the Hemmel atelier
( U l m 1995, p. 180, under no. 52). Pointing to the vertical trio o f
On the verso, numbered in the lower left corner infill, in loincloths i n the top left o f the Los Angeles sheet, Roth asserts
graphite, 388 (cropped).
that these do not document other works o f art, but instead are
independently invented paraphrases o f the Schongaueresque

172 German & Swiss Schools fa MASTER OF T H E C O B U R G ROUNDELS

70 V E R S O

m o t i f o f Christ's fluttering loincloth, as seen i n engravings by German, possibly Augsburg, bindings o f the late fifteenth cen
Schongauer such as Christ on the Cross with Four Angels (Bartsch tury. (Thanks to Nicolas Barker and Nancy Turner for this
1803-21, vol. 4, no. 25; U l m 1995, p. 180, under no. 52). observation; Barker kindly suggested a comparison w i t h Gold-
The delicate studies o f bindings on the verso deserve addi schmidt 1967, p. 18, p i . I.) Codices similar to those i n the draw
tional comment. W i t h i n the oeuvre o f an artist k n o w n for the ing occur w i t h some frequency i n the Master's paintings, as seen,
frequency w i t h which he copied and repeated motifs, they stand for example, i n Seven Ecclesiastical Worthies (Strasbourg, Musee
out for their freshness and immediacy. Indeed, so carefully ren de l'Oeuvre Notre-Dame; U l m 1995, p. 176, no. 50, fig. 50.1).
dered are they that i t is possible to identify them as southern

174 German & Swiss Schools ?f M A S T E R OF T H E C O B U R G ROUNDELS

Hans Jacob Plepp
Biel c. 1557/60-Bern 1597/98

T ogether w i t h Daniel Lindtmayer (q.v.) and

Christoph Murer (1558-1614), Hans Jacob
Plepp is thought to be among the finest and
most productive designers o f stained glass i n Switzerland during
the late sixteenth century. H e may have trained i n Bern, sirice his
moved to Basel, obtaining citizenship there i n 1581 and joining
the guild some years later. H e seems to have been active i n Zurich
in 1592-93, resettling i n 1593 i n Bern, where he appears to have
been particularly successful. Plepp s exant oeuvre o f some two
hundred drawings is among the largest by any sixteenth-century
earliest drawings, which date from 1578, show the influence o f Swiss designer o f stained glass.
both Lindtmayer and Tobias Stimmer (q.v.). A r o u n d 1579 he

j Stained Glass Design with Two A L O C A L G O V E R N O R (Vogt) commissioned the glass painting
for which this is a study, as indicated by the inscription on the
Coats of Arms (recto); Study of drawing. The words Fides (faith) and Spes (hope), inscribed i n
a Helm (verso) blank spaces i n the lower left and right corners o f the drawing,
suggest that personifications o f these virtues were perhaps i n
Pen and black and brown ink and gray wash over black chalk; tended to occupy these areas. The scrollwork mantling on either
H: 42.4 cm (16 % in.); W: 29.5 cm (11% in.) side o f the dexter (left) helm and the crest above it w i t h horse
salient are bursting w i t h vitality, an impression conveyed by
means o f supple line w o r k and the bold application o f wash.
Unidentifiable fragment of a symbol.
Comparable drawings by Plepp include Design for a Window
91.GG.69 with the Coat of Arms of a Man from Commerstadt, mono-
grammed and dated 1594 (Karlsruhe, Staatliche Kunsthalle inv.
XI182; Ganz 1966, p. 178, fig. 92), which features a crested helm
Private collection, United States (sale, Sotheby's, New York,
w i t h unicorn salient, though the animal is drawn i n a slightly
14 January 1989, lot 288); art market, Boston.
suffer manner than the horse i n the present example.

Journal 20 (1992), p. 153, no. 39.

Inscribed in brown ink at lower left, FiDES; at lower center,

herr hauptman Johannes Schwaller [?] /dieser zeit vogt zu
Bchburg und fr IMargeretha Ischaraniin sein Ehegefmahelin;
and at lower right, SPES; inscribed with color notations in
black ink throughout. On the verso, inscribed at lower left, in
faded red ink, In Basel gekauft fr 11I2 ft in Juli i8$8.

PLEPP fa German & Swiss Schools 175

Joachim von Sandrart
Frankfurt am Main 1606-Nuremberg 1688

orn i n Frankfurt am M a i n , Joachim von Sandrart series o f the Twelve Months and allegories o f Day and Night,
was i n Nuremberg by 1620, working as an appren made for Elector Maximilian I o f Bavaria i n 1642-43 (see cat.
tice to the printmaker Peter Isselburg (c. 1568/80?- no. 72). D u r i n g his later years he received commissions from
1630 or after). I n 1622 he traveled to Prague to study w i t h the Germany's most illustrious patrons, and i n 1655 he was ennobled
engraver Aegidius Sadeler (c. 1570-1629), who recommended by Emperor Ferdinand I I I . From 1670 to 1673 he lived i n Augs
that he switch to painting. From 1623 to 1627 he trained i n burg, where he founded a private academy. Settling i n N u r e m
Utrecht w i t h the D u t c h Caravaggesque painter Gerrit van berg late i n 1673, he became the director o f the newly founded
Honthorst (1592-1656), w h o m he accompanied to the court o f academy there. Sandrart is best known for his Teutsche Academie
Charles I i n London i n 1628. Sandrart then traveled to Italy der Edlen Bau-, Bild- und Mahlerey-Knste (Nuremberg, 1675-
(1628-35), working i n Venice, Bologna, and Rome. H e returned 79). The German counterpart to Vasari's Vite, the two-volume
to Frankfurt am M a i n i n 1635 D U t
moved to Amsterdam two treatise includes an introduction to architecture, painting, and
years later because o f the continuing T h i r t y Years War. While i n sculpture; artists' biographies; and information on collections
Amsterdam he completed his most important paintings, the and iconography.

72 Personification of September scenes o f 1615-16 and Pietro Candido's six scenes of shepherding
of 1617, which were also commissioned by the elector for Schloss
Black chalk and brown wash, heightened with gray chalk; Schleissheim and which similarly thematically reflect its func
incised for transfer; H : 28.7 cm (nVie in.); W: 23.8 (9% in.)
tion as a pastoral retreat.
The reputation o f Sandrart's works began to spread w i t h
the publication i n 1644 o f verses i n D u t c h describing the paint
PROVENANCE ings, written by the poet Joost von den Vondel, a friend o f
Josef Carl Ritter von Klinkosch, Vienna (Lugt 577); Khn the painter's (Vondel 1927-40, vol. 4, pp. 554-70). Addition
collection, Vienna; Anton Schmid, Munich and Vienna; art ally, Sandrart made finished drawings after his paintings, to be
market, New York.
used as models for a series o f prints. He enlisted a number o f

engravers to carry out the task, as well as another o f Holland's
None. major poets, Caspar Barlaeus, to compose a Latin verse to
accompany each image. The Museum's drawing after the paint
BIBLIOGRAPHY ing September (fig. 72a) served as a to-scale model i n reverse
Journal zi (1993), p. 125, no. 33. for the corresponding print (fig. 72b), which was engraved by
Cornells van Dalen the Younger (1638-1664) (Hollstein 1949-,
On the verso, inscribed at lower right in graphite, Joachim von
Sandrart 1606-i688\ numbered at upper left in brown ink, 34. vol. 5, no. 22). Newly discovered, i t joins February and Night,
the two other known surviving preparatory designs for the
prints (Vienna, Albertina inv. 3520, 3519; Klemm 1986, p. 107,
under no. 36, p. 124, under no. 48). Sandrart inscribed Night
SANDRART'S G R E A T E S T A C H I E V E M E N T as a painter is his w i t h the date 1643, indicating that he was already planning the
series o f allegorical personifications o f the Twelve Months plus series o f engravings at this point.
Day and Night, which were commissioned by Elector M a x i I n the same direction as the painting (Klemm 1986, no. 43,
milian I o f Bavaria for the dining hall o f Schloss Schleissheim, pp. 115, 117), the drawing corresponds to it i n detail. I t is exe
outside M u n i c h (Day i n M u n i c h , Bayerische Staatsgemlde cuted i n a richly handled combination o f chalk and wash, which
sammlungen; Night i n Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum; the lends it graphic flair and also evokes the range o f textures
Twelve Months i n Staatsgalerie Schleissheim, Bayerische Staats encountered i n the oil painting, from the transparent layers
gemldesammlungen; K l e m m 1986, pp. 99-125, nos. 35-48; of the toile collar to the variegated panoply o f fruits and vegeta
Hohenzollern et al. 1980, p. 87, nos. 356, 367), and carried out i n bles. The vigorous modeling o f the fruit and overall painterly
Amsterdam i n 1642-43. Sandrart's series depicting temporal flow handling seem indicative o f Flemish influence upon Sandrart's
and seasonal activities joined Peter Paul Rubens s four hunting draftsmanship.

SANDRART fa German & Swiss Schools 177

The composition focuses upon a fashionably dressed lady
visiting a market. I n September, as i n the other images i n the
series, the m o n t h is personified as a three-quarter-length figure,
pushed close to the picture plane, and the figure and other fore
ground elements create a strongly plastic effect. A scale hangs on
the wall behind, while an archway provides a view o f a distant
landscape i n which hunters i n a blind shoot at a herd o f deer
fording a river. Pictorial precedents for Sandrart s choice o f a
market scene as part o f a series illustrating the months include
August from Crispijn van de Passes (1564-1637) engravings o f
the Twelve Months after Maarten de Vos (1532-1603), and Wen
zel Hollar's (1607-1677) etchings o f the Four Seasons o f 1641,
showing three-quarter-length views o f elegantly clad ladies i n
interiors, w i t h the figure m Autumn depicted w i t h a bowl o f fruit
(Hollstein 1949- vol. 44, no. 1449; Parthey 1853, nos. 610-13;
K l e m m 1986, p. 117, under no. 43). Additionally, Sandrart was
certainly influenced by market scenes by Frans Snyders (1579
1657), such as The Fruit Market (Saint Petersburg, Hermitage).
This sense o f visual abundance is paralleled by a richness i n
associated verbal meanings set i n m o t i o n by the texts by Vondel
72A. Joachim von Sandrart (1606-1688). September.
and Barlaeus which glossed the painting and the print, respec
Oil on canvas. H : 149 cm (58H in.); W: 123.5
(48 /s in.).
m 5

tively (for translations and commentary, see Porteman 1987, Munich, Bayerische Staatsgemldesammlungen inv. 364.
pp. 122-25). The texts indicate that Sandrart intended his
images to engage the period taste for emblems and other forms
of visual and verbal interplay. That o f Vondel identifies as Fall
the lady i n the huke (the headdress that supports a veil shielding
her from w i n d and rain), who is visiting the market and picking
out figs; i t also issues a moralizing warning i n its reference to the
stag hunt i n the background, i n which the stag runs straight
toward its doom. Barlaeus s verses have more o f an astrological
slant, mentioning, among other elements, the scale (Libra) and,
i n reference to the ill-fated deer, admonishing human "star gaz
ers" to awaken to the flames o f piety.
The different emphases i n the texts may well owe some
thing to a subtle change between the painting and the drawing,
w i t h its resultant print. The drawing lacks the painting's heavy
chiaroscuro and also contains greater graphic definition, a result
o f which is to render fully visible the scale above the woman's
head, which i n the painting is shadowed over. I t is likely that
Sandrart made these changes i n order to facilitate the drawing's
translation into an engraving. I n any event, the scales, not men
tioned by Vondel, became part o f the astrological symbolism
that Barlaeus imputed to the image.

F I G U R E 72B. After Joachim von Sandrart (1606 -1688). September.

Engraving by Cornells van Dalen the Younger (c. 1638-1664). H : 34.5 cm

(13Vie in.); W: 25.4 cm (10 in.). Photo courtesy Rijksmuseum-Stichting,

SANDRART ?f German & Swiss Schools 179

Martin Schongauer
Probably Colmar c. 1450 -Breisach 1491

artin Schongauer is documented as having lands. By 1472 he had resettled i n Colmar, and i n the follow
matriculated at the University o f Leipzig i n ing year he executed his most important surviving painting,
1465. From 1466 to 1469 he was prob The Madonna of the Rose Garden, for the Dominican Church,
ably apprenticed to Caspar Isenmann (active c. 1430-84), the Colmar. Schongauer was the greatest German engraver o f the
municipal painter o f Colmar, who was a neighbor o f his father fifteenth century, producing around 115 prints. H e profoundly
in 1472. Schongauer's earliest work shows the direct influence o f influenced German artists o f his time as well as the next genera
Rogier van der Weyden (c. 1399-1464), whose famous Columba tion, most notably Albrecht Drer (1471-1528). Schongauer was
triptych was on view i n Cologne. H e broadened his knowledge called to Breisach i n 1488 to decorate the cathedral w i t h an enor
of Netherlandish art during trips to Burgundy and the Nether mous fresco cycle o f the Last Judgment and died there i n 1491.

73 Studies of Peonies of the liquidity o f the paint and can see the individual brush
strokes. The free manner o f painting and the wind-tossed
Body color and watercolor; H : 25.7 cm (10 Ys in.),* W: 33 cm appearance o f the petals and foliage evoke the lushness that is
(13 in.)
characteristic o f the peony plant.
The drawing has recently emerged as the only surviving
Gothic with a flower (similar to Piccard 1961-, vol. 4, pt. 3, nature study by the hand of M a r t i n Schongauer. The attribution
sec. 9, no. 1019 [Upper Rhine, 1473/74]). was made by Fritz Koreny (1991, pp. 588-99), the main points
of whose argument for claiming Schongauer's authorship are as
92.GC.80 (see plate 8) follows. Koreny noted that the two right-hand blossoms appear
in Schongauer's masterpiece, The Madonna of the Rose Garden o f
Private collection, Geneva (sale, Christie's, London, 5 July 1473 (fig. 73a), and that the one on the left is included i n a
1988, lot 37); private collection, Switzerland; art market, sixteenth-century copy o f the Colmar painting (Boston, Isabella
New York. Stewart Gardener Museum), indicating that the latter has been
cut down. The attribution gains still more weight from Koreny s
comparison o f the treatment o f the right-hand open blossom
Colmar 1991, pp. 107-12; Washington, D . C , 1991, pp. 296-
w i t h that o f the corresponding flower i n the Colmar painting,
97, no. 202; New York 1993, no. 104; London 1993-94,
no. 72. w i t h the disposition o f the petals o f the one i n the drawing
exactly following the one i n the painting, and w i t h both flowers
BIBLIOGRAPHY exhibiting quivering vitality and freshness to an equal degree.
Koreny 1991, pp. 588-99; Koreny 1991a, pp. 77-90; Journal
Albrecht Drers famous watercolor drawing The Virgin and
21 (1993), p. 122, no. 25; Victoria 1993, pp. 15-16; Strasbourg
Child with a Multitude of Animals (fig. 73b) contains a group o f
1994, pp. 10-14; Koreny 1996, pp. 123,127, 146 n. 3.
three peonies to the left o f the V i r g i n which corresponds i n most
Inscribed at the lower left (by Drer?), at the join where the details to the drawing, indicating that Drer copied and perhaps
corner has been cut off and replaced, in brown ink, with the even owned the drawing i n question. Finally, this formal evi
remains of several letters (t, [or u]). dence is buttressed by the drawing's watermark, a Gothic w i t h
a flower, which dates the manufacture o f the paper to Schon
gauer's lifetime.
I N T H I S D R A W I N G , life-size studies o f peonies (Paeonia offi The newly discovered drawing, as Koreny points out, causes
cinalis L.) unfold across the page. A t the upper left is an open a fundamental reconsideration o f the scientific depiction o f
blossom studied from its underside; the artist has carefully ren nature i n northern European art. Although accurately observed
dered the transition from foliage to calyx, sepals, and finally plants and animals appear i n the paintings o f fifteenth-century
petals. Below this is a tightly closed bud and, at the right, a fully Northern artists such as Jan van Eyck and Rogier van der Wey
opened flower w i t h delicately drawn stamens and pistils. The den, the earliest drawn nature studies to have survived prior to
color has been applied relatively loosely, so that one is conscious the discovery o f that by Schongauer were those o f Drer, dating

180 German & Swiss Schools fa SCHONGAUER

73 A . Martin Schongauer (c. 1450-1491). The Madonna ofthe Rose
F I G U R E F I G U R E 7 3 B . Albrecht Drer (1471-1528). The Virgin and Child with a
Garden, 1473. Oil on panel. H : 200 cm (78 A in.); W: 115.3 cm (45% in.).
Multitude of Animals. Pen and brown ink with watercolor. H : 32.1 cm (12%
Colmar, Dominican Church. Photo courtesy Conseil de Fabrique de la Paroisse in.); W: 24.3 cm (9^6 in.). Vienna, Graphische Sammlung Albertina inv. 3066.
Saint-Martin de Colmar.

to around the turn o f the century, such as the Stag Beetle o f 1505 approach to the natural world may have had an impact on the
i n the Getty Museum (83.GC.214). Koreny postulates that such regional art o f his own time, such as the lush, often naturalistic
studies by Drer evolved from those o f Schongauer and that the flowers i n the stained glass designed by the Strasbourg glass
newly discovered watercolor by Schongauer i n turn suggests that painter Peter Hemmel o f Andlau (active 1447-c. 1501). A good
his practice o f making highly finished studies after nature to be comparison is provided by the peony (or rose) i n the bottom left
used as models i n paintings and prints was employed by artists o f the scene o f the Mystic Marriage o f Saint Catherine which is
o f the previous generation such as Rogier, whose drawings o f part o f the monumental Volckamer W i n d o w o f around 1480-81
this type have all perished. I t is worth noting that Schongauer's i n the parish church o f Saint Lawrence, Nuremberg.

182 German & Swiss Schools fa SCHONGAUER

Tobias Stimmer
Schafifhausen 1539Strasbourg 1584

T obias Stimmer was born i n Schaffhausen,

son o f a schoolmaster and artist. A t least five
of his brothers were also artists. From 1565 he
maintained his own workshop i n Schaffhausen, executing his
first major work, the frescoes o f the fa9ade o f the Haus zum Rit
the series after Paolo Giovios portrait gallery i n Como (1571, 1575)
and illustrations for an edition o f Flavius Josephus (c. 1575).
A r o u n d 1578 and again i n 1583 Stimmer was called to w o r k i n
the margraves palace (Neues Schloss) i n Baden-Baden, where
he painted cosomological, allegorical, and portrait frescoes. I n
ter (in situ; reconstructed i n 1936-39), between 1567 and 1570. addition, he made panel paintings, drawings, and designs for
In 1570 he moved to Strasbourg, where he was commissioned to stained glass and was considered an authority on architecture
design the paintings and sculptures on the large astronomical and geometry. H e widely influenced Swiss artists o f the 1570s
clock o f the cathedral (1571-74). D u r i n g this time he produced a and 1580s, including Daniel Lindtmayer (q.v.) and Christoph
number o f important woodcut illustrations, including several Murer (1558-1614).

74 Portrait of a Bearded Man quality to the hands and, i n the face, works together w i t h the
luminosity o f the reserved white o f the paper to produce a
Pen and black and brown ink over black chalk; H : 29.9 cm strong, forthright expression. This middle-aged, as yet uniden
(11% in.); W: 20.8 (8 /i6
tified sitter wears the relatively unadorned costume o f a burgher.
His eyeswith their large, arresting irisesare typical o f Stim
Eagle with one head (similar to Tschudin 1958, vol. 7, no. 272 mers manner. Curiously, given the number o f Stimmers por
[Basel, 1576]). trait paintings and his renowned designs for woodcuts after Paolo
Giovios collection o f portrait paintings (Basel 1984, pp. 224,
92.GA.102 228-29, nos. 108-9), t n
i s
is o n e
o f his few surviving portrait
drawings and his only known finished portrait drawing i n pen
and black ink. I t does not appear to have served as the model for
Sale, Christie s, London, 5 July 1988, lot 151; Ian Woodner,
New York (sale, Christie s, London, 7 July 1992, lot 96); art any extant print or painting and might have been made as an
market, London. independent w o r k o f art.
The drawing dates from the period i n which Stimmer was
active i n the production o f the woodcut designs for the Giovio
volumes, which were published i n 1575 and 1577. The powerful

BIBLIOGRAPHY directness w i t h which the sitter i n the drawing has been treated
Journal 21 (1993), p. 124, no. 30. and the simplified, almost geometrical treatment o f the facial
features and hands find parallels i n paintings such as Portrait
Signed with the monogram and dated at lower right, in black of Bernhard von Cham, o f c. 1567 (Zurich, Gesellschaft der
ink, TSli$j6.
Schildner zum Schneggen; Basel 1984, no. 41, p l . 6). A copy o f
the Getty drawing, formerly i n the Kupferstichkabinett, Dres
den (inv. c.2276; D i t t r i c h 1987, no. 1220), was attributed to Abel
A F T E R L I G H T L Y O U T L I N I N G the form i n black chalk, Stim Summer (1542-after 1606) by Friedrich Thne (1936a, no. 236),
mer drew i n the face and beard i n pen and brown i n k and, lastly, who d i d not know the original, which came to light at auction
worked over the entire figure i n pen and black ink. His charac only i n 1988.
teristic bold, fractured hatching lends a powerful sculptural

STIMMER ?f German & Swiss Schools 183

Nuremberg School
Early Sixteenth Century

7J The Virgin and Child on a Family with the Three Hares (Bartsch 1803-21, vol. 7, no. 102),
while the calligraphic line w o r k i n the hair and grass, circular
Grassy Bench face and linear treatment o f the features, and the relatively sim
plified and plastic handling o f the drapery are reminiscent o f
Pen and brown ink; strip at the top added later; : 19.2 cm
( %6 in.); W: 15.5 cm (6% in.) Hans Baldung's woodcut The Virgin on a Grassy Bench (Holl-

stein 1954-, vol. 2, no. 65) o f c. 1505. Additionally, the delicate

92.GA.103 proportions and youthful sweetness o f the V i r g i n i n the drawing
hark back to M a r t i n Schongauer (q.v.).
The style o f the present example accords best w i t h that o f
Buguslaw Jolles, Dresden and Vienna (Lugt 381); art market,
Hans Springinklee (c. 1490/96-after 1525), who seems to have
Munich; art market, Boston.
been active i n Drers workshop by before 1510. Crinkled drap
EXHIBITIONS ery folds, a consistent feature o f his work, and rounded faces
None. occur i n the woodcut Saint Anne with the Virgin and Child
(Geisberg 1974, vol. 4, no. 1338), dated 1518. The theme o f the
V i r g i n and C h i l d on a grassy bench occurs i n one o f the two
Journal 21 (1993), p. 122, no. 26.
signed drawings by h i m , The Rest on the Flight into Egypt, dated
In the lower right corner, an illegible, partly trimmed 1514 (London, British Museum inv. 1876-12-9-618; Rowlands
inscription; on the verso, inscribed at bottom left, in graphite, 1993, vol. i , p. 217, no. 468, vol. 2, p i . 291). Even though this
H. S. Beham p8i and 136020, and at bottom right, in black drawing is made i n his later Danube School style, i t is possible to
ink, 10/6.
imagine a stylistic development from the present sheet to the
one i n the British Museum when one notes the downward cas
cade o f the Virgins headdress, her slender fingers, the lingering
T H E E C L E C T I C I S M A N D slight retrospectiveness o f this draw anatomical weaknesses i n the disposition o f her arms, and the
ing indicate that i t might have been made by an artist whose calligraphic treatment o f the grass sprouting from the bench.
style was not yet fully developed. I t displays beautiful pen w o r k The plausibility o f this being an early w o r k by Springinklee is
in the folds o f the Virgins kerchief, her hair, the grassy bench, upheld by a comparison w i t h other drawings, such as Saint John
and the hem o f her gown. A t the same time, however, its author the Baptist (Dresden, Kupferstichkabinett inv. c.1879-11), attrib
has not mastered anatomy, as seen i n the Virgins unconvinc- uted to h i m by . T. Parker (1928, pp. 6 2 - 6 3 , fig. 13), which has
ingly foreshortened right arm as well as the knee upon which she similar drapery folds and a system o f modeling strongly reminis
appears to bounce the infant Christ. M u c h about the over cent o f woodcut line w o r k which accords well w i t h the present
all treatment indicates that the artist was from the milieu o f sheet. The association o f the present sheet w i t h Springinklee,
Albrecht Drer (1471-1528). The twisting o f the kerchief about however, remains hypothetical i n the absence o f other juvenilia
the head and the densely folded, rolled-back sleeve o f the right by h i m and o f a comprehensive study o f his drawn oeuvre.
arm find precedents i n Drers woodcut o f c. 1497-98 Holy

NUREMBERG German & Swiss Schools 185

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Joachim Beuckelaer
Antwerp c. 1534-c. 1574

oachim Beuckelaer apparently came from a little- H e is particularly known for his kitchen and market scenes, w i t h
known family of painters active in Antwerp. He lavish and monumental still lifes dominating the foregrounds.
was trained by his uncle Pieter Aertsen (1507/8-1575), Beuckelaer often included a biblical scene i n the background to
who greatly influenced his style and choice of subject imbue his imagery w i t h moral significance, as i n Kitchen Piece
matter, i n particular his tendency to infuse religious imagery with Christ in the House of Martha and Mary o f 1565 (Stockholm,
w i t h new secular motifs, such as comestibles, landscape ele Nationalmuseum). M a n y o f his religious paintings were de
ments, and classicizing architecture. I n 1560 Beuckelaer joined stroyed i n the iconoclastic riots o f the late sixteenth century; his
the G u i l d o f Saint Luke i n Antwerp. H e remained there most o f drawings are extremely rare.
his life and became one o f the city's most prominent painters.

y6 The Trickery of the Gibeonites try to save themselves from being annihilated or driven out o f
the Promised Land by the advancing army o f the Israelites. They
petition Joshua to spare them, lying by saying that they had come
Oil on paper; H : 26.1 cm (10/4 in.); W: 19.1 cm (7/2 in.)
from a long way away, as indicated by their old food, ripped
90.GG.133 wine sacks, and tattered clothes. After learning that he had been
tricked into allowing them to remain i n the Promised Land
among the Israelites, Joshua condemns the Gibeonites to per
J. de Witt; De Vyss; art market, Zurich (sale, Sotheby's,
petual servitude. This subject commonly appeared i n cycles o f
Amsterdam, 14 November 1988, lot 24); art market,
New York. images illustrating the book of Joshua, such as one o f the famous
Joshua tapestries after designs by Pieter Coecke van Aelst i n the
EXHIBITIONS Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna (Vienna 1981, p. 27, no. 5).
None. The three additional grisaille oil studies on paper by Beucke
laer i n the Joshua series are similarly painted i n buff and gray
pigments w i t h black outlines on light reddish brown prepared
Kloek 1989, pp. 135,161-62, no. B.96; Journal 19 (1991),
p. 152, no. 34. paper. The attribution o f the Getty oil study to Beuckelaer,
advanced by Kloek i n 1988, was based upon a comparison w i t h
Dated by the artist in the lower left: corner, in black oil paint, the two o i l studies on red-grounded paper i n the Louvre, Paris
1565; inscribed in the lower right corner of the old mount
(inv. 20.701, 20.709), given to Beuckelaer by Paul Wescher (i960,
(with pale green washed border), in graphite, N 34 J. de Witt.
p. 32). Kloek's attribution is further confirmed by a comparison
On the verso of the mount, inscribed at upper center, in red
chalk, 34, and at upper right, in brown ink, N 34 (crossed of the o i l studies w i t h Beuckelaer s technique o f underdrawing
out) and 35351 a sin sie 4. in his large-scale paintings. For example, the background o f The
Miraculous Draught of Fishes o f 1563 i n the Getty Museum (inv.
71.PB.59) contains underdrawing o f figures, landscape elements,
WHEN T H I S D R A W I N G A P P E A R E D at auction i n 1988, i t was and foliage i n a liquid medium which is thoroughly consistent
entitled Josephs Servants Finding the Cup in Benjamins Sack. stylistically w i t h the oil sketch under discussion ( D i k , Wallert,
Wouter Kloek, who at the time o f the sale attributed the drawing and Szafran 1996, p. 4).
to Beuckelaer, has since convincingly argued that i t and three The Museum's sheet is the only dated example i n the series,
related grisaille o i l studies that subsequently came to light all which seems to have shared the same provenance until recently.
represent episodes from the book o f Joshua (1989, pp. 160-62; The mounts o f all four bear old shelf marks on the verso that
the three related examples were recently on the art market, but might be those o f an otherwise unknown collector, J. de W i t t , as
their current location is unknown). The present example illus indicated by the inscription on the recto o f the mount o f the
trates the n i n t h chapter, i n which the Gibeonites (Gabaonites) Getty drawing.

190 Dutch & Flemish Schools fa BEUCKELAER

This series o f oil studies by Beuckelaer indicates that his true, provides the only evidence o f Beuckelaer s activity i n this
contribution to the development o f this technique is greater capacity. This suggestion is supported by a comparison w i t h
than previously appreciated (Kloek 1989, p. 135). Indeed, the Barendsz.s somewhat later series o f vertically composed o i l
date o f 1565 on the present example shows that he was producing sketches o f similar dimensions, dating from around 1580, which
oil studies before D i r c k Barendsz. (1534-1592), Anthonie Block- served as models for engravings illustrating the Passion (Louvre
landt (1533/34-1583), and O t t o van Veen (c. 1556-1629), previ inv. R.F. 1981-82; Lille, Musee des Beaux-Arts inv. P. 1927; L o n
ously recognized as the first Netherlandish artists to have used don, British Museum inv. 1985-10-5-3, 1987-6-20-28; two exam
the technique extensively. Kloek (ibid., p. 135) speculated that ples i n private collections, United Kingdom; cf. Amsterdam
the series might have been made as designs for prints, which, i f 1986, pp. 412-15, nos. 303-7).

BEUCKELAER ?f Dutch & Flemish Schools 191

Hans Bol
Mechelen 1534-Amsterdam 1593

ans Bol was apprenticed at the age o f four eminent miniaturists of his day, he fostered the popularization o f
teen to a painter o f water schilderen, large-scale independent cabinet miniatures on vellum. H e produced a large
scenes painted on canvas i n opaque water- body o f landscape drawings, many of which served as models for
color or tempera, which were hung as substitutes for tapestries prints. Continuing war and religious unrest drove h i m from
and were a specialty o f artists i n his native town o f Mechelen, Antwerp to the northern Netherlands i n 1584. After living i n
Flanders. After traveling to Germany i n the late 1550s, B o l Bergen op Z o o m , Dordrecht, and Delft, i n 1591 he settled i n
returned to Mechelen i n 1560 and became a member o f the Amsterdam, where he apparently died two years later. His pupils
painters' guild there. I n 1572 Mechelen was occupied by Spanish included Jacques Savery I (c. 1565-1603) and Joris Hoefnagel
troops, which prompted Bol to move to Antwerp, where he (1542-1601).
entered the G u i l d o f Saint Luke two years later. One o f the pre

77 Landscape with the Story manifested i n this elaborately conceived miniature, consisting o f
a landscape and a separate painted frame.
of Venus and Adonis The ensemble o f miniature and frame depict the story
of Venus and Adonis from Ovid's Metamorphoses (10:298-559,
Body color heightened with gold on vellum (central
miniature); body color heightened with gold on panel 708-39) in extenso. Unifying this complex layering o f episodes
(frame); H : 20.6 cm (8% in.); W: 25.8 cm (ip/s in.) and visual elements, moreover, is the notion o f transformation
that underlies the Metamorphoses as a whole. T h e landscape
92.GG.28 (see plate 9) forms a single setting for the depiction o f three separate
moments i n the narrative: Adonis's departure for the hunt
despite Venus s warning (at left); her discovery o f the wounded
Baron Nathaniel de Rothschild, Vienna; Baron Alphonse de
Rothschild, Vienna; Mrs. Charles E. Dunlap (sale, Sotheby Adonis (center right); and the slaying o f the boar that killed h i m
Parke Bernet, New York, 4 December 1975, lot 302); British (distant right). The frame shows subsidiary events w i t h i n ovoid
Rail Pension Fund (sale, Sotheby's, London, 2 July 1990, cartouches, beginning w i t h Adonis's conception, a result o f the
lot 30); art market, New York. incestuous love o f his mother, Myrrha, for her father (left); the
birth o f Adonis from a myrrfi tree, into which the gods had
London, Victoria and Albert Museum, on view 1976-81; transformed his mother i n order to deliver her from the wrath o f
Doncaster (South Yorkshire), Doncaster Museum and Art her father (top); Venuss heart being pierced by Cupid, inciting
Gallery, on view 1983-90. her love for Adonis (right); and the hero's blood transformed
into anemone flowers (bottom). The ovals are interspersed w i t h
an array o f trophies referring to various aspects o f Adonis's life.
Journal (1993), pp. 126-27, n o
- 37
The central miniature recalls such precedents as Hier
Signed and dated twice by the artist, once at the base of the onymus Cock's etched landscape w i t h a vignette o f Venus tend
topmost cartouche of the frame and again on the rock at the ing the wounded Adonis, which is part o f the series Landscapes
right center of the landscape, in gold, HBol/i$8p. There is a with Biblical and Mythological Scenes o f 1558 (Hollstein 1949-,
long, old inscription in Dutch on the backing laid down on
vol. 4, no. 20). Bol had also previously depicted Venus and Ado
the framed panel.
nis i n a landscape setting i n a drawing i n the Kunstmuseum,
Dsseldorf (inv. 25-189), dated 1568, and another i n the Museum
Mayer van den Bergh, Antwerp (inv. 1045; de Coo 1966, p . 179,
BOL G A I N E D F A M E A N D W E A L T H as a painter o f miniatures. no. 744), dated 1571. I n both o f these, and even more markedly
Karel van Mander (q.v.), i n his account o f Bol's life i n the in the present miniature, he set the narrative i n a lushly over
Schilder-Boeck, recounted that Bol abandoned large-scale paint grown forest, thus moving away from Cock's panoramic "world
ing for the art o f the miniature, at which he felt himself to be landscape" toward a setting more i n concert w i t h Ovid's evoca
unrivaled. H i s ambitious aims for his diminutive art are fully tion o f the fecundity o f nature. The disposition o f the trees i n

192 Dutch & Flemish Schools ?f B O L

the miniature closely follows that i n an earlier print, Landscape tiny ovalsone notes the influence o f Hendrick Goltzius (q.v.)
with the Temptation of Christ, from the series Landscapes with and the "Spranger style" upon Bol, who had moved to the
Religious Scenes and Hunts, engraved by Adriaen Collaert after northern Netherlands by the time he made this miniature. The
Bol and published by Eduard Hoeswinkel (Franz 1965, p. 54, p i . vignette o f C u p i d piercing Venus s heart may be compared, for
135, fig. 174; Hollstein 1949- vol. 3, nos. 22-45). instance, w i t h Goltzius s print after Spranger, Mars and Venus o f
Technically the miniature is one o f the most explicitly 1588 (Bartsch 1803-21, vol. 3, no. 276). A t the same time the
viftuosic works i n Bol's oeuvre. The paint application is so seated boars at the base o f Bol's frame anticipate Goltzius s coat
minute that i t requires magnification to be fully appreciated. of arms o f the van Beresteyn family o f 1597, which features a
Even i n the smallest details, however, i t retains its vigor, as seen boar seated on a stone (ibid., no. 136). The miniature thus some
in the hound tugging on the wounded Adonis's boot or the what reshapes the notion o f Bol's talents being limited princi
glistening still life on the nightstand i n the scene o f C u p i d pierc pally to the depiction o f landscape and shows h i m to have been
ing Venus s heart. The cartouches around the ovoid narratives an artist eager to keep abreast o f the artificial, gratuitously
w i t h i n the frame differ from one another formally and coloristi- difficult Spranger style o f figure painting, which Goltzius had
cally, as do the groups o f trophies separating them, ably demon popularized i n the northern Netherlands during the mid-i58os.
strating the artist's wide-ranging formal skills. I n the overall Indeed, Bol was glorified as a great painter of his day by Goltzius
striving to display virtuosityas well as i n the artificial figure himself, i n a posthumous portrait engraving (ibid., no. 161).
style, w i t h its amorous overtones, so masterfully revealed i n the

BOL fa Dutch & Flemish Schools 193

Pieter Coecke van Aelst
Aelst 1502-Brussels 1550

ieter Coecke was born i n the town of Aelst, where (Hollstein 1949-, vol. 4, no. 4). N o t only was Coecke a prolific
his father, Jan Coecke, was the deputy mayor. painter and designer o f tapestries and stained-glass windows, he
There is no mention o f his activities prior to 1527, was also an important exponent o f Italian art theory i n the L o w
when he entered the G u i l d of Saint Luke in Antwerp, but accord Countries through his translations o f Vitruvius and Sebastiano
ing to the artist-biographer Karel van Mander (q.v.), he studied Serlio. I n 1537 Coecke was named dean o f the G u i l d o f Saint
w i t h Bernard van Orley (c. 1488-1541) i n Brussels before going Luke, and by 1550 he was court painter to Emperor Charles V.
to Italy between 1525 and 1526. From 1533 to 1534 Coecke was i n Coecke moved to Brussels i n 1546 and spent his final years there.
Constantinople, where he made drawings o f the Turkish court, He ran a thriving studio w i t h many students and assistants,
which were published posthumously i n 1553 by his second wife, among w h o m may have been his son-in-law Pieter Bruegel the
Mayken Verhuelst (herself a miniature painter), as a series o f Elder (c. 1525/30-1569).
woodcuts entitled Les Moeurs et fachons de faire de Turcs . . .

y8 Scenes from the Life of the THE DRAWING WAS A T T R I B U T E D to Coecke van Aelst
in the Paignon Dijonval catalogue and accords well w i t h other
Prodigal Son accepted drawings by the artist. A particularly good comparison
is Design for a Triptych with Scenes from the Life of Saint John
Pen and brown ink and gray wash, over traces of black chalk;
H : 19.2 cm (7 /i6 in.);
W: 51.4 cm (20/4 in.)
the Baptist i n the British Museum, London (inv. 1854-6-28-38),
which, like the present example, contains elegantly proportioned
90.GG.7 figures and is drawn w i t h an emphasis upon outline; i t has been
dated to c. 1540 (Washington, D . C . , and N e w York 1986, p. 116,
under no. 37). Another good stylistic comparison o f around this
M . Paignon Dijonval, Paris; private collection (sale, Sotheby's,
date is The Money-Changer i n the Albertina, Vienna (inv. 7852).
Amsterdam, 1 December 1986, lot 6); art market, London.
The present example is particularly highly worked for Coecke,
EXHIBITIONS especially i n the architectural and landscape passages.
New York 1993, no. 28; London 1993-94, no. 32. The drawing depicts episodes from the parable of the Prodi
gal Son (Luke 15:11-32), a popular subject i n fifteenth- and
sixteenth-century Netherlandish art. Left to right, the drawing
Benard 1810, p. 61, no. 1210; Journal19 (1991), pp. 151-52,
no. 32. shows the son taking leave o f his father, wasting his money on
worldly pleasures, being chased from a bordello, begging shelter
On the verso, inscribed at center, in brown ink, N 1210 in a pigsty, sitting i n the pigsty, and reconciling w i t h his father.
(inventory number of Paignon Dijonval), and at lower right, I n contrast to the biblical text's emphasis upon the son's eventual
in graphite, R Koeck, 481601, and 1210.
reconciliation w i t h his father, sixteenth-century depictions of the
parable, such as this example, tend to focus on the brothel scene,
perhaps reflecting the popularity o f this episode i n contempo
rary plays treating the Prodigal Son (Renger 1970, p. 28ff.)

194 Dutch & Flemish Schools fa COECKE VAN AELST

As Karl Schtz has kindly pointed out (in conversation w i t h
the author, 1995), Coecke s drawing finds a close parallel i n the
painting by the Master o f the Prodigal Son i n the Kunsthi
storisches Museum, Vienna (inv. 986; Schtz 1981, pp. 233-35),
which is thought to have been executed i n Antwerp after 1550.
Like the painting, the Museum s drawing shows the brothel scene
outdoors and contains the figures o f the cruller man (with his
canister o f wafers), a stock figure i n Prodigal Son imagery from
the early sixteenth century (New York 1995, p. 91), and the wait
ress chalking up the prodigal s debits. The latter figure occurs i n
Coecke s only surviving signed drawing (Rotterdam, Museum
Boijmans Van Beuningen inv. MB.330; New York, Fort W o r t h ,
and Cleveland 1990-91, no. 16), which was formerly considered
a representation o f the Prodigal Son but is now thought to depict
a moralizing genre scene.
Coecke, however, set his scenes i n a landscape, w i t h the
overall effect being less stagelike than that o f the painting by the
Master o f the Prodigal Son. This and the large scale and hori
zontal format o f the drawing suggest that it might have been
made as a design for a tapestry, although none is known (the
author is grateful to Edith Standen for confirming this i n a letter
o f 2 June 1995). Coecke also treated the subject i n a series o f
stained-glass panels (Berlin, Kunstgewerbe Museum; Marlier
1966, p. ,374).

COECKE VAN AELST ?f Dutch & Flemish Schools 195

Pieter Cornelisz. (Kunst)
Leiden c. 1484-1560/61

ieter Cornelisz., called Kunst, was the eldest son and designed maps and furniture. The sole document mention
o f the well-known Leiden painter Cornells Enge- ing a specific w o r k by h i m dates from 1532, when he submitted a
brechtsz. (1460/65-1527). Although he was prob design for the pulpit o f the church o f Saint Peter, Leiden. A
ably taught by his father, he was also influenced by Lucas van group o f drawings for stained-glass windows, which are mono-
Leyden (c. 1494-1533), a fellow pupil. The artist-biographer grammed PC (which has also been read as DC), have long been
Karel van Mander (q.v.) reported that the artist was a designer o f attributed to h i m .
stained-glass windows, and he apparently also made paintings

TP The Seven Acts of Mercy: Freeing glass panel i n the Louvre, Paris, Freeing the Prisoners, which is
based on a sheet from the series i n the British Museum, London
the Prisoners (inv. 1921-10-12-5). The artist made the drawings during three
campaigns, w i t h six dating from 1524, two from 1531, and the
Pen and black ink over black chalk; H : 23.0 cm (9/16 in.);
W:i6.9cm(6 /i6in.)
n present example plus two othersCaring for the Dying and
Burying the Dead (both Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett inv. K d Z
92.GA.77 1189-90)from 1532.
W i t h i n the group the draftsman repeated some subjects,
including Freeing the Prisoners, which appears both i n the
Thomas Coke, first earl of Leicester, Holkham Hall; by
descent to the present viscount, Edward Coke (sale, Christies, above-mentioned example i n London, dated 1524, and i n the
London, 2 July 1991, lot 62); art market, London. later version i n the Getty Museum. I n the foregrounds o f both
drawings a man on the left hands coins to an official on the
EXHIBITIONS right, who holds a rod, symbolizing legal authority (see N e w
London 1948, no. 42.
York 1995, p. 114). This secures the release o f the prisoners, who
are treated very differently i n the two drawings. I n the one i n
Dodgson 1924, no. 9; Henkel 1932, p. 67; Florence and Paris London they are being let out o f prison and are placed at a dis
1980, p. 141, under no. 302; Popham and Lloyd 1986, no. 302; tance from the dominant foreground figures. I n the present
Washington, D.C., and New York 1986, p. 122, under no. 40; example they are being freed from stocks and chains and have
Boon 1992, p. 237 n. 10, under no. 132; Journal 21 (1993), been brought to the left foreground, forming a compositional
pp. 125-26, no. 34; New York 1995, p. 108 n. 9.
element only slightly subordinate i n importance to the men on

Dated at the upper center by the artist, in black ink, 2532; the right who negotiate their release. There are fewer prisoners
inscribed at the upper center, in brown ink, L (false Lucas van than i n the London drawing and a greater emphasis on individ
Leyden monogram). On the verso of the old Holkham mount, ual expression. The candle illuminating the dark vault above the
inscribed at the top in brown ink, Lucas van Leyde, and in men who are soon to be freed from their stocks strikes a hopeful
graphite, good and curious and Peter Cornelius Kunst, son of
note, which contrasts w i t h the desolate vignette o f the gallows i n
Jacob Cornelius of Amsterdam! 'Visiting the Prisoners'from the
'Seven Works of Mercy.ICD.; inscribed in the center twice, in the upper right. A similar vignette w i t h gallows appears i n the
graphite and red pencil, 24, and in graphite, Lucas van Leyden. 1532 Burial of the Dead i n Berlin.
The focus on the role o f gesture and expression i n convey
ing narrative content provides evidence o f the artists increased
assimilation o f the manner o f Lucas van Leyden, as do the pen
THE P I E T E R C O R N E L I S Z . w h o m van Mander described as a work and figure style o f the Getty sheet, which differ somewhat
glass painter is thought to be the author o f a group o f eleven from the earlier version o f the subject i n London. The hatch
drawings depicting the Seven Acts o f Mercy (see New York 1995, ing i n the former is slightly denser and more rectilinear, w i t h
p. 108), most o f which are monogrammed PC (although this has fewer curling and hooking strokes, and the figures are taller and
also been read DC). Whether by Pieter Cornelisz. or another more monumental.
artist w i t h the initials P.C. or D . C . , the drawings were evidently The iconography o f the Seven Acts o f Mercy derives ulti
designs for stained glass, as indicated by, among other things, a mately from Christ's description o f the salvation o f the righteous

196 Dutch & Flemish Schools ?f PIETER CORNELISZ.

at the Last Judgment (Matthew 25:35-40): "For I was hungry, Christ as witness, the artist who made the drawings under dis
and you gave me food; I was a stranger and you took me i n ; cussion eliminated Christ from the individual scenes and repre
naked, and you covered me; sick, and you visited me; I was i n sented them enacted solely by contemporary figures (New York
prison, and you came to me . . . as long as you d i d i t to one o f 1995, pp. 109-14). As one i n his latest group o f drawings treating
these m y least brethren, you d i d i t to me." I t has been pointed this subject, the present example shows his tendency to repeat
out that while early sixteenth-century paintings and several sur subjects that he had treated earlier and, when so doing, to refor
viving Leiden glass roundels o f this period depict the acts w i t h mulate them i n ways that enhance their narrative impact.

PIETER CORNELISZ. Dutch & Flemish Schools 197

Frans Crabbe van Espleghem
Mechelen c. 1480-1553

lso known as the Master o f the Crayfish, Frans Netherlands i n the wake o f Drers visit. T h e influence o f the
Crabbe van Espleghem worked i n Mechelen prints o f Lucas van Leyden (c. 1494-1533) is evident i n Crabbe s
and was received into the guild o f painters narrative approach, which stresses aspects o f ordinary daily life
there i n 1501, serving as the dean o f the guild i n 1539-40 and i n as well as the restraint and humility o f the characters. Crabbe
1549. H e must have met Albrecht Drer (1471-1528) when the was one o f the earliest Netherlandish artists to practice etching,
latter visited Mechelen i n 1521. Although the artist-biographer a technique i n which he achieved great subtlety. Crabbe became
Karel van Mander (q.v.) mentioned painted altarpieces by the head o f the Brotherhood o f O u r Lady i n January o f 1547 but
Crabbe, none survives, and our present knowledge o f h i m is relinquished the position i n August o f 1552 due to an illness o f
based entirely on his rare prints, which he began to produce i n which he died the following winter.
the 1520s as part o f the wider resurgence o f printmaking i n the

80 EHher before Ahasuerus (recto); CRABBE N O T ONLY W A S O N E o f the first Netherlandish

artists to explore etching on copper but also achieved excep

Slight Sketch of an Ornamental tional sensitivity and subtlety i n the medium during its early his
Vase (verso) tory. His etching Esther before Ah asuerus o f around 1525 (fig. 80a;
Bartsch 1803-21, vol. 7, no. 1) is based upon this fully worked
Pen and dark brown ink, with touches of gray-brown wash, drawing i n pen and black ink. I t is the only known drawing by
over black chalk, incised for transfer (recto); black chalk Crabbe and one o f the relatively few surviving early sixteenth-
(verso); H : 23.7 cm (9 /i6 in.); W: 19.4 cm (7% in.)

century Netherlandish studies directly connected w i t h a print. I t

shows that Crabbe made precise preparatory drawings for his
etchings; the drawing has been incised throughout for transfer to
PROVENANCE the plate and corresponds almost exactly i n scale to the finished
Sir Thomas Lawrence, London; William Young Ottley, print (Landau and Parshall 1994, p. 334).
London (Lugt 2664); Henry Scipio Reitlinger, London (sale,
The subject is taken from the O l d Testament book o f Esther
Sotheby's, London, 23 June 1954, lot 765); private collection
(5:1-2), the scene i n which Esther confronts Ahasuerus, inform
(sale, Sotheby's, Amsterdam, 14 November 1988, lot 16); art
market, New York. ing h i m o f the plot by Haman to massacre the Jews. Ahasuerus
touches her w i t h his golden scepter as a sign o f his good favor.
EXHIBITIONS The same moment i n the story is depicted i n a print o f 1518
London 1953, no. 253; New York 1993, no. 32; London by Lucas van Leyden (Bartsch 1803-21, vol. 7, no. 31), which 74.
obviously influenced Crabbe s representation. Instead o f Lucas's

BIBLIOGRAPHY monumental treatment o f the figures, however, Crabbe set up

Reitlinger 1922, p. 123, pi. 14; Wescher 1929, p. 66, pi. 57; a dynamic interrelation between his figures and the classicizing
Popham 1935, p. 112; Popham 1935a, p. 204; Hollstein 1949-, architectural space that rises above them. H e also compressed
vol. 5, p. 63, under no. 1; Lugt Suppl. 1956, p. 337, under a large audience o f courtiers into the shadows, where they form
no. 2274 ; Washington, D.C., and Boston 1983, p. 285, under

a backdrop to the interaction o f the protagonists. Ahasuerus

no. 119; Journal 19 (1991), pp. 150-51, no. 31; Landau and
Parshall 1994, p. 334. appears as a regal sage upon a monumental throne, while Esther,
ornately clad and coifFed, combines queenly magnificence w i t h a
Inscribed at the bottom, in light brown ink, Assuerres and sense o f sorrow reflecting the seriousness o f her mission. Both
Hester. On the verso, inscribed at lower center, in pencil, Lucas's and Crabbe's portrayals o f this scene evoke the typo
Albert Drer I'. . . lHan\V[ . . . , and below this, in another logical significance associated w i t h this story since the Middle
hand, Hans SchauffeleinlSir Thomas Lawrence.
Ages, as a prefiguration o f the Virgin's intercession w i t h G o d
on behalf o f the faithful (Washington, D . C . , and Boston 1983,
p. 186, no. 68).

198 Dutch & Flemish Schools ?f CRABBE

F I G U R E 8 O A . Frans Crabbe van Espleghem (c. 1480-1553). Esther before

Ahasuerus, c. 1525. Etching. H : 26.5 cm (loVie in.); W: 19.1 cm (7/2 in.). Photo
courtesy the Trustees of the British Museum, London.

The carefully nuanced hatching throughout Crabbe s draw

ing establishes a wide range o f tonal values, which the artist fol
lowed closely i n the etching. These are particularly important i n
the architectural passages i n the etching, i n which the tones are
translated into pools o f light and shadow which lend lofty elo
quence to the events taking place below. Crabbes manner o f
drawing is quite distinctive, combining Netherlandish restraint
of gesture and expression and an interest i n effects o f light and
shadow w i t h a hint o f the dashing, delicate pen w o r k typical o f
German artists o f the period. A drawing o f this subject by an
anonymous Leiden School artist, probably made around a dec
ade after Crabbe s etching (Braunschweig, Herzog A n t o n Ulrich-
Museum inv. 1140), suggests the subsequent influence o f
Crabbe s etching i n the northern Netherlands (Amsterdam 1986,
pp. 164-65, no. 47).

200 Dutch & Flemish Schools ?f CRABBE

Jacques de Gheyn I I
Antwerp 1565-The Hague 1629

orn i n Antwerp, Jacques de Gheyn I I was trained botanist Carolus Clusius, w h o m he portrayed i n an engraving o f
first by his father, Jacques de Gheyn I (1537/38- 1601. A m o n g his most important works from around this time
1581?), a glass painter, printmaker, and draftsman. are the designs o f c. 1597-1600 for the illustrated book Wapen-
After the elder de Gheyns death Jacques I I moved to the north handelinghe van Roers, Musquetten ende Spiessen . . . o f 1607
ern Netherlands, entering the workshop o f Hendrick Goltzius (ibid., nos. 146-262), commissioned by Count Johann I I o f
(q.v.) i n Haarlem around 1585. De Gheyns early engravings, Nassau-Siegen, cousin o f the stadholder, Prince Maurice (who
such as The Standard Bearer o f 1589 (Hollstein 1949-, vol. 7, no. delayed its publication so as not to provide information to ene
144), exhibit the sinuous linear technique learned from Goltzius. mies o f the D u t c h ) . De Gheyn ceased to engrave and took up
By 1590-91 de Gheyn had established himself i n Amsterdam as painting around 1600. By 1605 he had moved permanently to
an independent printmaker, receiving his first official commis The Hague. He was especially important for his floral still lifes,
sion from the Amsterdam Burgomasters i n 1593 for the engrav which are among the earliest produced i n the northern Nether
ing The Siege of Geertruidenberg (ibid., no. 285). H e married the lands. His most innovative works are his drawings, however,
wealthy Eva Stalpaert van der Wiele i n 1595 and shortly there which treat a range o f themes, from fanciful scenes w i t h witches
after moved to Leiden, where his friends included members o f or gypsies to natural history studies and sketches o f domestic life
the intellectual circle associated w i t h the university, such as the foreshadowing those o f Rembrandt (1606-1669).

81 A Soldier on Guard Blowing stadholder, Prince Maurice of Orange (1567-1625), and his neph
ews Counts W i l l i a m Louis o f Nassau (1560-1620) and Johann I I
the Match o f Nassau-Siegen (1561-1623). Count Johann, who was particu
larly concerned w i t h devising clear and systematic procedures
Pen and black ink and gray wash, incised for transfer;
H : 26.2 cm (io /i6 in.); W: 18 cm (yY& in.)
5 for training soldiers for the infantry and cavalry, probably com
missioned de Gheyn to produce The Exercise of Arms (Wapen-
WATERMARK handelinghe van Roers, Musquetten ende Spiessen . . .) (for further
literature, see Kist 1971; van Regteren Altena 1983, vol. 2, pp. 6 4 -
Part of an eagle.
67; Amsterdam, Vienna, New York, and Cambridge 1991-92,
92.GA.71 (see plate 10) p. 32, no. 7; Amsterdam 1993, pp. 76-77, 473, no. 148). The
PROVENANCE manual was first published i n The Hague i n 1607, although de
Jan Pietersz. Zoomer, Amsterdam (sale, Jan van Zutphen and Gheyn made the drawings for the plates significantly ear
Gysbert Hoi, Amsterdam, 5 April 1725, book 56); Jan Goeree, lier, probably around 1597, as indicated i n a letter o f Decem
Amsterdam (sale, Amsterdam, 12 March 1731); B. Hagelis(?)
ber 1608 from Count Johann, i n which he reports that he had
(sale, Amsterdam, 8 March 1762); private collection, England;
had the artist prepare the drawings for his "war book" ten or
art market, London.
twelve years before (van Regteren Altena 1936, pp. 12527; Kist
EXHIBITIONS 1971, pp. 13-14).
None. The Exercise of Arms contains 117 full-page engravings illus
trating the use o f the caliver or smallshot, the musket, and the
pike. The text consists o f a brief preface by de Gheyn and a
Van Regteren Altena 1983, vol. 2, p. 75, no. 427; Journal 21
(1993), p. 126, no. 35. description, preceding each o f the three sections, o f the action
depicted i n every plate and the associated commands. A r o u n d
Numbered in the lower right corner, in brown ink, 40. On half o f de Gheyns drawings for the plates survive, w i t h the
the verso, numbered at center, in graphite, 42. largest holding, o f twenty-six sheets, i n the Rijksprentenka-
binet, Amsterdam (inv. RP-T-1905-59-60, RP-T-00-525-36, RP-
T-00-561, RP-T-1888-A-1545-47, RP-T-1888-A-1598, RP-T-1890-A-
C R U C I A L T O T H E S U C C E S S o f the D u t c h war o f indepen 2271, RP-T-1890-A-2370-71, RP-T-1891-A-2433-34, RP-T-1891-A-
dence from Spain (1568-1648) was the reorganization o f the 2483, RP-T-1895-A-3044). A l l o f the surviving drawings are i n the
army o f the D u t c h Republic undertaken during the 1590s by the same direction as the prints. Some o f the sheets, including the

DE G H E Y N ?f Dutch & Flemish Schools 201

F I G U R E 8. After Jacques de Gheyn I I (1565-1629). A Soldier on Guard. Engraving. H : 26.2 cm
(io /i6 in.); W: 18 cm (7% in.). Photo courtesy the Rijksmuseum-Stichting, Amsterdam.

example i n the Museum, have been incised for transfer. I n the meane tyme the Musket i n due ballance upon the Rest, and that
preface to The Exercise of Arms (quoted from the English edition w i t h the left hand onelye," w i t h the words o f command, "Blow
of 1607-8), the artist wrote, "Concerning the different or of your match."
sutable apparell and armes o f the figures, there is to be consid I n his 117 designs for the engravings i n The Exercise of Arms,
ered, that the shott w i t h head peeces, and the musketiers w i t h de Gheyn was able to some extent to combat repetition by iso
hattes are drawne and differently appareled, not that we holde i t lating each figure i n a single, relatively large plate and inventing
for necessarie, but that such varietye might give the fuller orna an individual figure for each, varying the facial types, costumes,
ment to the pictures, ant to showe to posteritie the manner o f and points o f view. Conceding to the diagrammatic only i n the
souldiers apparel used i n these dayes." Exceeding heuristic use o f a blank background, he otherwise strove to create the illu
demands, The Exercise of Arms was thus also clearly intended as a sion o f living soldiers, carefully modeled i n the round and fea
monumental work o f art and historical testament. The drawing turing a wealth of detail w i t h respect to dress and weaponry The
in the Museum is the model for plate 40 (fig. 81a) i n the section vitality and ornamental quality o f some o f these detailssuch as
on the use o f the musket. Its caption reads, "how he (standing the present figure s plumed hat, the powder charges strung across
sentinell) shall w i t h the thumbe and fore finger bring the match his breast, and his billowing striped pantaloonswere lost i n the
to his m o u t h and blow i t o f under the hand, holdinge i n the engravings, which are probably not by de Gheyn.

DE GHEYN ?f Dutch & Flemish Schools 203

Jacques de Gheyn I I
Antwerp 1565-The Hague 1629

82 Design for the Title Page of Paris (inv. 3097); the others are i n the British Museum, L o n
don (inv. 1865-1-14-834); the Albertina, Vienna (inv. 8153-54);
"The Exercise of Cavalry" the Louvre, Paris (inv. 22002, 20171); and the Museum Boij-
mans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam (inv. JdGI).
Pen and brown ink and gray wash, incised for transfer;
H : 15.6 cm (6% in.); W: 20.6 cm (8/s in.) The Getty Museums design shows an armored and an
unarmored cavalryman flanking a cartouche surmounted by a
WATERMARK weapon-laden saddle, which pliantly melts into the leathery
Hunting horn within a shield, above initials WR (smaller and grotesque strapwork to either side. Counterbalancing the saddle
less elaborate version of Heawood 1986, no. 2654).
at the top, hung w i t h guns and bladeswhose protruding,

90.GA.135 undulating forms evoke the battle chargeare the laurel-

crowned skull and smoking trumpets below, which symbolize
PROVENANCE death and fame. A precedent for de Gheyns w i t t y assemblage o f
Probably Jacques de Gheyn I I I , The Hague; Nicolaes den equestrian accouterments is a title page designed by Johannes
Otter, Amsterdam; Joannes Wttenbogaert, Amsterdam; Janz Stradanus for the series Equus liber et incompositus (The Royal
and Jacob van Gheel, Amsterdam (sale, Jan Pietersz. Zoomer,
Stable of Don Juan of Austria) o f around 1579 (Bartsch 1803-21,
Amsterdam, 22 January 1722); probably Jan Pietersz. Zoomer,
Amsterdam (sale, Jan van Zutphen and Gysbert Hoi, vol. 3, nos. 2 9 0 - 9 3 ) : The costume o f de Gheyns unarmored cav
Amsterdam, 5 April 1725, book 56); Samuel Woodburn, alryman corresponds to those worn by the trumpeters i n plate 2
London; Edward Vernon Utterson, London; private o f The Exercise of Cavalry, for which the original drawing is i n
collection (sale, Sotheby's, Amsterdam, 14 November 1988, lot the British Museum (inv. 1865-1-14-834); its main components
33); art market, New York.
include a wide-skirted coat buttoned only at the top and two fes
tive lengths o f material attached at the shoulders, which stream
None. out or are tied back i n other prints i n the series, but which the
figure in the present drawing holds i n his left hand.
BIBLIOGRAPHY The only notable change from drawing to print is to the fist
Van Regteren Altena 1983, vol. 2, p. 62, no. 300, vol. 3,
o f the man i n armor, which rests on the cartouche i n the former;
p. 60, pi. 63; Paris 1985, p. 12 n. 7, under no. 4; Rotterdam
in the latter, i n a gesture more integral to the overall design, the
and Washington, D.C., 1985-86, p. 47 n. 3, under no. 21;
Journal 19 (1991), p. 150, no. 30; Boon 1992, p. 125 n. 7, figure grips a leather strap attached to the sheath o f the sword
pp. 12627, under no. 75. mounted on the saddle above. Finally, i n the engraved title page,
the center o f the cartouche contains a poem by de Gheyns
Signed on the lower left socle of the design, in brown ink, friend the great jurist Hugo Grotius, w h o was an adolescent
IDGfi inscribed in the lower left corner, in graphite, De
when he wrote i t (Grotius 1639, 7 3 )

Gheyn. On the verso, inscribed at lower right, in black chalk,

$1, and at lower left (slightly trimmed at left edge), in graphite,

AROUND 1597 C O U N T J O H A N N o f Nassau-Siegen appears

to have commissioned de Gheyn to make two military hand
books, one for the infantry, The Exercise of Arms, published i n
1607 (see cat. no. 81), and one for the cavalry, published i n 1599
(van Regteren Altena 1983, vol. 1, p. 62, under nos. 300-321).
The present drawing is a model, i n reverse, for the title page o f
The Exercise of Cavalry (fig. 82a), which was less extensive than
its counterpart, consisting o f only twenty-two engravings ( H o l l -
stein 1949- vol. 7, nos. 263-84). I n addition to the title page
design i n the Museum, seven preparatory drawings for The Exer
82A. Jacques de Gheyn I I (1565-1629). Title page of The Exercise of
cise of Cavalry survive, including a dated example o f 1599 i n the Cavalry. Engraving. H : 15.6 cm (6/s in.); W: 20.6 cm (8/9 in.). Photo courtesy
Collection Frits Lugt, Fondation Custodia, Institut Neerlandais, the Rijksmuseum-Stichting, Amsterdam.

204 Dutch & Flemish Schools ?f DE GHEYN

Hendrick Goltzius
Mhlbracht 1558-Haarlem 1617

orn i n Mhlbracht, near Venlo, Hendrick Goltz Spranger's drawings. D u r i n g 1590-91 Goltzius traveled i n Italy,
ius worked initially i n the studio o f his father, a studying antique sculpture and the works o f Raphael (1483-
glass painter at Duisburg. A r o u n d 1574 he became 1520), T i t i a n (485?/9-576), and other Renaissance masters.
an apprentice i n Xanten to the engraver D i r c k Volkertsz. Coorn- After his return to Haarlem he turned away from Sprangeresque
hert (1522-1590), w h o m he followed to Haarlem i n 1577. D u r Mannerism toward a more classical style. H e was productive as a
ing the mid-158os Goltzius seems to have begun an informal draftsman and printmaker during the 1590s, but after 1600 he
academy i n Haarlem, along w i t h Karel van Mander (q.v.) and virtually gave up engraving for history painting. His fame rests
Cornells Cornelisz. van Haarlem (1562-1638), to foster the prac principally on his work as a printmaker and draftsman. O f par
tice o f figure drawing. Goltzius's work o f the later 1580s was ticular importance for the later development o f D u t c h art were
greatly influenced by that o f Bartholomeus Spranger (1546- his drawings o f the dunes around Haarlem o f c. 1600, among
1611), whose style he disseminated through engravings after the earliest representations o f native D u t c h landscape.

83 Portrait of a Man
Pen and brown ink, incised for transfer; H : 29.6 cm (11 % in.);
W: 20.2 cm (8 in.)


F. W. Klever, Cologne (sale, Haberle, Cologne, 18-19 January
1892, lot 35); private collection (sale, Sotheby's, New York,
13 January 1993, lot 75); art market, London.


Reznicek 1993, pp. 68-70, no. K345a; Reznicek 1993a,
pp. 256-58, no. K345a; Journal23 (1995), p. 66, no. 6.

Signed and dated at the bottom right, in brown ink, A HG 0


IN THIS BUST-LENGTH I M A G E o f a man Goltzius not only

showed the subject wearing an early sixteenth-century costume
but also drew h i m i n a historicizing manner that harks back to
a canonical northern master o f that period, Lucas van Leyden
(Reznicek 1993a, pp. 256-58). Lucas's manner is evoked, i n par
ticular, by the flowing hatching o f the fur collar and the rounded F I G U R E
83A. After Hendrick Goltzius (1558 -1617). Portrait ofa
Man. Woodcut by Christoffel van Sichern I (1546-1624). H : 30.9
modeling o f the individual fingers. Goltzius highlighted his vir-
(i2 /i6 in.); W: 21 cm (8 VA in.).

tuosic handling o f the pen i n a more general sense by giving

pronounced emphasis to feathers, hair, and fur, elements that
by his time epitomized the graphic mastery o f past northern
masters such as Lucas, Albrecht Drer, and Jan Gossart. The
drawing's rich textures are replicated i n the reversed woodcut

206 Dutch & Flemish Schools ?f GOLTZIUS

after i t by Christoffel van Sichern I (fig. 83a; Hollstein 1949-, glove. A t the same time the image evokes the precedent o f early
vol. 27, no. 135). sixteenth-century portraits, such as Lucas's great engraved Por
I t has been debated whether this image represents a fantasy trait of Maximilian I (Bartsch 1803-21, vol. 7, no. 172; drawing
portrait or a disguised portrait o f a specific but unknown man i n Paris, Fondation Custodia, Collection Frits Lugt inv. 5140), i n
(Reznicek 1993a, p. 258). A man w i t h a fleshy, large-featured face which the hands play a similarly lively role (Boon 1992, p. 246,
similar to that o f the individual i n the present drawing appears under no. 136). Although i t cannot be ruled out that Goltzius
i n other "fantasy portrait" drawings by Goltzius (e.g., Berlin, here depicted an actual individual i n disguise, i t seems more
Kupferstichkabinett; Bock and Rosenberg 1931, p. 33, no. 2732 likely that he has created an imaginary historicizing portrait. Yet
[Reznicek 1961, no. 301]; Liverpool, Walker A r t Gallery, Print- his ability to breathe life and individuality into such an image is
room inv. 1629 [ibid., no. 325]). I n these drawings, however, he is demonstrated by the fact that the subject o f van Sichem's wood
more clearly recognizable as a type, a scholar holding a book, cut was formerly erroneously identified as O t t o Heinrich, duke
w i t h a physiognomy more generalized than that o f the man i n o f Schwarzenberg (1535-1590), who appears w i t h very different
the present example, who gives the impression o f a living pres features i n a genuine portrait woodcut o f 1574 by Tobias Stim
ence, w i t h his rather individualized, well-modeled features mer (q.v.) (Strauss 1975, vol. 3, no. 27).
(including two warts), detailed costume, and hand gripping a

GOLTZIUS ?f Dutch & Flemish Schools 207

Maarten van Heemskerck
Heemskerck 1498-Haarlem 1574

F rom 1527 to 1529 Maarten van Heemskerck stud

ied i n Haarlem w i t h Jan van Scorel (q.v.), the
leading Netherlandish exponent o f the Italianate
H i g h Renaissance style. Heemskercks most famous painting is
Saint Luke Painting the Virgin (Haarlem, Frans Halsmuseum),
drawings after ancient sculpture and architecture, documenting
the monuments o f antiquity as they existed i n the sixteenth cen
tury. He left Rome late i n 1536 or early i n 1537 and resettled i n
Haarlem. He was regarded at that time as the most famous
painter i n the northern Netherlands, and his influence spread
which he gave to the G u i l d o f Saint Luke before himself depart through the nearly six hundred engravings made after his draw
ing for Rome i n 1532. W h i l e i n Rome he made a large number o f ings by D i r c k Volkertsz. Coornhert (1522-1590).

84 Judith THE D R A W I N G I S A preparatory study, i n reverse, for a print

(fig. 84a), which is part o f a series o f eight entitled Exemplary
Pen and dark brown and light brown ink over black chalk, Women from the Old and New Testament, engraved by Philips
incised for transfer; H : 19.9 cm ( 7 % in.); W: 25.3 cm Galle (Hollstein 1993-, vol. 1, pt. 1, nos. 265-72) and published
(9 /i6
by Martinus Peeters./Wz> is one o f four surviving drawings for

WATERMARK the series, the others being Abigail, i n the A r t Institute o f

Acrabp). Chicago (Simeon B. Williams Fund inv. 1961.33; Tedeschi 1985,
pp. 72-73), and Jael and Susanna, both o f which were sold i n
91.GG.17 M u n i c h i n 1959 (Hollstein 1993-, vol. 1, pt. 1, under nos. 265,
267, ijo).Jaelis now i n the Metropolitan Museum of Art, N e w
York (Robert Lehman Collection inv. 1975.1.780; see New York
John MacGowan, Edinburgh; Robert Prioleau Roupell,
London (Lugt 2234, inscribed at lower left in brown ink); 1978, no. 12). I n his biography o f Hieronymus Cock, Vasari
private collection, London; art market, London. described the engraved series (which he erroneously thought was
engraved by Cock) as "figures of women of perfect excellence, i n
various costumes" (Vasari 1906, vol. 5, p. 437). I n the case o f
Judith, Heemskercks emphasis upon her highly decorative cos

tume is particularly warranted, as the O l d Testament Apocrypha
Hollstein 1993-, vol. 1, pt. 1, p. 222, under no. 268.

Dated by the artist at lower left in brown ink, 1560; signed at

bottom left, Martinus vanlHeemskercklInventor, and inscribed
by the artist at lower right, IUDIT. On the verso, inscribed at
upper center, in graphite, Mac Gowan collJReveloplReveley?]/

FIGURE 8 4 A . After Maarten van Heemskerck (1498 -1574). Judith. Engraving

by Philips Galle (1537-1612). ?: 20.3 cm (8 in.); W: 24.8 cm (9% in.). Photo
courtesy the Rijksmuseum-Stichting, Amsterdam.

208 Dutch & Flemish Schools fa HEEMSKERCK

(Judith 10:1-4) recounts that she donned finery i n order to Heroines, showing Esther, Judith, and Jael (Hollstein 1954-,
seduce and eventually k i l l the Assyrian general Holofernes, who vol. 5, no. 250). Heemskerck brought new vividness to such rep
had laid siege to the Israelite city o f Bethulia. The seductive resentations by combining the triumphant figure isolated i n the
appeal o f her elaborately layered and cosseted gown, however, is foreground w i t h vignettes from the narrative behind her. The
counteracted by the presence o f the huge scimitar w i t h its grif middle distance on the right contains the decapitated figure o f
fon hilt, a clear symbol of Judith s violent character as a warrior Holofernes, while the besieged Bethulia appears i n the left dis
heroine. Heemskercks drawings and paintings o f the 1560s fre tance. A few years later, i n 1564, Heemskerck produced drawings
quently contain such monumental female figures i n exotic, jew for a series o f prints depicting the story o f Judith, i n which the
eled costumes that accentuate their robust physiques. This figure of Judith as well as other pictorial details seem to find
approach to the female form suggests, among other things, the their inspiration i n this drawing (Hollstein 1993-, vol. 1, pt. 1,
lingering influence o f Michelangelo, as seen particularly clearly nos. 207-14).
in Heemskercks altarpiece wing, the Erythraean Sibyl o f 1564, i n As is typical o f his designs for prints, Heemskerck clearly
the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. indicated spatial recession for the engraver, w i t h the darkest,
Groups o f costumed figures representing classical, biblical, densest areas o f hatching i n the foreground figure o f Judith
and historical heroes and heroines had a long history i n northern (who is drawn i n two shades o f brown ink), less dense drawing
art, as i n , for example, Hans Burgkmair s woodcut Three Jewish in the middle ground, and light sketching i n the background.

HEEMSKERCK fa Dutch & Flemish Schools 209

D i r k (Theodorus) Helmbreker
Haarlem 1633-Rome 1696

T he son o f the organist at the church o f Saint A r o u n d 1675-77 revisited Holland, and by 1678 he was work
n e

Bavo i n Haarlem, D i r k Helmbreker received his ing i n Paris w i t h Frederik de Moucheron (1633-1686). Return
training from the influential Haarlem painter ing to Italy i n 1681, he worked i n T u r i n , Florence, and Rome.
Pieter de Grebber (c. 1600-1652/54). From 1653 to 1654 he trav Like other D u t c h Italianate painters, Helmbreker specialized i n
eled w i t h Cornells Bega (1631/32-1664), Vincent Laurentsz. van low-life subjects, a genre made popular by the Bamboccianti,
der Vinne (1628-1702), and Guillam Dubois (c. 1610-1680) to or followers o f Pieter van Laer, called i l Bamboccio (1599-1642?).
Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. By 1659 he had settled i n Rome, His drawings are rare, consisting mostly o f portrait studies
where he was a member o f the confraternity o f northern Euro in red chalk.
pean artists k n o w n as the Schildersbent ("birds o f a feather").

8$ Studies of a Man Smoking and a downward, left-to-right slant; and large hands w i t h long, flatly
modeled fingers.
Man Drinking (recto); Studies O n the recto o f the present drawing, the artist caught the
of a Man Smoking, a Head, and fleeting actions o f two youths, one seemingly standing, bending
forward, and sucking i n his breath to light a pipe, the other sit
Calligraphic Flourishes (verso) ting behind a table and leaning back to take a draft from a jug.
The latter s sidelong glance enhances the spontaneous, lifelike
Red chalk; H : 16.1 cm (6 /i in.); W: 18.3 cm (yYie in.)

character o f the study. The drawing has certainly been cropped,

91.GB.67 and i t seems possible that the present half-length format was
closer to three-quarters i n the original composition.
PROVENANCE The partially canceled out figure on the verso is closely
Private collection; art market, Germany. related to the smoking figure on the recto; here the artist
sketched a seated man lighting a pipe from a bowl, changed the
None. position o f the head so that i t leans forward, and finally drew
over this second head i n moistened red chalk a rather abstract
BIBLIOGRAPHY third head w i t h a pointed chin that leans even farther toward the
Journal 21 (1992), p. 157, no. 46. bowl, i n a manner similar to the smoker on the recto. Compared
w i t h the more finished recto, the verso displays a greater sense
On the verso, inscribed by the artist in red chalk with
calligraphic flourishes and, next to the head at the bottom, an o f spontaneity: looping, calligraphic flourishes appear at the
illegible inscription. upper right, alongside the smoker and above the cropped head
o f a craggy-faced man, above which is an illegible inscription
by the artist.
As a fledgling artist i n Haarlem, Helmbreker was a close
HELMBREKER'S SMALL O E U V R E o f drawings includes this compatriot o f other youthful artists such as Cornells Bega and
recently discovered double-sided sheet, formerly on the German Leendert van der Cooghen. Like them, he often made figure
art market {Thomas Le Claire: Meisterzeichnungen, 1500-1900, studies i n chalk, i n a manner that employed extensive, disci
1989, no. 28). The attribution to h i m is substantiated by com plined, slanted hatching (see Amsterdam and Washington, D . C ,
parison w i t h signed or widely accepted drawings such as the red 1981-82, p. 99). The use o f this Haarlem drawing style i n the
chalk bust-length study o f a young man w i t h his head i n his present sheet suggests that i t dates from the beginning o f H e l m
hand i n the National Gallery o f Art, Washington, D . C . (Ailsa breker s career, probably shortly before his departure for Italy i n
M e l l o n Bruce Fund inv. 1982.38.1 [formerly i n the Heseltine 1653. I t might have been made i n preparation for a painting,
and Oppenheimer collections]). A m o n g their many similar fea although no such work is known.
tures are angular, sketchy outlines; pronounced hatching on a

210 Dutch & Flemish Schools ?f HELMBREKER

85 R E C T O

85 V E R S O
Cornells Jansen van Ceulen (Cornelius Jonson)
London 1593 -Utrecht 1661

orn i n London o f Netherlandish parents, Cor courtiers. Sir Thomas Hanmer o f 1631 (Cardiff, National Museum
nells Jansen probably trained i n the northern of Wales) is a typical example showing a bust-length sitter look
Netherlands before establishing himself as a por ing directly out o f the picture plane, w i t h close attention given
trait painter back i n London by about 1618. H i s early portraits to the accurate rendering o f clothing. I n 1643, at the start o f
show the influence o f Michiel van Miereveld (1567-1641). the English Civil War, Jansen left London and moved to the
Jansen was a popular portraitist i n England, where his straight northern Netherlands, settling first i n Middelburg and later i n
forward and somewhat conservative style appealed to his patrons, Amsterdam, The Hague, and finally Utrecht. There he contin
who appear to have been mostly landed gentry rather than ued to produce both individual and group portraits.

86 Study of a Woman s Hands

Black and white chalk on blue paper; H : 19 cm (7/2 in.);
W: 29.6 cm (n /s in.)


Private collection, Amsterdam; art market, London.


Journal20 (1992), pp. 156-57, no. 45.

Inscribed at the bottom in brown ink, Jefrow Raphune.

JANSEN MADE THIS D R A W I N G as a preparatory study for

a portrait o f a young woman (fig. 86a), signed and dated 1646,
8 6 A. Cornells Jansen van Ceulen (15931661). Portrait ofa Woman,
i n the Musees Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, Brussels
1646. Oil on canvas. H : 80 cm (31/2 in.); W: 64.5 cm (25% in.). Brussels,
(Gevaert and Laes 1927, p. 127, no. 93). By that time he had Musees Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique inv. 2943.
settled in, Amsterdam, having emigrated from England to M i d
delburg i n 1643. The drawing corresponds to the painting i n the has studied the woman's hands at close range and w i t h great sen
disposition o f the fingers but departs from i t i n the arrangement sitivity, using the black and white chalk broadly to suggest deep
o f the strands o f the pearl bracelets o n both o f the sitters wrists. shadows at her waist and shimmering highlights on her skin and
That the sitter is from the northern Netherlands is suggested pearls. T h e p i n holes along the drawing's outer edges suggest
by the fact that the wedding ring is w o r n on the right index that the artist attached the sheet o f paper to a board or easel as he
finger, a custom widely reflected i n D u t c h portraiture o f the was drawing the sitter's hands from life. N o t h i n g further has been
period, as can be seen i n the contemporary Portrait of a Lady by determined about the sitter, referred to as "Jefrow Raphune" i n
Johannes Verspronck (Munich, Alte Pinakothek; Haarlem 1979, the inscription at the bottom o f the drawing. T h e practice o f
p. 103, no. 63). making hand studies i n chalks on blue paper was probably taken
This is one o f the few securely attributed drawings by Jan- up by Jansen i n England, under the influence o f A n t h o n y van
sen and his only known study o f hands. Like his drawn Portrait Dyck (compare, for example, the separate studies o f hands i n
of a Man i n the British Museum, London (inv. 1856-1-12-379; van Dycks Portrait of a Woman i n black and white chalk on
Croft-Murray and H u l t o n i960, vol. 1, pp. 371-72, no. 1; vol. 2, faded blue paper i n the Metropolitan Museum o f Art, N e w York
pi. 169), i t is i n black and white chalk o n blue paper. The artist [inv. 1972.118.279]).

212 Dutch & Flemish Schools ?f JANSEN

Jan van Kessel I I
Antwerp 1626 -1679

orn i n Antwerp, Jan van Kessel was the grandson various animal kingdoms, senses, four elements, or four parts o f
of Jan "Velvet" Brueghel (1563-1625) and the the world. A m o n g the most famous o f these series is The Four
nephew of Jan Brueghel the Younger (1601-1678), Continents (Madrid, Prado) o f 1660, which consists o f forty tiny
w i t h w h o m he trained during the late 1630s. H e is also recorded paintings on copper. His exquisitely sensitive and delicate draw
as having been an apprentice o f Simon de Vos (1603-1676) i n ings o f insects and flowers, executed mainly i n watercolor on
1635. H joined the Antwerp painters' guild i n 1645
e a n
d special vellum, were dependent on the precedent o f Joris Hoefnagel
ized i n cabinet pictures o f subjects gleaned from the natural (1542-1601).
world, such as floral still lifes and allegorical series showing the

8y Butterflies, Inseols, and Currants exponent i f not the inventor. Instead o f a specific, spatially uni
fied setting, he preferred to use a blank ground, which allowed
Gouache and brown ink, over underdrawing in metalpoint, h i m to dispose the insects, fruits, and flowers according to shift
on vellum; H : 13.1 cm (5% in.); V/: 19 cm (7/2 in.)
ing yet interconnected vantage points. The arrangement o f
illusionistically rendered minuscule natural elements on a hori
zontal field harks back to the imagery o f Joris Hoefnagel, who
PROVENANCE was the principal transitional figure between manuscript i l l u m i
Private collection, France (sale, Hotel Georges V, Paris, nation and still-life painting. Hoefnagels influence was spread
14 April 1989, lot 213); art market, Boston. through his independent miniatures on vellum, as well as the
series of engravings that his son Jacob made after his father s mod
els, entitled Archetypa studiaque Georgii Hoefnagelii and pub
lished i n 1592 (Hollstein 1949-, vol. 9, no. 48).
BIBLIOGRAPHY I n van Kessels miniature the illusionistic liveliness and
Journal i\ (1993), p. 123, no. 38. motion o f Hoefnagel s insects, so close i n spirit to earlier manu
script illumination, have become subordinated to a concen
tration upon the morphology o f individual specimens. This
VAN K E S S E L M A D E a number o f cabinet miniatures, such as is indicated by the separation o f one insect from another by
the present example, i n which luminous red and white currants the blank ground; the concentration on stationary, dorsal views;
provide perches for insects. These include one auctioned at and by the tight, somewhat flat manner o f painting, which
Christies, London, i n 1975 (27 June, lot 66), signed and dated crisply renders shapes and markings. Although van Kessel never
1653, and a signed example i n the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam actually depicted lifeless specimens pinned to a surface, he
(inv. 1327). H e often used horizontally disposed fruits and flow produced images, such as the Museums miniature, that effec
ers to give structure to what are essentially entomological still tively form painted parallels to actual assemblages o f entomolog
lifes, a rather unusual type o f still life o f which he was a leading ical specimens.

214 Dutch & Flemish Schools ?f VAN KESSEL

Nikolaus Knpfer
Leipzig c. 1603-Utrecht r^55

T here is little documentary evidence about N i k o

laus Knpfers life. Although he was probably
born i n Leipzig, he was i n Utrecht working
under Abraham Bloemaert (1566-1651) after 1630. H e became
a member o f the G u i l d o f Saint Luke there i n 1637 a n
d a t t n e
The Hague i n the late 1640s, Knpfer spent his life i n Utrecht.
Although he incorporated influences from Bloemaert, Rem
brandt (1606-1669), and Leonard Bramer (1596-1674), Knp
fer remained essentially independent i n his style as well as i n his
choice o f s ibjects. H e was primarily a painter o f biblical, his
time began to w o r k w i t h a number o f D u t c h contemporaries torical, and often obscure allegorical subjects. His drawings are
on the great commission given by Christian I V o f Denmark for characterized by dark washes, expressive outlines, and theatrical
the decoration o f Kronborg Castle. Besides a possible stay i n settings w i t h multiple figures.

88 Pilate Washing His Hands no. 71; Hollstein 1949-, vol. 18, no. B76), do not include the
scene o f Pilate washing his hands, although that o f Rembrandt
Brush and brown ink, brown wash, heightened in a few places contains a figure holding a bowl, which may allude to i t . By
with white body color, on light brown paper; H : 51.2 cm
combining the two episodes, Knpfer thus apparently created an
(20% in.); W: 62.9 cm (24V* in.)
innovative iconographic variant that juxtaposes the figure o f the

92.GA.73 corrupt ruler w i t h the tragic, innocent figure o f Christ.

The upturned face o f Christ and the choice o f a vantage
PROVENANCE point near the raised area on which he stands suggest that
Art market, Germany. Knpfer might have been influenced by Jan van Vliet s etching
(retouched by Rembrandt) Ecce Homo (Hollstein 1949-, vol. 18,
no. B77), which is based upon Rembrandt's early grisaille sketch
of 1634 m t n e
National Gallery, London. Knpfer infused the
BIBLIOGRAPHY subject w i t h his own particular sense o f theatricality, however,
Journal 21 (1993), p. 126, no. 36. which is marked by pronounced tenebrism combined w i t h a
stagelike approach to space and the disposition o f figures w i t h i n
it. This use o f empty space and the architectonic approach to
KNPFER'S SMALL O E U V R E of drawings has been augmented figures is seen i n other sheets by the artist, such as Nathan he-
by this monumental, newly discovered sheet {Thomas Le Claire fore David (Dresden, Kupferstichkabinett inv. c.1966-69) and
Kunsthandel, W. M . Brady and Co., N e w York, 1992, no. 20) Joshua Exhuming and Burning the Bones of the Dead (Berlin,
showing Pilate washing his hands while Christ stands before the Kupferstichkabinett inv. K d Z 17176), signed and dated 1646.
people, prior to being led away to his crucifixion. I n most depic The shrouded foreground figures lead the eye upward to the
tions of the Passion narrative, such as Albrecht Drers Small Pas platform where the dramatis personae o f Christ and his tormen
sion and Engraved Passion (Bartsch 1803-21, vol. 7, nos. 16-52, tors are silhouetted against the sky. The still more brilliant i l l u
3-17), Christ's presentation to the people, the scene commonly mination o f the face and torso o f Christ points to his focal role.
known as the Ecce H o m o , is usually shown separately and pre Departing from the usual practice i n Ecce H o m o imagery o f
cedes that o f Pilate washing his hands. The individual scene o f showing Christ's hands bound i n front, here they are tied behind
Pilate's hand-washing i n such print series generally focuses on him, the unbroken view o f his bare torso conveying a greater
the figure o f Pilate himself, w i t h Christ being led away included sense o f his vulnerability.
as a subsidiary vignette. Other monumental and well-known W h i l e suggesting the teeming mob o f onlookers by means
treatments o f the Ecce H o m o theme, such as the great prints of some sketchily drawn faces at the right, Knpfer essentially
by Lucas van Leyden and Rembrandt (Bartsch 1803-21, vol. 7, concentrated on a few foreground figures. The articulation o f

216 Dutch & Flemish Schools ?f KNPFER

the shadows on the ground and the looming pair o f robed spec 46). I f this is the case, however, the artist made numerous and
tators w i t h their backs turned act as repoussoir elements to pull important changes i n the painting. Most notably, the figure o f
the viewer s eye into the picture space on the level o f the group Christ, who is centrally placed at the top o f the drawing, has
o f onlookers. Knpfer has further enlivened the scene w i t h the been relegated to the distance i n the painting, w i t h its telescopic
insouciant figure o f a boy playing w i t h a top and the weeping view across a menacing crowd. The drawing is somewhat closer
seated woman beside the prison grate; this approach to narrative compositionally to Knpfer s Christ before Pilate i n the Pushkin
elements must have strongly influenced his student Jan Steen. Museum, Moscow (ibid., no. 47), which maintains the dual reg
The drawing might be preparatory to either o f Knpfers isters o f figures depicted from a close vantage point. Again, how
paintings o f Christ before Pilate. One o f these was last docu ever, there are significant changes between the drawing and the
mented i n a German private collection (Kuznetsow 1974, no. painting.

KNPFER fa Dutch & Flemish Schools 217

Karel van Mander
Meulebeke 1548-Amsterdam 1606

orn into a wealthy Flemish family i n Meule in Haarlem i n 1583, he introduced Sprangers drawings to his
beke, Karel van Mander received his first instruc fellow artists Hendrick Goltzius (q.v.) and Cornells Cornelisz.
tion from the poet and painter Lucas de Heere van Haarlem (1562-1638), and together the three evolved a style
(c. 1534-1584). Encouraged by his second teacher, Pieter Vlerick that has come to be known as Haarlem mannerism. I n 1604 van
(1539-1581), he traveled to Italy i n 1573. First visiting Florence Mander moved to Amsterdam, remaining there until his death
and Terni, he later went to Rome, where he stayed for about two years later. H e is perhaps best known as a poet and biogra
three years. A t the suggestion o f Bartholomeus Spranger (1546- pher. His Het Schilderboeck (Haarlem, 1604) is the most valuable
1611), who was then i n Rome, he traveled to Vienna i n 1577 to source o f information about the lives o f fifteenth- and sixteenth-
help decorate the triumphal arch erected i n honor o f Rudolf I I . century Netherlandish artists, as well as the art theory and prac
Sprangers style had a lasting influence on van Mander and, tice o f the Low Countries around 1600.
through h i m , on D u t c h art o f the late sixteenth century. Settling

89 Female Nude inspired by the virtuosic figure drawings o f Bartholomeus

Spranger, court painter to Emperor Rudolf I I o f Vienna and
Pen and brown ink and grayish brown wash over black chalk; Prague. Having worked w i t h Spranger i n Vienna i n 1577, van
H : 19.9 cm ( 7 % in.); V/: 12.2 cm ( 4 % in.)
Mander obtained some o f his drawings and, after moving to
Haarlem i n 1583, showed them to Goltzius. This touched off the
vogue for the "Spranger style," which was to dominate D u t c h
PROVENANCE figural art for some years to come. The present drawing was
Private collection (sale, Christie's, London, 1 April 1987, probably made around 1588-1590, the years when van Mander s
lot 125); art market, London. draftsmanship most strongly evidences Spranger s imprint.
Van Mander likely executed this example for its own sake,
as a demonstration o f both his artistry w i t h the pen and his mas
tery o f the human figure. Showing h i m to be on the compara
BIBLIOGRAPHY tively restrained end o f the mannerist spectrum, i t presents a
Journalzo (1992), p. 156, no. 43; Amsterdam 1993-94, female nude i n a frontal pose, w i t h both halves o f her body bal
- 73-74, hg- 120 anced i n a relatively straightforward contrapposto stance. H e
first sketched the figure lightly i n black chalk, next shaded i t
in wash, and finally added the swelling and tapering pen work.
A R O U N D 1584 V A N M A N D E R , Cornells Cornelisz. van Haar Although the present drawing shows that van Mander d i d not
lem, and Hendrick Goltzius formed a working friendship and attempt to imitate Sprangers highly exaggerated and complex
are reputed to have established a k i n d o f drawing school, which poses, i t does provide evidence o f his direct study o f Spranger s
has come to be known as the Haarlem Academy. The members pen technique, as seen i n drawings by Spranger such as Cupid
of this group all made sketches o f single nude figures, often and Psyche (Leiden, Prentenkabinet der Universiteit, Welcker
striking difficult, contorted, mannerist poses, as exemplified by collection inv. 1967-21; Fucikov 1987, p i . 8). Similar line work
Goltzius s pen drawing o f a female nude, perhaps representing and planar approach to form occur i n a signed drawing by van
Parsimonia, i n the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam (inv. RP-T-1885-A- Mander o f a male nude i n a private collection, Amsterdam (Rot
540; Amsterdam 1993-94, p. 73). These images were ultimately terdam, Paris, and Brussels 1976-77, no. 86).

218 Dutch & Flemish Schools ?f VAN MANDER

Jan van Scorel (or Workshop)
Schoorl 1495-Utrecht 1562

an van Scorel was born in Schoorl, near Alkmaar. 1524 van Scorel returned to Utrecht, where he remained, w i t h
After some artistic training, he moved to Amsterdam intermittent trips to Breda i n 1532-33, Ysselstein i n 1539, and
in 1512 to work with Jacob Cornelisz. van Oostsanen France i n 1540. H e was the first northern Netherlandish artist to
' (c. 1472/77-1533) and then i n 1517 to Utrecht, where absorb Italian H i g h Renaissance art at its source and to import i t
he had contact w i t h Jan Gossart (c. 1478-1532). Shortly there back to his homeland. H e not only assimilated aspects o f the
after van Scorel traveled to Germany and Austria; he was i n figure styles o f Michelangelo (q.v.) and Raphael (1483-1520) but
Venice i n 1519-20 and then embarked on a pilgrimage to the also produced Giorgionesque landscapes, as seen i n The Baptism
H o l y Land. I n 1523 the D u t c h Pope Adrian V I appointed h i m of Christofe. 1530 (Haarlem, Frans Halsmuseum).
keeper o f the Vatican collections at the Belvedere i n Rome. I n

po Landscape with Shepherds by a

River and a Town Beyond (recto);
Figure Studies and Roman Ruins
Pen and brown ink and brown, yellow, and light reddish wash
(recto); pen and light and dark brown ink over traces of black
chalk, with rubbing of red chalk from another sheet (verso);
H : 13.7 cm (5 /s in.); W: 19.6 cm (y /i6
3 n


A. H . Coles, England; E. Coles, England; Dr. and
Mrs. Francis Springell, Portinscale (sale, Sotheby Mak van
Waay, Amsterdam, 3 April 1978, lot 3); C. G. Boerner,
Dsseldorf (Aus unseren MappenDie schnsten
Neuerwerbungen 1979: Graphik und Zeichnungen, 148$-1920,
979> 94); l > Sotheby's, Amsterdam, 1 December 1986,
sa e

lot 22; art market, London.

Utrecht 1955, p. 91, no. 117; London 1959, no. 8; Edinburgh
1965, p. 8, no. 9.

Davis 1954, p. 106; Cologne 1986, p. 74 n. 2, under no. 18;
Washington, D . C , and New York 1986, p. 53 n. 4, under
no. 5; Journal 19 (1991), p. 150, no. 29.

On the verso, inscribed along the upper right edge, in brown

ink, with calculations. 90 V E R S O

landscape, ascending from right to left, w i t h the terrain dotted

THE R E C T O O F T H I S D R A W I N G , first exhibited i n 1954 as by by rustic buildings. I t was lightly sketched i n brown ink, then
Jan van Scorel (Exhibition of Old Master Drawings, P. & D . Col- worked throughout w i t h a liberal application o f reddish wash
naghi, London, July 1954), shows a carefully composed pastoral and touches o f yellow wash, and finally strengthened w i t h pen

220 Dutch & Flemish Schools ?f VAN SCOREL

90 R E C T O

lines, including the rough, dense hatching i n the foreground the Master o f the Good Samaritan, after the painting (Washing
areas. The colored washes, i n combination w i t h the lively pen ton, D . C . , and New York 1986, pp. 51-53). Fine pen work, the
work, enhance the sense o f spatial recession and lend the sheet a use o f the blank paper to suggest depth i n successive horizontal
dynamic quality overall. The verso, which has heretofore received zones, and similar looping pen strokes for the trees appear i n
little attention, shows a pyramid and other classical ruins sketch- a drawing whose attribution to van Scorel has not been ques
ily drawn i n light brown i n k at the upper center and two mus tioned, Landscape with the Tower of Babel i n the Collection Frits
cular, draped male figures, perhaps river gods, drawn i n darker Lugt, Fondation Custodia, Paris (inv. 5275; Boon 1992, vol. 1, pp.
brown i n k at the bottom. 324-26, no. 182; vol. 2, p i . 44).
I n the earlier literature (London 1965, p. 8, no. 9), the draw The stylistic similarities to the Paris drawing, as well as
ing was compared w i t h the landscape drawing by van Scorel i n the present uncertainty surrounding the attributions o f many
the British Museum (inv. 1909-1-9-7; Popham 1932, p. 39, no. 1; of the landscape drawings given to van Scorel and his work
Washington, D . C . , and New York 1986, pp. 2 6 8 - 6 9 , no. 104), shop, lead one to conclude that the beautifully drawn Getty
which is the only known signed drawing by h i m . More recently, sheet might be by the master or, i f not by h i m , then by one o f
it has been compared w i t h a pen-and-ink landscape drawing also his close associates. The muscular left-hand figure on the verso is
in the British Museum (inv. 1946-7-13-173), thought to have reminiscent o f the struggling martyr i n the painting Saint Sebas
been made by a member o f van Scorels workshop; this second tian i n the Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam,
London drawing has been stylistically associated w i t h the draw ascribed to a member o f the van Scorel workshop, who seems to
ing Architect among Ruins at Christ Church, Oxford (inv. 0297), have derived the figure from Michelangelo's fresco The Last
the handling o f which is similar to the underdrawing i n the Judgment, completed i n 1541, which he could have known
painting The Good Samaritan o f 1537 i n the Rijksmuseum, directly or, more likely, through a drawn copy (Amsterdam
Amsterdam, by an artist i n the Scorel workshop who is known as 1986, pp. 237-38, no. 117).

VAN SCOREL fa Dutch & Flemish Schools ill

Jan Verbeeck
Active in Mechelen c. 1548-60

group o f drawings signed i.verbeec is now around the signed drawings, but there is still some work to be
thought to be by Jan Verbeeck, who is men done i n defining the styles o f the two brothers. I n general, the
tioned as an artist i n the Mechelen documents. subject matter o f the Verbeecks tends toward the grotesque and
H e was probably the brother o f Frans Verbeeck, who, according satirical, ranging from representations of the Temptation of Saint
to the artist-biographer Karel van Mander (q.v.), made water- Anthony to peasant weddings and scenes of sensual excess. Their
color paintings i n the manner o f Hieronymus Bosch (c. 1450- closely hatched line w o r k and rough-hewn types are indicative
1516) and who is documented as entering the Mechelen guild i n of the transitional role they played between Bosch and Pieter
1531. Some additional paintings and drawings have been grouped Bruegel the Elder (1525/30-1569).

pi A Scene in a Forge A GROUP OF N I N E D R A W I N G S has been attributed to the

little-known Mechelen artist Jan Verbeeck, based upon two

Pen and brown ink; H : 18.3 cm (7/4 in.); W: 28 cm (11 in.) signed and dated sheets: the present example, which is the earli
est known drawing by the artist, and Dance of the Bean King,
dated 1560, i n the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (Parker 1938,

PROVENANCE pp. 35-36, no. 85; Vandenbroeck 1981, p. 37, no. 9). Like the
Jan van Rijmsdijk, London (Lugt 2167, partially erased, in Museums drawing, the latter is signed i.verbeec. A r o u n d these
the lower right corner); William Roscoe, Liverpool (sale, core drawings specialists have gathered another seven sheets, the
Winstanley, Liverpool, 23-28 September 1816, lot 440); so-called Verbeeck group, all o f which are similarly drawn i n
Richard Cosway, London; Barry Delany, Kilkenny (Lugt 350);
pen and brown i n k i n a rough, densely hatched manner and treat
R. Edwyn Lyne (Lugt Suppl. 1697c, inscribed in the lower
left corner of the mount in brown ink); Herbert Bier (sale, satirical subject matter (Faggin 1969, pp. 53-65; Berlin 1975,
Christies, London, 19 April 1988, lot 127); art market, pp. 174-76, nos. 269-72; Vandenbroek 1981, pp. 31-60). The
New York. function o f the drawings i n not known, although their subject
matter and style suggest that they could have been intended as
designs for prints. Others i n this group are Christ as the Light
London 1953-54, no. 533; Manchester 1965, no. 391.
Shining in the Darkness, dated 1555 (Munich, Staatliche Gra

BIBLIOGRAPHY phische Sammlung inv. 10041; Vandenbroeck 1981, p. 37, no. 8;

Sutton 1953, p. 27; Faggin 1969, pp. 54, fig. 1, 55-58, 63 n. 7; M u n i c h 1989-90, pp. 9 0 - 9 2 , no. 72); Nuptial Scene (dated
Berlin 1975, p. 176, under nos. 271, 272 (entries by K. Renger); 1559), Seven Blind Men Hunting a Swine, A Penitent Accosted by
Vandenbroeck 1981, p. 37, no. 7; Paris and Hamburg 1985-86, Heiland Vice (all Paris, Ecole des Beaux-Arts inv. M . 611, M . 610,
pp. 114,116, under nos. 56, 57; Munich 1989-90, pp. 91-92,
M . 399; Vandenbroeck 1981, p. 41, nos. 15,16; Paris and Hamburg
under no. 72 and n. 2; Journal18 (1991), p. 152, no. 33.
1985-86, nos. 56-58); The Laboratory of the Alchemist (Kon
Signed and dated at the bottom center in two tones of brown stanz, Stdtische Wessenberg-Gemldegalerie, Brades Coll. 40/
ink, i.verbeec. 1$.48-; inscribed at the lower right, in brown ink, 148; Vandenbroeck 1981, p. 36, no. 3); and two drawings o f
Verbec. On the verso, inscribed at center, in graphite, From the Temptation o f Saint A n t h o n y (both Oxford, Ashmolean
Roscoe & Cosway's Col and frans verbec or Verbeec (signed)/

Museum; Parker 1938, p. 37, nos. 8 6 - 8 7 ; Vandenbroeck 1981, p.

Died $\ at lower right, also in graphite, From Roscoel &\
37, nos. 10-11).
Cosway s\ Collections.
Verbeecks draftsmanship is characterized by a tendency to
cover the entire surface o f the sheet w i t h dense hatching. This
graphic horror vaccui increases the sense o f chaos pervading the

222 Dutch & Flemish Schools & VERBEECK

present scene. The subject o f the drawing has not been fully (laziness) (Renger 1970, pp. 113-14), indicates that the scene
deciphered, but i t seems to focus on the dissolution o f order and might represent a permutation o f the popular Netherlandish
productivity. The man at the forge bears a superficial resem theme o f Sorghelos Leven (carefree living), which warned o f the
blance to alchemists i n the above-mentioned drawing i n K o n ultimate ruination o f those who wasted time and goods.
stanz and i n Pieter Bruegel the Elder s drawing The Alchemist o f The scene may be compared w i t h a print illustrating this
1558 (Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett inv. K d Z 4399), but there are theme, which has been given alternatively to Verbeeck or to
no clear indications that he is an alchemist instead o f an ordi Pieter Baltens (Faggin 1969, pp. 59-62; Hollstein 1949-, vol. 1,
nary smith. A gaunt figure, he looks over his shoulder to observe no. 5), but whose attribution remains uncertain. Published by
his apprentices, likewise dressed i n aprons, engaging i n a glutton Hieronymus Cock, the print (Gibson 1978, pp. 673-81) depicts
ous rampage. Some raid the cupboard-one seems already to a cobbler s shop i n which apprentices abandon work and figures
have helped himselfwhile a woman accompanied by a begging of Laziness (the seated crone w i t h the distaff) and Carefree Liv
child offers food to another apprentice. Tools lie strewn over the ing (a chubby man playing a bagpipe) fill the left and right cor
floor. As the smith is distracted from his work, the object that he ners, respectively Both i n the satirical quality o f its subject
holds i n the flame flies apart. Those inside the room are oblivi matter and the expressiveness o f its draftsmanship, the Getty
ous to their own disorderly behavior and to the various specta drawing shows Verbeeck to have been a talented and inventive
tors outside and at the top o f the stairs on the right. A crone artist who can be seen as forming a link between Bosch and
slumped i n a chair and holding a distaff, identifiable as Verlegd Bruegel the Elder (Vandenbroeck 1981, pp. 31-60).

VERBEECK f>f Dutch & Flemish Schools 223

Jacques Callot
Nancy 1592-1635

acques Callot trained in his native Nancy with ment o f some thirteen hundred human and animal figures. Cal
the goldsmith Demange Crocq (d. 1637)* Some- lot returned to Nancy i n 1621 and two years later began work
time before 1611 he traveled to Rome, where he ing for the duke o f Lorraine and nobles o f the court. As i n
' was apprenticed to the engraver Philippe Thomassin Florence, he depicted fanciful scenes o f daily life, such as the
(1562-1622). H e then moved to Florence and studied w i t h the etching Gardens of the Palace at Nancy o f 1625 (ibid., no. 566),
scenographer-architect Giulio Parigi (1571-1635), and by 1614 he but he also turned to more serious subjects, as i n the famous
had entered the service o f the Medici court. H e produced series o f eighteen etchings o f 1633 The Miseries and Misfortunes
numerous drawings and prints o f fairs, festivals, courtiers, beg of War (ibid., vol. 7, nos. 1339-56). H e specialized as a graphic
gars, and hunchbacks, all described i n picturesque detail i n an artist, and his repertoire o f landscape, theater, genre, and reli
elegant mannerist style, as i n the etched Fair at Impruneta of gious themes offers a vivid impression o f the court life and other
1620 (Lieure 1969, vol. 5, no. 361). This large print, dedicated to events o f his time.
Cosimo I I , grand duke o f Tuscany, contains an amazing assort

p2 Study of a Rearing Horse the drawing on all sides, presumably when i t was laid down on
its current eighteenth-century mount. After sketching the horse
Quill and reed pens and brown ink; H : 32.4 cm (12VA in.); w i t h a quill pen, Callot went back over i t w i t h a reed pen,
W: 18.5 cm (7/4 in.)
adding emphasis here and there w i t h particularly dark strokes.
One senses a correlation between the horse s depicted movement
and the bravura strokes o f the pen. U p o n completing the big
PROVENANCE horse, he switched back to quill pen to execute the tiny equine
Joseph van Haecken, London (Lugt 2516); Richard Cosway, figure in the lower right. More fluid still, i t captures its larger
London (Lugt 628); Robert Prioleau Roupell, London (Lugt counterpart i n remarkable detail, down to the glimpse o f the
2234) (sale, Christies, London, 12 July 1887, lot 854); private
underside o f the left h o o f between the stallions h i n d legs. As
collection (sale, Christie's, London, 3 July 1990, lot 103); art
market, New York. such, the drawing demonstrates how Callot honed his marvelous
capacity to miniaturize motifs i n a dashing, shorthand manner.
EXHIBITIONS The present example belongs to a group o f drawings that
None. Callot freely interpreted after the series o f engravings Horses of
Different Lands o f 1590 (Bartsch 1803-21, vol. 17, nos. 941-68),
by Antonio Tempesta (1592-1635). This group of horse drawings
Journal 21 (1993), pp. 127-28, no. 39.
appears to date to 1615-17, during Callot s early period i n Flor
On the verso, inscribed in the lower right corner, in black ence (Ternois 1961, p. 45; Toronto, Ottawa, San Francisco, and
ink, R.P.R., and at the center, in brown ink, probably by the New York 1972-73, pp. 141-42, no. 20). Based on the Sardinian
artist, with several lines made by a reed pen.
horse (fig. 92a; Bartsch 1803-21, no. 954), the Getty drawing
attenuates Tempesta s model and distills i t into flowing outlines,
w i t h the dark, tapering and swelling reed pen line heightening
WHEN CALLOT B E G A N this sheet, i t was horizontally ori the visual impact o f the form and suggesting some o f the drama
ented, w i t h the present left side at the top. W h e n the sheet is of the dynamic chiaroscuro o f Callot s prints. The landscape
thus oriented, one notices at the left center the lightly sketched vignette w i t h buildings i n its lower left corner is an abbreviated
head o f a horse i n the same pose as that o f the more finished, sketch o f the landscape i n the center right o f Tempesta s print o f
vertically priented animal that he later drew over it. This vertical the Sardinian horse. Several other drawings by Callot show the
format creates greater visual interest by heightening both the same horse w i t h slight variations (Vienna, Albertina inv. 25.507;
dynamic contrast between the mane and tail that stream out Knab and Widauer 1993, pp. 264 65, no. F. 141; formerly U n i t e d
ward to the right and left and the upward movement o f the rear States art market, Ternois 1961, p. 48, no. 32), but i t is difficult to
ing horse. This has been further emphasized by the cropping o f establish a sequence among them. A t the least i t is likely that he

226 French School ?f CALLOT

92A. Antonio Tempesta (1592-1635). Rearing Horse Viewedfrom the Rear. Engraving. H : 12.1 cm (4 A in.);

W: 16.4 cm (6 /i6 in.). Photo courtesy the Trustees of the British Museum, London.

was working from Tempesta's print i n the present example, as sheets assembling various studies o f diminutive horses (see ibid.,
indicated by the small but detailed landscape i n its left corner. no. 40). Callot evidently made the present example, based on
Callot populated drawings o f cavalry battles w i t h small horses the Tempesta model, as an exercise to enhance his proficiency i n
analogous to the sketch i n the lower right o f the example i n the representing horses but does not appear to have employed i t as a
Museum (see Ternois 1961, p. 49, nos. 42-45) and also made direct study for any o f the many horses i n his prints.

228 French School fa CALLOT

Louis Carrogis de Carmontelle
Paris 1717-1806

T hroughout his career Louis de Carmontelle-

born Louis Carrogis, the son o f a shoemaker
was at pains to conceal his humble origins. The
name Louis de Carmontelle first appears i n the rolls o f the
French army i n Westphalia i n 1756, i n reference to a gentleman
Carmontelle wrote, produced, and performed theatrical pieces
at the Orleans court and designed the celebrated Pare Monceau
outside Paris. H e also entertained court gatherings by mak
ing portrait drawings on the spot aux trois crayons (a technique
using white, red, and black chalks) and i n pencil, w i t h delicate
traveling w i t h the tutor o f Philippe, due de Chartres, the son o f watercolor and body color. The sitters, both courtiers and dis
Louis-Philippe, due d'Orleans. I n 1763 Louis-Philippe appointed tinguished visitors, are almost always shown full-length i n
Carmontelle lecteur du due de Chartres (tutor o f the due de profile. This series o f drawings, which numbers some 750, forms
Chartres), a post he retained until the French Revolution i n 1789. a vivid record o f court personages and court life before the
W i t h the female members o f the Orleans household he helped French Revolution.
set up a salon at the Palais Royale that lasted for eighteen years.

93 The Duchess ofChaulnes as a and, i n 1769, due de Chaulnes (Prevost and d A m a t 1933, vol. 8,
p. 850). This drawing is one o f about 750 such portraits o f
Gardener in an Allee contemporary courtiers and visiting figures o f notesuch as
Benjamin Franklin, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Voltaire
Watercolor, black and red chalk, and pen and black ink;
H : 31.7 cm (12Vi in.); W: 19 cm (jVi in.) which Carmontelle made and later bound into eleven albums.
They were intended as independent works o f art to amuse the
94.GC.41 (see plate 11) court o f the due d'Orleans, where Carmontelle was employed as
the producer o f feasts, plays, and other entertainments. As a
whole, these portraits form one o f the great visual documents o f
Louis Carrogis de Carmontelle (sale, Paris, 17 April 1807,
aristocratic society i n France at the end of the eighteenth century.
part of lot 22); Chevalier Richard de Ledans; Pierre de La
Mesangere (sale, Paris, 18 July 1831, part of lot 304); John Carmontelle kept his albums until his death. H e gave the
Duff and by descent to Major Lachlan Duff Gordon-Duff, names o f the sitters to his friend Richard de Ledans, who
Drummuir and Park; private collection (sale, Christie s, recorded them i n a manuscript index (now i n Chantilly, Musee
London, 15 December 1992, lot 177); art market, London.
Cond). After Ledans s death i n 1816 the subsequent owner,
Pierre de La Mesangere (1761-1831), had the albums broken up
None. and the drawings hinged to green mounts w i t h the names o f the
sitters transcribed from the manuscript. After de La Mesangere s
BIBLIOGRAPHY death the drawings were acquired by John Duff, whose descen
Ledans 1807, p. 78, no. 309, as part of album 9; Journal 23 dant sold them. M a n y were acquired by the due d'Aumale for
(1995), pp. 66-67, no. 7.
his collection at Chantilly (now the Musee Conde), while others

On the mount, inscribed at the bottom in brown ink, Mme. were dispersed on the market.
La Duchesse de Chaulnes en jardiniere. 1771.; on the verso of The Musee Conde possesses a drawing o f the duchess o f
the mount, numbered in brown ink, 327, and inscribed in Chaulnes dating to the year o f her marriage, which shows her
graphite, B. as a fresh-faced child i n a floral dress (inv. 207; Gruyer 1902,
pp. 148-49, no. 207). I n Carmontelle's portrayal o f her more
than a decade later i n the Getty drawing, her face is still pretty
THE I N S C R I P T I O N O N T H E M O U N T identifies the sitter and but fuller, and her large eyes seem more deeply expressive. Her
provides the date o f the drawings execution. Marie d A l b e r t de attire is explicated i n the Chantilly manuscript by Ledans, who
Luynes (1744-1781) was the daughter o f the due de Chevreuse records that she always dressed i n white because her husband
and granddaughter o f the due de Luynes. I n 1758, at the age o f refused to consummate their marriage (ibid., p. 148).
fourteen, she married her cousin Marie Joseph Louis d A l b e r t This petite, attractive young woman, dressed i n airy white
d'Ailly, the vidame d'Amiens, who later became due de Picquigny and delicately raking i n a verdant alle, is among the more charm-

CARMONTELLE fa French School 229


ing o f Carmontelles portraits. He sketched her first i n black enhancing the lightness o f the figure. The sky is a brilliant blue,
chalk, using red chalk for the arms and face. He later added the and the sun shines upon the duchess, illuminating the alle, at the
watercolor, which is still quite fresh and allows much o f the end of which is a tempietto w i t h a statue o f Diana.
black chalk and blank white paper i n her dress to show through,

230 French School fa CARMONTELLE

Claude Lorrain
Chamagne 1600-Rome 1682

C laude was born i n Chamagne, a village near 1635 began the Liber veritatis (London, British Museum), a
n e

Nancy, i n the then independent duchy o f Lor large book o f drawings recording all o f his painted compositions
raine. Perhaps as early as 1617 he traveled to until the year o f his death. Claude was one o f the greatest o f all
Rome. Between 1618 and 1620 he probably lived i n Naples as landscape painters. A m o n g his masterpieces are Ulysses Returning
a pupil o f the German Goffredo Wals (c. 1590/95-1638/40). Chryseis to Her Father o f 1644 (Paris, Louvre) and Landscape with
He then returned to Rome, where he was apprenticed to the Parnassus of 1652 (Edinburgh, National Gallery of Scotland). His
landscape and decorative painter Agostino Tassi (c. 1580-1644). work was strongly inspired by the Roman Campagna, the coun
Claude was back i n Nancy i n 1625 to assist the court painter tryside o f plains, mountains, and sea so evocative o f the pastoral
Claude Deruet (c. 1588-1660) i n the ceiling decoration o f the serenity o f a Golden Age. The basic themes o f nature, the ideal,
Carmelite church (now destroyed). By 1627 he had permanently space, light, harmony, repose, biblical stories, and classical
settled i n Rome, and i n 1633 he became a member o f the Acca- myths intersect i n his pictures to engender an extraordinary
demia d i San Luca. He had many prominent patrons, including poetic feeling. Perhaps the most outstanding quality o f Claude s
Pope Urban V I I I and Philip I V o f Spain. By the mid-i630s work is his mastery o f light, seen i n his portrayals o f l i m p i d skies
Claude s paintings were so sought after that other artists began to and the misty atmosphere that seems to sparkle from the trees,
make forgeries o f them. To protect himself against this, around lakes, and buildings o f his compositions.

94 Landscape in Latium with ground are eight agrarian workers, who appear to be breaking
ground i n a field. Depicted from a distance, they catch the sun
Farm Laborers light and cast deep shadows. The lively ways i n which they are
drawn and illuminated imbue them w i t h great physical vitality.
Pen and brown ink, brown wash, and black chalk; H : 22.4 cm
( 8 % in.); W: 36.1 cm (14/4 in.) The men are supervised by a figure i n seventeenth-century dress,
who is slightly smaller than they and i n shadow. The centralized
91.GG.70 focus embodied by the line o f workers is echoed by the convex
hill forming the middle ground, w i t h the clump o f trees and
structure at its apex. The play o f light through the trees and o n
Brunei collection, France; Sir Thomas Lawrence, London
the rustic thatched h u t help j o i n the foreground strata to the
(Lugt 2445); William Esdaile, London (Lugt 2617) (sale,
Christie's, London, 30 June 1840, lot 38); Dr. Henry Wellesley, background, i n which the artist switches from pen and brown
Oxford (sale, Sotheby's, London, 25 June 1866, lot 1016); ink to black chalk and translucent brown wash. I n this region a
private collection, Switzerland; art market, Boston. mountainous vista opens out, whose subtle concavity brackets
the convex elements of the foreground. The breadth of the appli
cation o f the black chalk, together w i t h the pale wash and the
London 1835, - 45 New York 1993, no. 27; London
n o

white ground showing through, create atmospheric perspective

1993-94, no. 100.
and a sense of vast recession. Pentimenti over the left-hand peak
BIBLIOGRAPHY show that the artist lowered its height, allowing sky to occupy
Roethlisberger 1990, pp. 409, 415-19, 422-23, 425 nn. 28-31; the upper third o f the drawing. As a whole, this spare, limitless
Journal 20 (1992), p. 158, no. 48.
landscape seems to represent nature i n elemental form, integral
to which is the corps o f laborers, who work the land, bringing
forth its productivity.
MARCEL ROETHLISBERGER RECENTLY published this This scene i n Latium might represent a specific topography,
striking drawing for the first time, describing i t as one o f the as suggested by Roethlisberger (ibid., p. 416). The white zone at
most explicit glimpses " o f a 'slice o f life' i n Claude s entire oeu- the bottom o f the valley may be the Tiber, and the peak at the
vre" (1990, p . 419), as well as one o f the very few views o f con left, M o u n t Soracte, some thirty miles north o f Rome. The pre
temporary life and labor that punctuate Claudes artistic focus cision w i t h which the landscape has been distilled into its basic
upon the pastoral ideal. Occupying the drawings central fore elements as well as the delicate calibration o f the composition

CLAUDE LORRAIN fa French School 231


indicate that Claude made this drawing i n the studio, perhaps

w i t h the help o f an intermediary life sketch (ibid., pp. 418-19).
I n this drawing he appears to have configured the actual land
scape o f Latium into one as perfect and authoritative i n its way
as are his visions o f the antique pastoral world. Roethlisberger
points out that this drawing is not connected w i t h any painting,
and he situates i t late i n the artists career, around 1660-63
(ibid., pp. 417, 423).

232 French School fa CLAUDE LORRAIN

Etienne Delaune
Milan 1518/19-Paris 1583

tienne Delaune is recorded i n Paris i n 1546 as compositions by Fontainebleau School artists, he made hundreds
a journeyman goldsmith. His varied activities of mostly small-scale ornamental and pictorial engravings o f his
include a brief period o f employment as chief own invention, which are noteworthy for their decorativeness
medalist to K i n g H e n r y I I at the royal m i n t i n 1552. H e was also and technical refinement. As a Protestant, he was forced to flee
a draftsman and engraver, and his style shows the influence o f Paris i n 1572 i n the wake o f the Massacre o f Saint Bartholomews
the Italian artists o f the School o f Fontainebleau. Although dis Day. H e settled i n Strasbourg for a few months and was then
missed from his post at the m i n t after only a few months, he active i n Augsburg. H e was again i n Strasbourg from 1577 to
continued to work for the king, i n 1556 furnishing designs for a around 1580, before returning to Paris, where he died.
suit o f parade armor for h i m . I n addition to engraved copies o f

9$ The DeBruffiion of Pharaoh s are from the book o f Judges and show Joshua and the Israelites
bringing down the walls o f Jericho (Judges 6) and Gideons
Army and Other Scenes choosing his soldiers according to whether they lapped water
within a Cartouche instead o f kneeling down to drink (Judges 7 : 5 - 7 ) . A t the bot
tom is the sacrifice o f Isaac (Genesis 22:10-13). This grouping
Pen and black and brown ink and gray wash on vellum; of O l d Testament scenes is consistent w i t h Delaunes numer
H : 25.9 cm (io /i6 in.); W: 31 cm (i2 /i6 in.)
3 3

ous biblical prints, which depict primarily episodes from the

Old Testament, and also reflects the broad interest i n O l d
Testament subject matter throughout sixteenth-century French
PROVENANCE art (Los Angeles, N e w York, and Paris 1994-95, PP- 35 54> 2_

Private collection (sale, Christie's, London, 18 April 1989, under nos. 102-5).
lot 101); art market, London. The strapwork cartouchewith its ornamental putti, gro
tesque masks at the lower corners, and central landscapeowes
a debt to Antonio Fantuzzi s etchings inspired by the Gallery o f
Francis I at Fontainebleau (see, for example, ibid., pp. 242-43,
BIBLIOGRAPHY no. 41 [Zerner 1969, no. 44]), although it is altogether more pre
Journal 20 (1992), p. 157, no. 47. cious, involved, and miniaturistic i n approach, demonstrating
Delaunes noted talent as a designer o f ornament. The vari
On the verso, inscribed in the lower right corner, in graphite,
ous blank cartouches throughout the drawing were probably
Pharoan de.
intended to contain inscriptions. The central landscape, w i t h
mounds o f dripping rocks and lines o f tiny figures receding into
the far distance, is similar to that i n Delaunes engraving after
T H E D R A W I N G S F Etienne Delaune bring the Fontainebleau Jean Cousin, either the Elder or the Younger, Moses Showing the
style of ornament to a peak o f delicacy and refinement. The pres Brazen Serpent to the People (ibid., pp. 350-52, no. 101 [Robert-
ent example employs white vellum, his favored drawing support, Dumesnil 1835-71, vol. 9, no. 61]). The present example appears
which retains the perfect clarity o f his exceptionally fine pen to form a pair w i t h Delaune s drawing on vellum i n the Rijks-
line. The topmost oval contains the seated female personi museum, Amsterdam, Christian Allegory of Temperance and Jus
fication o f F a i t h w i t h the tablets o f the law, the cross, and tice (inv. RP-T-1939-17; Wanklyn 1992, p. 42, fig. 5, p. 43 n. 9).
Eucharistwho serves as the leitmotif for the other scenes, Their purpose remains unknown, but they may have been
which depict acts o f faith recounted i n the O l d Testament. The intended as independent drawings or as designs for a decorative
central rectangle shows Moses causing the waters o f the Red object o f some sort.
Sea to inundate Pharaohs army (Exodus 23:31). The lateral ovals

DELAUNE ?f French School 233

Jean-Honore Fragonard
Grasse 173 2-Paris 1806

I ean-Honore Fragonard moved w i t h his family from Saint-Non. Fragonard returned to Paris i n 1761. There he cre
I his birthplace o f Grasse, i n Provence, to Paris i n 1738. ated a variation o f a genre known as the fete galante, i n which
I Following a brief apprenticeship w i t h Jean-Simeon courtly figures are depicted amusing themselves i n a park or gar
' Chardin (1699-1779), he worked i n the studio o f den setting. These images are lighthearted and often erotic i n
Franois Boucher (17031770) for about a year around 1749. H e mood, as can be seen i n The Swing o f 1767 (London, Wallace
was awarded the Prix de Rome i n 1752 and the following year Collection) and his important decorative series commissioned
entered the Ecole Royale des Eleves Proteges, directed by Carle by M m e D u Barry, The Progress of Love o f 1771-73 (New York,
van Loo (1705-1765), i n preparation for his five-year stay i n Frick Collection). I n 1773 Fragonard traveled again to Rome,
Rome (1756-61). Fragonard studied at the French Academy i n returning to Paris the next year via Austria and Germany. I n his
Rome and also visited Naples and Venice, where he admired the later years scenes o f family life became the favored subjects o f
works o f Giambattista Tiepolo (1696-1770) and Francesco Soli- his paintings, as can be seen i n Education Does All o f 1777-79
mena (1657-1747). D u r i n g his Italian sojourn he befriended (Museo de Arte de Sao Paolo).
Hubert Robert (1733-1808) and Roberts patron, the abbe de

p6 Ruins of an Imperial Palace the brilliant sunlight falling on i t , and the towering cypresses to
create a powerful dramatic impact. The action o f the sunlight
Red chalk; H : 33.5 cm ( 1 3 i n . ) ; W: 47.6 cm (18% in.) and the dynamism of the plunging perspective imbue this moun
tainous architectural form w i t h a sense o f life. A pithy detail is
the illusionistic stack o f boards i n the right foreground, which

PROVENANCE reinforces the angular perspective o f the central architectural

Sale, Nice, 16 November 1942, lot 75; sale, Galerie motif. Fragonard worked the red chalk lightly and broadly and,
Charpentier, Paris, 28 May 1954, lot 69; sale, Galerie Fischer, even i n the areas o f deepest shading, allowed the white o f the
Lucerne, 10 June 1956, lot 10; sale, Galerie Pierre-Yves Gabus, paper to come through. His precise control o f the exposure o f
Geneva, 3 December 1988, lot 129; art market, London.
the white paper, the constant shifting o f the direction and char
acter o f the shading, and the inventiveness o f his linear calligra
New York 1993, no. 45; London 1993-94, no. 104. phy cause sunlight, shadow, and texture to unfold across the
surface o f the sheet i n such a way that each small passage brings
BIBLIOGRAPHY a new and unanticipated effect.
Ananoff 1968, vol. 3, p. 98, no. 1483; Rome 1990-91, p. 24, The drawing was made i n 1759, when Fragonard was a
no. 26, p. 75; Journal 19 (1991), p. 153, no. 36; Rand 1992,
young pensioner at the French Academy i n Rome, then under
pp. 113-19.
the direction o f Charles-Joseph Natoire. I t is one of the relatively
Inscribed at the bottom in brown ink, fragonard, Romae, IJ59. rare views o f Rome by the artist predating his well-known series
of red chalk drawings o f the gardens o f the Villa d'Este and its
environs at T i v o l i , made i n 1760, which marks his early flourish
FRAGONARD HERE D E P I C T S the northeast corner o f the ing as a landscapist (ibid., p. 113). I n making the present example,
Palatine H i l l , w i t h the gardens o f the Villa Farnese visible above Fragonard responded to Natoires encouragement to sketch the
the embankment separating them from the Campo Vaccino, or sites o f Rome i n the open air, a practice that had been promoted
Forum. His vantage point is just to the left o f the faqade o f Santa at the French Academy at least since Nicholas Vleughels s direc
Maria Liberatrice (Antiqua), the shadow of which falls across the torship, from 1724 to 1737 (ibid., p. 115). This site on the Campo
right foreground o f the drawing. The corner o f the cypress-lined Vaccino was drawn by other French artists o f the eighteenth cen
promenade that formed a perimeter o f the gardens dominates tury, including Fran$ois Boucher (Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale,
the composition, while one o f the architect Jacopo Barozzi da Cabinet des Estampes inv. 6a Reserve) and Fragonard s close
Vignolas pavilions, overlooking the Farnese gardens beyond, is friend Hubert Robert, i n a red chalk sheet o f around the same
visible at the extreme left (Rand 1992, p. 113). Fragonard coordi date as the example under discussion (Valence, Musee des Beaux-
nated the forward thrust o f the corner o f the massive structure, Arts D . 40; ibid., pp. 117,119).

FRAGONARD fa French School 235

9 6
Baron Fra^ois Gerard
Rome 1770-Paris 1837

F rangois Gerard was born i n Rome o f French par

ents i n domestic service to the French ambassador
to the Papal States. After brief periods o f study
w i t h Augustin Pajou (1730-1809) and Nicolas Guy Brenet
(1728 -1792), Gerard i n 1786 entered the studio of Jacques-Louis
David, i t is infused w i t h a dreamlike quality, as seen i n his
acclaimed Cupid and Psyche (Paris, Louvre), painted i n 1796 and
exhibited at the Salon o f 1798. Through astute political maneu
vering and David's influence, Gerard avoided military service
in Napoleon's armies and instead became a member o f the Rev
David (1748-1825), where he became a favorite pupil. H e w o n olutionary Tribunal. His work includes grand depictions o f
second prize i n the Prix de Rome competition o f 1789. A year historical and mythological subjects, as well as portraits o f con
later he returned to Rome w i t h his widowed mother and two temporary court and society personages. H e went on to serve i n
younger brothers and Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson (17671824). each o f the vastly differing regimes that followed the French
Although Gerard's style was based on the Neoclassicism o f Revolution o f 1789 and was ennobled by Louis X V I I I i n 1819.

97 The Father of Psyche Consulting La Fontaine's text underneath the engraving recounts the
oracle's baleful pronouncement to Psyche's father that his daugh
the Oracle of Apollo ter would marry a heartless monster. I n reference to the present
example, the D i d o t sale catalogue o f 1825 praises Gerard's inven
Pen and brown and gray ink, gray and brown wash, and white
tive addition o f the figures o f Psyche, her mother, and Cupid.
body color over black chalk; H : 18.9 cm (j /\6 in.); W: 14.7 cm

(5% in.)
According to its explication o f these elements, Psyche and her
mother, impatient to receive the oracle s response, enter the tem
92.GA.108 ple at the moment when the oracle reveals Psyche's cruel fate,
and Cupid, who had caused the oracle to utter the prediction,
stands behind the open door to view the reaction to the tragic
Prince Galitzine, Paris; Saint-Marc Didot, Paris (sale, Bullion,
Paris, 6-9 April 1825, lot 137); Henri Gerard, Paris; Comte news. I n Gerard's design the oracle points a finger at Psyche,
Foy, Paris; Comtesse Foy, Paris; art market, New York. who collapses into her mother's arms.
Gerard's precision of handling; slender, graceful figure style;
EXHIBITIONS and concern w i t h architectural ornament lend preciosity to the
Paris 1871, no. 194 (Salon of 1796).
drawing as a whole. The only pentimenti o f note are those
marking the slightly lower original placement o f Cupid's foot
Osborne 1985, p. 201; Journal zi (1993), p. 128, no. 42. and the base o f the doorjamb. Gerard employed his teacher
David's device o f dividing the female and male protagonists,
w i t h the emotional collapse o f the women complementing the
A T T H E PARIS S A L O N o f 1796 Gerard exhibited five draw gestural expressiveness o f Psyche's father, who stands i n front o f
ings he had made as models for engraved illustrations for Pierre a frowning mask set into the wall. The severity and coldness o f
Didot's deluxe edition o f the poem by Jean de La Fontaine the light underscore the tragedy o f the scene. The artist joined
(1621-1695) Les amours de Psyche et de Cupidon, published i n the eavesdropping C u p i d to the interior events by placing his
Paris i n 1797. The present drawing, which has come to light only strongly l i t nude form at the side o f the triangle o f harsh sun
recently {Baron Frangois Gerard [iyyo -183/], Galerie A r n o l d i - light entering the temple through the door, perhaps alluding to
Livie and Jill Newhouse, New York, A p r i l 1992, pp. 20-21), is Cupid's own destructive intrusion into the lives o f Psyche and
the only one among the original five whose whereabouts are cur her family. Underlying the tragedy is the note o f sexual titilla-
rently known. This meticulously worked drawing was followed tion created by the smiling Cupid, whose nude figure is only
exactly i n the engraving i n the same direction by Benedict partly exposed through the doorway, and Psyche's limp, nubile
Alphonse Nicolet (fig. 97a), which appears on page 25 o f book 1 form, turned full front at the center o f the composition. Gerard's
(Portalis 1877, no. 241). involvement w i t h this subject matter continued i n his famous
painting Cupid and Psyche o f 1796.

GERARD fa French School 237

FIGURE 9 7 A . After Fransois Gerard (1770 -1837) The Father of Psyche Consulting the Oracle of
Apollo. Engraving by Benedict Alphonse Nicolet (1743-1806). H: 18.9 cm {yVie in.);
W: 14.7 cm (5% in.). Photo courtesy the British Library, London.
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
Montauban 1780-Paris 1867

ean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres first studied art w i t h academic propriety. H e remained there for another sixteen years,
his father, a decorative painter, sculptor, and amateur staying i n Rome before settling i n Florence i n 1820. I n that year
musician i n Montauban. H e continued his training he received a government commission for a large-scale religious
at the Academie des Beaux-Arts, Toulouse, and then work for Montauban, for which he painted the Vow of Louis XIII
entered the Paris studio o f Jacques-Louis David, where he met of 1820-24, his first great success at the Salon. I n 1824 Ingres
the most talented artists o f his generation. I n 1801 he w o n the returned to Paris and the following year was elected to the
Prix de Rome, though he d i d not leave for Italy until 1806. I n Academie, where he championed the classical style rather than
Italy he earned much of his living by drawing portraits. The nar the new Romantic movement. H e was i n Rome again from 1835
rative paintings he created i n Italy to be sent to France, including to 1841 as the director o f the French Academy. D u r i n g his last
Oedipus and the Sphinx o f 1808 (Paris, Louvre), elicited severe years i n Paris he continued to produce important works, such as
criticism for their unorthodox stylizations and departure from The Turkish Bath, completed i n 1863 (Louvre).

p8 Study for the Dress and Hands

of Madame Moitessier
Graphite on tracing paper, squared in black chalk; H : 35.5 cm
( i 3 / i 6 in.);
W: 16.8 cm (6 /s


Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres atelier, Paris (Lugt 1477)
(sale, Expert F. Petit, Paris, 27 April and 6 - 7 May 1867);
Raimondo de Madrazo y Garretta; Comtesse de Behague,
Paris (sale, Sotheby's, London, 29 June 1921, lot 97); Villiers
David, London; private collection (sale, Christie s, London,
3 July 1990, lot 138); art market, London.

Paris 1967-68, p. 316, no. 247.

Eisler 1977, p. 374, fig. 127; Journalzo (1992), pp. 158-59,
no. 49; Goldner and Hendrix 1992, p. 152, under no. 61.

Signed at lower left in pencil, Ing.

FIGURE 98A. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
(1780-1867). Madame Moitessier, 1851. Oil on canvas. H:
146.7 cm (57% in.); W: 100.3c m
(39 % . ) . Washington,

D.C., National Gallery of Art inv. 1946.7.18.

T H E R E A R E A T L E A S T seven known preparatory studies for
Ingres s celebrated formal portrait o f Madame Moitessier (fig.
98a; Washington, D . C . , National Gallery o f Art), dated 1851 a large vertical rectangle bisected i n half horizontally, a bit below
(Eisler 1977, pp. 373-74; Goldner and Hendrix 1992, pp. 152-53, the waist, into two rows o f three vertical rectangles each.
no. 61). The present example concentrates upon her dress, jewels, The head and shoulders appear to have been traced from
and the position o f her arms and hands, w i t h two detail studies one o f Ingres s earlier studies for the portrait while the figure
of her left hand i n the upper right corner. W i t h the apparent from the bodice down was highly and freely worked. I n particu
aim o f regularizing and refining the figure s proportions and the lar, the swiftly drawn, superimposed line work o f the skirt cre
relationships o f parts to whole, Ingres squared the drawing w i t h ates a rich, textural effect. The positions o f the arms and hands

240 French School fa INGRES

are determined by the shawl that is supported i n the crook o f the the painting by a smaller brooch and opera-length pearls, which
right arm and twines around the form, w i t h the other end held the figure fondles w i t h her right hand and which echo the flow
by the left hand. Retained i n the painting, the magnificent shawl ing sweep o f the shawl. The Juno-like features o f the painting,
o f black lace unifies the form, lending i t fluidity and breadth. praised by nineteenth-century critics (Eisler 1977, p. 375), appear
The bracelets and rings on the left wrist and hand are close to in the Getty Museum s monumental study o f Madame M o i -
those i n the painting, but the other jewels were later changed. tessier s head (inv. 89.GD.50) but are not yet evident i n the pres
The necklace and large brooch i n the drawing were replaced i n ent drawing.

INGRES ?f French School 241

Laurent de La Hyre
Paris 1606-1656

" aurent de La Hyre came from a large Parisian fam- as a painter o f religious and mythological subjects, though por
I ily o f artists and received his earliest training w i t h traits and landscapes also feature i n his oeuvre. After 1640 his
his father, Etienne (c. 1583-1643), a painter work work became increasingly classical under the influence o f N i c o
ing i n the mannerist style o f the second generation o f Fontaine- las Poussin (1594-1665), who had worked briefly i n Paris i n
bleau School artists. Eight o f Etienne's eleven children became 1640-42, and Philippe de Champaigne (1602-1674). The shift
painters. Laurent's early w o r k shows the influence o f painted from the mannered elegance o f the School o f Fontainebleau to
decorations by the Bolognese artist Francesco Primaticcio (1504- a more severe form o f classicism is well illustrated by a compari
1570), which he copied at Fontainebleau between 1622 and 1625. son between Cyrus and Araspe (Art Institute o f Chicago),
He then spent several months i n the studio o f the mannerist painted before 1639, a n
d The Children of Bethel Mourned by Their
painter Georges Lallemant (c. 1580-1636). La Hyre specialized Mothers (Arras, Palais Saint-Vast), signed and dated 1653.

99 The Liberation of Saint Peter restrained, classical style encountered i n the present drawing.
Described as "Parisian Atticism" (Thuillier and Chatelet 1964,
Black chalk and brown wash; H : 23.9 cm (9% in.); W: 19.8 cm p. 65ff,), this severe classicism began to take shape i n Paris after
( 7 % in.)
Poussin's presence there from 1640 to 1642 and became the pre
dominant Parisian manner after the founding o f the Royal Acad
emy i n 1648 by La Hyre and others. Indeed, comparisons w i t h
PROVENANCE the classicism o f Eustache Le Sueur's "May" painting (the cov
Sir Anthony Blunt, London; private collection, London (sale, eted yearly commission from the church o f Notre-Dame, Paris),
Christies, London, 18 April 1989, lot 92); art market, London. Saint Paul at Ephesus o f 1649 (Paris, Louvre; Merot 1987, p i .
X I I I ) ; Charles Lebrun's "May" painting, The Martyrdom of Saint
Andrew o f 1647 (Northampton, Earl Spencer collection; Ver
London 1964, p. 18, no. 63; Grenoble, Rennes, and Bordeaux
1989-90, p. 274, no. 238. sailles 1963, pp. 24-25, no. 10); and Sebastien Bourdons paint
ing o f the same subject o f around 1650 (Toulouse, Musee des
BIBLIOGRAPHY Augustins; Fowle 1970, vol. 2, pp. 120-21, no. 39) suggest a
Agarde and Thuillier 1962, p. 21; Paris 1983-84, pp. 135, 359,
closer dating o f the present sheet to around these years.
fig. 106; Journal 21 (1993), p. 128, no. 40.
One of the strong components o f this manner was the influ
ence of Raphael, felt i n the present example i n the subject, which
repeats that o f his famous fresco i n the Stanza d'Eliodoro i n the
THE S C E N E R E P R E S E N T E D i n this drawing is taken from Vatican, and i n the grandiloquent, architectonic figures o f Saint
Acts (12: I - I I ) , i n which Saint Peter, imprisoned by K i n g Herod, Peter and the angel, which recall those i n Raphael's School of
is led out o f prison by an angel the night before his trial. The Athens (Vatican, Stanza della Segnatura; cf. Paris 1983 84,
episode was traditionally regarded as symbolizing the deliver pp. 135, 359). Silhouetted against the brilliant, supernatural light
ance o f the Church from persecution. I n La Hyre's drawing the surrounding the angel, Saint Peter's strongly plastic, vertical
columnar, rather abstracted figure o f Peter, the biblical embodi form assumes an almost iconic presence. This is augmented by
ment o f the Church, reinforces this symbolic meaning. the minimization o f space, whereby the pair o f protagonists
W i t h its elegantly posed figures, meticulously rendered stand on shallow steps and are anchored by the sleeping soldiers,
drapery, and delicate combination o f black chalk and brown whose forms echo the heavy, intersecting architectural beams i n
wash, this example displays the quintessential elements o f La the upper right. Although this is a nocturnal scene, dramatic
Hyre's distinctive and refined draftsmanship. Pierre Rosenberg Caravaggesque chiaroscuro was eschewed i n favor o f the pre
and Jacques Thuillier (Grenoble, Rennes, and Bordeaux 1989- dominance o f the blazing light emanating from the angel. This
90, p. 274, no. 238) date i t to the artists late period, between severe clarity heightens the classical effect o f the whole.
1645 and 1656. Originally influenced by French mannerism Although La Hyre's drawing appears to be a design for a print or
and later by Simon Vouet's Baroque manner, w i t h its elements possibly a painting, no related work has been discovered.
of Caravaggesque naturalism, La Hyre gradually adopted the

242 French School fa LA HYRE

Charles Lebrun
Paris 1619-1690

s a child, Charles Lebrun was first taught to 1661 he worked extensively for Louis X I V ; he was ennobled i n
sculpt by his father, Nicolas Lebrun (d. 1648), a 1662 and was made director o f the Gobelins tapestry factory and
master sculptor i n Paris. H e subsequently stud named premier peintre du roi the following year. His unquestion
ied painting w i t h Fran9ois Perrier, before working w i t h Simon able ability as a painter o f large-scale decorations ensured h i m a
Vouet (1590-1649) m t n e
m i d - i ^ o s . I n 1642 Lebrun accompa leading role i n the embellishment o f the royal palace at Ver
nied Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665) to Rome. W h i l e i n Rome he sailles, including the Great Staircase (1674-78; now destroyed)
was influenced by the H i g h Baroque style o f such artists as and the Galerie des Glaces (1678-84). His treatise Methode pour
Pietro da Cortona (q.v.), as well as by Poussins classicism. H e apprendre dessiner les passions . . . (published posthumously, i n
returned to Paris i n 1646 and i n 1648 was among the founding 1698) codified the visual expression o f the emotions according to
members o f the Academie Royale, becoming its director i n 1668. the theories o f Poussin and Rene Descartes. Lebrun was a pro
The Academie promoted Baroque Classicism as the official style, lific draftsman, and the majority o f his vast surviving oeuvre o f
and Lebrun became its leading practitioner and theorist. From drawings is today i n the Louvre, Paris.

100 Portrait of M. Quatrehomme hand, and the drapery that spills over the left arm. The artist
carefully drew the nuanced surfaces o f the sitter s face, w i t h the
du Lys furrow of his brow and the contrast between the liberally applied
white heightening and the undulant patches of shadow imbuing
Black, white, and red chalk and pastel; H : 35.2 cm (137s in.);
W: 27.7 cm (10% in.) it w i t h drama. The juxtaposition o f the sitters intent gaze to the
left w i t h the sweep toward the right formed by the book and
92.GB.107 hand, which are also brought forward slightly, lends vitality to
the figure. This sense o f movement is reinforced by the i l l u m i
nation, which both emerges from behind the sitter s head and, at
Private collection, Paris; art market, New York.
the same time, falls upon h i m from the left, from an exterior
EXHIBITIONS source. The reinforcement o f outlines from the shoulders down
None. brings sculptural clarity to the form.
N o t h i n g is known about the sitter. The attribution to
Lebrun has been questioned (Versailles 1963, p. L I I I ) , but the
Versailles 1963, p. LIII; Journal 21 (1993), p. 128, no. 41.
quality o f the portrait supports his authorship. A good compari
Inscribed in the upper right in black chalk, /1647. On son, albeit i n o i l , is Lebruns signed portrait o f his friend the
the backing of the frame, inscribed in an old, possibly painter Louis Testelin (Paris, Louvre; ibid., p. 27, no. 11), which
seventeenth-century hand, in black ink, portrait de . is similar i n the treatment o f the hair and the sculpted quality o f
Quatrehomme du Lys fait a St Cloud par M. Lebrun en I6$J.
the nose and face. Lebrun probably painted the portrait o f
Testelin around 1648-50, the period to which the present exam
ple appears to date as well, as indicated by its date o f 1647. The
THE A R T I S T F I R S T S K E T C H E D the figure i n red chalk, w i t h relative informality o f the present example suggests that, like the
pentimenti visible along the outside o f the right arm. H e con portrait o f Testelin, i t might have been made as a "friendship
centrated the application o f pastel i n two main areas, the face portrait" ("portrait d'ami"; cf. ibid., p. 27). A somewhat later
and the hand and book, working up the torso principally i n drawing by Lebrun, Portrait of a Man (Louvre, Cabinet des
black and white chalk. This heightens the coloristic and plastic dessins inv. 29 634; ibid., p. 409, no. 181), is quite close to the
effects o f the regions w i t h the main pastel work and enlivens the present example i n the modeling o f the face and distribution
portrait as a whole. The face and hair are drawn more tightly, and application o f the white heightening.
w i t h the chalk and pastel freely applied below i n the book, the

244 French School ?f LEBRUN

Georges Seurat
Paris 1859-1891

G eorges Seurat belonged to a middle-class Paris

ian family. From 1878 to 1879 he was enrolled
at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, where he stud
ied under H e n r i Lehmann (1814-1882), though he had earlier
learned the rudiments o f painting at a local art school and from
mented i n Seurat s first major painting, Bathers
1883-84 (London, National Gallery), which was reworked i n
at Asnieres o f

1887, and later i n his Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande

Jatte o f 1884-86 ( A r t Institute o f Chicago). I n 1883, for the first
and only time, he exhibited at the Salon. Later he participated i n
his uncle, who was an amateur artist. D u r i n g the 1880s Seurat the Salon des Independents, and i n 1887, along w i t h Paul Signac
studied the science and aesthetics o f color, making i t his aim to (1863-1935) and others, established a Post-Impressionist group.
establish a rational system for the achievement o f vibrant color I n 1887 a n <
i ^ 8 9 Seurat showed several works i n the exhibition
effects. I n 1886 the critic Felix Feneon coined the term poin- o f the progressive Symbolist-led group Les X X i n Brussels. His
tillism to describe Seurat s personal method o f color divisionism highly individual C o n t i crayon drawingswhich renounce line
(which he himself called chromo-luminarism), i n which a m u l t i i n favor o f large, velvety masses o f dark merging into areas o f
tude o f small touches o f unmixed color are placed side by side mid-tone and luminous white highlights (where the paper is left
on the canvas and then "optically" mixed by the viewer seeing blank)are among the masterworks o f the nineteenth century.
the picture at a distance. This technique is brilliantly imple

101 Poplars SEURAT's UNIQUE D R A W I N G method o f shading i n half

tones i n Conte crayon on knobbly paper comes closest to
Conte crayon on Michallet paper; H : 24.3 cm (9%; in.); abstraction i n this example o f around 1883-84. Seen almost as i f
W: 31 cm (IXVK, in.)
i n a waking dream, the forms o f tall poplars are barely emergent
against the sky, their bases rooted i n the meadow; there are sev
eral more poplars at the right, more shadowy still, and, at the
PROVENANCE left, a clearing seen through a break i n the wall o f brush (Paris
Probably Madeleine Knoblock, Paris; Leonce Moline, Paris and New York 1991-92, no. 72). The complete lack o f edges
(Lugt Suppl. 2282a); Gustave Geffroy, Paris; Andre Barbier, among the forms and the planarity o f the composition deny
Paris, Marianne Feilchenfeldt, Zurich; Franz Armin Morat,
plastic qualities and appear to be calculated to create the effect o f
Freiburg im Breisgau; Morat-Institut fr Kunst und
Kunstwissenschaft, Freiburg im Breisgau; Charlotte Morat the pure interaction o f shadow and light. Indeed, Seurat appears
(sale, Christie's, London, 28 June 1988, lot 308); art market, to have realized that the achievement o f this effect was tanta
New York. mount to capturing the m i n i m u m conditions under which light
reveals form i n darkness. M u c h o f the drawing is a tribute to his
ability to discern and to render minutely gradating levels o f light
Bielefeld and Baden-Baden 1983-84, no. 48; Paris and New
penetration i n shadowy masses. The removal o f fixed points o f
York 1991-92, no. 72.
reference enables the eye to wander freely and to take i n the con
BIBLIOGRAPHY stantly shifting and irregular registration o f the interaction o f
De Hauke 1961, vol. 2, no. 554; Franz and Growe 1983, pp. 34, shadow and light that enlivens the entire surface o f the sheet.
63, no. 48; Journal 19 (1991), pp. 153-54, no. 38.
The drawing most closely comparable to the present
example is Trees by a Riverside (private collection; Paris and New
York 1991-92, no. 73), although there the artist appears to
explore the arboreal subject to somewhat different ends, having
to do w i t h the structural effect o f deep shadows. Both seem to
have been made as studies i n their own right and not i n prepara
tion for paintings.

246 French School ?f SEURAT

Attributed to Pedro Atanasio Bocanegra
Granada 1638 -1689

edro Atanasio Bocanegra was born i n Granada, charterhouse i n Granada, which constitute the most important
where he was a pupil o f Alonso Cano (1601-1667), part o f the decorative program o f that building. These large
whose influence on his work may be seen i n The paintings are lively i n coloring and dynamic i n composition,
Virgin of the Rosary (Granada, Museo de Bellas Artes), which is w i t h vigorous Baroque illusionistic effects. Later i n his career
based on Canos masterpiece o f the same subject o f 1665-67 Bocanegra worked i n Seville and M a d r i d , where he became
in the cathedral at Malaga. By 1668 he was established as the court painter i n 1676. Even his late paintings, such as Ecce Homo
most important painter i n Granada, and he began to receive Adored by Angels (Granada, Monastery o f Saint Jerome), show
important commissions. I n 1670 he painted a series o f canvases Cano s imprint, albeit combined w i t h Bocanegra s own softness
o f the life o f the V i r g i n for the lateral walls o f the church o f the of modeling and sentimentality.

102 Male Saint in Glory THE ATTRIBUTION T O B O C A N E G R A , first advanced by

Veronique Gerard-Powell (departmental records), is supported
Pen and two different shades of brown ink, one of them by stylistic affinities w i t h other drawings more securely attributed
grayish; H : 16 cm'(6 /i6 in.); W: 10.9 cm (4 Me in.)

to the artist: for example, Saint Jerome Hearing the Trumpet of the
Last Judgment i n the Uffizi, Florence, inscribed Pedro Atanasio
(almost certainly a signature) on one o f the pages o f the open
PROVENANCE book on the rock against which the saint leans (inv. 10103s;
Sauerwein collection, Munich; private collection, Germany; Angulo Iniguez 1928, pp. 4 8 - 4 9 , fig. 11; Florence 1972, no. 92,
art market, New York. fig. 69). The similarity i n handling between the two sheets is
apparent i n the rapid and i n places schematic pen work, the
briskly executed cross-hatching, and the shorthand for such
anatomical details as the knee (compare the left knee o f the saint
BIBLIOGRAPHY i n the Getty drawing w i t h the knees o f both figures i n the study
Journal 23 (1995), p. 81, no. 35. in Florence). The style o f both sheets is strongly dependent on
that o f Bocanegra s master, Alonso Cano, the leading painter i n
On the reverse of the light-blue card backing onto which the
Granada i n the mid-seventeenth century, i n whose circle he
drawing has been laid down, inscribed top center, in graphite,
worked before transferring to Seville and later M a d r i d .
R [for "Reales"?] $ 6"h [i.e., 6 inches high]/4 cb.
The saint appears to be a deacon, since he wears a short
tunic or dalmatic and what is probably a pectoral on his chest.

250 Spanish School fa ATTRIB. TO BOCANEGRA

Eugenio Cajes
Madrid 1574-1634

ugenio Cajes was born i n M a d r i d and was taught the king i n 1612. Together w i t h Vicente Carducho (q.v.) he dec
by his father, the Tuscan painter Patricio Cajes orated the chapel o f the Virgen del Sagrario, Toledo Cathedral,
(Patrizio Cascesi; c. 1540-1612), who had arrived i n in 1615-16, and the altarpiece o f the cathedral o f Guadelupe i n
Spain i n 1567 and worked at the Alcazar, the Palacio del Pardo, 1619. His style was influenced by Italian painting, especially by
and convents i n the district o f Madrid. Eugenio visited Italy i n that o f Correggio (q.v.) and o f Caravaggio (1571-1610) and his
his youth and on his return to Spain began working for Philip followers. A good example o f his mature work is The Virgin and
I I I i n the Palacio del Pardo i n 1608 and was appointed painter to Child with Angels o f c. 1618 (Madrid, Museo del Prado).

103 The Triumph of the Cross Cajes s late work, while the marionette-like figures o f angels find
a parallel i n a drawing o f similar technique i n the Prado, M a d r i d
Brush drawing in brown wash over red and black chalk; (inv. F.A. 755; Angulo Ifiiguez and Perez Sanchez 1975-88, vol. 2,
H : 23.4 cm ( 9 / 4 in.); W: 22.2 cm (8% in.)
no. 12, p i . V ) , and one i n the Biblioteca Nacional, M a d r i d (inv.
B.69; ibid., no. 98, p i . X X V I I ) . Other drawings w i t h which the
Strasbourg lily (close to Heawood 1950, vol. 1, nos. 1786, present study may be compared are i n the Louvre, Paris (inv. RF
1796). 42638; Paris 1991, no. 21), and i n the Philadelphia Museum o f
A r t (inv. 1984-56-473; ibid., p. 80, under no. 21).
94.GA.81 Cajes, who visited Italy i n his youth i n the company o f his
Italian father, must have received some o f his early training i n
Florence, since his drawing style owes much to Tuscan models.
Hans Calmann, London; private collection, Germany; art
market, New York. His figure types seem to resemble those i n the drawings o f
Giovanni Biliverti (1576-1644), while his use o f flowing dark
EXHIBITIONS brown washes hints at the work o f the French artist long active
None. in the city, Jacques Callot (q.v.). The composition itself shows
a knowledge o f Luca Cambiaso s multifigure fresco Paradise i n
Journal 23 (1995), p. 76, no. 24. San Lorenzo i n the Escorial (Magnani 1995, fig. 297), painted
in 1583-85, which is organized i n similar concentric circles o f
On the verso, inscribed in the center of the sheet, in black angels, saints, and putti, though on a grander scale.
chalk, Spanish 1-10-6 (i.e., the price in British currency of The illusionistic rendering o f the cross shows evidence o f
i-ios-6d), and just below, also in black chalk but almost
the artists knowledge o f the principles o f central perspective,
erased, 10, and in the lower right corner in brown ink, 8/6.
which he may have derived from his familiarity w i t h the writings
of the Italian architect Jacopo da Vignola (1507-1573). His
father, Patricio Cajes, had translated Vignolas 1562 treatise on
T H E L I G H T I N G AS W E L L AS the figurative components of the architecture into Spanish {Regia de las cinco ordenes de architec-
design show that the square format was intentional and that the tura de Iacome Vignola. Agore de nueuo traduzido de toscano en
drawing is not a fragment o f a larger composition. Moreover, to romance por Patritio Caxesi Florentino, pintory criado de su Mag.
judge from the steep perspective o f the cross and the suggestion [Madrid, 1593]), and Eugenio may also have known Vignolas
of the spatial infinity o f heaven, the design was probably des posthumous Le due regole della prospettiva pratica . . . con i
tined for the decoration o f a ceiling, presumably i n a chapel ded comentarij del R. P. M. Danti (Rome, 1583), although his father
icated to the cross. The chiaroscuro effect i n brush and wash, as did not translate this text.
well as the rhythmical flow o f the forms, is characteristic o f

252 Spanish School fa CAJES

Vicente Carducho
Florence c. 1576-Madrid 1638

icente Carducho was born i n Florence and fifty-six paintings illustrating the lives o f Saint Bruno and other
went to Spain w i t h his brother and teacher Carthusians for the Carthusian monastery o f E l Paular, near
Bartolome (c. 1560-1608) i n 1585, settling i n Segovia, which he completed i n 1632. I t is the most extensive
M a d r i d . I n 1609 Vicente succeeded his brother as royal painter, cycle o f monastic paintings i n seventeenth-century Europe and
a position he held u n t i l his death. Vicente was the best-known drew inspiration from Giovanni Lanfranco s cycle for the church
and most respected painter i n M a d r i d under Kings Philip I I I o f San Martino i n the Carthusian monastery at Naples i n 1620,
and IV, before the arrival o f Diego Velazquez (1599-1660) i n probably known through engravings. Carducho was also a central
1623. Carducho s early works include the retable for the church figure in the development o f art theory i n Spain, and i n 1633 he
o f the convent o f La Encarnacion, M a d r i d , o f 1614-16. I n 1626 published his Dialogos de la pintura, an erudite defense o f paint
he received his most important religious commission, a cycle o f ing as a noble pursuit and o f the artist as a learned humanist.

104 Saint Jerome Hearing the THE SQUARING S U G G E S T S that this may be a preparatory
study for a large painting, though no such w o r k is known. The
Trumpet of the Last Judgment composition was partly inspired by two etchings o f the same
subject by Jusepe de Ribera (q.v.), one o f which is dated 1621
Black chalk with brown wash, heightened with white body
color, squared in black chalk; H : 31.8 cm (12/2 in.); (Bartsch 1803-21, vol. 20, nos. 4, 5; Princeton and Cambridge
W: 21.6 cm (8/2 in.) 1973-74, pp. 6 6 - 6 8 , nos. 5, 4, pis. 4 - 6 ) . Carducho may also
have known Riberas painting o f the subject, dated 1626, now
94.GA.86 in the Hermitage, Saint Petersburg (Princeton and Cambridge
1973-74, p. 29, fig. 7). Riberas influence w o u l d suggest a date
for the drawing i n the second half o f the 1620s, as does a hint o f
Unidentified collector (collector s mark [initials W.B.
intertwined], not in Lugt, stamped in black ink on the verso); Guido Reni s influence i n the handling.
Luigi Grassi, Florence (Lugt Suppl. 1171b); Anton Schmid, A not dissimilar drawingalso i n black chalk and brown
Munich and Vienna; art market, New York. wash, heightened i n white, and squared i n black c h a l k o f Saint
Jerome kneeling before a crucifix and beating his breast w i t h a
stone, is i n the Courtauld Institute, London (inv. 3779; Blunt
1956, p. 159, as Bartolome Carducho). Similar inscriptions (in
BIBLIOGRAPHY the same seventeenth-century hand) and prices appear on many
Angulo Ifiiguez and Perez Sanchez 1975-88, vol. 2, no. 190, drawings by Carducho, for example, several i n the Biblioteca
pi. LII; Journal23 (1995), p. 76, no. 25. Nacional, M a d r i d (inv. B.30, B.38, B.42), and one i n the Prado,
M a d r i d (inv. F . D . 362; Angulo Ifiiguez and Perez Sanchez
Inscribed in brown ink, in the upper left corner, de Bicencio
Carduchi, and below, in another hand, 2oRls (i.e., the price in 1975-88, vol. 2, no. 165, p i . X L V I I ) .
Spanish currency of 20 Reales); inscribed in the bottom left
corner, in the same hand as the previous inscription, in brown
ink, 20 [crossed out] Rls (i.e., the same amount repeated).

254 Spanish School fa CARDUCHO

Juan Carrefio de Miranda
Aviles 1614-Madrid 1685

orn at Aviles, near Oviedo, i n northern Spain, (1646; Villanueva y Geltr, Museo Balaguer). H e worked for the
the son o f a painter also called Juan Carrefio de court o f Philip I V and was a friend o f Diego Velazquez
Miranda, Carrefio was to become one o f the most (1599 -1660), who i n 1658 offered h i m a position decorating
important painters o f the seventeenth century, specializing the Alcazar w i t h mythological scenes, although the paintings
mainly i n religious works i n a style that combines compositional were destroyed when the palace burned i n 1734. Carreno s suc
themes inspired by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) and other cess continued into the 1660s, when he painted one o f his
Flemish artists w i t h the rich palette o f the Venetians, especially best-known works, Saint James on Horseback (Budapest, Szep-
T i t i a n (c. 148$/^-i^6). As a youth he traveled w i t h his father miiveszeti Muzeum). I n the same period he collaborated w i t h
to M a d r i d and at some point seems to have come into contact Francesco Rizi (1614-1685) on a number o f important decora
w i t h Vicente Carducho (q.v.), to judge from the style o f his ear tive projects.
liest signed and dated work, Saint Anthony Preaching to the Fishes

10$ The Visitation THE A T T R I B U T I O N T O Carrefio de Miranda, under which

the present study was purchased, is supported by a stylistic com
Pen and brown ink and gray-brown wash, heightened with parison w i t h a drawing i n a similar technique undoubtedly by
white body color, over touches of black chalk on light brown
the artist, Studies for an Assumption of the Virgin i n the Metro
paper (recto); black chalk (verso); H : 24.7 cm (9% in.);
politan Museum o f A r t , N e w York (inv. 80.3.490; Lawrence
W:2 .6cm(9 /i6in.)

1974, no. 7; Perez Sanchez 1985, p. 113, p i . 18). The New York
94.GA.91 drawing is a study for the painting The Assumption of the Virgin
in the Muzeum Wielkopolskie i n Poznan (Lawrence 1974, p. 32,
PROVENANCE fig. 5). Both drawings display an irregular, somewhat nervous
Duke of Savoy-Aosta (Lugt Suppl. 47a); private collection,
handling o f the pen w i t h summary passages o f wash i n gray-
Germany; art market, New York.
brown body color, heightened w i t h white. Further comparisons
EXHIBITIONS may be made w i t h a drawing o f the Annunciation, on the Paris
None. art market i n 1991 (Tableaux et dessins espagnols, Galerie Gis-
mondi, 19 A p r i l - 2 5 May 1991, no. I I ; pen and brown wash,
13.5 15 cm [$Yi6 5% i n . ] , inscribed i n the lower center,
Journal 23 (1995), p. 79, no. 30.
Carreno), which is also characterized by nervous, irregular pen

On the verso, inscribed at the bottom, to the left of center, in strokes w i t h patchy application of wash.
a modern hand, in graphite, A. gherardini (i.e., an attribution The purpose o f the present sheet is unknown, although i t
to the Florentine painter Alessandro Gherardini [1655-1723], was presumably intended as a design for a painting. Saint Eliza
whose graphic style is characterized by similar, rapidly drawn beth and the V i r g i n are borrowed directly from the figure group
strokes of the pen, somewhat in the manner of Pietro da
in Barocci's Visitation i n the Chiesa Nuova, Rome (Olsen 1962,
Cortona [q.v.] and Salvator Rosa [16151673]).
fig. 59), a w o r k the artist may have known through engravings.
The correspondence is reasonably exact; i n both the V i r g i n
ascends the steps and places her left hand on Elizabeth s upper
arm, while Elizabeth takes the younger woman by the shoulder
w i t h her left; the women shake each other s right hands.
A few indecipherable sketches i n black chalk, presumably
also by Carrefio de Miranda, appear on the verso.

256 Spanish School fa CARRENO DE MIRANDA

Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra
Cordoba 1616-1668

ne o f the few distinctive painters o f the Span Francisco de Zurbaran (1598-1664). A m o n g his finest paintings
ish Baroque living outside M a d r i d or Seville, are those for the cathedral at Cordoba, including The Virgin of
Antonio del Castillo was born i n Cordoba, the Rosary, Saint Sebastian, and Saint Roch (all late 1640s). I n the
where he studied w i t h his father, Agustin del Castillo (d. 1631), pilgrimage church o f the Fuensanta Sanctuary, Cordoba, are
and subsequently w i t h Ignacio de Aedo Calderon. H e special Scenes from the Life of Christ, The Assumption of the Virgin, The
ized mainly i n religious paintings, a good example o f which is Death of Saint Peter Martyr, and The Conversion ofSaint Paul(all
Saint John the Baptist in the Wilderness (1640s), formerly i n the 1660s). The muted tones o f these paintings recall the w o r k o f
Hispanic Society of America, New York, a w o r k that shows evi Bartolome Esteban M u r i l l o (q.v.).
dence o f his acquaintance w i t h the style o f the Sevillian painter

106 Saint Jerome Hearing the one he appears w i t h his hands clasped i n prayer, and i n the other
he is reading from a book. Both drawings are i n the same broad
Trumpet of the LaH Judgment reed-pen-and-ink technique as this example, though on cream-
colored paper and w i t h no white heightening. A variant o f the
Reed pen and brown ink, heightened with white body color,
on light blue-green prepared paper; black chalk and dark first Ithaca drawing, i n the Kunsthalle, Hamburg (inv. 38508;
brown ink framing lines; H : 29.3 cm (11 Vie in.); W: 19.8 cm Muller 1963, p. 234, no. 56), is likewise drawn i n pen and brown
( 7 % in.) ink but is heightened w i t h white and is on the same light blue-
green ground as the present sheet. A l l three drawings are upright
in format and o f roughly the same size, and all three carry the

artists rather prominent monogram, A.C. One o f the Ithaca
Private collection, Germany; art market, New York. drawings (inv. 56.618) is close i n composition to a painting by
Castillo i n the Prado, M a d r i d (Lawrence 1974, p. 35, under
EXHIBITIONS no. 10, fig. 6), which is signed and dated 1655. The differences
between the two works are, however, too great to suggest a
preparatory connection, though the comparison seems to point
Journal 23 (1995), p. 78, no. 28. to a date o f around 1655 for the Ithaca drawing. P. E. Muller,
however, suggested that the Hamburg Saint Jerome reflects Cas
Signed at the bottom, right of center, in brown ink, with the tillo's drawing style o f around 1645-50 (1963, p. 234, no. 56).
artist s monogram, A. C; inscribed in black ink in the bottom The two drawings on a washed ground (i.e., the present
left corner, 196r[eale]s[?], and in the bottom center, N.o $7,
sheet and the one i n Hamburg) suggest the influence of the tech
numbered in the lower right, in black chalk, 92, over traces of
nique o f chiaroscuro woodcuts. Especially close i n appearance
an older inscription in brown ink, the last digit of which is 5.
On the verso, inscribed above the center, in pencil, 24a', just and perhaps a direct inspiration for Castillo are those by Bar-
below, in black chalk, a large cross; to the right of this, in tolomeo Coriolano (c. 1599-1676?) after designs by Guido Reni
black ink, 6m\ and toward the bottom, in the center, in an (q.v.) (see, i n particular, one o f Saint Jerome, dated 1637; Bartsch
eighteenth-century hand, in brown ink, carto[?] 8 Rfealejs
1803-21, vol. 12, p. 83, no. 33). The coarse pen w o r k finds a
d$2\ P[ese]ta\T\. On a slip of paper attached to the top right
parallel i n the hatching o f the key woodblock and the white
corner, with the sheet turned 90 degrees counterclockwise,
inscribed in a modern hand, in pencil, Perhaps by Antonio heightening to the areas o f highlight cut away from the tinted,
Castillo. mid-tone block. The resemblance to the aforementioned print
also extends to figure type and landscape setting. W h y Castillo
would have been attracted to this woodcut style is unclear. H e
T H E D R A W I N G M A Y B E C O M P A R E D w i t h two other studies may have imitated i t simply as an end i n itself, but i t is also pos
by A n t o n i o del Castillo o f the saint seated before a crucifix i n sible that he intended to carry out similar woodcuts after his
the wilderness, both i n the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, own designs, though no such prints are known.
Ithaca, N e w York (inv. 56.517-18; Lawrence 1974, nos. 9-10): i n

258 Spanish School fa A. D E L C A S T I L L O

Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra
Cordoba 1616-166%

107 Studies of Four Male Heads ing also contains echoes o f contemporary Italian painting, for
example, the work o f Salvator Rosa (1615-1673), who often
Reed pen and brown ink; H : 21 cm (8 /i6
in.); W: 15.5 cm painted similar heads o f old men wearing turbans. N o t surpris
ingly, analogies may be found w i t h figures i n Castillo's own pic
tures, for example, the soldier holding a shield i n The Triumph of
Crescent within a circle with a cross (?) above it. Joseph, i n the Prado, Madrid, painted i n 1645-50 (Brown 1991,
fig. 234). Although the head i n the painting is i n reverse and the
94.GA.88 subject has a mustache and wears a helmet, there is nevertheless
a distinct echo.
Especially close i n treatment to the present sheet are Studies
Private collection, Europe; art market, New York.
of Four Youthful Male Heads, i n the Courtauld Institute Galleries,
EXHIBITIONS London (inv. 3184; Blunt 1956, p. 159; Muller 1963, no. 143), and
None. Studies of Four Heads of Old Women, i n the Spencer Museum o f
Art, University o f Kansas, Lawrence (inv. 73.118; Lawrence 1974,
no. 12). The Courtauld Institute drawing has been dated around
Journal T$ (1995), p. 81, no. 36.
1659 on the basis o f a comparison w i t h a similar sheet bearing

Signed in the center of the sheet, in brown ink, with the this date i n a private collection i n Barcelona (Muller 1963, p.
artists monogram, A.C., above his paraph(?). On the verso, in 268, under no. 143). Such a dating would seem reasonable for
the upper center, in the same brown ink, a fainter version of the Getty drawing. Further interesting comparisons may be
the same paraph and, in another, later hand, in a darker made w i t h two drawings i n the Louvre: Study of Six Heads of Old
brown ink, an old price for the drawing, 8 Rfeajles.
Men (inv. 43406; "Acquisitions," Revue du Louvre 5 - 6 [Decem
ber 1994], pp. 9 4 - 9 5 , no. 16), also almost certainly an instruc
tional drawing (dated by Lizzie Boubli to 1642-50), and Study of
T H I S I S O N E O F a number o f drawings by Antonio del Cas Two Heads of Old Men (inv. 34430; Paris 1991, no. 118), which
tillo, possibly from a sketchbook, which seem to have been made Boubli has connected w i t h the painting Saint Francis Preaching
as instructional models for drawing. H e may have intended them before Pope Lnnocent LLL'm the church o f San Francisco, Cordoba
to be engraved or, alternatively, they may simply have been kept (ibid., p. 227, fig. 27), dated c. 1660. The two heads i n this draw
as patterns i n the studio for use by the artist and his workshop. ing are very similar to those at bottom left and top right i n the
The drawings are scattered i n a number o f European and N o r t h present work, but without head scarves.
American collections (see Muller 1963, pp. 140-41, nos. 135-56). I n his lives of Spanish artists, the painter and writer Antonio
Some bear the artist's monogram, and some are dated. Palomino de Castro y Velasco (1653-1726) described Antonio del
The didactic potential o f the present sheet, w i t h its variety Castillo's usual technique o f drawing w i t h the reed pen, which
of different facial types and expressions as well as its different he employed particularly i n his studies o f heads, including this
drapery arrangements o f the headgear, is obvious. The dignified example ("y algunas cabezas [especialmente de viejos] hechas
gaze o f the head at upper left is contrasted w i t h the more intro con pluma de cana: para lo qual buscaba unos carrizos, 0 canas
verted, downward look o f its counterpart, upper right; and the delgades, que tienen los canutos largos . . . y los cortaba como
profile at lower left is a foil to the agonized face emitting a cry plumas de gordo" [and some heads (preferably o f elders) done
opposite. The four heads are unified by identical headgear, and w i t h reed pen: for that purpose he looked for some ditch reeds
the different ways the scarf is loosely tied about the hair reflect or t h i n shafts, which have long tubes (the section between two
the range o f expression i n the wearers. The mis-en-page is attrac knots o f a shaft), cutting them into thick pens]; Palomino 1715-
tive, w i t h the four studies tied together by the central monogram 24, vol. 3, p. 366). A similar technique was used by the painter
and paraph. The heads may derive from the painter's own obser and engraver Francisco Herrera the Elder (1576-1656), and i t is
vation o f peasant types from everyday life, although the draw assumed that Castillo imitated the older artist's manner.

260 Spanish School fa A. DEL CASTILLO

Attributed to Juan del Castillo
Llerena c. 1590-Cadiz c. 1657

I uan del Castillo was a successful painter from Seville, then i n the region i n some abundance. A m o n g his earliest pic
I where he was active between 1611 and 1650, and a tures is the altarpiece The Incarnation (c. 1610), Santa Maria,
I relation by marriage o f Alonso Cano (1601-1667) Carmona. Other surviving works include altarpieces for the
^ and Bartolome Esteban M u r i l l o (q.v.). His style was church of M o n t e Sion (1630s) as well as Scenes from the Life of the
influenced by those o f Francisco Pacheco (1564-1644), Juan de Virgin and the Birth of Christ and Scenes from the Lives of Saints
Roelas (c. 1560-1624), and other Sevillan masters o f the period John the Baptist and John the Evangelist, for the church o f San
as well as by examples o f Italian, especially Venetian, painting, Juan de Aznalfarrache.

108 Saint Jerome (recto); Kneeling vigorous parallel hatching i n pen is characteristic o f drawings
from Seville o f this period and that the handling anticipates the
Male Nude, with His Head and work o f other Sevillian artists, such as Cano, Antonio del Cas
Shoulders Leaning Back (verso) tillo, and M u r i l l o . H e also noted affinities w i t h the drawings o f
M u r i l l o , who, according to Palomino (1715-24, vol. 3, p. 300),
Pen and brown ink; H : 21 cm (8/4 in.); W: 14.9 cm (57s in.) was a pupil of Juan del Castillo.
The saint is seated at a small pedestal desk w i t h i n a niche,
apparently writing i n a book, which he supports w i t h his left
hand. The shading hints at the depth o f the shallow space. Since
Anton Schmid, Munich and Vienna; art market, New York. the light comes from the left and illuminates the right o f the
saint's body, the left side o f the niche and that part o f the right
EXHIBITIONS side blocked by his figure are cast into shadow. Although a wall
None. decoration was the likely purpose of the design, i t is also possible
that the upright rectangle, w i t h its arched top, was intended for
Angulo Iniguez and Perez Sanchez 1975-88, vol. 1, no. no, a painting o f this form, w i t h the slight subsidiary sketch o f a
pi. XXXV (as G. B. Castello); Princeton 1976-77, pp. 24-25, molding i n the upper right perhaps an idea for the decoration o f
fig. 3 (as Juan del Castillo); Madrid and London 1982-83, the frame. A number o f pentimenti may be noted, for example,
p. 63 (as "stylistically . . . more related" to "Italian artists in the saint's headgear, which was originally drawn as a cap and
working at the Escorial"); Journal 23 (1995), p. 77, no. 26
was then changed to what appears to be a cardinal's hat. The
(as Juan del Castillo).
drapery i n the lower left, part of which originally fell outside the
Inscribed in the lower left corner, in an old, probably lower l i m i t o f the composition, was redrawn so that i t would fit
seventeenth-century, hand, in brown ink, Castillo. An w i t h i n the design.
identical inscription appears on the following drawing (cat. Representations o f Saint Jerome i n his study, a subject
no. 109). The previous attribution of these drawings to the
that emphasized the saint's scholarship, were common i n the
Genoese painter Giovanni Battista Castello, called II
Renaissance, though by Castillo's day they had become a little
Bergamasco (1509-1569), an older contemporary of his better-
known compatriot Luca Cambiaso (1527-1585), both of whom old-fashioned. This contemplative moment contrasts w i t h rep
worked for a short period in Spain (Castello in 1564-69, resentations of the far more common visionary scene of the saint
Cambiaso in 1583), is due to a misreading of the inscription. in the desert beholding the angel w i t h the trumpet o f the Last
Judgment, a subject closer to the spirit o f the Baroque (for treat
ments o f this i n Spanish drawings i n the Museum's collection,
THIS AND T H EFOLLOWING D R A W I N G (cat. no. 109) were see cat. nos. 104,106).
attributed to the Sevillian painter Juan del Castillo by Jonathan The figure study on the verso may have been done swiftly
Brown (Princeton 1976-77, pp. 24-25), w h o published both from life or, alternatively, from a flayed cadaver. I t may also have
drawings when still i n the Schmid collection, though he d i d not served as a model for a figure o f Christ i n a Lamentation or a
exclude the possibility that they could be by Juan's brother Deposition or, more likely (in view o f the contorted pose), for
Agustin (c. 1565-1631), who was the father o f the well-known the Good or Bad T h i e f i n a scene o f the Crucifixion, as Brown
Antonio del Castillo (q.v.). Brown rightly pointed out that the suggested (Princeton 1976-77, p. 25 n . 9).

262 Spanish School fa ATTRIB. TO J. DEL CASTILLO

Attributed to Juan del Castillo
Llerena c. 1590-Cadiz c. 1657

iop Allegorical Figure of Friendship 1620s. The first Italian edition, without illustrations, was pub
lished i n Rome i n 1593, and another, also without illustrations,
(recto); ChriU on the Cross was published i n M i l a n i n 1602. Ripa then enlarged his original
(verso) text, adding a further four hundred entries and illustrating the
whole w i t h woodcuts, reputedly to the designs o f Giuseppe
Pen and brown ink; H : 21.7 cm (8%. in.); W: 14.8 cm Cesari, called i l Cavaliere d'Arpino (1568-1640). This illustrated
( 5 % in.) edition first appeared i n 1603. From then onward all subsequent
Italian editions o f the work were illustrated, the next appear
ing i n 1607, and others, still further augmented, i n 1618 and
PROVENANCE 1620. Yet more editions were published following the authors
Anton Schmid, Munich and Vienna; art market, New York. death around 1623.
As a repository o f visual formulas for the representation o f
allegories and other abstract ideas, the Iconologia became a stan
dard reference work, as i t must have been for the artist i n this

BIBLIOGRAPHY case. According to Ripas prescription, Amicitia was to be repre

Angulo Ifiiguez and Perez Sanchez 197588, vol. 1, no. 112, sented as a fair young woman, simply draped i n the white garb
pi. XXXV (as G. B. Castello); Princeton 1976, pp. 24-25, of Truth, the virtue upon which friendship is based, and point
fig. 4 (as attributed to Juan del Castillo); Madrid and London ing to her bosom, the seat o f her heart. I n the present drawing
1982-83, p. 63 n. 8 (as "stylistically . . . more related" to
the religious connotation o f the inscription Cerca Jesos (close to
"Italian artists working at the Escorial"); Journal 23 (1995),
Jesus), emblazoned across the figures bosom, is reinforced by
p. 78, no. 27 (as Juan del Castillo).
further inscriptions on her robe and left leg, alluding to her
Inscribed in the artist's hand, in the same ink used for the scorning o f death. According to Ripa, Amicitia goes barefoot, as
drawing, across the figure's bosom, CERCA IEfSOJS, on in the present drawing, "for friendship knows no inconvenience
the side of her dress, to the left, MUERTE; on her left leg,
too great for it," and also treads on a skull, "for friendship jeers
VIDA; and close to the orb on which she places her right
at death." The sphere drawn i n this example was probably
foot, Amititia. Inscribed in the lower right corner, also in an
old, probably seventeenth-century, hand, in a lighter shade intended as a free allusion to the skull. Ripa also noted that
of brown ink, Castillo. For an explanation of this inscription, Amicitia should wear a wreath o f myrtle on her head, which, like
see the preceding entry. Inscribed on the verso, with the true friendship, is evergreen, though the figure i n this drawing
sheet turned the other way up, in an old hand, in brown ink, seems to be wearing a different form o f headgear.
m. Rfealejs, underlined (perhaps a reference to an old price
On the verso is a study for a Christ on the Cross. Since the
for the drawing).
cross is drawn at an oblique angle, the figure may have been
made for a Raising of the Cross. Alternatively, the slightly low
vantage point may be explained by the study having been made
THE F I G U R E ' S A T T R I B U T E S broadly conform to those for from a crucifix. The verso study has several points i n common
"Amicitia," or Friendship, as set out i n Cesare Ripas Iconologia, w i t h the verso o f the previous drawing (cat. no. 108), particularly
a popular handbook o n imagery much used by artists through in the drawing o f the head (in profilperdu) and chest, as well as
out the seventeenth century. I t is unclear which edition the in terms o f style, and was surely executed around the same time.
painter w o u l d have used, though i t was probably one from the For the attribution to Castillo, see the previous entry.

ATTRIB. TO J. DEL CASTILLO ?f Spanish School 265

I 0 9 VERS
Jose Jimenez Donoso
Consuegra c. 1632-Madrid 1690

I ose Jimenez Donoso was born i n Consuegra, Toledo, destroyed, o f Santa Cruz, M a d r i d (c. 1667-68). O n l y a small
I and was apprenticed i n M a d r i d to Francisco Fernn- fragment of Jimenez Donoso s output survives, among which is
I dez (1605-1646), following whose death he traveled, The Vision of Saint Francis ofPaola (Madrid, Prado), whose rich
' i n c. 1649-50, to Rome, where he remained until coloring and dramatic composition show the influence o f late
1657. O n his return to Spain he entered the studio o f Juan seventeenth-century painting i n M a d r i d . The only extant fresco
Carrefio de Miranda (q.v.) and i n the mid-i66os began a long projects by Jimenez Donoso and Coello are two ceiling paint
association w i t h Claudio Coello (1642-1693) as his principal ings i n the Real Casa de la Panaderia, M a d r i d (1673-74), and
collaborator on fresco projects, including the decoration, now the ceiling o f the vestry i n Toledo Cathedral (c. 167173).

no EqueUrian Portrait of Don Juan Tomaso Aniello (1620-1647), known as Masaniello. A t the out
set a protest against a new tax on fruit levied by the nobility,
Jose ofAuUria the uprising later turned into an insurrection whose aim was the
slaughter o f the nobility. The drawing shows D o n Juan's t r i
Point of the brush and brown ink and brown wash over black
chalk, heightened with white body color, on light brown umphal entry into Naples following his successful suppression
paper; squared in black chalk (recto); black chalk (verso); of the revolt, which is symbolized by his action o f riding over an
H : 23.1 cm (9/3 in.); W: 21.3 cm (8% in.) infant and an upturned table. As the general leads his cavalry
into the city, he receives the homage o f the population i n the
person o f the bearded man kneeling t