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# EXPERIMENT-2

AIM:

Design and test the performance of an Non- Inverting amplifier using IC A 741
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

## OP-AMP IC 741, Bread Board , Connecting wires, CRO, Function Generator,

Dual Regulated Power Supply.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

THEORY:

The input signal Vi is applied to the non - inverting input terminal of the op-
amp. This circuit amplifies the signal without inverting the input signal. It is
also called negative feedback system since the output is feedback to the
inverting input terminals. The differential voltage Vd at the inverting input
terminal of the op-amp is zero ideally and the output voltage is given as,
VO = ACL VI

the output voltage is in phase with the input signal. Here ACL= 1 +Rf/Rin.

PROCEDURE:

## Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

+ Vcc and - Vcc supply is given to the power supply terminal of the OP-AMP
IC.By adjusting the amplitude and frequency knobs of the function generator,
appropriate input voltage is applied to the inverting input terminal of the Op-
Amp.The output voltage is obtained in the CRO.

TABULATION:

ERROR
S.No I/P
O/P Practical Theoretical Rf Rin
Amplitude 1 VPP 1.2 VPP 1 VPP 1k 1K 20%
1.
( No. of div x Volts per div ) u
9.8 VPP t 10 VPP 10k 10K -2%
p
10 VPP u 10 VPP 1.5K 1.5K 0%
t

verified.
Experiment-3
AIM:

## Design and test the performance of operational amplifier IC A 741 as

differentiator.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
OP-AMP IC 741,Bread Board ,resistance ,capacitors.Connecting wires,CRO,Function
Generator,Dual Regulated Power Supply.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

THEORY:
The differentiator circuit performs the mathematical operation of
differentiation; that is, the output waveform is the derivative of the input
waveform. The differentiator may be constructed from a basic inverting
amplifier if an input resistor R1 is replaced by a capacitor C1 . The expression
for the output voltage is given as,

## VO = - RFC1 ( dVI /dt )

Here the negative sign indicates that the output voltage is 180 0 out of phase
with the input signal. A resistor Rcomp = Rf is normally connected to the non-
inverting input terminal of the op-amp to compensate for the input bias current.
The differentiator is most commonly used in waveshaping circuits to detect
high frequency components in an input signal and also as a rateofchange
detector in FM modulators. The concept of differentiation is usually described
as finding the slope of the curve. There are many uses for this function,
including waveshaping and analog computing. An ordinary amplifier ideally
changes only the amplitude of the input signal. A differentiator can change the
waveform of the input signal, for example, turning a triangle wave into a
square wave. A practical differentiator cannot be used at just any frequency.
There exists a useful range of differentiation, outside of which the circuit does
not produce the desired effect.

PROCEDURE:

## Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

+ Vcc and - Vcc supply is given to the power supply terminal of the Op-
Amp IC By adjusting the amplitude and frequency knobs of the function
generator, appropriate input voltage is applied to the inverting input terminal of
the Op- Amp.The output voltage is obtained in the CRO.
TABULATION:

## S.N I/P O/P R1 C1 Rf Cf

O Practical Theoritical

## 1. Amplitud 1VPP,1khz 1.4 VPP 1 Vpp 82 0.1 1.5 5

e Sine cosine cosine
1VPP,1khz 1.2 VPP 1 VPP
triangular square square F k nF

RESULT:

## Thus OP-AMP IC as differentiator circuit is designed and verified by applying

various i/p waveforms.
Experiment 4
AIM:

## Design and test the performance of operational amplifier IC A 741 as Integrator.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
OP-AMP IC 741,Bread Board ,resistors ,capacitors.Connecting wires,CRO,Function
Generator,Dual Regulated Power Supply.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
Derivation:

THEORY:

A circuit in which the output voltage waveform is the integral of the input voltage
waveform is the integrator. Such a circuit is obtained by using a basic inverting
amplifier configuration if the feedback resistor Rf is replaced by a capacitor Cf .
The expression for the output voltage is given as,
Vo = - (1/RfCq) Vi dt
Here the negative sign indicates that the output voltage is 180 0 out of phase with
the input signal. Normally between fa and fb the circuit acts as an integrator.
Generally, the value of fa < fb . The input signal will be integrated properly if the
Time period T of the signal is larger than or equal to Rf Cf . That is,
T Rf Cf
The integrator is most commonly used in analog computers and ADC and signal-
wave shaping circuits.

PROCEDURE:

## Connections are given as per the circuit diagram..

+ Vcc and - Vcc supply is given to the power supply terminal of the
Op-Amp IC.
By adjusting the amplitude and frequency knobs of the function generator,
appropriate input voltage is applied to the inverting input terminal of the
Op- Amp.The output voltage is obtained in the CRO and the input and
output voltage waveforms are plotted in a graph sheet.
TABULATION:

## S.N I/P O/P R1 Rf Cf

O Practical Theoritical

## 1. Amplitud 1VPP,1khz 1.4 VPP 1 Vpp 1K 10 15

e cosine sine sine
1VPP,1khz 1.2 VPP 1 VPP
square triangular triangular k nF

RESULT:

i/p waveforms.