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CRANE MANUFACTURERS

ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, INC.

Standards and Guidelines for Professional Services


DetformedOn Overhead and Traveling Cranes and
Lscn~iatodHnicting Equipment

Preparsd by
The Cmne Manufacturers Senrice mrnrnittea
of CMAA 78

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CMSC is a Standing Committee of the
1 1 1 1 Crane Manufacturers Association of America
CRANEMANUFACTURERS
SERVICE COMMITTEE OF CMAA
CMAA Specification No. 78-2002
Standards and Guidelines for Professional Services Performed
On Overhead Traveling Cranes and Associated Hoisting Equipment

INTRODUCTION

These Standards and Guidelines designated CMAA Specification No. 78-2002 (Specification)
have been developed by the Crane Manufacturers Service Committee (CMSC) under the
oversight of the Crane Manufacturers Association of America, Inc. (CMAA), an organization of
leading electric overhead traveling crane manufacturers in the United States. The purpose is to
recognize overhead traveling crane service and service for associated hoisting equipment as an
"industry" worthy of having guidelines and standards for providing high quality, professional
services performed by safety-minded, manufacturer-trainedand certified technicians.

The Specification also contains information that should be helpful to the purchasers and users of
cranes and to plant engineering and maintenance professionals. While much of this information
must be of a general nature, the items listed may be checked with individual manufacturers, and
comparisons may be made, leading to optimum selection of a service provider.

The words "shall" and "should" are used throughout this Specification in accordance with the
definitions in the ASME 830 standards as follows:

Shall: this word indicates that a rule is mandatory and must be followed.

Should: this word indicates that a rule is a recommendation, the advisability of


which depends on the facts in each situation.

This Specification consists of eight sections, as follows:

General Information
Technical Qualifications
Jobsite Safety
Crane Inspection, Maintenance and Load Testing
OEM (Factory) Parts
Crane Service Classifications
Glossary
Appendix
Index

No part of this Specification may be reproduced in any form


without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Copyright a 0 0 2 by Crane Manufacturers Association of America, Inc. All rights reserved.


DISCLAIMERS

The Crane Manufacturers Association of America, Inc. (CMAA) is an independent incorporated


trade association affiliated with Material Handing lndustry and its Division, Material Handling
Industry of America (MHI). MHI provides CMAA with certain services and arranges for the
development, production and distribution of these Standards and Guidelines. Neither MHI, its
officers, directors, nor employees participate in any way in the preparation of the information
contained in these Standards and Guidelines, and MHI does not approve, rate, or endorse these
Standards and Guidelines.

These Standards and Guidelines represent suggested technical qualifications for service and
inspection personnel and guidelines for jobsite safety and inspection procedures. It was
developed with the sole intent of offering information to parties engaged in the manufacture,
marketing, purchasing, servicing or use of such cranes. These Standards and Guidelines are
advisory only and should be regarded as a guide that the Specification user may or may not
choose to adopt, modify, or reject. The information does not constitute a comprehensive safety
program and should not be relied upon as such. Such program should be developed and an
independent safety adviser consulted to do so.

The acceptance or use of these Standards and Guidelines are completely voluntary. Their
existence does not in any respect preclude any company, whether it has approved the
Specification or not, from manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, servicing, or using products,
processes, or procedures not conforming to these Standards and Guidelines.

Disclaimer of Liability

CMAA and its members assume no responsibility and disclaim all liability of any kind, however
arising, as a result of acceptance or use or alleged use of the Standards and Guidelines. User
specifically understands and agrees that CMAA, its officers, agents, and employees shall not be
liable under any legal theory of any kind for any action or failure to act with respect to the design,
manufacture, preparation for sale, erection, installation, inspection, service, or characteristics,
features, or delivery of anything covered by these Standards and Guidelines. Any use of this
information must be determined by the User to be in accordance with applicable federal, state, and
local laws and regulations.

Disclaimer of Warranty

CMAA makes no warranties of any kind, express, implied, or statutory, in connection with the
information in these Standards and Guidelines. CMAA specifically disclaims all implied warranties
of merchantability or of fitness for particular purpose.

Indemnity

By referring to or otherwise employing these Standards and Guidelines, the User agrees to
defend, protect, indemnify, and hold CMAA and its officers, agents, and employees
harmless from and against all claims, losses, expenses, damages, and liabilities, direct,
incidental, or consequentlal, arislng from acceptance or use or alleged use of these
Standards and Guidellnes, including loss of profits and reasonable attorney's fees which
may arise out of the acceptance or use or alleged use of these Standards and Guidelines.
The intent of this provision and of the User is t o absolve and protect CMAA and its officers,
agents, and employees from any and all loss relating in any way to these Standards and
Guidelines, including those resulting from the user's own negligence.
NOTICE
It is the responsibility of the OwnerlUser to install, inspect, test, maintain, and operate a
crane or associated lifting equipment in accordance with the applicable volume of the
ANSUASME 830 Safety Standard, OSHA Regulations, and ANSUNFPA 70, National Electric
Code and local regulations and laws. If the crane or associated lifting equipment is
installed as part of a total llfting system, it is also the responsibility of the ownerluser to
comply with the applicable ANSllASME B30 volumes that address other types of
equipment used in the system.

Further, It is a responsibility of the OwnerIUser to require all personnel who install, inspect,
test, maintain, and operate a crane or associated lifting equipment to read and to
comply with the contents of the instruction manuals furnished by the manufacturer of the
crane or associated lifting equipment, and the applicable portions of the volume of the
ANSUASME 830 Safety Standard, OSHA Regulations, and ANSUNFPA 70, National Electric
Code. If the crane or associated lifting equipment is installed as part of a total lifting
system, the applicable ANSVASME 830 volumes that address other types of equipment
used in the system must also be read and followed by all personnel.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

78-1 General Information 78-5 Genuine OEM (Factory) Parts

1.1 Scope General Purpose


1.2 Reference Documents Assurance
Application and Design Familiarity
78-2 Technical Qualifications Component Updating and
Modernization
2.1 Crane Technician Root Cause Analysis and Solutlons
2.2 Crane Inspector Recommendationfor Complete
Parts Requirements
78-3 Jobsite Safety Guidelines Counterfeit Parts
Technical Information
Commitment to Safety Statement Packaging
Employee Responsibility Regulation Compliance
Safety Orientation and
Documentation
Regulations 78-6 Crane Classlfications
Equipment Operator Certification
Safety and First Aid General
Drug-Free Workforce Class A
Personal Protective Equipment Class B
Equipment, Rigging, Tools Class C
Fire Prevention Class D
Ergonomics Class E
Class F
78-4 Crane Inspection, Maintenance and Crane Service Class In Terms Of
Load Testing Load Class and Load Cycles

4.1 Initial lnspection 78-7 Glossary


4.2 Pre-Shift lnspection
4.3 Frequent lnspection Appendix A
4.4 Periodic lnspection Appendix B
4.5 Reporting
4.6 Maintenance 78-8 Index
4.7 Load Testing
78-1 GENERAL INFORMATION

1.1 SCOPE

1.1.1 This specification shall be known as the Standards and Guidelines for Professional
Services Performed on Overhead Traveling Cranes and Associated Hoisting Equipment -
CMAA Specification #78.

1.1.2 The information contained in this publication applies to top runnina and underrunnina
bridge and gantry type single or double girder overhead traveling cranes and associatei
hoisting eauipment. It should be understoodthat the Specification is aeneral in nature and
other Gec'ifications may be agreed upon between the 'Purchaser andthe service provider
(Seller) to suit each specific case.

1.1.3 Section 78-6 outlines six different classes of crane service as a guide for determining the
senrice requirements of the individual application. In many cases there are no clear
categories of service in which a particular crane operation may fall, and the proper
selection of a crane can be made only through a discussion of service requirements and
crane details with the crane manufacturer or other qualified persons.

1 .I .4 Proper operator training and regular maintenance and inspections by qualified individuals
have an important influence on the operating life of the wearing parts of a crane. These
factors must be given careful consideration to assure maximum equipment operating life
and minimum breakdowns.

1.1.5 Serious property damage, personal injury or death can occur if cranes are not operated
properly or not regularly inspected, serviced and maintained.

1.2 Reference Documents

Parts of this Specification refer to certain portions of other applicable specifications,


codes or standards. Where interpretations differ, CMAA recommends that this
Specification be used as the guideline. Mentioned in the text are the latest revisions of
publications of the following organizations:

ANSI American National Standards Institute


11 West 42nd Street
New York, New York 10036

ANSI-ASME 830 specifications that are applicable to overhead & gantry


cranes, chain and wire rope hoists, below-the-hook devices and
associated equipment.

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers


Three Park Avenue
New York, New York 10016-5990
CMAA Crane Manufacturers Association of America, Inc.
8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201
Charlotte, North Carolina 28217-3992

Specification No. 70 -Top Running Bridge and Gantry Type Multiple


Girder Electric Overhead Traveling Cranes

Specification No. 74 -Top Running & Under Running Single Girder


Electric Traveling Cranes Utilizing Under Running Trolley Hoist

CMAA Crane Operators Manual

Overhead Crane Inspection and Maintenance Checklist

MMA Monorail Manufacturers Association


8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201
Charlotte, North Carolina 28217-3992

Specification No. MH27.1 - Standard for Patented Track Underhung


Cranes and Monorail Systems

Specification No. MH27.2 - Standard for Enclosed Track Underhung


Cranes and Monorail Systems

NECINFPA National Electric Code


National Fire Protection Association
1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101
Quincy, Massachusetts 02269-9101

OSHA U.S. Department of Labor


Directorate of Safety Standards Programs
200 ConstitutionAvenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20210

29 CFR Part 1910 - Occupational Safety & Health Standards for


General Industry
78-2 TECHNICAL QUALIFICATIONS

Crane Technician

Any person engaging in repairing, troubleshooting, maintaining, servicing and


functional testing of cranes, including but not limited to top running and under-
running bridge and gantry type single or double girder overhead traveling cranes
and associated hoisting equipment.

Work Experience

A crane technician should have relevant work experience in maintaining,


servicing, repairing and modifying cranes. This experience should provide a
working knowledge of how to identify deficiencies and make repairs in
mechanical, structural, electrical systems and components of cranes. Under no
circumstances should an individual be permitted to perform repairs who has not
received appropriate training and cannot demonstrate a working knowledge of the
codes, regulations and the product being repaired.

Physical qualifications - A crane technician should possess the following


minimum qualifications:

Have vision of at least 20130 Snellen in one eye, and 20150 Snellen in the other,
with or without corrective lenses and have normal depth perception, field of vision,
hand-eye coordination, and no tendencies to dizziness or similar conditions.

Be able to hear, with or without hearing aid, adequately for a specific task.

Have sufficient strength, endurance, agility, coordination, manual dexterity and


speed of reaction to meet the demands of the job.

Not have evidence of physical restrictions; not be subject to seizures or loss of


physical control, or emotional instability that could render a hazard to the
technician or others. Evidence of such conditions may be cause for
disqualification. In such cases, specialized clinical or medical judgments and
tests may be required.

Be capable of working at extended heights in a safe manner under varying


environmental and adverse physical conditions.

Other Qualifications:

Should demonstrate proficiency to read and write in English.

Should demonstrate proficient oral and written communication skills.

Should be subject to other safety, drug, or other specific Seller and/or Purchaser's
requirements.
Should adhere to Seller and/or Purchaser's health and safety guidelines.

Should be able to distinguish colors, regardless of position of colors, if color


differentiation is required for the task.
REQUIRED TRAINING

The technicians should have received formal training in the areas of their trade or
discipline and area@) of expertise. Additional training should include, but not be
limited to:

2.1.4.1 Trade skills - examples such as, basic electricity and wiring practices, basic
mechanical principles, machinery alignment, rigging, etc.

2.1.4.2 Safe operating practices of cranes - receive classroom and practical training on
basic operating principles and methods such as rigging, hand signals, starting,
stopping and controlling loads, do's and don'ts for safe operation, etc.

2.1.4.3 Products - training on how to maintain, troubleshoot and repair the common
components of cranes and specific product lines or models produced by the
manufacturer.

2.1.4.4 -
Safety training on all aspects of job-site safety, safe work practices and
additional on-site training as required by the Purchaser. Refer to section 78-3.

2.1 -4.5 -
Tools and Equipment training on proper and safe operation of work tools and
equipment such as ladders, man-lifts, jacks, hand tools, meters, etc.

2.1.4.6 Job-site Conduct - training on customer communication, proper check-in and


checkout, site preparation and cleanup, etc.

Testing

Technicians should be able to successfully demonstrate retained knowledge and


proficiency by passing a written and/or practical examination on topics
determined by the Seller or Purchaser. Technicians should be able to present
documentation of successful completion of training for topics that require
examination.

Crane lnspeotor

Any person engaging in the testing, examination and/or certification of cranes,


including but not limited to top running and under-running bridge and gantry type
single or double girder overhead traveling cranes and associated hoisting
equipment

Work Experience

A crane inspector shall have a minimum of 2,000 field hours of experience related
to the maintaining, servicing, repairing, modifying and functional testing of cranes
and associated hoisting equipment. This experience should provide a working
knowledge of how to identify deficiencies in mechanical, structural, electrical
systems and components of cranes. Under no circumstances should an
individual be permitted to perform inspections who has not received appropriate
training and cannot demonstrate a working knowledge of applicable codes and
regulations and of the product being inspected.

Physical qualifications -A crane inspector should possess the following minimum


qualifications:
Have vision of at least 20130 Snellen in one eye, and 20150 Snellen in the other,
with or without corrective lenses and have normal depth perception, field of vision,
hand-eye coordination, and no tendencies to dizziness or similar conditions.

Be able to hear, with or without hearing aid, adequately for a specific task,

Have sufficient strength, endurance, agility, coordination, manual dexterity and


speed of reaction to meet the demands of the job.

Not have evidence of physical restrictions; not be subject to seizures or loss of


physical control, or emotional instability that could render a hazard to the
technician or others. Evidence of such conditions may be cause for
disqualification. In such cases, specialized clinical or medical judgments and
tests may be required.

Be capable of working at extended heights in a safe manner under varying


environmental and adverse physical conditions.
Other Qualifications:

Should demonstrate proficiency to read and write in English.

Should demonstrate proficient oral and written communication skills.

Should be subject to other safety, drug, or other specific Seller andlor Purchaser's
requirements.

Should adhere to Seller andlor Purchaser's health and safety guidelines.

Should be able to distinguish colors, regardless of position of colors, if color


differentiation is required for the task.

REQUIRED TRAINING

The inspector should have received formal training in the areas of: safety and
design codes related to cranes; Federal, State and local codes and regulations;
safe operating practices of cranes; report writing and documentation; and
communication skills.

Due to continuing changes and updates to standards and codes, an inspector


should receive additional formal training every two years as a minimum and be
able to provide documentation of such training.

The words "should" and "shall" are used extensively throughout the codes and
specifications including ASME 830, OSHA 1910.1 79 and CMAA. The inspector
shall receive training to understand the meaning of these words so helshe can
accurately explain if corrective action is mandatory ("shall") or is voluntary, but
recommended ("should").

Additional training should include, but not be limited to the following areas. These
areas are a prerequisite to training as an inspector in addition to training in the
safe interpretation of the Federal, State and local codes and regulations:
2.2.4.4.1 Trade skills - examples such as basic electricity and wiring practices, basic
mechanical principles, machinery alignment, rigging, etc.

2.2.4.4.2 Products - training on how to interpret wear patterns and to make


recommendations for repair or replacement utilizing sound judgement and the
manufacturers' guidelines.

2.2.4.4.3 Safety -training on all aspects of job-site safety and safe work practices, proper
crane operation and the understanding of crane controls, and additional on-site
training as required by the Purchaser. Refer to section 78-3.

2.2.4.4.4 Tools and Equipment -training on proper and safe operation of work tools and
equipment such as ladders, man-lifts, jacks, hand tools, meters, etc.

2.2.4.4.5 -
Job-site Conduct training on customer communication, proper check-in and
check-out, site preparation and cleanup, etc.

Testing

The inspector shall be required to demonstrate proficiency by passing both a


written and practical examination. Inspector should be able to present
documentation of successful completion of above qualifications.

If local code bodies or governments mandate, additional testing and registration


for inspector certification or licensing may be required.
78-3 JOBSITE SAFETY GUIDELINES

Commitment to Safety Statement

There must be a commitment to providing a safe workplace for employees and


customers. Their goal is to ensure a working environment free from recognized
hazards. This section has been prepared as a general guideline and cannot
cover all specific work situations that may occur. It is the responsibility of the
employees at each specific work site to ensure all precautions are taken and safe
work practices are followed.

3.2 Employee Responsibllity (Employee of a service provider)

Each employee of a senrice provider (Employee) has the responsibility to become


familiar with all safety practices and be knowledgeable regarding all safety issues,
policies, procedures and equipment. If Employees are NOT familiar with these
practices, procedures and equipment, it is their responsibility to obtain the proper
information to become familiar with them.

Safety Orientation and Documentation

All Employees should receive appropriate safety training and orientation before
beginning any work. Additional training may be required if it is found that there is
a lack of understanding of safety programs, policies and procedures.

Regulations

Purchaser Site Regulations

Employees shall comply with all purchaser site regulations and safety policies. It
is the responsibility of these Employees to review all site-specific requirements
with the purchaser. Any required training at the purchaser's site shall be
completed prior to starting any work.

Federal, State and Local Regulations

All work shall be performed in compliance with Federal, State and Local
regulations, codes and requirements.

Equipment Operator Certification

Motor Vehicle Use

All motor vehicles shall be operated in accordance with all Federal, State, and
Local requirements. In the event of a motor vehicle accident refer to Accident
Reporting, section 3.6.4.3.
Mobile crane, forkli, scissors lift, boom lift and other machinery

Mobile cranes, forklifts and other machinery are often required to complete the
work. Each Employee has the responsibilityfor the safe operation and use of any
such equipment prior to operation. Mobile cranes, forklifts, scissors lifts, boom lifts
and other machinery shall only be operated by trained, licensed (where required)
individuals. Refer to manufacturer's requirements for specific operating
proceduresand requirements. All equipment shall be in good operating condition
with all required inspection and maintenance documentation available.

Ladders

All ladders shall be used in compliance with the manufacturer's


recommendations. Care shall be taken to secure the ladder to prevent falling or
slipping.

Safety and First Aid

Fall Protection

Service providers should have a Fall Protection Policy. Fall protection applies to
all Employees who are working at heights above 6 feet from the ground. Site
specific conditions shall be evaluated to determine the required method of fall
protection to be used. Employees shall be competent in the use of fall protection
equipment. All fall protection equipment shall be regularly inspected and in good
working condition.

Electrical Safety

3.6.2.1 Service providers should have a Lockout / Tagout policy. The purpose of this
policy is to protect Employees against unexpected release of energy including
electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic, chemical and other potential energy sources.

3.6.2.2 All Employees shall be trained on the Lockout / Tagout policy.

Job Site Work Area and Signage

Work areas should, wherever practical, be identified by highly visible signs,


barriers or other appropriate means to alert others that overhead work is being
performed. It is the responsibility of the Employee to assess site specific
conditions and determine the best method to provide maximum safety.

Accident Prevention and Awareness

3.6.4.1 All service providers shall adopt an Accident Prevention Policy. This policy should
cover general safe working practices and accident prevention. Site specific
issues shall be reviewed prior to the start of any work. Any unsafe conditions
should be addressed, reported, and corrected prior to commencement of work. It
is the responsibility of all Employees to actively provide a safe work environment
for themselves and all other site personnel.

3.6.4.2 Safety meetings are an important part of any Accident Prevention Plan. These
meetings should be conducted on a routine basis as necessary by site conditions
or purchaser requirements.
All accidents, regardless of severity, shall be reported to the appropriate
designated person for both the Seller and Purchaser. An accident report should
be used to investigate the incident, to identify the root cause and to initiate
corrective action to prevent future occurrences. (See Appendix Afor sample of an
accident report.)

First Aid and Emergency Response

All service providers shall have a First Aid and Emergency Response Policy.
Access to the following information should be made available prior to
commencement of work:

Emergency contact personnel and phone numbers.

Identity of medical treatment facilities on site or near work area.

Basic First Aid training and supplies.

Confined Space Regulations

All service providers should have a confined space program. All Employees shall
be trained, as applicable and as dictated by specific work conditions, on this
policy.

This policy should identify procedures to be followed for entry into a permit-
required confined space. Employees should be capable of identifying and
understanding the difference between a penit-required situation and other
confined space conditions.

Respiratory Protection Program

All service providers shall have a Respiratory Protection Policy. All Employees
shall be trained on the requirements of this policy. The purpose of this policy is
to protect Employees from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fumes,
mists, gases, sprays or vapors which may cause serious injury or illness.

The policy should consider methods to eliminate or minimize exposure to


hazardous air contaminants. When contmls are not feasible or while they are
being instituted, appropriate respiratory pmtection shall be used.

Hazardous Materials

All service providers shall have a Hazardous Material Policy. All Employees shall
be trained on the requirements of this policy.

All Employees should be aware of the location of Material Specification and Data
Sheets (MSDS) and be knowledgeable of their contents and safe means of
handling and disposing of Hazardous Materials.

Coordination and exchange of MSDS sheets with the Purchaser and other
contractors shall be incorporated in this policy and every effort shall be made to
define hazardous materials.
Drug-Free Workforce

All service providers should be committed to providing a Drug and Alcohol Free
Workplace.

All service providers shall have a Substance Abuse Policy. All Employees shall
agree to participate in any seller or purchaser mandated drug screening.

Personal Protective Equipment

All service providers shall have a Personal Protective Equipment Policy. Personal
protective equipment is intended to protect Employees from specific hazards.
Employees shall be required to wear personal protective equipment that has been
selected for the job. They shall properly take care of the equipment and maintain
it in a clean and sanitary manner.

Other Personal Protective Equipment includes but is not limited to hard hats, face
shields, goggles, gloves, steel toe shoes/boots, aprons, sleeve protectors, and
hearing protection.

All Personal Protective Equipment shall conform to existing standards and be in


proper operating condition. Safety glasses, goggles or face shields must conform
to the latest published standards for protective eyewear (Reference USA-ANSI
287). This includes both prescription and non-prescription eye wear.

Equipment, Rigging, Tools

Slings and other rigging shall be visually inspected and in proper condition prior
to use and must conform to all applicable specifications. Each Employee shall
have knowledge of proper use of all hand and power tools applicable to the work
being performed by that Employee.

Fire Prevention

All service providers shall have a Fire Prevention Policy. All Employees shall be
knowledgeable and trained on fire prevention. Extreme caution shall be used
when working with tools that may ignite in and around combustible materials. Fire
Prevention Policy should include hot work permit procedure, fire watch training,
fire blankets, fire extinguisher and other appropriate equipment.

Ergonomics

All service providers should have a policy to help prevent back and other injuries
and to provide training on proper methods of lifting.
78-4 CRANE INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE AND LOAD TESTING

Initial lnspection

New, reinstalled, altered, repaired, and modified cranes shall be inspected prior
to initial use, lnspection of all altered, repaired, and modified cranes may be
limited to the provisions affected by the alteration, repair, or modification, as
determined by a qualified person.

Performance of lnspection

A new crane's initial inspection shall be performed by a qualified manufacturer's


representative. Refer to section 2.1 and 2.2.

An altered, repaired, modified or re-installed crane's initial inspection shall be


performed by a qualified person.

Scope of lnspection

New or reinstalled equipment shall be inspected in accordance with original


manufacturer's recommendations. Examples of typical inspection items may
include but are not limited to clearances, operating speeds, lubrication levels,
proper control settings, and properly operating safety devices, etc.

Altered, repaired, or modified cranes shall be inspected to assure that the altered,
repaired, modified component(s) have been properly installed and functionally
tested.

Documentation of lnspection

New or re-installed equipment shall have an initial inspection report on file


documenting the items inspected as recommended by the manufacturer. The
report should also contain specific start-up settings necessary to achieve
optimum equipment performance. This document should be maintained for the
life of the equipment.

Altered, repaired, or modified cranes should have an initial inspection report on


file documenting the areas affected by the alteration, repair or modification.

Pre-shift lnspection

A visual and operational inspection of the crane shall be performed at the start of
each shift or when it is first used during each shift.

Performance of lnspection

The Pre-shift inspection should be performed by the crane operator unless the
employer or supervisor has assigned this responsibility to another designated
person.

Scope of lnspection

Refer to the CMAA Crane Operator's Manual.


Frequent lnspection

4.3.1 Hooks, wire ropes and load chains shall be inspected at minimum monthly
intervals and documented with a certification record which includes date of
inspection, the signature of the person who performed the inspection and the
serial number or identifier of the hook, chain or wire rope inspected.

4.3.2 The Frequent Inspection is a visual and operational inspection performed as often
as daily, based on service, environmental and application factors, as determined
by a qualified person or as outlined in Table 4.3-1.

Table 4.3-1 Freauent lns~ectionChart


NUMBER OF SHIFTS OPERATED PER DAY
I
I
CMAA I ASME 630.2
SERVICE
CUSS ISERVICE
CUSS
1 STAND-BY 1 SHIFT 2 SHIFTS 3 SHIFTS

IAI FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION


SEMI-ANNUALLY SEMI-ANNUALLY SEMI-ANNUALLY SEMI-ANNUALLY

MONTHLY MONTHLY MONTHLY

MONTHLY MONTHLY SEMI-MONTHLY TO


MONTHLY
MONTHLY SEMI-MONTHLY WEEKLY TO
TO MONTHLY SEMI- MONTHLY
WEEKLY 3-5 DAYS DAILY

DAILY DAILY DAILY

4.3.3 A crane that has been idle for a period of one month or more, but less than six
months, shall be given a frequent inspection in accordance with 4.3.2.

4.3.4 All wire rope that has been idle for a period of a month or more due to shutdown
or storage of a crane on which it is installed shall be given a thorough inspection
before it is used. This inspection shall be for all types of deterioration and shall be
performed by a qualified person in accordance with section 2. A certification
record shall be kept on file and shall include the signature of the person who
performed the inspection, and an identifier for the rope that was inspected.

4.3.5 Performance of the Inspection

The Frequent lnspection shall be performed by a qualified Inspector. The


qualified Inspector shall determine whether conditions found during the inspection
constitute a hazard and whether a more detailed inspection is required. Refer to
section 2.1 Crane Inspector.
Scope of Frequent lnspection shall include, but not be limited to the items in Table
4.3-2.

Table 4.3-2 Llst of Frequent Inspection ltems

ith the hoist load

that audible and visual

Documentation of lnspection

Items in table 4.3-2 marked with (*) shall be inspected monthly and documented
with a certification record which includes date of inspection, the signature of the
person who performed the inspection and the serial number or identifier of the
hook, chain or wire rope inspected.
4.3.7.2 All other items of table 4.3-2 should be documented. lnspection reports should
identify the specific hazard or maintenance problem and kept on file for 3 years.
Safety hazards shall be reported to the responsible person immediately upon
discovery.

4.3.7.3 Refer to the Overhead Crane lnspection and Maintenance Checklist in Appendix
B, which may be used to document the inspection.

Periodic lnspection

A Periodic lnspection is a detailed visual and operational inspection whereby


individual components are examined to determine their condition. The Periodic
lnspection is performed as often as quarterly based on service, environmental
and application factors as determined by a qualified person or as outlined in Table
4.4-1.
Table 4.4-1 Periodic Inspection Chart
NUMBER OF SHIFTS OPERATED PER DAY
CMAA ASME 830.2
SERVICE SERVICE 1 SHIFT 2 SHIFTS 3 SHIFTS
CLASS CLASS
FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION
A ANNUALLY ANNUALLY ANNUALLY

B NORMAL ANNUALLY ANNUALLY ANNUALLY

C ANNUALLY ANNUALLY ANNUALLY

D HEAVY ANNUALLY SEMI-ANNUAL TO SEMI -ANNUAL


ANNUAL
E QUARTERLY QUARTERLY QUARTERLY
SEVERE
F QUARTERLY QUARTERLY QUARTERLY

4.4.2.1 A crane that has been idle for a period of six months or more shall be given a
periodic inspection in accordance with Table 4.4-2.

4.4.2.2 All wire rope that has been idle for a period of a month or more due to shutdown
or storage of a crane on which it is installed shall be given a thorough inspection
before it is used. This inspection shall be for all types of deterioration and shall be
performed by a qualified person in accordance with section 2. A certification
record shall be kept on file and shall include the signature of the person who
performed the inspection, and an identifier for the rope that was inspected.

Performance of the lnspection

The Periodic lnspection shall be performed by a qualified inspector. The qualified


Inspector shall determine whether conditions found during the inspection
constitute a hazard and whether a more detailed inspection is required. Refer to
section 2.2 Crane Inspector.
Scope of Periodic lnspection should include, but not be limited to, the items in
Table 4.4-2.

Table 4.4-2 Llst of Periodic lnspection Items

trucks, footwalks, trap doors,'iadders, unsecured members. Are footwalks free of debris,
handrails, trolley frame, cab, etc. grease, etc?
Does cab have a fire extinguisher, proper type?
Signs and labels Check for proper capacity labels. Are they legible
from floor? Are warning signs in place and legible?
Connection points Check for looselbroken bolts or rivets. Check for
I cracked or insufficient welds.
Sheaves and drums I Check for worn grooves, worn groove
- lands, sharp
edges, and cracks.
Shafts, axles, wheels, couplings Check for wom, cracked, bent or broken parts.
Check for looselmissing hardware.
Brakes (holding
- and control) Check for excessive wear and proper adjustment on
brake system parts, linings, pawls and ratchets.
Check for proper functioning of electric control
brake.
--
Indicators, gaaes or other devices
I
Check for load, wind, and other indicators over their
full range, re-calibrate as required.
-
Self-containedelectric. hvdraulic or aasoline 1 Check for im~roperperformance or noncompliance
I
powered generating units
Transmissions
with applicable safety requirements.
I Check for excessive wear of chain drive sprockets I
I and excessive chain stretch. Open gearbox
inspection covers and check for gear teeth wear and
proper lubrication.
I
Electrical components Check all electrical apparatus, for signs of pitting or
any deterioration of controller contactors, limit
switches, pushbutton stations, motor slip rings,
brushes, resistors. Check for any loose wire
connections or damaged wiring. Check for
I evidence of overheating.
-
Covers and guards 1 Check that all covers or guards are in place, secure,
and undamaged.
Bumpers and end stops Check all bumpers and end stops for damage.
Check for proper restraints and obvious undersizing
or improper energy absorption capabilities.
Trollev and runway rail Check rails and fastening devices for looseness,
gaps, misalignment, wear.
Runway structure Check runway structure for proper anchors, loose
bolted connections, corrosion, cracked or deformed
members.
Conductor system Check the conductor system for alignment,
fastening, splices, power feeds, conductor shoes for
wear.
Below the hook devices Check for cracks or structural damage. Check
mechanical components for wear, alignment, and
missinglloose hardware. Check all motors, controls,
wiring. Check that all guards are in place and
Documentation of lnspection

4.4.5.1 Reports for Periodic Inspections documenting the above items shall be kept on
file by the owner1Purchaser and, if applicable, the service provider. The reports
should be maintainedfor at least 3 years.

4.4.5.2 Refer to the Overhead Crane lnspection and Maintenance Checklist in Appendix
8, which may be used to document the inspection.

Reporting

Safety Hazards

Safety hazards shall be reported to the responsible person, in written format,


immediately upon discovery. Reports should include specific identification of the
hazard, and a recommendation(s) for remediation of the hazard.

Maintenance Issues

Maintenance issues shall be reported to the appropriate supervisor or responsible


person, in written format, within a reasonable time from discovery. Damage,
safety related issues andlor imminent equipment failure must be reported
immediately. Reports should include specific identification of the item and a
recommendation(s) for remediation of the item. Unsafe conditions disclosed by
the inspection should be corrected before operation of the crane is resumed.

Code or Standard Violations

Code or standard violations shall be reported as part of the inspection process.


Reports should be specific with regard to the violation, the applicable code, or the
standard reference.

Standards for Reporting

lnspection reports shall be given to the Purchaser's responsible person in a


specific and legible format. lnspection reports shall be kept on file by the
owner/Purchaser and, if applicable, the service provider for a period of three (3)
years from the date of the actual inspection.

Equipment Identification

4.5.5.1 lnspection reports shall specifically identify the equipment inspected, including its
location, manufacturer's serial number and owner's equipment number.

4.5.5.2 Proof of lnspection (tags, etc.) shall be affixed to the inspected equipment by the
inspector. Proof of inspection shall be in plain sight and shall contain the date of
the last inspection, name of the inspecting company, if applicable, and the
individual that performed the inspection.
Maintenance

Preventive maintenance shall be performed based, as a minimum, on the crane


manufacturer's recommendations.

Maintenance procedures shall include, as a minimum, the following precautions:

The crane to be maintained shall be moved to a location where it will cause the
least interference with other cranes and operations in the area.

All controllers shall be at the off position.

The main electrical disconnect switch shall be open and locked in the open
position. Follow appropriate lockout/tagout procedures.

Warning or "out of order" signs shall be placed on the crane and shall also be
placed on the floor beneath or on the hook so as to be visible from the floor.

Where other cranes are in operation on the same runway, rail stops or other
suitable means shall be provided to prevent interference with the idle crane.
Additionally, other crane operators on the same runway and in adjacent runways
shall be notified of the out-of-service crane.

After adjustments, maintenance, or repairs have been made, the crane shall not
be operated until all guards have been reinstalled, safety devices reactivated
and maintenance equipment removed.

Adjustments, maintenance, or repairs to correct any unsafe conditions shall be


disclosed by the inspection reports or by operating personnel before operation
of the crane is resumed. Adjustments, maintenance, or repairs shall be done
only by qualified personnel in accordance with section 78-2.

Maintenance Records

Records shall be kept on file evidencing adjustments, maintenance, and repairs


that have been performed. Maintenance records should be retained for the life
of the equipment.

Maintenance records should document routine and preventive maintenance


activities as well as adjustments, maintenance and repairs that result from
inspections.

Refer to the Overhead Crane Inspection and Maintenance Checklist in Appendix


B, which may be used to document the repairs.
4.7 Load Testing
4.7.1 All new, extensively repaired and altered cranes shall be tested in accordance with
OSHA Part 1910.179(k).

4.7.2 All cranes should be periodically load tested by or under the direction of a designated
or authorized person and a written report be furnished by such person confirming the
load rating of the crane. The test load should be equal to and not exceed the rated
load lifting capacity of the crane.

4.7.3 Reports for documenting the load test should be maintained by the OwnerIPurchaser
for the life of the crane.

4.7.4 The load test should be performed at a minimum of once evety four years.
78-5 GENUINE OEM (FACTORY) PARTS

General Purpose

The original equipment manufacturer (OEM) should be considered a primary


source for obtaining repair parts. The OEM should also be considered for
engineered solutions pertaining to equipment upgrades, performance
enhancements, or changes of application.

Use of other than OEM-recommended or approved parts can affect the


performance and structural integrity of the crane and can expose workers and
bystanders to serious injury or death.

Assurance

The OEM shall assure that the replacement part is a proper fit for the part to be
replaced.

The OEM shall assure that the replacement part is made of a material that is
Properly selected and suited for the application.

The OEM shall assure the part is without defects in material and workmanship at
the time it is shipped.

Application and Design Familiarity

The OEM is responsible for the total design of the crane and the selection of its
components. By purchasing replacement parts from the OEM, the Purchaser is
better assured of proper mating of parts and the interaction of components
necessary to maintain the integrity of the repair.

The Purchaser and the OEM should carefully review the application or how the
crane is being used so that operating life of-the part appropriate to the service
class is achieved. A part or component upgrade
. - may be considered if its operating
life is not acceptable to the purchaser.

Component Updating and Modernization

The OEM is in the best position to determine a cross-reference between the


original part and a suitable replacement.

The OEM should be the primary source for recommending the substitution of a
replacement part for the original part.

As the sole source of the original design drawings and calculations, the OEM is
most capable of developing or recommending design improvements.

Root Cause Analysis and Solutions

During a crane's operating life, problems may occur that do not have obvious or
readily apparent causes. The OEM is a reliable, expert resource, and should be
consulted to help determine the root cause of the problem and recommend
potential solutions.
Every part has a working life. The crane application and the service class impact
the working life. Two types of problems may occur:

Type A Problem- the Purchaser may wish to increase the working life to enhance
performance, improve reliability and productivity, etc.

Type B Problem- the original part may fail before it reaches its working life due to
an undetermined cause,

Problem Analysis

Type A Problem: would typically include studies of crane duty cycle, component
part stress analysis, lifting capacity uprate, preventive maintenance practices and
operator performance.

Type B Problem: in addition to the studies performed for Type A Problems, other
diaanostic methods would be used to determine if OEM-established operating
conditions are being met, such as runway tolerances, quality of power supply,
mechanical and electrical connections, original factory settings, etc.

Problem Solutions

Type A Problem: may take the form of recommendations to increase operating


component size, change component type, add structural reinforcements, impose
a formal preventive maintenance program or conduct operator training classes,
etc.

T v ~ eB Problem: mav take the form of correction of the root cause such as
aibning the runway, abding line reactors or filters to the power supply, upgrading
material specifications, enhancing a preventive maintenance program, or
conducting'operator training classes, etc:

Recommendatson for Complete Parts Requirements

Parts required for common repairs are often supplied in kits by the OEM to better
ensure availability and to reduce individual part cost.

Based on its knowledge of the repair, the OEM is able to recommend all parts that
may be required to efficiently complete the repair, such as seal kits, bearings, etc.

The OEM can usually determine if mating parts should also be replaced. For
example, if a pinion is being replaced, the mating gear should also be replaced.
Counterfeit Parts

The Federal Trademark Counterfeiting Act is aimed at curbing the manufacture,


distribution and sale of counterfeit trademarked products, including replacement
parts, in the United States.

Use of other than recommended or approved parts may void the OEM crane
manufacturer's warranty.

Use of replacement parts not recommended or approved by the OEM crane


manufacturer can result in a potentially unsafe workplace situation resulting in
serious property damage, personal injury or death.

Technical Information

The OEM shall furnish parts manuals that clearly identify replacement parts to
better assure that the correct part is ordered.

The OEM shall provide written guidelines to assist the Purchaser in the proper
operation and maintenance of the equipment.

5.8.3 Certain non-proprietary drawings may be available from the OEM to aid in the
maintenance or upgrade of the crane.

Packaging

The OEM shall provide adequate packaging to prevent damage during shipment.

Regulation Compliance

The OEM can assist the Purchaser by recommending modifications or upgrades


to bring the crane into compliance with Federal, State and Local regulations and
codes.
78-6 CRANE CLASSIFICATIONS

GENERAL
Service classes have been established so that the most economical crane for the
installation may be specified in accordance with CMAA Specifications #70 and
#74.
The crane service classification is based on the load spectrum reflecting the
actual service conditions as closely as possible.
Load spectrum is a mean effective load, which is uniformly distributed over a
probability scale and applied to the equipment at a specified frequency. The
selection of the properly sized crane component to perform a given function is
determined by the varying load magnitudes and given load cycles which can be
expressed in terms of the mean effective load factor.

Where W = Load magnitude; expressed as a ratio of each lifted load to the


rated capacity. Operation with no lifted load and the weight of any
attachment must be included.
P = Load probability; expressed as a ratio of cycles under each load
magnitude condition to the total cycles. The sum total of the load
probabilities P must equal 1.O.
k = Mean effective load factor. (Used to establish crane service class
only)
All classes of cranes are affected by the operating conditions, therefore for the
purpose of the classifications, it is assumed that the crane will be operating in
normal ambient temperature 00 to 104O F (-17.80 to 40C) and normal
atmospheric conditions (free from excessive dust, moisture and corrosive fumes).

The cranes can be classified into loading groups according to the service
conditions of the most severely loaded part of the crane. The individual parts
which are clearly separate from the rest, or forming a self contained structural
unit, can be classified into different loading groups if the service conditions are
fully known.

CLASS A (STANDBY OR INFREQUENT SERVICE)


This service class covers cranes which may be used in installations such as
power houses, public utilities, turbine rooms, motor rooms and transformer
stations where precise handling of equipment at slow speeds with long, idle
periods between lifts are required. Capacity loads may be handled for initial
installation of equipment and for infrequent maintenance.

CLASS B (LIGHT SERVICE)


This service covers cranes which may be used in repair shops, light assembly
operations, service buildings, light warehousing, etc. where service requirements
are light and the speed is slow. Loads may vary from no load to occasional full
rated loads with two to five lifts per hour, averaging ten feet per lift.
CLASS C (MODERATE SERVICE)
This service covers cranes that may be used in machine shops or paper mill
machine rooms, etc., where service requirements are moderate. In this type of
service the crane will handle loads which average 50 percent of the rated capacity
with 5 to 10 lifts per hour, averaging 15 feet, not over 50 percent of the lift at rated
capacity.

CLASS D (HEAVY SERVICE)


This service covers cranes which may be used in heavy machine shops,
foundries, fabricating plants, steel warehouses, container yards, lumber mills,
etc., and standard duty bucket and magnet operations where heavy duty
production is required. In this type of service, loads approaching 50 percent of
the rated capacity will be handled constantly during the working period. High
speeds are desirable for this type of service with 10 to 20 lifts per hour averaging
15 feet, not over 65 percent of the lifts at rated capacity.

CLASS E (SEVERE SERVICE)


This type of service requires a crane capable of handling loads approaching a
rated capacity throughout its life. Applications may include magnet, bucket,
magnetibucket combination cranes for scrap yards, cement mills, lumber mills,
fertilizer plants, container handling, etc., with twenty or more lifts per hour at or
near the rated capacity.

CLASS F (CONTINUOUS SEVERE SERVICE)


This type of service requires a crane capable of handling loads approaching rated
capacity continuously under severe service conditions throughout its life.
Applications may include custom designed specialty cranes essential to
performing the critical work tasks affecting the total production facility. These
cranes must provide the highest reliability with special attention to ease of
maintenance features.
CRANE SERVICE CLASS IN TERMS OF LOAD CLASS AND LOAD CYCLES
The definition of CMAA crane service class in terms of load class and load cycles
is shown in Table 6.8-1.
TABLE 6.8-1
DEFINITION OF CMAA CRANE SERVICE CLASS
IN TERMS OF LOAD CLASS AND LOAD CYCLES
LOAD CYCLES k = MEAN
LOAD
EFFECTIVE LOAD
CLASS
N1 N2 N3 '"4 FACTOR
L1 A 6 C D -
0.35 0.53
'-2 6 C D E 0.531 - 0.67
L3 C D E F 0.671 - 0.85
L4 D E F F 0.851 - 1.OO
Irregular Regular use Regular use Regular use
occasional in in in severe
use followed intermittent continuous continuous
by long idle operation operation. operation
periods

LOAD CLASSES:

L1 = Cranes which hoist the rated load exceptionally and, normally, very light
loads.
L2 = Cranes which rarely hoist the rated load, and normal loads of about 113 of
the rated load.
L3 = Cranes which hoist the rated load fairly frequently and normally, loads
between 113 and 213 of the rated load.
L4 = Cranes which are regularly loaded close to the rated load.

LOAD CYCLESRIFE OF CRANE

20,000 to 100,000 cycles


100,000 to 500,000 cycles
500,000 to 2,000,000 cycles
Over 2,000,000 cycles
78-7 GLOSSARY

ABNORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS: CAB-OPERATED CRANE: A crane


Environmental conditions that are controlled by an operator in a cab located on
unfavorable, harmful or detrimental to or for the bridge or trolley.
the operation of a hoist, such as excessively CAMBER: The slight upward vertical curve
high (over 104 deg. F) or low (below 0 deg. given to girders to compensate partially for
F) ambient temperatures, corrosive fumes, deflection due to hook load and weight of the
dust laden or moisture laden atmospheres, crane.
and hazardous locations.
CAPACITY: The maximum rated load (in
ADJUSTABLE OR VARIABLE VOLTAGE: tons) which a crane is designed to handle.
A method of control by which the motor
supply voltage can be adjusted. CLEARANCE: Minimum distance from the
extremity of a crane to the nearest
AUXILIARY HOIST: A supplemental obstruction.
hoisting unit, usually designed to handle
lighter loads at a higher speed than the main CMAA: Crane ManufacturersAssociation of
hoist. America, Inc. (formerly EOCl - Electric
Overhead Crane Institute).
AUXILIARY GIRDER (OUTRIGGER): A
girder arranged parallel to the main girder for CMAA MEMBER SERVICE COMPANY: A
supporting the platform, motor base, member company that performs service and
operator's cab, control panels, etc., to inspections as part of its normal business,
reduce the torsional forces such load would and in compliance with CMAA Specification
otherwise impose on the main girder. No. 78.
BOX SECTION: The rectangular cross COLLECTORS: Contacting devices for
section of girders, trucks or other members collecting current from the runway or bridge
enclosed on four sides. conductors. The mainline collectors are
mounted on the bridge to transmit current
BRAKE: A device, other than a motor, used from the runway conductors, and the trolley
for retarding or stopping motion by friction or collectors are mounted on the trolley to
power means. transmit current from the bridge conductors.
BRANCH CIRCUIT: The circuit conductors COMPONENT: Either a single part or a
between the final overcurrent device group of parts assembled into a working
protecting the circuit and the outlet@). unit, i.e., a brake, a wheel assembly, a
BRIDGE: That part of an overhead crane gearbox, etc.
consisting of girders, trucks, end ties, COMPONENT UPGRADE: To modify or
walkway and drive mechanism which carries replace a component so as to improve or
the trolley and travels in a direction parallel increase its operating life, performance, or
to the runway. safety features.
BRIDGE CONDUCTORS: The electrical CONTACTOR, MAGNETIC: An
conductors located along the bridge electromagnetic device for opening and
structure of a crane to provide power to the closing an electric power circuit.
trolley.
CONTROLLER: A device for regulating in a
BRIDGE RAIL: The rail supported by the predetermined way the power delivered to
bridge girders on which the trolley travels. the motor or other equipment.
BUMPER (BUFFER): An energy absorbing COVER PLATE: The top or bottom plate of
device for reducing impact when a moving a box girder.
crane or trolley reaches the end of its
permitted travel, or when two moving cranes CROSS SHAFT: The shaft extending across
or trolleys come into contact. the bridge, used to transmit torque
DESIGNATED PERSON: A person selected FOOTWALK: The walkway with handrail
or assigned by the employer or the and toeboards attached to the bridge or
employer's representative as being qualified trolley for access purposes.
to petform specific duties. GANTRY CRANE: A crane similar to an
DRIVE GIRDER: The girder on which the overhead crane except that the bridge for
bridge drive machinery is mounted. carrying the trolley or trolleys is rigidly
DUMMY CAB: An operator's compartment supported on two or more legs running on
fixed rails or other runway.
or platform on a pendant or radio controlled
crane, having no permanently mounted GIRDERS: The principal horizontal beams
electrical controls, in which an operator may of the crane bridge that supports the trolley
ride while controlling the crane. and is supported by the end trucks.
DYNAMIC LOWERING: A method of control GROUND FAULT: An accidental conducting
by which the hoist motor is so connected in connection between the electrical circuit or
the lowering direction, that when it is equipment and the earth or some conducting
overhauled by the load, it acts as a body that serves in place of the earth.
generator and forces current either through HOIST: A machinery unit that is used for
the resistors or back into the line. lifting and lowering a load.
EDDY-CURRENT BRAKING: A method of HOLDING BRAKE: A brake that
control by which the motor drives through an automatically prevents motion when power
electrical induction load brake. is off.
ELECTRIC OVERHEAD TRAVELING HYDRAULIC BRAKE: A brake that provides
CRANE: An electrically operated machine retarding or stopping motion by hydraulic
for lifting, lowering and transporting loads, means.
consisting of a movable bridge carrying a
fixed or movable hoisting mechanism and IDLER SHEAVE: A sheave used to equalize
traveling on an overhead runway structure. tension in opposite parts of a rope. Because
of its slight movement, it is not termed a
ELECTRICAL BRAKING SYSTEM: A running sheave.
method of controlling crane motor speed
when in an overhauling condition, without INDUSTRIAL DUTY CRANE: Service
the use of friction braking. classification covered by CMAA
Specification No. 70 "Specifications for Top
EMPLOYEE: For this specification, Running Bridge and Gantry Type Multiple
"Employee" means a person employed Girder Electric Overhead Traveling Cranes"
directly by the service provider. and Specification No. 74 "Specifications for
ENCLOSED CONDUCTOR(S): A conductor Top Running & Under Running Single Girder
or group of conductors substantially Electric Traveling Cranes Utilizing Under
enclosed to prevent accidental contact. Running Trolley Hoist".
ENCLOSURE: A housing to contain INVERTER (VARIABLE FREQUENCY
electrical components, usually specified by a DRIVE): A method of control by which the
NEMA classification number. fixed line voltage and frequency is changed
END TIE: A structural member other than the to a three-phase system with infinitely
end truck that connects the ends of the variable voltage and frequency.
girders to maintain the squareness of the KNEE BRACE: The diagonal structural
bridge. member joining the building column and roof
END TRUCK: The unit consisting of truck truss.
frame, wheels, bearings, axles, etc., which LIFT: Maximum safe vertical distance
supports the bridge girders. through which the hook, magnet, or bucket
FIXED AXLE: An axle that is fixed in the can move.
truck and on which the wheel revolves. LIFT CYCLE: Single lifting and lowering
FLOOR-OPERATED CRANE: A crane that motion (with or without load).
is pendant controlled by an operator on the
floor or an independent platform.
LIFTING DEVICES: Buckets, magnets, MULTIPLE GIRDER CRANE: A crane that
grabs and other supplemental devices, the has two or more girders for supporting the
weight of which is to be considered part of live load.
the rated load, used for ease in handling NON-COASTING MECHANICAL DRIVE: A
certain types of loads. drive with coasting characteristics such that
LIMIT SWITCH: A device designed to cut off it will stop the motion within a distance in feet
the power automatically at or near the limit of equal to 10 percent of the rated speed in feet
travel for the crane motion. per minute when traveling at rated speed
LlNE CONTACTOR: A contactor to with rated load.
disconnect power from the supply lines. OEM: Original Equipment Manufacturer.
LIVE LOAD: A load that moves relative to OPERATOR'S CAB: The operator's
the structure under consideration. compartment from which movements of the
LOAD BLOCK: The assembly of hook, crane are controlled. To be specified by the
swivel, bearing, sheaves, pins and frame manufacturer as open, having only sides or
suspended by the hoisting ropes. a railing around the operator, or enclosed,
complete with roof, windows, etc.
LOAD CYCLE: One lift cycle with load plus
one lift cycle without load. OVERLOAD: Any load greater than the
rated load.
LONGITUDINAL STIFFENERS: Horizontal
members attached to the web of the bridge OVERLOAD LIMIT DEVICE: A device that is
intended to permit the hoist to lift a freely
girder to prevent web buckling.
suspended load within its rated capacity, but
MAGNETIC CONTROL: A means of prevents lifting of an overload that would
controlling direction and speed by using cause permanent damage to a properly
magnetic contactors and relays. maintained hoist, trolley or crane.
MAIN LlNE CONTACTOR: A magnetic OVERLOAD PROTECTION
contactor used in the incoming power circuit (OVERCURRENT): A device that senses
from the main line collectors. current, and interrupts energy flow in the
MAIN LlNE DISCONNECT SWITCH: A event of a current overload condition.
manual switch which breaks the power lines PENDANT PUSHBUTTON STATION:
leading from the main line collectors. Means suspended from the crane for
MANUAL-MAGNETIC DISCONNECT operating the controllers from the floor or
SWITCH: A power disconnecting means other level beneath the crane.
consisting of a magnetic contactor that can PITCH DIAMETER (ROPE): Distance
be operated by remote pushbutton and can through the center of a drum or sheave from
be manually operated by a handle on the center to center of a rope passed about the
switch. periphery.
MASTER SWITCH: A manually operated PLUGGING: A control function that
device that is used to control the operation of accomplishes braking by reversing the
contactors and auxiliary devices of an motor line voltage polarity or phase
electric control. sequence.
MECHANICAL LOAD BRAKE: An PROTECTIVE PANEL: An assembly
automatic type of friction brake used for containing overload and undervoltage
controlling loads in the lowering direction. protection for all crane motions.
This unidirectional device requires torque
PURCHASER: An entity that buys cranes,
from the motor to lower a load but does not
impose additional load on the motor when associated hoisting equipment andlor
lifting a load. services for these cranes and equipment

MILL DUTY CRANE: Service classification QUALIFIED MANUFACTURERS


covered by AlSE Standard No. 6, REPRESENTATIVE: A "Qualified Person"
"Specification for Electric Overhead who is employed by or is representing the
Traveling Cranes for Steel Mill Service." OEM.
QUALIFIED PERSON: A person who, by SHALL: This word indicates that adherence
possession of a recognized degree, to the particular requirement is necessary in
certificate of professional standing or who by order to conform to the specification.
extensive knowledge, training, and SHEAVE: A grooved wheel or pulley used
experience, has successfully demonstrated with a rope or chain to change direction and
the ability to solve or resolve problems point of application of a pulling force.
relating to the subject matter and work.
SHOULD: This word indicates that the
RAIL SWEEP: A device attached to the truck requirement is a recommendation, the
and located in front of the truck's leading advisability of which depends on the facts in
wheels to remove obstructions. each situation.
RATED LOAD: The maximum load that the SKELETON CAB: Same as dummy cab.
crane is designed to handle safely as SPAN: The horizontal distance center-to-
designated by the manufacturer. center of runway rails.
REMOTE OPERATED CRANE: A crane STATIC CONTROL: A method of switching
controlled by an operator not in a pulpit or in electrical circuits without the use of contacts.
the cab attached to the crane, by any
method other than pendant or rope control. STEPLESS CONTROL: A type of control
system with infinite speed control between
RESISTOR RATING: Rating established by minimum speed and full speed.
NEMA that classifies resistors according to
percent of full load current on first point and STEPPED CONTROL: A type of control
duty cycle. system with fixed speed points.
ROTATING AXLE: An axle that rotates with STOP: A device to limit travel of a trolley or
the wheel. crane bridge. This device normally is
attached to a fixed structure and normally
RUNNING SHEAVE: A sheave that rotates does not have energy absorbing ability.
as the hook is raised or lowered.
TEFC: Totally enclosed fan cooled.
RUNWAY: The rails, beams, brackets and
framework on which the crane operates. TENV: Total enclosed non-ventilated.
RUNWAY CONDUCTORS: The main TORSIONAL BOX GIRDER: Girder in which
conductors mounted on or parallel to the the bridge rail is located over one web.
runway that supply current to the crane. TROLLEY: The unit carrying the hoisting
RUNWAY RAIL: The rail supported by the mechanism that travels on the bridge rails.
runway beams on which the bridge travels. TROLLEY FRAME: The basic structure of
SELLER: An entity that sells cranes, the trolley on which are mounted the hoisting
associated hoisting equipment and/or and traversing mechanisms.
services for these cranes and equipment. TWO BLOCKING: Condition under which
SEMI-GANTRY CRANE: A crane similar to the load block or load suspended from the
an overhead traveling crane except that the hook becomes jammed against the crane
bridge for carrying the trolley or trolleys is structure preventingfurther winding up of the
supported on one end by an end truck with hoist drum.
wheels riding on a fixed raiVrunway and the VARIABLE FREQUENCY: See Inverter.
other end on a leg or legs extending down to
an end truck with wheels riding on a lower I VOLTAGE DROP: The loss of voltage in an
eve1 railirunway. electric conductor between supply tap and
load tap.
SERVICE CLASS: The type of service that a
crane is subjected to during its operating life WHEELBASE: Distance from center-to-
as defined by CMAA Specifications #70 and center of outermost wheels.
#74. Also see section 78-6. WHEEL LOAD: The load without vertical
SERVICE PROVIDER: An entity that inertia force on any wheel with the trolley
performs maintenance, inspections, and lifted load (rated capacity) positioned on
troubleshooting, repairs, alterations and the bridge to give maximum loading.
testing on overhead traveling cranes and
associated hoisting equipment.
APPENDIX A
Accident Investigation

I COMPLETE WITHIN
24 HOURS OF
INCIDENT

TYPE OF INCIDENT
Employee Incident Report Form
THESE SECTMNSTO BE FILLED OUT
BY EMPLOYEEAND SARTYTUM MEMBER
BE SPECIFIC AND INCLUDEALL DETAILS

81 Injury or llliness 61 NearMiss B Property Damage


Date of Injury 1 Time a AM. P.M ( Reported
I I
Name Home Phone

CmpartmenlNo. Clodc No. OFcupaUan 8 How Long?

INJURY 8 PART

EQUIPMENT

WHAT COULD
BE DONE TO

FUTURE RE-
OCCURENCES?

ROWING (SIGNATURES )
I Employee Date
2. Safety Team Member Date
THESE SECTIONSTO BE FILLED O W
BY SUPERVISOR
Be SPECWIG AND INCLUDEA U DETAILS
ACCIDENT! (L-aabn, what h.pp.nsa activiiy being pcwlormcld)
INCIDENT
RIPT TI ON .

CONTREUTING FAC- (What was ths underlying c a m of this lnddmt?)

(3 OpastingEquipnent wiMout authcnity. C3 Lsdc of or Inadequate guards or deviap.


0 Failura to -re against umpactad tmvment 0 Lack of or inadequate warnlng systems.
0 Ormaling a waking at an unsafe speed. (3 Fire and axploslon hazard.
(3 Falkrre to warn wslgnal 86 rrrguliud. (3 Unetpscted movement hazard.
(3 krnovhg or maklng safay dsvices in-th. 81 Paor housekesplng hazards.
6Uskgdssdivebisorequ!+nnant 0 Pmbuding o bw hazard.
(3 Using Dds a equipnent unsafe&. (3 Close deamnca and amgestkm hazards
(3 Taking an unsah poritbn or po9ture.
(3 Fa#weto kdr out equipmsnt befas mrvldng. (3 Hazardous anangsment, placmmnt a storage.
(3 Riding ~~ZMIOIISm m g equipment. 0 Hazardousdetects of tools, equipment. etc.
(3 Homlsy, di6bahg, teasing, etc. (3 Inadequate Hlumination.
(3 Falkwe to waar pmmnal pmledw equipment
0 Unsafe kmdlng.
8 Unsab Pincement.
a Other than a b m ( Old anything el- wnlrKwle to the cause of thb incident? )

HOW W L D
THIS MVE
BEEN
PREVENTED?
WHAT COULD
BE DONE TO
PRNENT
FUTURE RE-
OCcuRWCES7

WHO Is R~SPONSWU FOR CORRECT~VCACTION? BY WEN?


ROUTING (SIGNATURES)

3. S a f a t y l H m Rerouraa6 Date
APPENDIX B

Crane Manufacturers Association of America, Inc.


8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201
Charlotte, NC 28217-3992
7041676-1190

OVERHEAD CRANE INSPECTION


AND
MAINTENANCE CHECKLIST

The following checklist is furnished by the Crane ManufacturersAssociation of America, Inc. (CMAA)
as an aid to owners of overhead cranes when conducting periodic maintenan
installation, operation, testing, and maintenance of cranes are a continuin
user, in accordance with ANSI 830.2.0-1983 Saf

service personnel also must be


maintenanceand repair manualassupplied by th
to read and understandthese instructions can r
This checklist includes instructionsfor
information does not apply to all e r important items requiring
frequent inspectionwhich are not ne manufacturerregarding
any special information about spec1
lished with the designated inspector completing,
signing, and dating the , Separate inspectionfiles should be maintained for
each crane. Special e given to the inspection and maintenance of hoisting equipment
and safety devices. are for an average industrial operation, based on a40 hour
work week. Depending e r a n e activity, severity of service, and environment, more frequent
inspectionand maintenance may be required. Inspectors or maintenance personnel should never go on
a crane without first notifying the crane operator of exactly what they are doing and what they expect the
operatorto do. Before repairs areconducted, place all controllers inthe "off" position, lockthemainswitch
open, and add a warning sign to the switch, indicating that a man is on the crane.
CMAA and its member companies assume no liability for general or special damage which may arise
in connectionwith this checklist. This inspectionin no way representsthat the requirementsof OSHA have
been met. The responsibilHy for the interpretation of current OSHA standards and the adherence to any
such interpretation rest with the owner andlor user of the equipment.
CRANF INSPECTION SCHFnlli F AND MAINTFNANCE RFPQBI

Cust. Idnt. No.:

Master Switches
Mainline Disconnect
8 Warning Device
Fire Extinguisher
INSPECTIONSCHEDULE AND MAINTENANCE REPORT Cust Idnt. No.:

When Corrected
When Corrected
78-8 INDEX

Accident prevention 3.6.4 -


Qualifications crane technician 2.2.2, 2.2.3
-
Certification operator 3.5 Reference Document 1.2
Confined space 3.6.6 Regulations 3.4
Crane classification 6.1 Reporting 4.5
Crane Inspector 2.2 -
Required training crane inspector 2.2.4
Crane technician 2.1 Required training - crane technician 2.1.4
Drug free workforce 3.7 Respiratory protection 3.6.7
Electrical safety 3.6.2 Rigging 3.9
Emergency response 3.6.5 Safety and first aid 3.6
Employee responsibility (CMAA employee) 3.2 Safety orientation 3.3
Ergonomics 3.11 Safety statement 3.1
Fall protection 3.6.1 Scope 1.1
Fire prevention 3.1 0 Signage 3.6.3
First aid 3.6.5 Trademark Counterfeiting Act 5.7.1
Hazardous materials 3.6.8 Upgrade - component 5.3.2
-
Inspection frequent 4.3 - -
Upgrade equipment 5.1 PUpgrade parts 5.3.2, 5.4.2
-
Inspection initial 4.1 -
Work experience crane inspector 22.1
-
Inspection periodic 4.4 -
Work experience crane technician 2.1.1
-
Inspection pre-shift 4.2 Appendix A -Accident Investigation Report
Load class 6.8 Appendix B - Maintenance Checklist
Load cycle 6.8
Load Testing 4.7
-
Maintenance preventative 4.6.1
-
Maintenance procedures 4.6.2
-
Maintenance records 4.6.3, 4.6.4
Manuals 5.8.1
Parts - counterfeit 5.7,5.7.1
Parts - kits 5.6.1, 5.7.1
-
Parts manuals 5.8.1
-
Parts O.E.M. 5.1.2
Parts - packaging 5.9
-
Parts repair 5.1.2
Parts - replacement 5.3.1, 5.4.2, 5.7.1,5.8.1
Performance enhancements 5.1.2
Personal protective equipment 3.8
Problem-ClassA 5.5.2.1, 5.5.3.1,5.5.4.1
-
Problem Class B 5.5.2.2, 5.5.3.2, 5.5.4.2
-
Problem root cause 5.5.1
CMAA is an Affiliate of
Material Handling Industry
8720 Red Oad Blvd., Suite 201
Charlotte, NC 28217-3992
Telephone: (704) 676-1190
Fax: (704) 676-1199
Website: www.mhia.org/cmaa