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TOPIC 6 :

BASIC CONCEPTS OF
URBAN DRAINAGE
By : Engr Halina Hamid
Drainage and Design Flood

Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia


Hydrological Procedure: non-urban situations e.g.: dam, river engineering

Figure 1. Hydrologic cycle

Factors influencing volume and rate of runoff are soil, topography


and vegetation characteristics
Flash floods in Malaysia

Johor, Jan 2007


Flash floods in Malaysia

Kota Tinggi, April 2007


Flash floods in Malaysia

Kuala Lumpur, 2008


Flash floods in Malaysia

Kuala Lumpur, 2008


Flash floods in Malaysia
Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia
(MSMA - Manual Saliran Mesra Alam)

All urban drainage systems design should be complied to the Urban


Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA - Manual Saliran
Mesra Alam)

Published by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia (DID)


in 2000

Procedures and guidelines for urban drainage system designs in


Malaysia

Reduce drainage-related issues such as flash flood, excessive sediment


outflow and water quality deterioration generated by any land opening
activities in the development project boundaries
Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia
(MSMA - Manual Saliran Mesra Alam)

20 volumes
48 chapters
www.msmam.com
MSMA - Control at Source
Estimation of Peak Flow for a Single Sub-catchment using Rational method

Post-development peak flow Pre-development peak flow


from the outlet point of the site to the downstream public drainage system or receiving water
Design Fundamentals (Volume 4 MSMAM)

Hydrologic events are described by AEP or ARI

AEP - Annual Exceedance Probability P


- probability an event of specified magnitude, or volume and
duration, will be exceeded in a time period

ARI - Average Recurrence Interval Tr


- average length of time between events that have the same
magnitude, or volume and duration.

Example:
A flood with a discharge of 50 m3/s may have an AEP of 0.01, that is on
the average there is a 1% chance that a flow of 50 m3/s will be equalled to
or exceeded in any year.
The ARI is 1 1
Tr 100 years
P 0.01
Hence, a 1% AEP has an ARI of 100 years
Choosing a design / event ARI (Volume 2 MSMAM)
Minor system - collect and convey runoff from relatively frequent
storm events to minimise inconvenience and nuisance flooding.

Major system - safely convey runoff not collected by the minor


drainage system to waterways or rivers. Major system must protect
the community from the consequences of large, reasonably rare
events, which could cause severe flood damage, injury and even loss
of life.

Note: The definition of major or minor system does not refer to the
size of the drains.
Chezy: V C RSo

2 1
1
Manning: V R 3So2
n
Design Rainfall (Volume 4 MSMAM)

For catchment greater than 10 km2, areal reduction factor is required in


the calculation of the design rainfall using the IDF curve.

Ic FA I p
where,
FA = areal reduction factor
Ic = average rainfall over the catchment
Ip = point rainfall intensity

DID has published the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curve in 1991


for 26 and 16 urban areas in Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia,
respectively (HP No. 26).

The IDF curves is represented by the following polynomial expression:

lnRIt a blnt c lnt d lnt for 30 t 1000 mins


2 3

where, RI = the average rainfall intensity (mm/hr) for ARI and duration t
t
R = average return interval (years)
t = duration (minutes)
a to d = fitting constants dependent on ARI
Design Rainfall (Volume 4 MSMAM)

The design rainfall depth Pd for a short duration d (minutes) is given by,

Pd P30 FD P60 P30 for t < 30 mins


where,
P30, P60 = 30-minute and 60-minute duration rainfall depths, respectively
FD = adjustment factor for storm duration

Rainfall intensity I

Pd
I
d
where,
Pd = rainfall depth in mm
d = rainfall duration in hours
Example 1: Calculation of 5-minute duration rainfalls
Calculate the 5-minute duration, 20-year ARI rainfall intensity for use in a roof
design in Kuala Lumpur.

Solution:

Pd P30 FD P60 P30 for t < 30 mins

lnRIt a blnt c lnt d lnt for 30 t 1000 mins


2 3

For Kuala Lumpur, a = 4.9781, b = 0.7533, c=0.2796, d = 0.0166

ln20I30 4.9781 0.7533ln30 0.2796ln30 0.0166ln30


2 3

20
I30 142.4 mm/hr
20
P30 142.4 mm/hr 0.5 71.2 mm

ln20I60 4.9781 0.7533ln60 0.2796ln60 0.0166ln60


2 3

20
I60 91.3 mm/hr
20
P60 91.3 mm
For Kuala Lumpur, P24h 100 mm

FD = 2.08

P5 P30 FD P60 P30

71.2 2.0891.3 71.2

29.4 mm

20
P5
20
I5
d
29.4

5 60

352.7 mm/hr
Time of Concentration
The time of concentration is the flow travel time from the most hydraulically
remote point in the contributing catchment area to the point under study.

The time of concentration tc is often considered to be the sum of the time of


travel to an inlet plus the time of travel in the stormwater conveyance system.

Time of concentration tc to td

where,
to = overland flow or sheet flow travel time (minutes)
td = conveyance system flow travel time (minutes)
Time of overland sheet flow to

Friend's formula: 1
107 n L3
to 1
2
S
where,
to = overland sheet flow travel time (minutes)
L = overland sheet flow path length (m)
n = Manning's roughness value for the surface
S = slope of overland surface (%)

For multiple segments,


Time of channel / pipe flow td
For small area, A 0.4 hectare:
Rational method

Rational method is applicable for catchment area A 80 hectares


Variation of subcatchment conditions
Example 2: Rational method calculation (Volume 5 MSMAM)
Determine the design peak flow generated from a minor drainage of medium
density residential area of 10 hectares in Kuala Lumpur. Assume 80 m of
overland flow followed by 400 m of flow in an open drain. Catchment area
average slope = 0.5%. The catchment is shown in Figure below.

Rational method
suitable for catchment
area < 80 hectares

Figure. Catchment area


Estimation of Peak Flow for a Single Sub-catchment using Rational method

Post-development peak flow Pre-development peak flow


from the outlet point of the site to the downstream public drainage system or receiving water
Solution:
1. Design ARI (Table 4.1)
Minor drainage system = 5-year ARI
Major drainage system = 100-year ARI

2. Estimate time of concentration tc


From Design Chart 14.1, Lo = 80 m, S = 0.5%, assume paved surface,
to = 8.5 minutes

Average velocity in the open drain should be assessed using Manning's


equation. Assume V = 1.0 m/s

Ld 400
td 6.7 min
V 1
Therefore, tc = to + td = 8.5 + 6.7 15 mins

3. Determine average rainfall intensity


Table 13.A1:
Kuala Lumpur, 5-year ARI, a = 5.1086, b = 0.5037, c = -0.2155, d = 0.0112
Table 13.A1:
Kuala Lumpur, 5-year ARI, a = 5.1086, b = 0.5037, c = -0.2155, d = 0.0112

ln5I30 5.1086 0.5037ln30 0.2155ln30 0.0112ln30


2 3

5
I30 117.9 mm/hr
5
P30 117.9 mm/hr 0.5 58.9 mm

ln5I60 5.1086 0.5037ln60 0.2155ln60 0.0112ln60


2 3

5
I60 75.7 mm/hr
5
P60 75.7 mm

For Kuala Lumpur, P24h < 100 mm, FD = 0.8

P15 P30 FD P60 P30


58.9 0.875.7 58.9 45.5 mm

5
P15 45.5
5
I15 182 mm/hr
d 15 60
4. Determine runoff coefficient
Design Chart 14.3, Category 3, C = 0.87

5. Determine peak flow


C5 I15 A
5
Q15
360

0.87 182 10

360

4.4 m3 s