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M o d u l e

Adapting Your Messages
2 to Your Audience
Module Outline Learning Objectives
●● Who is my audience? After reading and applying the information in Module 2, you’ll be able
●● Why is audience so to demonstrate
●● What do I need to know Knowledge of
about my audience? LO1 The audiences who may evaluate your business messages
●● How do I use audience
LO2 The variables of the communication process
●● What if my audiences have LO3 The importance of adapting your message to your audience
different needs? LO4 Audience analysis
●● How do I reach my
audience? Skills to
Module Summary LO5 Analyze your audience when composing messages
Assignments for Module 2
Polishing Your Prose: Comma
LO6 Begin to shape the content, organization, and form of your
Splices messages to meet audience needs

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Adapting Your Messages to Your Audience MODULE 2  19

Employability Skills 2000+ Checklist
Module content builds these Conference Board of Canada Employability Skills 2000+

Communicate Be Adaptable

Think and Solve Problems Learn Continuously

Demonstrate Positive Attitudes and Work with Others

Audience analysis is fundamental to the success of any message: to capture and hold an audi-
ence’s attention, and to motivate readers and listeners, you must shape your message to meet
the audience’s interests, and needs.

LO1 Who is My Audience?
Your audience may include many people.

In an organizational setting, a message may have five audiences. Ex.
1. The initial audience—your supervisor or the client, for example—receives the message 2.4
first and routes it to other audiences. Sometimes the initial audience also tells you to write
the message.
2. The primary audience—your supervisor, or the client, or your peers—will decide whether
or not to act on your message.

Figure 2.1 The Audiences for a Marketing Plan

Dawn is an account executive in an ad agency.

Her boss asks her to write a proposal for a marketing plan for a new product the agency’s
client is introducing. Her boss, who must approve the plan before it is submitted to the
client, is both the initial audience and the gatekeeper.

Her primary audience is the executive committee of the client company, who will decide
whether or not to adopt the plan.

The secondary audience includes the marketing staff of the client company, who will be
asked to comment on the plan, as well as the artists, writers, and media buyers who will
carry out details of the plan if it is adopted.

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Although they have no direct power over this report. As Figures 2.2 show. If the consortium doesn’t like the report. People in the think tank often work for business or government to help solve a problem. and competitors and potential clients of the consulting company. who work together to provide advice. or economic power. 3. The supervisor or executive assistant who decides whether or not you can speak to the boss is a gatekeeper. A gatekeeper has the power to stop your message before it gets to the primary audience. and cost. Facing multiple audiences in engineering and R&D writing: The social context of a technical report.1 and 2. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication. Within this audience are economists. It will set new regulations. their goodwill is important for the consulting company’s image—and its future contracts. usually experts in their field. 24(1). and policymakers. a supervisor is both the initial audience and the gatekeeper. such as how new laws will affect a company. Secondary audiences include the public.indd 20 12-12-20 9:37 PM . gatekeepers exist outside the organization. safety. Their company has been hired by a consortium of manufacturers of a consumer product to investigate how proposed federal regulations would affect manufacturing. For example. The consortium is both the consultants’ initial audience and a gatekeeper. it won’t send the report to the federal government. social. industry reviewers emerge as a watchdog audience. The initial audience can also be the primary audience who will act on the message. The watchdog pays close attention to the communication between you and the primary audience and may base future actions on its evaluation of your message. 5. Brown (1994). 02Locker_mod02. boards of directors. engineers. 4. The federal government agency that regulates this consumer product is the primary audience. During the revision process. and members of program advisory committees—has political. 20  Unit 1 Building Effective Messages Figure 2.2 The Audiences for a Consulting Report Jim and Hiro work for a consulting think tank. one person or group can be part of two audiences. other manufacturers of the product. 67–75. The secondary audience may be asked to comment on your message or to implement your ideas after they’ve been approved. Source: Based on Vincent J. Language Focus A think tank is a group of people. Their comments are the ones that the authors consider most seriously as they revise their drafts. based in part (the manufacturers hope) on Jim’s and Hiro’s report. Occasionally. Secondary audiences can also include lawyers and re- searchers who may use your message—perhaps years later—as evidence of your organiza- tion’s culture and practices. Frequently. A watchdog audience—the media. They read drafts of the report and comment on it. regu- latory boards are gatekeepers.

and the experiences Age Bias unique to every individual. suppose you and your friend Mediha are having a cup of coffee together. Figure 2. Attitudes Education Culture Intelligence Throughout the process. and audience is central to that process. Why Is Audience So Important? When people know what’s in it for them. they’re more likely to pay attention and favourably respond to your message.5 2. Understanding what your audience needs and expects. stance and gait. and adapting your messages accord- ingly. Ex.3 The Communication Process cell phone. volume and rate of speech. Adapting Your Messages to Your Audience MODULE 2  21 Checkpoint Five Kinds of Audiences Initial: Is first to receive the message. Watchdog: Has political. materials. Primary: Decides whether to accept recommendations. gender. You choose to encode your request in symbols. tone. 2. and colours. intelligence.indd 21 12-12-20 9:37 PM . Interest Skill Genuine communication occurs when both Vocabulary Meaning Meaning parties agree on the meaning and signifi- cance of the symbols they are exchanging.6 LO2 Audience and the Communication Process True communication involves an exchange of meaning. therefore. misunderstandings can occur during any part of the process. The communication process is the most complex of human activities. and social media use— the thousands of symbols we use. Secondary: Comments on message or implements recommendations. or economic power. We communicate unceasingly. cul- e ture. hairstyle and hair colour. may assign message. both sender and Experience Health Gender receiver construct meaning together. inten- tionally and unintentionally. Our audiences interpret our communication symbols unceasingly. choice of clothing styles. height and weight. What kinds of symbols Response Message will you use to convey your meaning? Why? 02Locker_mod02. and meet the audience’s needs. and you realize you need help studying for the upcoming economics exam. greatly increase your chances of communicating successfully. Successful communicators analyze. For example. shaped by age. identify. This meaning transfer is a complex process because each of us is unique and believes his or her own perceptions of reality (mean- ing) are true. Audience focus is central to both the communication process and message analysis (PAIBOC). may base future actions on evaluation of message. iPod. are perceived Return Message and translated according to our audience’s Message Nois Feedback e Nois perceptions. acts on message. Gatekeeper: Has the power to stop the message before it gets to primary audience. social. posture. You decide to ask Mediha. Our words.

Ex. or psychological interference.6 Encode your message in words and other symbols the audience will understand. president of psychological noise? WOW Company. Because of technology. But this is not always the case. Correctly identifying your audience and choosing audience-appropriate symbols (words. our cultures and subcultures. misinterpret. and radio. and the time in which we live. 02Locker_mod02. gestures. memos. Moreover. For example. or indirect and delayed. try to avoid stereotypes. receiver can handle. encode poorly. That is. or a small business may have only clients from all over Ontario. This under- standing will help you learn to communicate effectively in another culture. Then she interprets the message. you must transmit your message to Mediha via a channel. Feedback may be direct and immediate. based on personal experiences. noise influences every part of the process. also distorts communication. illustrations) guarantee a more accurate meaning transfer. uses newspaper ads. so it is best to understand the common standards for a culture and also try to determine individual preferences. Transmit the message along channels that your audience pays attention to. 2. choose badly. telephones. smartphones. bill- boards. both Mediha and you can misperceive. Some receivers process information on a “first come. You’re talking to Mediha in the cafeteria. to name just a few. and incomes—have Information overload occurs when more messages are transmitted than the human finished first in charity events around the world. including emotional. email newsletters. ages. or choose inappropriate channels. Study other cultures and try to determine the most effective way to communicate. Successful communication depends on identifying and establishing common ground between 2. We always interpret messages in the light of our perceptions. rather than Mrs. her company Channel overload occurs when the channel cannot handle all the messages being sent. Channels include cell phones.5 2. Mediha must have the physical ability to hear your request. choosing audience-appropriate symbols and channels means your message will attract and hold your audience’s attention. intellectual. many women in North America prefer to be addressed as Ms. Then she decodes your words: she makes meaning from your symbols. 22  Unit 1 Building Effective Messages Once you have chosen your symbols. television. we are not always able to determine whether miscommunication occurs because of what we said or how we said it. cultures. and word of mouth to attract Two people may be speaking to you simultaneously. Choose information that your audience needs and will find interesting. information overload seems to be a con- stant modern complaint. Some may try to select the most important messages and ignore others.3 you and your audience. What kinds of feedback could Mediha use to answer you? What symbols could she use? Meanwhile. chooses a response. Because culture is an unconscious part of who we are. Cultural Focus Not all cultures communicate the same way. What are the many physical noises that could interfere with your message? Psychological noise. iPods. Miscommunication also frequently occurs because every individual makes meaning using different frames of reference. At every stage.indd 22 12-12-20 9:37 PM . website. None of these ways is com- pletely satisfactory. WOW’s walkers—men and women of all two phone lines so no one else can get through when both lines are in use. and encodes it. Some depend on abstracts or summaries prepared by other people. and why? Mediha must perceive the message in order to receive it. however. Her response is feedback. to reduce or eliminate physical and Walking coach Lee Scott. Noise can be physical or psy- chological. or Miss. first served” basis. What channel will you use for this particular message. the windows are open. What psychological noise could interfere with message transfer? What can you do as an effective communicator.

personal experience counts as a good reason. For some audiences. and organizations exist in a context. how well the economy is doing. B What reasons or reader benefits can you use to support your position? Regardless of your own needs. Module 11 gives more information on developing reader benefits. 2. You need to add relevant facts when the topic is new to your audience.4 PAIBOC Questions for Analysis 2. the reader’s values and expectations. the economy. housing. You and your team members must prepare a message—or series of messages—to explain the new wellness program to your youth clients and to build support and acceptance. Ex. and jobs) for these young people. 02Locker_mod02. Other audiences are persuaded more by scientific studies or by experts. I What information must your message include? The information you need to give depends on your audience. People. counselling services. A Who is your audience? What audience characteristics are relevant to this particular message? These questions ask directly about your audience. because successful communication is always audience-focused. a good reason or benefit depends on your audience’s perception. If your audience is familiar with specific facts. even what’s been in the news recently: all influence audience response to your message. How well your audience knows you. the place and time of day. and 2) give back to the community through modelling leadership skills for and mentoring others. Your director has decided that the agency will introduce a wellness program to educate your clients about healthy living practices and to encourage them to find ways to adopt these prac- tices.indd 23 12-12-20 9:37 PM .5 Figure 2. bursaries. the time of year. concentrate more on clarifying new information. job training. and any special circumstances surrounding the message exchange. Your audience determines how you achieve those purposes. how they feel about you and your organization. A Communication Problem for Analysis You work in a small. Adapting Your Messages to Your Audience MODULE 2  23 LO3 Audience and Business Messages Consider the PAIBOC questions introduced in Module 1. O What objections can you expect your readers to have? What elements of your message will your audience perceive as negative? How can you arrange the message to overcome audience objections or de-emphasize negative elements? Module 10 on persuasion gives more information on overcoming objections. Five of the six questions relate to audience. scholarships. Your organization’s purpose is to raise public awareness and resources (funding.9 P What are your purposes in communicating? Your purposes come from you and your organization. You must know and understand your audiences to identify the information that will attract and hold their atten- tion and motivate them to comply with your message. Your agency’s mandate includes encouraging and educating these youth to 1) assume personal responsibility for their lives and career goals. not-for-profit agency that supports disadvantaged youth (ages 13 to 19) in your city. information. C How will the context affect reader response? Consider your relationship to the reader.

Empathy requires being audience- centred because the audience is not just like you. you’ll analyze your audience as members of a group: “taxpayers who must be notified that they owe more income tax. Education describing new methods of waste 2.7 thing.8 Table 2. Expectations of future income (and used car ability to repay loan) 3.1 Identifying Key Audience Characteristics for Messages Message. talking to people who know your audience. Interest in having a new car 4. In other organizational situations. 24  Unit 1 Building Effective Messages LO4 LO5 What Do I Need To Know About My Audience? You need to know everything that’s relevant to what you’re writing or talking about.” Ex. to feel with that person. Attitude about environmental concerns 6. Time available (some might be too busy) courses 3. and then making decisions based on that information. Access to other kinds of financing Municipal website and pamphlet Municipal homeowners 1. Critical thinking involves gathering as much information as you can about someone or some- 2.1). You may already know your audience. Attitudes toward formal education (some announcing that the company will people find courses enjoyable. Interest in being promoted or in receiving cross-training 4. Ex. others reimburse employees for tuition if they might be intimidated) take work-related college or university 2. In general. Attitude toward company (those committed to its success will be more interested in the program) Tweet. Attitude toward cars offered by that dealership 5. Knowledge of interest rates 8. and in other organizations you work with. Empathy is the ability to put yourself in someone else’s shoes. but for any particular message. Feelings about neighbourhood and community 02Locker_mod02.indd 24 12-12-20 9:37 PM . You need to use your research and your knowledge about people and about organizations to predict likely responses.” “customers living in the northeast end of the city. Analyzing Individuals and Members of Groups When you write or speak to people in your own organization. Medium. Knowledge about fuel efficiency and hybrid cars 7. Income offering special financing on a new or 2.7 2. 2. and observing your audience. Attitudes about home ownership sorting and collecting 3. it might be easy to get additional information by talking to members of your audience. These facts will vary depend- ing on each communication situation (see Table 2. Awareness of environment 4. Almost everything about your audience is relevant to some message.” or “employees with small children. however. you may be able to analyze your audience as individuals. Facebook announcement Postsecondary students 1. you need to use empathy and critical-thinking tools. only a few facts about your audience will be relevant. and Purpose Audience Relevant factors Intranet and corporate blog All employees 1.

” or a similar phrase. and so on. Other people are more tolerant of errors. 2. co-workers?” This gives your colleagues a chance place tells employees just to do what they’re told. sector clients value short proposals and reports. income. more detailed paper documents. Bust and Echo E x pa n d i n g a C r i t i cal Sk i ll Understanding What Your Organization Wants Every workplace has rules about what “counts. don’t know the technical language of their service mechanics. ●● Always spell out acronyms the first time you use them: “Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP). you want to remind readers of relevant facts tactfully. such as age.8 • Ask your boss. your aware- To find out what counts in your organization. values. income. location ●● Their personality ●● Their attitudes. they might not remember the old information when they read the new mes- sage. Adapting Your Messages to Your Audience MODULE 2  25 Since audience analysis is central to the success of your message. and beliefs ●● Their past behaviour Prior Knowledge  Even people in your own organization won’t share all your knowledge. for example. ●● Preface statements with “As you know. check for confirmation: “So see. in his Boom.” and the preferably in PowerPoint™. • Listen to the stories colleagues tell about people One boss circles misspelled words and posts the who have succeeded and those who have failed. education level. avoid mind-numbing details. it was more than never supervisor likes technology and always buys the latest coming to the company picnic. For example. gender. In any case. and include age.” has to be persuaded to get needed upgrades. Businesses and governments use a variety of demographic data to forecast people’s behav- iours. you’ll need to consider the following pertinent information about your audience: ●● Their knowledge about your topic ●● Their demographic factors. or measured. “What parts of my job are 2. and to design their strategies accordingly. education. 02Locker_mod02. most important? What’s the biggest thing I Even in the same industry. One to provide feedback: “Well. many governments prefer best communicators ferret these out fast. Ex. marital status. One his real problem was that he didn’t socialize with company values original ideas.” Demographic Factors  Demographic characteristics can be objectively quantified. Private. He didn’t really seem hardware and software. and who is promoted. number of children.” “As you may know. Many salespeople in the automotive industry. another is technophobic and to care about the company.” “As we’ve discussed. offending message on a bulletin board for everyone to When you see patterns.indd 25 12-12-20 9:37 PM . Most of the time. If. make up the corporate culture (Module 3).9 tial to work–life success. religion. location. while another work. These rules longer. See who is praised. however.” ●● Provide brief definitions in the text: “the principal (the money you have invested). even if you’ve told readers before. class. home ownership. ness of the norms of your organizational culture is essen. gender. Moreover. different organizations and could do to improve my work?” different supervisors may care about different things. • Observe. you won’t know exactly what your audience knows.

simply identifying subsets of your audience is enough. cli- ents. Canada’s census results reflect an increasing number of foreign-born and aging workers: immigrants account for over 20 percent. If you were explaining a change in your company’s pension plan. financial. and donors. businesses that cater to specific populations and ethnic groups flourish. Feeling types make decisions that “feel right. Bender describes four personality types. for example. Business and nonprofit organizations get demographic data by surveying their customers.indd 26 12-12-20 9:37 PM .” Cultural Focus North Americans place value in understanding personality types. Personality  Understanding and adapting to your primary audience’s personality can also help make your message more effective. sometimes it’s important. sensing–intuitive. you would expect older workers to pay much closer attention than younger workers. judging–perceiving) to identify personality preferences:3 1. accounting. And you would need to shape your explanation to appeal to both audiences. 3. 26  Unit 1 Building Effective Messages books. Many Boomers intend to keep on working. Does age matter? Almost always. In his bestsellers. Sensing types gather information systematically through their senses.2 Another popular assessment tool. University of Toronto economics professor David Foot uses his analysis of Canada’s changing population demographics to identify economic and social trends. and personal services industries. Thinking–feeling: How someone makes decisions. Foot’s forecasts proved accurate. since people’s perspectives and priorities change as they grow older. Introverts get their energy from within. For example. business consultant Peter Urs Bender says that knowing your audience is key to communication success. 02Locker_mod02. real estate. And in the hospitality. and people 55 years and older for 15 percent of today’s workers. For example. Demographic data has certainly determined the sharp increase in small business start-ups devoted to personal services. thinking–feeling. Personality and learning style assessment instruments can provide you with useful insights into your own and others’ behaviours. Introvert–extrovert: The source of one’s energy. and those who leave paid work will do so for self-employment opportunities. This audience analysis affects decisions about every part of our lives. Sensing–intuitive: How someone gathers information. For many messages. Secrets of Powerful Presentations and Leadership from Within. the North American concierge industry—providing services from animal care and house-sitting to running errands—thrives because it provides time for busy people. extroverts are energized by interacting with other people. uses four dimensions (introvert–extrovert. It isn’t necessary to know the exact percentages to realize that successful messages need to contain appeals not only to parents but also to voters who won’t directly benefit from the improvements that the tax increase will fund. the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Thinking types use objective logic to reach decisions. 2. a school board trying to win support for a tax increase knows that not everyone living in the district will have children in school.1 Sometimes demographic information is irrelevant. by using Statistics Canada data or by purchasing demographic data from marketing companies. from social policy and urban design to store lighting and aisle width. Many such personality assessment tools are available online. and offers a free online assessment for readers to identify their type. Many companies use assessments such as the Myers- Briggs to help decide whether an employee will fit in with the corporate culture. Intuitive types see relationships among ideas.

Perceptive types like possibilities. like to keep their options open. Myers and Katherine D. and lifestyles. and prefer to finish one task before starting another. Indeed. Table 2. They are often some people may be hurt by it. Judging types are comfortable making quick decisions. 02Locker_mod02.2 Using Myers-BriggsTry An extrovert Types in Persuasive out your idea orally. about your proposal before responding.. They can be impatient with details. systematically. not emotion. They like to settle so they can move on to something else. proposal. and to choose appeals that audience members will find persuasive. Putting the main point up front satisfies the needs of judging types. to persuade. even if and abstract principles. They are setting. They are sympathetic and the dollars-and-cents needs of the like harmony.2 Using "Type" Analysis for Persuasive Messages If Your Audience Is: Use This Strategy For This Reason An introvert Write a memo and let the reader think Introverts prefer to think before they speak. too. All Rights Reserved. or finishing a project. A perceiving type Show that you’ve considered all the Perceiving types want to be sure they’ve alternatives. many of the general principles of business communications reflect the types most common among managers. A thinking type Use logic. A sensing type Present your reasoning step by step. and may interrupt their work on one task to start another.indd 27 12-12-20 9:37 PM . Source: Modified and reproduced by special permission of the publisher. Thinking types make decisions based on logic Show that your proposal is fair. Stress the Intuitive types like solving problems and being innovative. Sixth Edition. Written documents give them the time they need to think through a proposal carefully. A feeling type Show that your proposal meets the Feeling types are very aware of other people emotional needs of people as well as and their feelings. CA 94043 from Introduction to Type®. creative aspects of your creative. Copyright 1998 by Peter B. and sandwiches) to attract new fast-food clients and to appeal to its original. Judging–perceiving: The degree of certainty someone needs. inMessages an informal Extroverts like to think on their feet. organization. Further reproduction is prohibited without the publisher’s written consent. They want to know why something is important. Get Sensing types usually reach conclusions all your facts exactly right. CPP Inc. A judging type Present your request quickly.2 suggests how you can use this information to adapt a message to your audience. increasingly weight-conscious Table 2. Looking at values enables a company to identify customer segments. beliefs. Judging types like organiza- tion. Ask for a decision by a considered all the options. Table 2. Knowing what your audience finds important allows you to organize information in a way that seems natural to your audience. The Canadian-based Tim Hortons chain introduced a more diverse menu (croissants. soup.4 Values and Beliefs  Psychographic characteristics are qualitative rather than quantitative and include values. Myers. they’d rather talk than write. muffins. but they trust their own experience more than someone else’s say- so. Mountain View. by Isabel Briggs Myers. and some 75 percent of managers are judging. They’re good at facts and expect others to be. An intuitive type Present the big picture first. energized by people. Adapting Your Messages to Your Audience MODULE 2  27 4. goals. You’ll be most persuasive if you play to your audience’s strengths. making a decision. Giving logical reasons satisfies the needs of the nearly 80 percent of managers who are thinking types. uncomfortable with emotion. They may postpone specific date.

Each person is part of sev- 2.1 eral discourse communities. For example. political. and levels of ran into conflict. Therefore. how to behave. And the company catalogue—in print since 1928—is now only online. but which identify them as members of that group. safety using behavioural-based interviews (“Tell me about a situation in which you wear.11 Audience reaction is also strongly influenced by the perceptions and expectations of the groups to which they belong. These groups are known as discourse communities because their members create their affiliation. “Our shopping habits are shaped by environment and our desire to belong. non-verbals) that may or may not be exclusive to their group. professional associations. the uniform of a sports team symbolizes association. which may or may not overlap. Checkpoint A discourse community is a group of people who share assumptions about what channels. landscaping. In other words. formats. what topics to discuss and how to discuss them. religious. Members communicate through symbols (language. a discourse community is a group of people who share assumptions about their particular culture and values: what to wear. and styles to use. 02Locker_mod02. food choices.6 Marketers also use geodemographic data to analyze and appeal to audiences according to where they live and what they buy. Tim Hortons continues to expand in Canada and internationally. Canadian Tire has expanded its lines of gar- dening.9 (See Module 27 on interviewing skills. what topics to discuss and how to discuss them. including uniforms. and what con- stitutes evidence. and norms through accepted verbal and non-verbal symbols (discourse). “an environmen- tally responsible” move that also appeals to an increasing consumer base. and techno- logical innovation continues to refine research methods. also remains competitive in a very crowded market through audience analysis. Although still selling automotive and home repair products and services. and the workplace—all communities with which members of your audience identify. what Ex.” 7 Analyzing Canadians’ shopping habits is a $550 million industry. and what constitutes evidence. clubs. What happened and how did you deal with it?”) to assess a courtesy and formality. 2. Ranked as Canada’s “best-managed brand. lighting.5 Canadian Tire. International marketing firms use “global ethnography” to study the impact of culture on consumerism. employers are verbal symbols. use of space. the more accurate the prediction. another national top brand. time. Postal-code clusters identify cur- rent and potential customers based on two assumptions: 1) people are what they buy. And researchers increasingly take advantage of the speed and convenience of the Internet to analyze audiences through online surveys and focus groups. channels. and class asso- ciations.8– Analyzing People in Organizations 2.8 Past Behaviour  Experts in human behaviour believe that we can analyze Discourse communities create meaning and predict people’s future actions based on their past behaviours: the more recent and connection through verbal and non. candidate’s potential. the behaviour. These groups include family. 28  Unit 1 Building Effective Messages customers. These groups are personal. and decorating products in response to Canadians’ increasing investment (both emotional and financial) in their homes. observances of religion.) Ex. formats. social. rules.indd 28 12-12-20 9:37 PM . peers. and the team’s name reflects the culture and values members hold. On this premise. and 2) birds of a feather flock together.” based on customer ser- vice. and styles to use.

11 ●● What does the organization value? Diversity or homogeneity? Independence or being a team player? Creativity or following orders? 02Locker_mod02. Hamonic has started two other not-for- What departments and services are front and centre? Where is the reception profits dependent on student volunteers and is area located? What messages do the decor and furnishings send? How are in the process of establishing his fourth charity visitors welcomed? Is the company mission statement prominent? What organization. So he started his own charities. Where are the library. Social web- sites such as BallHype. ●● What are the organization’s goals? Making money? Serving customers and clients? 2. When you go for a job interview. organizational or corporate culture can shape members’ attitudes and behav- iours. student Jesse Hamonic did not appreciate the red tape he had to go through to volunteer for a When analyzing an organization’s discourse community. Organizational culture (or corporate culture. and philosophies. And violating the conventions can get you plenty of negative feedback. Once established. your hairstyle or piercing indicates your membership in a subculture. the Internet hosts thousands and thousands of discourse commu- nities. one that will use high school does the office space layout indicate about the  organization’s values? volunteers. Consider your discourse communities: perhaps you wear jeans to signify your membership in the student community. be the whole world. and power (Module 3). or meaning members can exchange. formats. money. stories. norms.indd 29 12-12-20 9:37 PM . some haircut and put on more formal clothes to reflect the norms of the organiza- people invent their own. Organizational or corporate culture reveals itself verbally in the organization’s myths. in meetings? ●● What do people talk about? What is not discussed? ●● What kind of and how much evidence is needed to be  convincing? Is personal evidence convincing? Do people need to supply statistics and formal research to be convincing? An organization’s culture is expressed through its values. On Twitter. Facebook.9– Advancing knowledge? Contributing to the community? 2. IndianPad. stories. for example. and philosophies. Twitter. conversation. potentially. and styles are preferred for communication? Do they text. LinkedIn. you might get a In response to traditional expectations. and power. attitudes. money. attitudes. or walk down the hall to talk to someone? How formal or informal are people expected to be—in their dress. University of Manitoba tion’s discourse community that you want to join. and become very difficult to change. consider both non- local charity. gymnasium. and expectations of its users. The following questions will help you analyze an organization’s culture: Ex. and heroes. as it is also called) is revealed verbally in the organization’s myths. send an email. This limitation defines the kind of discourse. and non-verbally in the allocation of space. on the telephone. and cafeteria located? How well are they resourced? ●● Where do the managers work? Do bosses dress differently from other employees? ●● How are employees treated? How are new hires oriented? How is employee performance recognized? What’s featured in the company newsletter? How do people in the organization get important information? ●● How do people in the organization communicate? What channels. and Free IQ are their own discourse communities with their own set of rules. you may use only 140 characters per message. and non-verbally in the allocation of space. where the audience might. Checkpoint An organization’s culture is its values. verbal and verbal clues: Student Harvest relies on university students across Canada for donations and volunteer ●● What does the physical environment say about who and what are valued? work. your iPod holds music that reflects your affiliation to another group. training rooms. each reflects the values. Adapting Your Messages to Your Audience MODULE 2  29 For example. and heroes.

TD Canada Trust’s green and white site—implying a fresh approach—offers photos of young. Take the time to analyze your audience.10 Many companies describe their cultures as part of the section on employment. is that the quality of its beer is the result of family recipes handed down through five generations—even though that family no longer owns the company. being well liked. read the organizational publications (newsletters and blogs). and listen to their stories. document design. for example. and how they want to project their brand. Their company web- sites can offer some clues about what those cultures value. then adapt your strategy. Royal Bank’s standing as Canada’s oldest bank is reflected in its corporate website colours: conservative dark blue and gold. and visuals. “shoreline running trails…and plenty of snacks…get you through the day. the organizational culture.000 employees. and organizational pattern Ex. and dress? ●● What behavioural expectations predominate? How do employees treat one another? Do employees speak in “I. observe people. organization.” “we.7 2. and made with love. global presence. style. For paper or electronic documents. 02Locker_mod02. despite its founding brothers’ feuding. manufacturing and marketing may represent different subcultures in the same organization: workers may dress differently and espouse different values. Every discourse community and every culture creates and perpetu- ates meaning and membership through the stories their members share.”12 Your awareness of an organization’s spoken and unspoken messages can provide you with important information on its values and norms.” casual dress. its 20. education. making technical discoveries. and its multinational. Always revise your message with your audi- ence in mind. or serving customers? Are rewards available to only a few top people. and be more satisfied than those who did not fit the culture. (See Unit 6.) Researcher Jennifer Chatman found that new hires who “fit” a company’s culture were more likely to stay with the job. style. Google’s cultural story boasts of a “fun and inspiring workspace” where free meals. 30  Unit 1 Building Effective Messages ●● How do people get ahead? Are rewards based on seniority. ●● Use details and language that reflect your knowledge of. You can learn about organizational culture by paying attention to communication clues and cues.indd 30 12-12-20 9:37 PM . “healthy. and respect for the specific audience. Meanwhile.11 Organizations also contain several subcultures. Strategy ●● Choose appeals and reader benefits that work for the specific audience (Module 11). And McCain Foods continues to present itself as a “family business” culture. or is everyone expected to succeed? ●● How formal are behaviour.” or “them and us” language? How do employees get organizational information? Two companies in the same business may express very different cultures. be more produc- tive. In particular. apparently delighted by the products and services the bank provides. In a union environment. to your audience’s needs. management and union representatives traditionally employ adversarial language to advance their own subculture’s perspective while undermining the other’s point of view. language.10 design and the photos or illustrations you choose. The Sleeman Breweries story. Job candidates who research the corporate culture to identify how their skills match with the company have a significant advantage in an interview. you can also adapt the document’s 2. LO6 How Do I Use Audience Analysis? Use audience analysis to plan strategy. happy people. and the discourse community. yummy. For example.

or informing readers of a rate increase or of changes that may inconvenience them. Language Focus Multi-tasking means working on many tasks at the same time. footnotes. and boast of multi-tasking and of their busyness. including Quebec and some areas of Ontario. Module 23 shows how to use overviews and signposts in oral presentations.indd 31 12-12-20 9:37 PM . bilingual messages in English and in French. many business messages cause negative reader reaction: messages demanding payment. Therefore.) Style Many North Americans value “saving” time. When your message is positive. Manitoba. conversational. and listen to music all at once? This is considered multi-tasking as well. (Module 5 discusses effective document design. decide how much information to include. ●● Use natural. arrogant. ●● Include only necessary information. crazy. and economic assumptions can offend readers and cost you business. are the norm. For example. attempting to sell a product or service. you can make your point right away. with French first. we expect immediate gratification. religious. defensive.” Photos and visuals can make a document look more informal or more formal. Adapting Your Messages to Your Audience MODULE 2  31 ●● Make it easy for the audience to respond positively. Because we’ve been trained by technology. use the Internet. and New Brunswick. incompetent. ●● Choose the format. ●● Anticipate and meet the audience’s expectations of format: make the organizational pattern clear to the audience. fundamentalist. most business audiences today expect messages that are short and clear. ●● Anticipate and overcome objections (Modules 8–13 show you how to emphasize positive aspects. How often do you study. tactful language: avoid negative. ●● Use the language that appeals to your audience. ●● Use natural. ●● Strive for clarity and accessibility: use simple words. When you must persuade a reluctant reader. and visuals expected by the organizational culture or the discourse community. ●● Use bias-free photographs. (Modules 6 and 16–18 show you how to use headings and overviews. a mixture of sentence lengths (average today: 14 words). bulleted lists. and overcome obstacles). Document Design ●● Use headings. 02Locker_mod02. personable. and a mix of paragraph lengths to create white space. and when your audience would see the message negatively. organize the message to break the news gradually (Modules 8–10). and “red-flag” words—unfortunately. completing a report for a project. and short paragraphs with topic sentences (refer to the Revising and Editing Resources at the end of this book). gender. Organization ●● Analyze your audience’s reaction to the meaning of the message.) Photographs and Visuals ●● Carefully consider the difference between cartoons and photos of “high art. and planning an upcoming meeting all at the same time. In parts of Canada. a manager might be overseeing two or three projects. Unintentional cultural. dishonest—that may generate a negative reaction. However. conversational language.

LO6 What If My Audiences Have Different Needs? Focus on gatekeepers and decision makers. Ms. Do research. (See Modules 8–10. however. use a slightly more formal style and the third person. ●● Use a more formal style when you write to international audiences. ●● When both internal and external audiences will read the document. Middle Eastern readers. ●● Do your research and audience analysis: some cultures (e. semiformal language. to discover if your reader prefers a title: Mr. 02Locker_mod02.. ●● Use headings as signposts: use headings to tell readers what they’re about to read and to connect ideas throughout your document. This strategy reinforces your credibility through unity and coherence. When the members of your audience share the same interests and the same level of knowledge. Organization ●● Organize your message based on the primary audience’s attitudes toward it: give good news up front. North American audiences expect photos to relate to the text. provide the explanation before you deliver the bad news. Use I and you.g. provide those details in attachments or appendices. then provide only the necessary parent company and offer similar products. 32  Unit 1 Building Effective Messages ●● Choose photographs and illustrations that project positive cultural meanings for your audience.indd 32 12-12-20 9:37 PM . Their customer demographic. information. Content and Choice of Details ●● Always provide an overview—the introductory paragraph or topic sentence—for reader orientation.) ●● Organize documents to make reading easy: provide a table of contents for documents more than five pages long so that your readers can turn to the portions that interest them. different members of the audience have different needs.. When you are writing or speaking to pluralistic audiences. you can use these principles for individual readers or for members of homogenous groups. France and Japan) use evocative photographs that bear little direct relationship to the text. If the primary audience doesn’t need details that other audiences will want. Use technical terms only if these will increase reader differs. avoid I. of this book). Technical Terms and Theory Best Buy and Future Shop have the same ●● Know what your reader knows. But sometimes. Dr. Level of Language ●● Contemporary business communication uses conversational. find pictures of bare-legged and bare-armed women offensive and may object to pictures of clean-shaven men. meet the needs of gatekeepers and primary audiences first... ●● In the body of the document. for example. Future Shop is designed to attract the comprehension (refer to the Revising and Editing Resources at the end more upscale customer. and address your reader by name. Mrs. provide enough evidence to prove your point. however.

” your documents. resolve conflicts. the audience. Writing makes it easier to do several things: ●● Present many specific details of a law. Ex. including your email messages. Paper may be better for some- one to whom you’re writing for the first time. let readers know that the glossary exists. policy.indd 33 12-12-20 9:37 PM . 02Locker_mod02. gesturing. However. LO3 LO6 How Do I Reach My Audience? Effective messages make use of multiple channels. once you mail the letter. use of space and time). the better. as their knowledge dictates. the more channels you use. provide a glossary of terms. writing. and the situation—known as the communication context—deter- mine which and how many channels you choose (refer to the PAIBOC questions in Figure 2. speak. Email messages are appropri- ate for routine business messages to people you already know. whether they’re oral or written. colour. Early in the document. Adapting Your Messages to Your Audience MODULE 2  33 ●● Put background information and theory under separate headings. or hit “send. electronic. are permanent and potentially available to everyone. 2. The Advantages of Writing A written message is primarily for the record.5 ing. often requires more time than speaking face-to-face. and build consensus ●● Use emotion to help persuade the audience ●● Provoke an immediate action or response ●● Focus the audience’s attention on specific points ●● Modify a proposal that may not be acceptable in its original form Scheduled meetings and oral presentations are more formal than phone calls or stopping some- one in the hall. The Advantages of Oral Communication Speaking is easier and more efficient when you need to do any of the following: ●● Answer questions. Text messaging may work for family and friends. Important messages should use more channels and more formal channels. ●● If primary audiences will have more knowledge than other audiences. use the channel that best meets the expectations and needs of your audience. Furthermore. Readers can use the headings to read or skip these sections. These vary in ●● Transmission speed ●● Transmission accuracy ●● Cost ●● Efficiency ●● The number of people reached ●● Audience impact ●● Positive influence Your purpose. given the potential for miscommunication. however.4). or procedure ●● Present extensive or complex financial data ●● Minimize undesirable emotions The Disadvantages of Writing Writing. When you do decide to write. Communication channels include verbal and non-verbal symbols (in-person.

however. In this “command and control” corporate culture. gatekeeper manages your message flow—this person ●● Audience focus is the key to communication success. make sure everyone has a chance to preview the announcements (via email and bulletin boards). For example. the secondary audience may comment on your message. and/or new initiatives. some organizations regularly use “town hall meet- ings”—large-auditorium gatherings—to tell employees about new strategies. Even when everyone in an organization has access to the same channels. Analyzing your audience’s needs and social. audience analysis. receiver. 6. True communication the message. or product (Module 11). or psychological interference affects meaning or implement your ideas after they’ve been approved. employees often feel too intimidated or too disaf- fected to provide feedback. with and receiver. or economic power to evaluate your message. any physical. policy. the message is often all one-way: top-down. Use Multiple Channels When sending and receiving both oral and written messages. Maintenance workers and carpenters wanted to get answers on voicemail. you maximize success when you 1. use multiple channels. different discourse communities often prefer different channels. Show the audience members how they benefit from the idea. the decision maker. ●● Business messages may include five audiences: the initial ●● The communication process includes a sender. Noise is ever-present. and noise. the more complicated channel choice becomes. 5. Use visuals to clarify or emphasize material (Module 19). Module Summary ●● Communication is the transfer of meaning: both sender expectations lets you shape messages accordingly.indd 34 12-12-20 9:37 PM . Faculty wanted to be able to read the information on paper. meaning clarification. Anticipate and overcome any objections the audience may have. when people choose efficiency and formal- ity over real communication. The manager employs only one channel (voice). 3. When a university updated its employee benefits manual. because few chan- nels reach everyone. and generate feedback through focus groups or team meetings. Specify exactly what the audience should do. 34  Unit 1 Building Effective Messages The Disadvantages of Oral Communication Meaning and morale can be jeopardized. policies and procedures. talk to key players about a written document before the meeting where the document will be discussed. 2. Adopt a good attitude and use positive emphasis (Modules 12–13). using multiple symbols. in the case of town hall meetings. 02Locker_mod02. Or. True communication does not occur. Always use multiple channels for very important messages. Adapt the message to the specific audience. emotional. and even when the presentation includes slides. has the power to stop your message before it reaches the Empathy and critical thinking are crucial to valid primary audience. service. 4. channel(s). is transactional: both parties provide feedback for makes the decision or acts on the basis of your message. or tells you to send message.13 The bigger your audience. on the meaning intended. or primary audience. For example. the exchange. audience first receives the message. the watchdog audience has the political. When possible. reach agreement positive results. the computer scientists and librarians wanted the information online.

a citizen. so she wants to persuade dealers profit group has a product. Use affiliation. which aspects of your often say. government agency.indd 35 12-12-20 9:37 PM . 8. Before 7. or corporate and experiences to analyze your audience. The mayor asks 5. council members will hear from 1) citizens. Financial planners who will have an opportunity to read the proposal and 9. He’s met an investment banker whose up for re-election in six months. Exercises and Problems 2. Each of us belongs to a number of very encourage feedback. People create their corporate culture—values. Council members come youngsters. Facebook. The investment banker decides who will get a slot on the program. Paul works for the mayor’s office in a big city. New immigrants 02Locker_mod02. Competitive athletes Paul to prepare a proposal for the city council. demographic factors. and beliefs.5 Choosing a Channel to Reach a audit of each company’s records and business plan. gatekeeper. Parents whose children play soccer will vote on whether to implement the change. and symbols.4 Identifying Audiences mayors’ offices in other cities. Teenagers who work part-time while attending school be the police and fire departments. service. result if the proposal is implemented. What would be the best offer. a panel has 1.” To what the culture you would most like to work in. She knows that many car buyers choose one of the financing options presented Suppose that your business. which 6. extent do you feel in control as a customer. based on a comprehensive 2. 2) 10. Cheechoo is seeking venture capital so that he can if the proposal passes. “The customer is king. whose ability to schedule work might be limited 1. or watchdog.2 Emphasizing the importance of audience. or non- by the car dealership. Maria is marketing auto loans. 4) department heads. ●● Channel choice is shaped by the organizational culture. culture. create group norms through verbal and non-verbal However. Assignments for Module 2 Questions for Critical Thinking 2. past behaviours. personality characteristics. label the audiences as be concerned about the reduction in income that will initial.3 If you are employed. channel(s) to reach people in that group in your city? Would 3. who may In each of the following situations.” or “The customer is in control. they belong. varsity team).” or “The customer is organization’s culture match your own values? Describe always right. ●● Audience reaction is also strongly influenced by the attitudes. As part of that channel reach all group members? a citywide cost-cutting measure. clients regularly hear presentations from businesspeople seeking capital. Small business owners than 40 hours in a week to take compensatory time off 3. These groups. Specific Audience 2. The only exceptions will 4. secondary. 3) union representatives. People who use wheelchairs rather than be paid overtime. Adapting Your Messages to Your Audience MODULE 2  35 ●● You need to know everything about your audience different discourse communities (family. People willing to work part-time they vote. and your own observations you need to observe the organizational. and philosophies—and express these through perceptions and expectations of the groups to which discourse—their stories and behaviours. Hunters communicate their opinions to the city council. or discourse communities. primary. Renters recommended requiring employees who work more 2. values ●● When you want to understand people in organizations.1 Who might be the audiences for your Facebook or a student? How do you use technology to increase comments? your feelings of control? 2. and 5) panel members and expand his business of offering soccer camps to government lobbying groups. religious that’s relevant to your purposes for communicating. effective messages use multiple channels. or program targeted for to include her financial institution in the options they each of the following audiences. who may be asked about their experiences. salespeople 2.

identify the factors that 1. You want to persuade students to participate in an 3. What’s the relationship between the students’ values and sible. Some firms are afraid that the quality of work may suffer if employees and Additional Information supervisors aren’t on the job at the same time. synagogue.” including carpooling. 4.or part-time ●● Is work “just a job” or do most people really care ●● Outside jobs (What kinds? How many hours a week?) about the organization’s goals? ●● Membership in campus organizations ●● How do workers feel about clients or customers? ●● Religious affiliations ●● What are your co-workers’ major concerns? 02Locker_mod02. the system creates conflict between workers What do students hope to gain from the classes they’re who get the schedules they want and those who have to taking? What motivates them to do their best work in class? work traditional hours to cover the phones. You want to persuade students to adopt “green custodian habits. high and low) in a unit or only the major ones? ●● Gender (What proportion are men? What proportion are ●● How important are punctuality and deadlines? women?) ●● How well informed about a project does he or she ●● Ethnic background (What groups are represented? How want to be? many of each?) ●● Is he or she more approachable in the morning or ●● Languages the afternoon? ●● Marital status ●● What are your supervisor’s major concerns? ●● Number of children ●● Parents’ income/personal or family income 2. beliefs. A church. You want to know whether the campus placement 2. Which of the organizations tion? How much will they be making? Where will they be would be fairly easy to convince? Which would be harder to working? persuade? After you answer these questions. (If your col- lege or university is large. Analyze the students in your college or university. and companies with the philosophy of giving workers as much independence as pos. What are students’ attitudes toward current campus prob- ing may be more complicated.8 Analyzing People in Your Organization If all students are quite different. Your College or University 5. You want to persuade students to join a not-for-profit 5. You want to hire students to staff a business that you’re starting. and lifestyles do students have? organizations that have a hard time keeping good employ. and eating locally. a director of music. A large. However.indd 36 12-12-20 9:37 PM . The business where you work part-time sold in plastic or Styrofoam. Analyze your supervisor: ●● Does he or she like short or long explanations? ●● Demographic data ●● Does he or she want to hear about all the problems ●● Age (average. taking the bus rather 6. and the major? Will students find it difficult to get jobs after gradua- major objection you anticipate. The admissions office on your campus 2. Most employees prefer flextime. in some their choice of major or program? organizations. two clergy.) Is there a “typical” student? 2.6 Persuading Your Organization to ●● Political preferences Adopt Flextime Proportion going on for further education after ●● graduation Flextime is a system that allows employees to set their own ●● Psychographics starting and stopping times. 4.7 Analyzing the Other Students in office is providing adequate services to students. lems? Current political problems? Identify the major argument that you could use to persuade What is the job market like for students in your school or each of the following organizations to use flextime. A branch bank 1. and a 3. A small catering service internship program. how are they different? Consider the following kinds of information in your analysis: 1. or mosque with a staff of charity organization. A government agency than driving. Which are common? Which are less common? ees or cannot easily raise salaries. avoiding products that are packaged or 7. temple. It is especially appealing to What values. Analyze other workers in your organization: ●● Full. Record keep. two secretaries. 36  Unit 1 Building Effective Messages 2. goals. successful insurance company would be most relevant in each of the following situations: 2. analyze the students in your pro- gram of study.

you belong ●● Work teams ●● Work blogs 2. based on your analysis of these media? c. Share your results with a small group of students. Share your results in an email message to the class. Present your analysis orally to the class.11 Analyzing an Organization’s ●● Wikipedia Culture ●● Sports teams Interview several people about the culture of their organiza- ●● Associations. and ●● What attitudes do they have toward the write a joint memo reporting the similarities and organization and its products or services? differences you found. e. 4. ●● How are their attitudes affected by education. 1. Combine your information with classmates’ information 3. culture. Share your results with a small group of students. Share your results orally with a small group of students. Why would someone join this group rather than joining c. organizations.indd 37 12-12-20 9:37 PM . Analyze the way one of your discourse communities uses b. 3.9 Analyzing a Discourse Community As your instructor directs. What assumptions can you make about the corporate b. See ●● Churches.) ●● Geographic or ethnic group Possible organizations are Questions to ask include the following: ●● Work teams ●● What specialized terms might not be known to ●● Sports teams outsiders? ●● Associations. language. What aspects of each culture do you like best? What. Why is he or she successful? messages to follow? 2. or other factors? 2. and other service or social ●● What topics do members talk or write about? groups What topics are considered unimportant or improper? ●● Churches. Present your results in a memo to your instructor. a competitor? d. What did he or she do wrong? As your instructor directs. conventions. organizations. Present your results in an oral presentation to the class. Use three organizations’ websites and/or blogs to analyze a. 02Locker_mod02. if to present a collaborative report comparing and anything. ●● Family d. Write a memo to your instructor summarizing your their corporate cultures. or rules do members expect admire. about the organizational culture that the web pages or blogs don’t answer? 2. and mosques Module 24.10 Analyzing Corporate Culture on ●● What are their major concerns? the Web As your instructor directs. (This exercise provides a great opportunity to become groups known in a company where you would like to work. Discuss your analysis with a small group of students. have? Why are they important? b. Tell me about someone in this organization whom you ●● What formats. synagogues. and ●● Peers write a joint memo reporting the similarities and ●● YouTube. Adapting Your Messages to Your Audience MODULE 2  37 3. What ceremonies and rituals does this organization a. Facebook. analysis. synagogues. temples. and other service or social tion. Possible groups are c. Present your results in a memo to your instructor. 2. a. do you not like? What questions do you have contrasting your audiences at work. Present your results orally to the class. Share your results orally with a small group of students. Tell me about someone who failed in this organization. age. Analyze your customers or clients: e. temples. and mosques ●● What channels do members use to convey messages? ●● Geographic or ethnic groups ●● What forms of language do members use to ●● Groups of friends build goodwill? To demonstrate competence or superiority? Questions to ask include those in this module and the ●● What strategies or kinds of proof are convincing to following: members? 1. Share your results in an email message to the class. What inconsistencies do you find? d. or any social media site to which differences you found.

even non- ●● Make the incorrect sentence into two correct ones: handheld devices are going to be banned.) the desk staff booked a room for her immediately. with 24/7 online access to an eBook. though not always successfully. The director of purchasing went to our Main Street tion. ●● Add a coordinating conjunction (and. Janelle drafted her problem-solving report. Wednesday. Present your results orally to the class. with only a comma. study tools. for. it arrived on Wednesday. videos. Sunil is our most experienced employee. Share your results in an email message to the class. we made a job offer to one. I’ll have Tina call the main office. You know. and b. he joined ●● Make one of the clauses subordinate. Margulies gave an audiovisual presentation at our September sales meeting in Whistler. film to create one segment. 10. or dependent the department in 2009. (Poetry and fiction sometimes use comma splices to warehouse to inspect the inventory. Mr. many countries forbid talking on your nor): We shipped the order on Tuesday. they’re fun. Comma splices are inappropriate in business communica- 4. or. set up an appointment for the four of us tomorrow. Canadian provinces are on Wednesday. she sent a copy to each committee member for review. I like to make oral presentations. You can fix a comma splice in four ways: 6. use very well. Practise and learn online with Connect.. 3. a semicolon: We shipped the order on Tuesday. A comma splice occurs when 1. Polishing Your Prose Comma Splices Exercises In filmmaking. The conference call came at 1 p. editors splice. adopting legislation to do the same. e. Wednesday. yet. 02Locker_mod02. We interviewed two people for the accounting Incorrect: We shipped the order on Tuesday. differences you found. it 7. 8. d. advertisements use comma splices for the same effect. 38  Unit 1 Building Effective Messages As your instructor directs. tences. two segments of Fix the comma splices in the following sentences. Share your results with a small group of students. 5.m. practise quizzes. Check your answers to the odd-numbered exercises in the Polishing Your Prose Answer Key. on the other for meaning: Since we shipped the order on Tuesday. Katy called the hotel in Montreal for a reservation.indd 38 12-12-20 9:37 PM . Present your results in a memo to your instructor. it arrived on position. Share your results orally with a small group of students. Chum called him speed up action or simulate dialect. 2. We shipped the order on Tuesday. but. and additional resources. or independent clauses. you ask Polsun to arrived on Wednesday. Connect allows you to practise important skills at your own pace and on your own schedule. or connect. we took it writers try to create one sentence by connecting two sen- immediately. and it arrived cellphone while driving. interactives. It arrived on 9. some sales letters and later to ask how things had gone. a. write a joint memo reporting the similarities and c. it went ●● If the ideas in the sentences are closely related.