Sie sind auf Seite 1von 39

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
Keywords - Shielded
metal arc welding,
stainless ANSIIAWS
A5.4-92
electrodes,
classification,
classification American
An National
Standard
tests, electrodeidentification, electrode
packaging, stainless weld metal
compositions, welding
Approved by
American National Standards Institute
April 29, 1992

Specification for
Stainless Steel Electrodes
for Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Superseding ANSI/AWS A5.4-81

Prepared by
AWS Committee on Filler Metal

Under the Direction of


AWS Technical Activities Committee

Abstract
Composition and other requirements are specified for more than forty classifications of covered stainless steel
welding electrodes. These classifications includethe duplex stainless steels which previously werenot classified. A
new designation of electrode coverings, EXXX-17, has beenadded. The EXXX-25 and EXXX-26 designations
have been restored for electrodes intended specificallyfor welding only in the flat and horizontal positions.
Requirements include general requirements, testing, and packaging. TheAppendix provides application guidelines
and other useful information about the electrodes.

A American Welding Society


v
:rmta
<< ~!llflffm~>>
550 N.W. LeJeune Road, P.O. Box 351040, Miami, Florida 33135

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A 5 . 4 92 07842b5 0500505 884

Statement on Useof AWS Standards

All standards (codes, specifications, recommended practices, methods, classifications, and guides) of the American
Welding Society are voluntary consensus standards that have been developed in accordance with the rules of the
American National StandardsInstitute. When AWSstandards are either incorporated in, or made part of, documents
that are included in federal or state laws and regulations, or the regulations of other governmental bodies, their
provisions carry the full legal authority of the statute. In such cases, any changes in those AWS standards must be
approved by the governmental body having statutory jurisdiction before they can become a part of those laws and
regulations. In all cases, thesestandards carry the full legalauthority of the contract or other document that invokes the
AWS standards. Where this contractual relationship exists, changes inor deviations from requirements of an AWS
standard must be by agreement between thecontracting parties.

International Standard Book Number: 0-87171-385-3

American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, P.O. Box 351040, Miami, Florida 33135

@ 1992 by American Welding Society. All rights reserved


Printed in the United States of America

Note: The primary purposeof AWS is to serve and benefitits members. To this end, AWS provides a forum forthe
exchange, consideration, and discussion of ideas and proposals that are relevant to the welding industry and the
consensus of whichforms the basis for these standards. By providing such aforum, AWS does not assume any duties to
which a user of these standards may be requiredto adhere. By publishing this standard, the American Welding Society
does not insure anyone using the information itcontains against any liability arising from thatuse. Publication of a
standard by the American Welding Society does notcarry with it any right to make, use, or sell anypatented items.
Users of the information in this standard shouldmake an independent investigation of the validity of that information
for their particular use and the patent status of any item referredto herein.

With regard to technical inquiries made concerning AWS standards, oral opinions on AWS standards may be
rendered. However,such opinions represent onlythe personal opinions of the particular individuals giving them. These
individuals do not speak onbehalf of AWS, nor do these oral opinions constitute official or unofficial opinions or
--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

interpretations of AWS. In addition, oral opinions are informal and should not be used as a substitute for anofficial
interpretation.

This standard is subject to revision at any timeby the AWS Filler Metal Committee. It must be reviewed every five years
and if not revised, it must beeither reapproved or withdrawn. Comments (recommendations, additions, or deletions)
and anypertinent data thatmay be of usein improving this standard are requested and should be addressed to AWS
Headquarters. Such comments will receive carefulconsideration by the AWS Filler Metal Committee and the author
of the comments will be informed of the Committees response to the comments. Guests are invited to attend all
meetings of the AWS Filler Metal Committeeto express their commentsverbally. Procedures for appeal of an adverse
decision concerning all such comments are provided inthe Rules of Operation of the Technical Activities Committee.
A copy of these Rules can obtained
be fromthe American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, P.O. Box 351040,
Miami, Florida 33135.

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
Personnel
AWS Committee on Filler Metal

D. J. Kotecki, Chairman The Lincoln Electric Company


R. A. LaFave, Ist Vice Chairman Elliott Company
J. P. Hunt, 2nd Vice Chairman Inco Alloys International

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
H. F. Reid, Secretary American Welding Society
D. R. Amos Westinghouse Turbine Plant
B. Anderson Alcotec
K. E. Banks Teledyne McKay
R. S. Brown Carpenter Technology Corporation
J. Caprarola, Jr. Alloy Rods Corporation
L. J. Christensen* Consultant
R. J. Christoffel Consultant
D. A. DelSignore Westinghouse Electric Company
H . W. Ebert Exxon Research and Engineering
S. E. Ferree Alloy Rods Corporation
D. A. Fink The Lincoln Electric Company
G. Hallstram, Jr. USNRC-RI1
R. L. Harris* R. L. Harris Associates
R. W Heid Newport News Shipbuilding
D. C. Helton Consultant
W. S. Howes National Electrical Manufacturers Association
R. W Jud Chrysler Motors
R. B. Kadiyala Techalloy Maryland, Incorporated
P. A. Kammer* Eutectic Corporation
J. E. Kelly Eutectic Corporation
G. A. Kurisky Maryland Specialty Wire
N . E. Larson Union Carbide, Industrial Gas Division
A. S. Luurenson Consultant
G. H. MacShane MAC Associates
D. I? Manning Hobart Brothers Company
M. 7: Merlo Stoody Company
S. J. Merrick Teledyne McKay
G. E. Metzger Consultant
J. W. Mortimer Consultant
C. L. Null Department of the Navy
Y; Ogata* Kobe Steel Limited
J. Payne Schneider Services International
R. L. Peaslee Wall Colmonoy Corporation
E. W. Pickering Consultant
M. A. Quintana General Dynamics Corporation
S. D. Reynolds, Jr.* Westinghouse Electric PGBU
L. F. Roberts Canadian Welding Bureau
D. Rozet Consultant
P. K. Salvesen American Bureau of Shipping
H. S. Sayre* Consultant

*Advisor

...
111

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A594 92 078426
05 0 0 5 0
6757

AWS Committee on Filler Metal (Cont)


O. W: Seth Chicago Bridge and Iron Company
R. W. Straiton* Bechtel Group, Incorporated
R. D. Sutton L-Tec Welding and Cutting Systems
R. A. Swain Welders Supply
J. W; Tackett Haynes International Incorporated
R. D. Thomas, Jr. Consultant
R. Timerman* Conarco, S. A.
R. T Webster Teledyne Wah Chang
A. E. Wiehe* Consultant
W: A. Wiehe** Arcos Alloys
--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

W: L. Wilcox Consultant
E J. Winsor* Consultant
K. G. Wold Aqua Chem, Incorporated
T J. Wonder VSE Corporation

AWS Subcommittee on Stainless Steel Filler Metal

D. A. DelSignore, Chairman Westinghouse Electric Corporation


F, S. Babsh Sandvik, Incorporated
K. E. Banks Teledyne McKay
R. S. Brown Carpenter Technology Corporation
R. A. Bushey Alloy Rods Corporation
R. J. Christoffel Consultant
D. D. Crockett The Lincoln Electric Company
E. A. Flynn Sun R and M
A. L. Gombach* Champion Welding Products
B. Herbert* United Technologies - Elliott
M. J. Huck Westinghouse Electric Company
J. P. Hunt Inco Alloys International
R. B. Kadiyala Techalloy Maryland, Incorporated
P. A. Kammer* Eutectic Corporation
G. A. Kurisky Maryland Specialty Wire
W: E. Layo* Sandvik, Incorporated
R. E. Long Northern StatePower Company
G. H. MacShane Consultant
A. H.Miller* DISC
X Ogata* Kobe Steel, Limited
M. P. Parekh Hobart Brothers Company
E. W: Pickering Consultant
L. J. Privomik Consultant
C. E. Ridenour Tri-Mark, Incorporated
D. Rozet Consultant
H. S. Sayre* Consultant
R. W: Straiton Bechtel Group, Incorporated
R. A. Swain Thyssen Welding Products
J. G. Tack Armco, Incorporated
R. Timerman* Conarco, S.A.
W: A. Wiehe** Arcos Alloys
W: L. Wilcox Consultant
D. W: Yonker, Jr. National Standards Company
*Advisor
**Deceased

iv
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A 5 9 4 92 m 078Y26.5 0500508 5 9 3 m

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Foreword
(This Foreword is not partof ANSI1 AWS A5.4-92, Specijcationfor Stainless Steel Electrodes
for Shielded Metal
Arc Welding, but is included for information only.)
This AWS specification has evolved into its present form over the past 40 years. The specification for,covered
stainless steel electrodes, issued in 1946, wasprepared by a joint committee of the American Society for Testing and
Materials and the American Welding Society. This cooperative effort continued for about 20 years and produced
3 revisions. The first revision produced exclusively by the AWS Filler Metal Committee was published in 1969.
The current revision represents the eighth revision of the original 1946 document as shown below:
ASTM A29846T Tentative Specificationfor Corrosion-Resisting Chromiumand Chromium-Nickel Steel
A5.4-46T
Welding
AWS Electrodes
ASTM A29848T Tentative Specifications for Corrosion-Resisting
Chromium
and
Chromium-Nickel
A5.4-48T
AWS Steel Welding Electrodes
ASTM A298-55T Tentative Specifications for Corrosion-Resisting Chromium and
Chromium-Nickel
AWS
A5.4-55T Steel Covered
Welding Electrodes
AWS
A5.4-62T Tentative Specificationfor Corrosion-Resisting Chromium
and Chromium-Nickel Steel
ASTM A298-62T
Covered
Welding Electrodes
AWS
A5.4-69 Specification for Corrosion-Resisting Chromium
and Chromium-Nickel Steel Covered
Welding Electrodes
AWSA5.4-Add.1-751975 Addenda to Specification for Corrosion-Resisting Chromium andChromium-
Nickel Steel Covered Welding Electrodes
AWS
A5.4-78 Specification for Corrosion-Resisting Chromium
and Chromium-Nickel Steel Covered
Welding Electrodes
ANSI/AWS A5.4-81 Specification for Corrosion-Resisting Chromiumand Chromium-Nickel Steel Welding
Electrodes
Comments and suggestionsfor theimprovement of this standard arewelcome. They should be sent to the Secretary,
Filler Metal Committee, American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, P.O. Box 351050, Miami, Florida
33135.
Official interpretations of any of the technical requirements of this standard may be obtained
by sending a request in
writing to the Managing Director, Technical Services,American WeldingSociety. A formal reply will be issuedafter it
has been reviewed by appropriate personnel following established procedures.

V
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A 5 . 4 92 07842b5 0500509 4 2 T

Table of Contents
Page No .
Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
...
111
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
List of Tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
List of Figures.................................................................................. vii
1 . Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Part A - General Requirements
2. Classification ............................................................................. 1
3 . Acceptance .............................................................................. 1
4 . Certification .............................................................................. 4
5 . Units of Measure and Rounding-Off Procedure ................................................. 4
Part B - Tests. Procedures. and Requirements
6. Summary of Tests ......................................................................... 4
7. Retest ................................................................................... 4
8 . WeldTestAssemblies ...................................................................... 4
9. Chemical Analysis ......................................................................... 9
10. Tension Test .............................................................................. 11
Il . Fillet Weld Test ........................................................................... 11
Part C - Manufacture. Identification. and Packaging
12. Method of Manufacture .................................................................... 11
13. Standard Sizes and Lengths ................................................................. 11
14. Core Wire and Covering .................................................................... 11
15. Exposed Core ............................................................................. 13
16. Electrode Identification ..................................................................... 13
17. Packaging ................................................................................ 13
18. Marking of Packages ....................................................................... 13
Appendix - Guide to A WS Specificationfor Stainless Steel Electrodesfor Shielded Metal Arc Welding
Al . Introduction ............................................................................ 15
A2. Classification System ..................................................................... 15
A3 . Acceptance .............................................................................. 15
A4. Certification .............................................................................. 16
A5 . Ventilation During Welding ................................................................ 16
A6 . Ferrite in Weld Deposits .................................................................. 16
A7 . Description and Intended Use of Filler Metals ................................................ 20
A8 . Classification as to Useability .............................................................. 26
A9 . Special Tests ............................................................................ 27
A10. Safety Considerations ..................................................................... 28
AWS Filler Metal Related Documents ............................................... (Inside Back Cover)

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

vi
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
List of Tables
Table Page No.
1 Chemical Composition Requirements for Undiluted Weld Metal ................................... 2
2 Type of Welding Current and Position of Welding ............................................... 4
3 RequiredTests ............................................................................ 5
4 Welding Conditions for Preparation of the Groove Weld ......................................... 9
5 All-Weld-Metal Mechanical Property Requirements ............................................. 10
6 Standard Sizes and Lengths ................................................................. 13

List of Figures
Figure Page No.
1 Pad for Chemical Analysis of Undiluted Weld Metal ........................................... 6
2 Groove Weld Test Assembly for Tension Test Specimen ........................................ 7
3 Fillet Weld Test Assembly ................................................................. 8
4 Fillet Weld Test Specimen ................................................................. 12
Al Weld Pad for Ferrite Test .................................................................. 18
A2 Optional Welding Fixture for Welding Ferrite Test Pads ....................................... 19
A3 WRC-1988 (FN) Diagram for Stainless Steel Weld Metal ...................................... 20
A4 Espy Percent Ferrite Diagram for Stainless Weld Metal ........................................ 21
A5 DeLong (FN) Diagram for Stainless Steel Weld Metal .......................................... 22
A6 Orientation and Location of Impact Specimen ................................................ 28
--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

vii
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A 5 . 4 92 W 0784255 05005LL O d d

Specification for Stainless Steel Electrodes


for Shielded Metal Arc Welding

1. Scope (1) Chemical composition of undiluted weld metal


(Table 1)
Thisspecificationprescribesrequirements for the
(2) Current and position of welding (Table 2)
classification of covered stainless steel electrodes for
shielded metal arc welding.' 2.2 Materials classified under oneclassification maybe
Chromium content of weld metal deposited by these classified under any other classification of this speci-
electrodesis not less than 10.5 percent and the iron fication provided they meet all the requirements for
content exceeds that of any other element. For purposes those classifications, except that a material may not
of classification, the iron content shall be derived as the beclassified under more thanone of the following
balance element when all other elements are considered EXXX-15, EXXX-16, EXXX-17, EXXX-25, or EXXX-
to be at their minimum specified values.2 26 designations.
Note: No attempt has been made to classifv allgrades
Note: The test requirements of this specification
ofjller metals within the limits of the above scope; only
establish minimum quality levels which will assure suit-
the more commonly used have been included.
ability of the electrodesfor the usual applications. The
guide appended to this specljkationdescribes the more
common applications and suggests testing procedures
for those applications whichwarrant tests that are
Fart A beyond those included in this specification.
General Requirements
2. Classification
3. Acceptance
--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

2.1 The welding electrodes covered bythis specification


are classified according to the following: Acceptance3 of the material shall be in accordance
with the provisions of ANSI/AWS A5.01, Filler Metal
Procurement Guidelines!
1. Due to possible differencesin composition, corewire from
a covered electrode should notbe used as bare filler metal.
2. This revision includes classifications for E502-XX, E505-
XX and E7Cr-XX welding electrodes. These classifications 3. See A3.Acceptance (in the Appendix)for further informa-
also will beincluded in the nextrevision of ANSI/ AWS A5.5, tion on acceptance, testing of material shipped, and ANSI/
Specification for Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for Shielded AWS A5.01, Filler Metal Procurement Guidelines.
Metal Arc Welding.They will be deleted in the first revision of 4. AWS standards canbe obtained from theAmerican Weld-
this document following publication of the pendingrevision of ingSociety, 550 N.W. LeJeuneRoad, P.O. Box 351040,
the A5.5 specification. Miami, Florida 33135.

1
Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
2

O0

m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m
9999999999999999999999990
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

a 8 .9 1.9 1
E E E E

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A 5 . 4 92 = 07842b5 0500533 950

m o 8 5
c

m m m N W 0 0 0 m 0 0 d a
Y991911141199
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

M 5
--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
4

other quantities in accordance with the rounding-off


Table 2 method given inASTM E29, Practicefor Using Signifi-
Type of Welding Current cant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance
and Position of Welding with Speclfications.6
AWS
Classificationa
Welding Current Welding PositionC
Alld
EXXX(X)-15 dcep
Part B
EXXX(X)-25 dcep H, F Tests? Procedures,and Requirements
EXXX(X)-16 acdcep or Alld
EXXX(X)-17 dcep or ac Alld 6. Summary of Tests
EXXX(X)-26 dcep or ac H,F
The tests requiredfor each classification are specified
Notes: in Table 3. The purposeof these tests is to determine the
a. See Section AS, Classification as to Useability, for explanation of
positions. chemical composition and mechanical properties of the
b. dcep = Direct current electrode positive (reverse polarity) weid metal and theusability of the electrodes. The base
ac Alternating current metal for the weldtestassemblies, the welding and
c. The abbreviations H and Findicate welding positions(Figure 3) as testing procedures to beemployed, and the results
follows: required are given in Section 8, Weld Test Assemblies;
F = Flat
Section 9, Chemical Analysis;Section 10, Tension Test;

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
H = Horizontai
d. Electrodes 31 16 in. (4.8 mm) and larger are not recommended for and Section 1 1 , Fillet Weld Test.
welding all positions.

7. Retest
4. Certification
If any test failsto meet its requirements, that test must
By affixing the AWS specification and classification be repeated twice.The results of both retests shall meet
designationsto the packaging, or the classificationto the the requirement. Specimens for retestmay be taken
product, the manufacturer certifies that the product from theoriginal test assemblyor sample or from a new
meets the requirements of this specificati~n.~ test assembly or sample. For chemical analysis, retest
need be only for those specific elements that failed to
meet their requirement.
5. Units of Measure and
Rounding-Off Procedure
5.1 U.S. customary units are
the standard units of mea- 8. WeldTest Assemblies
sure in this specification. The SI units are given as 8.1 Three weld test assemblies are required:
equivalent values to the U.S. customary units. The (1) The weld pad in Figure I for chemical analysis of
standard sizes and dimensions in the two systemsare not the undiluted weld metal
identical, and for this reason, conversion from a stan- (2) The grooveweldin Figure 2 for mechanical
dard size or dimension in one system will not always properties
coincide with a standard size or dimension in the other. (3) The fillet weld in Figure 3 for usability of the
Suitable conversions, encompassing standard sizes of electrode
both, can be made, however, if appropriate tolerances Optionally, the sample for chemical analysis may be
are applied in each case. taken from thereduced section ofthe fractured tension
5.2 For purposes of determining conformance with specimen or from a corresponding location (or anyloca-
this specification, an observed or calculated value shall tion above it) in the weld metal of the groove weld in
be rounded to the nearest lo00 psi for tensile and yield Figure 2 or from the weld pad used for ferrite determina-
strength, and to the nearest unitin thelast right-hand tion. In thecase ofdispute, the weld pad of Figure 1 shall
place of figures usedin expressing the limiting valuefor be the referee method.

5. See A4. Certification (in the Appendix) for further infor- 6. ASTM standards canbe obtainedfromthe American
mation concerning certification and thetest called for to meet Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race
Street, Philadel-
this requirement. phia, Pennsylvania 19103.

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A5.4 92 0 7 8 4 2 b 5 0500515 7 2 3

Table 3
Required Tests
Position of Weldinga
Electrode Diameter Type of Chemical Weld
All Metal Fillet Weld
Classification in. mm Current AnalysisC Tension Testd Test

EXXX(X)-15 1/ 16 I .6 dcep F NR NR
EXXX(X)-15 5164 2.0 d=P NR F NR
EXXX(X)-I5 2.4
3/ 32 dcep F NR NR
EXXX(X)-I5 3.2 118 dcep F F H,V, OH
EXXX(X)-15 5 / 32
4.0 dcep F F H,V, OH
EXXX(X)-15 4.8
3/ 16 dcep F F H
EXXX(X)-15 I / 32
5.6 dcep F F H
EXXX(X)-I5 114 6.4 dcep F F H
EXXX(X)-16, -17 I / 16
1.6 ac & dcep F NR NR
EXXX(X)-16, -17 5/64 2.0 ac & dcep F NR NR
EXXX(X)-16, -17 3/32 2.4 ac & dcep F NR NR
-17
EXXX(X)-16,3.2 118 ac & dcep F F H,V, OH
EXXX(X)-16, -17 5/32 4.0 ac & dcep F F H, V, OH
EXXX(X)-16, -17 4.8
3/ 16 ac & dcep F F H
EXXX(X)-16, -17 5.6
7/ 32 ac & dcep F F H
EXXX(X)-16, -17 114 6.4 ac & dcep F F H

EXXX(X)-25 1/ 16 1.6 dcep NR F NR


EXXX(X)-25 5/64 2.0 dcep NR F NR
EXXX(X)-25 3/ 32 2.4 dcep NR F NR
EXXX(X)-25 118 3.2 dcep F F H
EXXX(X)-25 5 / 32 4.0 d=P F F H
EXXX(X)-25 31 16 4.8 d=P F F H
EXXX(X)-25 I / 32 5.6 dcep F F H
EXXX(X)-25 114 6.4 dcep F F H

EXXX(X)-26 l / I6 1.6 ac & dcep F NR NR


EXXX(X)-26 5/64 2.0 ac & dcep F NR NR
EXXX(X)-26 3/32 2.4 ac & dcep NR F NR
EXXX(X)-26 118 3.2 ac & dcep F F H
EXXX(X)-26 5/32 4.0 ac & dcep F F H
EXXX(X)-26 3/ 16 4.8 ac & dcep F F H
EXXX(X)-26 7/32 5.6 ac & dcep F F H
EXXX(X)-26 114 6.4 ac & dcep F F H
Notes:
a. The abbreviations F, V, OH, and H indicate welding positions (Figure 3) as follows:
F Flat
H Horizontal
V Vertical
OH = Overhead
The abbreviation NR indicates that the test is not required.
b. ac = alternating current; dcep = direct current, electrode positive (reverse polarity)
c. Where both alternating and direct current are specified, only one type of current need be used.
d. Where both alternating and direct current are specified, tests shall be made using both types of current.

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A 5 - 4 92 m 0784265 050051b bbT m

SI Equivalents
in.
- mm
-
1.6 1/16
5/64 2.0
3/32 2.4
1I8 3.2
5/32 4.0
3116 4.8
7/32 5.6
1/4 6.4
318 9.5
1I 2 13
518 16
718 22
1-1/2 38
2 50
2-112 63

Weld Pad Size, Minimum, in.


Minimum Distanceof Sample
Electrode Size, in. L W H from Surface of
Plate,
Base in.
1/16
5/64 1-1/2 1I 2 1/2 318
3/32
1/8
5/32 2 1/2 518 1I 2

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
3116
7/32
/2 2-1 1I 2 314
1I 4

Figure 1 -Pad for Chemical Analysis of Undiluted Weld Metal

8.2 Preparation of each weld test assembly shall be as (1) ASTM specification A285, Pressure VesselPlates,
prescribed in8.3,8.4 and 8.5. Base metalfor each assem- Carbon Steel,Low- and Intermediate-Tensile Strength,
bly shall conform to the following, or an equivalent: Grade C.
(2) ASTM specification A36, Structural Steel.
8.2.1 The base metal shall be steel (carbon, alloy,
(3) ASTM specifcation A515, Pressure Vessel Plates,
stainless steel, or ingot iron) of 0.25 percent carbon,
Carbon Steel,for Intermediate- and Higher- Temperature
maximum forchemical analysisof all electrode classifi-
Service, Grade 70.
cations except E308L, E308MoL, E309L, E309MoL,
E316L, E317L, E320LR, E383, E630, E385, and E2209.
8.2.3 For the fillet weld test,the steel to be used shall
For chemical analysis of these low carbon classifica-
conform to the following specifications:
tions, the base metal shall be steel of 0.03 percent maxi-
(1) For E502, E505, E7Cr electrodes - ASTM speci-
mum carbon. Other steels having a carbon content of
fication A285, PressureVesselPlates, Carbon Steel
0.25 percent maximum may be used with the further
Low- and Intermediate-Tensile Strength,Grade C
restrictions specified in 9.6.
(2) For E400 Series electrodes-ASTM specification
8.2.2 For the all-weld-metal tension test, the steel to A240, Heat-Resisting Chromium and Chromium-Nickel
be usedshall be ofa matching type. Optionally, the steel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet and for Strip
Fusion- Welded
may conform to one of the following specifications or Unjred Pressure Vessels,Type 410 or Type 430, A or B
their equivalents, providing twobuttering layers of filler (3) For all other classificationsof electrodes, -ASTM
metal as shown in Figure 2, are deposited in stringer specification A240, Heat-Resisting Chromium and
beads using electrodesof the same classificationas that Chromium-NickelStainless Steel Plate, Sheet Strip and
being classified. for Fusion- Welded Unjred Pressure Vessels,Type 304

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
7

SHOULDERED
- OR SQUARE
ENDS MAY BE
ING

(AFTER BUTTERING)

MAX
5 O
1 I4 f LE
AFTER WELDING 45O
\ 5o-y
--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

(FOR TEST PLATES OF MATCHING COMPOSITION)

Each layer or pass not to exceed 118 in. in thickness.


The first two layers may be depositedwith one pass each.

WELD $' SI Eauivalents


SECTION RR in. mm
0.005 0.13
0.010 0.25
0.125
1/8 3.2
NOTE: ALL DIMENSIONS EXCLUDINGANGLES ARE IN INCHES. 0.187
3/16 4.8
0.250
1/4 6.4
0.375
3/8 9.5
0.500
1/2 12.7
0.625
5/8 16
0.750
3/4 19.1
1 1 .o 25.4
1-114 31.8
2 50.8
3 76
3-1/2 90
5 127
5-1 /2 140

Electrode
Diam., in. Dimensions of Test
Plate
and
Tension
Test
Specimens, in.
I A B C D, min E, min F, min G H, min J K L
118 1/2 0.250? 1-114 318 3 5/8 0.18 I.OOO+ 3-112
114
3/16
1/4
0.005 0.005
5/32to 314 0.500 * 2-114
314 5 1 318 2.000* 5-1/2 1/2 114 318
1/4incl. 0.010 0.005

Figure 2 -Groove Weld Test Assembly for Tension Test Specimen


Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A 5 . 4 72 0784265 0500518 432

8
--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

AXIS OF WELDVERTICAL,
AXIS OF WELD HORIZONTAL
/

\ HORIZONTAL
AXIS OF WELD HORIZONTAL

(a) HORIZONTAL
FILLET
WELDS (b) VERTICAL
FILLET
WELDS (c) OVERHEAD
FILLET
WELDS

(A) POSITIONS OF TEST PLATES FOR WELDING FILLET-WELD TEST SPECIMENS

1 APPROX

CUT HERE rt:

(B) PREPARATION OF FILLET-WELD TEST ASSEMBLY

red Thickness Electrode


Diameter
Size, Position
of Plate of Fillet
in. T, in. Max.,Welding in. SI Equivalents*
1/4
I V
H and OH
1/4
3/16 -in.
1/a
mm
-
3.2
3/8 Or 'I2 1 V
H and OH
318
1/4
5f 32
3/16
4.0
4.8
114 6.4
114 5/32 3/a or
I V
Hand OH
5/16
1/4 5/16
3/8
8.0
9.5
5/32* 1 25
2 50
3/8 3/16 H 5/16 10 250
1/4 3/8 H 3/8
'For EXXX-17 electrodes only

Figure 3 -Fillet Weld Test Assembly


Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A 5 . 4 9 2 W 078Y265 0500539 3 7 9 m

8.3 Weld Pad


Table 4
8.3.1 Aweld pad shall be prepared as specified in Welding Conditions for
Figure 1 using base metal of any convenient size, ofthe Preparation of the Groove Weld
type specified in 8.2. The surface of the base metal on
Preheat and Interpass Temperature
which the filler
metal is deposited shall be clean.The pad
shall be welded inthe flat position, using as short an arc Minimum Maximum
length as practical and at a current as agreed upon AWS
Classification O F OC OF "C
between consumer and manufacturer. Multiple beads
shall be used to obtain undiluted weld metal. The pre- E400 Series
500 150 300 260
heat temperature shall not be less than 60F (16OC). (except E410)
After depositing eachlayer, the weld pad maybe E500 Series 150 300 500 260

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
immersed in water (temperature unimportant) for ap- E7Cr 150 300 500 260
proximately 30 seconds. The slag shall be removedafter E410 400 204 600 315
All Others
16 60 150 300
eachpass. The completed pad shall be as shown in
Figure 1 for each size of the electrode. Testing of the
assembly shall be as specified in Section 9, Chemical
Analysis. 8.5.2 In preparing the two plates forming the test
assembly, the standing member (web) shall have one
8.3.2 Where both alternating and direct current are edge machinedthroughout its entire length so that when
specified, only one type of current need be used. the web is setupon the base plate (flange), which shall be
straight and smooth,there will be intimate
contact along
8.4 Groove Weld the entire length of the joint.

8.4.1 A test assembly shall prepared


be as specified in 8.5.3 A single-pass fillet weld shall be deposited on
8.4.2,8.4.3, and Figure 2, usingbase metal of the one side ofthe joint. Thefirst electrode shall continu-
be
appropriate type specified in 8.2. ously consumed to within the maximum permissible
stub length of 2 in. (50 mm). Additional electrodes, if
8.4.2 The plates shall be welded in the flat position, necessary, shallthen be usedto complete the weld for the
and they shall be presetor sufficiently restrainedduring full length ofthe joint, consuming each electrode com-
welding to prevent warping more than 5 degrees. A test pletely as stated above, insofar as permitted by the
plate that has warped more than 5 degreesshallbe length of the assembly.
discarded. Test assemblies shall not be straightened.
8.5.4 When welding in the vertical position,the weld-
8.4.3 The test assembly shall be within the tempera- ing shall progress upwards.
ture ranges specified in Table 4 before starting each pass, 8.5.5 After completing the weld on the first sideof the
including depositing of any buttering layer, as measured joint, the assembly shallbe cooled to room temperature
on the assembly at a distance of 1in. (25 mm) from the [but not less than 60F (16OC)Iby anyconvenient
weld at the mid-length of the test plate. means before commencing to weld on the second side
If, after any pass, the maximum temperature specified (see note).
above is exceeded, plates shall be allowedto cool in air
Note: r f water is used as the coolant, care should be
(do not cool in water)to a temperature within the range
taken that it has been thoroughly removed from the
shown.
joint before beginning weldingon the second side.
8.4.4 The assembly shall be tested thein as-welded or 8.5.6 The fillet weld shall be depositedon the second
post weld heat-treated condition as specified in Table5. side of the joint with the same procedure used for the
fillet weld on the first side.
8.5 FilletWeld

8.5.1 A test assembly shall prepared


be and welded as
shown in Figure 3, using base metal of the appropriate
9. ChemicalAnalysis
8.2. The welding positionand conditions
type specified in 9.1 The top surface of the weld pad described in8.3 and
shall beas specified inthe fillet weld column of Table 3 shown in Figure I shall be removedand discarded and a
for the different electrode sizesand classifications. Test- sample for analysis shall be obtained
from the underlying
ing of the assembly shall be as specified in Section 11, metal by any appropriate mechanical means from the
Fillet Weld Test. surface to be analyzed.The sample shall be freeof slag.

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A5.4 92 0784265 0500520 090

10

Table 5
All-Weld-Metal Mechanical Property Requirements
Tensile Strength, min
AWS Elongation
Classification ksi MPa min Percent Heat Treatment
E209-XX 100 690 15 None
E2 19-XX 90 620 15 None
E240-XX 100 690 15 None
E307-XX 85 590 30 None
E308-XX 80 550 35 None
E308H-XX 80 550 35 None
E308L-XX 75 520 35 None
E308Mo-XX 80 550 35 None
E308MoL-XX 75 520 35 None
E309-XX 80 550 30 None
E309L-XX 75 520 30 None
E309Cb-XX 80 550 30 None
E309Mo-XX 80 550 30 None
E309MoL-XX 75 520 30 None
E3 10-XX 80 550 30 None
E310H-XX 90 620 10 None
E310Cb-XX 80 550 25 None
E310Mo-XX 80 550 30 None
E3 12-XX 95 660 22 None
E3 16-XX 75 520 30 None
E316H-XX 75 520 30 None
E3 16L-XX 70 490 30 None
E3 17-XX 80 550 30 None
E3 17L-XX 75 520 30 None
E3 18-XX 80 550 25 None
E320-XX 80 550 30 None
E320LR-XX 75 520 30 None
E330-XX 75 520 25 None
E330H-XX 90 620 10 None
E347-XX 75 520 30 None
E349-XX 100 690 25 None
E383-XX 75 520 30 None
E385-XX 75 520 30 None
E410-XX 75 450 20 a
E410NiMo-XX 110 760 15 C
E430-XX 65 450 20 d
E502-XX 60 420 20 b
E505-XX 60 420 20 b
E630-XX 135 930 7 e
E16-8-2-XX 80 550 35 None
E7Cr-XX 60 420 20 b
E2209-XX 100 690 20 None
E2553-XX 110 760 15 None
Notes:
a. Heatto1350to1~0F(730to7600C),holdforonehour,furnacoolatarateof1OO0F(60oC)perhourto
--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

600OF (315OC) and air cool to ambient.


b. Heat to 1550 to 160O0F (840 to 87OoC), hold for two hours, fuma cool at a rate not exceeding IOOOF
(SOC) per hour to IlOOOF (595OC) and air cool to ambient.
C. Heat to 1100 to 1 150F (595 to 62OoC), hold for one hour, and air cool to ambient.
d. Heat to 1400 to 1450OF (760 to 79OoC), hold for two hours, furnace cool at a rate not exceeding IOOOF
(SOC) per hour to ll00OF (595OC) and air cool to ambient.
e. Heat to I875 to 1925OF(1025 to lO5O0C),hold for one hour, andair cool to ambient, and then precipitation
harden at 1135 to I165OF (610 to 63OoC), holdfor four hours, and air cool to ambient.

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A S - 4 W 07842bS 05005211 T27 =

11

9.2 Weld pads, which are too hard for sample removal that weld bead, as shown inFigure 3. The cross-sectional
in the as-welded condition, may be given an annealing surface shall be polishedand etched,and then examined
heat treatment. as required in 11.2.
9.3 Alternatively, the sample taken from the reduced 11.2 Scribe lines shall be placed on the prepared surface,
section of the fractured tension specimen or from the as shown in Figure 4, and the leg length andthe convexity
groove weld (see 8.1) may be prepared for analysis by shall be determined to thenearest 1/64 in. (0.4 mm)by
any suitable mechanical means. A sample taken from actual measurement.
the weld pad used for ferrite determination (A6.9.1 11.2.1 Both fillet welds shall have penetration to or
through A6.9.4) shall be taken after draw
filing, and the beyond the junctionof the edges of the plates.
height above the base plate forsample removal shall be
consistent with the requirements of Figure 1 for the 11.2.2 Both legs of the fillet weld shall be equal in
standard weld pad. length within 1/ 16 in. (1.6 mm).

9.4 The sample shall be analyzedby accepted analytical 11.2.3 Convexity of each fillet weld shall be within
methods. In case of dispute, thereferee method shall be the limits prescribed by the graph shown in Figure 4.
ASTM Standard MethodsE353, Chemical Analysis of 11.2.4 The filletwelds shall show no evidence of
Stainless, Heat-Resisting, Maraging, and Other Similar cracks.
Chromium-Nickel-Iron-Alloys. 11.2.5 The welds shall be reasonably free from
9.5 The results of the analysis shall meet the require- undercutting, overlap, trapped slag, and porosity.
ments of Table 1 for the classification of the electrode
under test.
Part c
9.6 If steels other than those that have 0.03 percent
maximum carbon are used for E630, E2209, and low
Manufacture, Identification,
carbon grade electrode^,^ the sample shall come from and Packaging
material above the eighth layer.
12. Method of Manufacture
10. Tension Test The welding electrodes classified according to this
specification may be manufactured by any method that
10.1 One all-weld-metal tension test shall be machined will produce electrodes conforming to the requirements
from the groove weld described in 8.4 and shown in of this specification.
Figure 2.
10.2 The specimen shall be tested in the manner de-
scribed in the tension test section of ANSI/ AWS B4.0,
13. Standard Sizes and Lengths
Standard Methodsfor Mechanical Testing of Weldr. 13.1 Standard sizes (diameter of the core wire) and
lengths of electrodes shall be as shown in Table 6.
10.3 The results of thetension test shall meet the
requirements specified inTable 5. 13.2 The diameterof the corewire shall not vary more
than f0.002 in. (*0.05 mm) from the diameter specified.
The length shall not vary more than f 1/4 in. (f6.4 mm)
11. Fillet WeldTest from that specified.
11.1 The fillet weld test, when required in Table 3, shall
be made in accordance with 8.5 and Figure 3. The entire
face of the completed fillet weldshall be examined visu-
14. Core Wire and Covering
ally. The weld shall be free from cracks or other open 14.1 The corewire and covering shall be free of defects
--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

defects that would affect the strengthof the weld. After that would interfere with uniform deposition of the weld
the visual examination, a cross section shall be taken metal.
from the portion of the weld made with the first elec- 14.2 The core wire and the covering shall be concentric
trode and approximately in. 1 (25 mm) from theend of to the extent that the
maximum core-plus-onecovering
dimension does not exceed the minimum core-plus-one-
7. Low carbon electrodegradesare as follows: E308L, covering dimension by more than the following:
E308MoL, E309L, E309MoL, E316L, E317L, E320LR, E383, (1)Seven percent of the mean dimension insizes
and E385 3/32 in. (2.4 mm) and smaller

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
12

ACTUAL THROAT

c
.-
7CONVEXITY
5/64 >-

THEORETICAL 1/16
THROAT
I

3/ 64
x
SIZE'OF I I A 7 s
1
WELD
SIZE OF WELD.in

SI Equivalents
THEORETICAL
-in. mm
-
1.2 3/64
1/16 1.6
5/64 2.0
3/32 2.4
1I8 3.2
4.8 3/16
1I4 6.4
5/16 8.0
3/8 9.5
-LEG OF
FILLET

CONCAVE FILLET
--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 4 -Fillet Weld Test Specimen


Copyright American Welding Society
Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A504 92 D 07842b5 0500523 8 T T D

13

16.2 The numbers and letters of the imprintshall be of


Table 6 bold block type and of a size large enough to be legible.
Standard Sizes and Lengths
16.3 The ink used for imprinting shall provide sufficient
Electrode Size
(Diameter of Core Wire)a Standard Lengthsb>c contrast with the electrode covering so that, in normal
use, the numbers and letters are legible both before and
in. mm in. mm after welding.
1.6 1/ 16 9 230
16.4 The prefix letter E in the electrode classification
5164 2.0 9 230
may be omitted from the imprint.
3/ 32 2.4 9, 12, 14d 230,305, 350d
118 14, 3.2 lgd 350, 460d
5/32 4.0 14, l g d 350, 460d 17. Packaging
3/ 16 4.8 14, 18d 350, 460d
7/32 5.6
17.1 Electrodes shall be suitably packaged to protect
14,18 350,460
6.4 114 14, 18 350,460
them from damage during shipment and storage under
Notes:
normal conditions.
a. Tolerance on the diameter shall be f 0.002 in. (+ 0.05 mm). 17.2 Standard packageweights shall be as agreed
b. Tolerance on length shall be f 1/4 in. (i6.4 mm). between purchaser and supplier.
c. Other sizes and lengths shall be as agreed upon between purchaser
and supplier.
d. These lengths are intended only for the EXXX-25 and EXXX-26
types.
18. Marking of Packages
18.1 The following productinformation(as a min-
imum) shall be legibly marked on the outside of each
(2) Five percent of the mean dimensionin sizes 1/ 8 in. unit package:
(3.2 mm) and 5/32 in. (4.0 mm) (1)AWS specification and classification numbers
(3) Four percent of the meandimensioninsizes (Year of issue may be excluded)
3/ 16 in. (4.8 mm) and larger (2) Suppliers name and trade designation
The concentricity may be measured by any suitable (3) Standard size and net weight
means. (4) Lot, control, or heat number
18.2 The following precautionary information (as a
15. Exposed Core minimum) shall be prominently displayed in legible
15.1 The gripend of each 5 / 32 in. (4.0 mm) and smaller print on all packages of electrodes:
electrode shall be bare(free of covering)for a distance of
not less than 1/2in. (12 mm), nor more than 1-1/4 in. WARNING:
(30 mm) and for larger electrodes the bare end shall be Protect yourself and others. Read and understand this
not less than 3/4 in. (19.2 mm)nor more than 1-1/2in. information. FUMES ANDGASES can be dangerous
(38 mm) to provide for electricalcontact with the holder. to your health. ARC RAYS can injure eyes and bum

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
15.2 The arc end of each electrode shall be sufficiently skin. ELECTRIC SHOCK cankill.
bare andthe covering sufficientlytapered to permit easy Before use read and understand the manufacturers
striking of the arc. The length of the bare portion (mea- instructions, Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs),
sured from theend of the corewire to thelocation where and your employers safety practices.
the full cross section of the covering is obtained) shall Keep your head out of the fumes.
not exceed 1/8 in. (3 mm) or the diameter of the core
Use enough ventilation, exhaust at the arc, or both,
wire, whichever is less.Electrodes with chipped cover-
to keep fumes and gases away from your breathing
ings near the arc end, baring the wire coreno more than
zone and the general area.
the lesser of1/ 4 in. (6.4 mm) or twice the diameter of the
core wire, meet the requirements of this specification, Wear correct eye, ear, and body protection.
provided no chip uncovers more than 50 percent of the Do not touch live electrical parts.
circumference of the core. SeeAmerican National Standard 249.1, Safety in
Welding and Cutting, published by the American
16. Electrode Identification Welding Society, P.O. Box 351040, Miami, Florida
33 135;OSHA Safety and Health Standards, 29 CFR
All electrodes shall be identified as follows:
1910, available from theU. S. Government Printing
16.1 At least one imprintof the electrode classification Office, Washington, DC 20402.
shall be applied to theelectrode covering within 2-1 /2 in.
DO NOT REMOVE THIS INFORMATION
(65 mm) of the grip end of the electrode.

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
Appendix
Guide to AWS Specification for Stainless
Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding
(This Appendix is not a partof ANSI/ AWS A5.4-92,Specificationfor Stainless Steel Electrodes
for Shielded Metal
Arc Welding, but is included for information only.)

Al. Introduction A2.2 The mechanical tests measurestrength and duct


ity, qualities which are often of lesser importance th;
A l . l This specification is intended to provide both the the corrosion and heat resisting properties. The
supplier and the purchaser of covered stainless steel mechanicaltestrequirements,however, provide ;
welding electrodes witha means of product control and assurance of freedom from weld metal flaws, such
a basis of acceptancethroughmutually acceptable, check cracks and serious dendritic segregations which,
sound, standard requirements. present, may cause failure in service.
A1.2 This guidehas beenprepared as an aid to prospec- A2.3 It is recognized that forcertain applications, su
tive users of covered stainless steel welding electrodes plementary tests may be required. In such cases, ad(
included inthe specification to determine the classifica- tional tests to determine specific properties, such

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
tion best suited for a particular application, with due corrosion resistance, scale resistance,or strength at el
consideration to the particular requirements for that vated temperatures mayberequired as agreed up4
application. between supplier and purchaser.

A2. Classification System


A3. Acceptance
A2.1 The system of classification issimilar to that used
in other filler metal specifications. The letter E atthe Acceptance of all welding materials classified und
beginning of each number indicates an electrode. The this specification isin accordance with ANSI/AV
first three digits designate the classification as to its A5.01, Filler Metal ProcurementGuidelines, as t
composition. (Occasionally, a number of digits other specification states. Any testing a purchaser requires
than three is used and letters may follow the digits to the supplier, for material shipped in accordance wi
indicate a specific composition.) The last two digits this specification, mustbe clearly stated in the purcha
designate the classification as to usability with respect
to order, according to the provisions of ANSI/ AV
position of welding and type of current as described in A5.01. In the absence of any such statement in t
A8. The smaller sizes of EXXX(X)-15, EXXX(X)-16, or purchase order, the supplier may ship the material wi
EXXX(X)-17 electrodes [up to and including 5/32 in. whatever testing is normally conducted onmaterial
(4.0 mm)] included in this specification are used in all that classification, as specified in ScheduleF, Table 1,
welding positions. ANSI/ AWS A5.01. Testingin accordance withany ott

15

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
16

Schedule inthat Table must be specifically requiredby A6. Ferrite in Weld Deposits
the purchase order. In such cases, acceptance of the A6.1 Ferrite is known to be very beneficial in reducing
material shippedwillbe in accordance with those the tendency for cracking or fissuring in weld metals;
requirements. however, it is not essential. Millions ofpounds of fully
austenitic weld metal havebeenused for years and
providedsatisfactoryserviceperformance.Generally,
A4. Certification ferrite is helpful when the welds are restrained, the joints
are large, and when cracks or fissures adversely affect
The act of placing the AWS specification and classifi- service performance. Ferrite increases the weld strength
cation designations on the packaging enclosingthe prod- level. Ferrite may have detrimental
a effect on corrosion
uct, or the classificationon the product itself, constitutes resistanceinsomeenvironments. It also is generally
the suppliers(manufacturers)certification that the regarded as detrimental to toughness in cryogenic serv-
product meets all of the requirementsof the specification. ice, and in high-temperature service where itcan trans-
The only testing requirement implicit in this certifica- form into the brittle sigma phase.
tion is that the manufacturer has actually conductedthe
tests required by the specification on material that is A6.2 Ferrite can be measured on a relative scale by
representative ofthat being shippedand that thatmate- means ofvarious magnetic instruments. However, work
rial met the requirements of the specification. Represent- by the Subcommittee for Welding of Stainless Steel of
ative material, in this case, is any production run of that the High Alloys Committee of the Welding Research
classification using the same formulation. Certifica- Council (WRC) established that the lack of a standard
tion is not to be construed to mean that tests of any calibration procedure resulted in a verywide spread of
kind were necessarilyconducted on samples of the spe- readings on a given specimen when measured by differ-
--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

cific material shipped. Tests on such material may or ent laboratories. A specimen averaging 5.0 percent fer-
may not have beenconducted. The basis for the certifi- rite based on the data collected from all the laboratories
cation required by the specification is the classification was measured as low as 3.5 percent by some and as high
test of representative material cited above, and the as 8.0 percent by others. At an average of10 percent, the
Manufacturers Quality Assurance Programin ANSI/ spread was 7.0 to 16.0 percent.
AWS A5.01, Filler Metal Procurement Guidelines. In order to substantiallyreducethisproblem, the
WRC Subcommittee published on July I, 1972, Cali-
bration Procedurefor Instruments to Measure the Delta
FerriteContentofAusteniticStainlessSteelWeld
A5. Ventilation During Welding Metal. In 1974, the AWS extended this procedure and
prepared AWS A4.2, Standard Procedurefor Calibrat-
A5.1 Five major factors govern the quantity of fumes in
ing Magnetic Instrumentsto Measure the Delta Ferrite
the atmosphere to which weldersand welding operators
Content ofAustenitic Steel WeldMetal. All instruments
are exposed during welding:
used to measure the ferrite content of AWS classified
(1) Dimensions of the space in which weldingis done
stainless electrode products are to be traceable to this
(with special regard to the height of the ceiling)
AWS standard.
(2) Number of welders and welding operators work-
ing in that space A6.3 The WRC Subcommittee also adopted the term
(3) Rate of evolution of fumes, gases,or dust, accord- Ferrite Number (FN) to be used in place of percent
ing to the materials and processes used ferrite, to clearly indicatethat the measuring instrument
(4) The proximity of the welders or welding opera- wascalibrated to the WRC procedure. The Ferrite
tors to the fumes as they issue from the welding zone, Number, up to 10 FN, is to be considered equal to the
and to the gases and dustsin the space in which they are percentferrite term previously used.It represents a good
working average of commercial U. S . and world practice on the
(5) The ventilation providedto the space in which the percent ferrite.Through the use of standard calibration
welding is done procedures, differences in readings due to instrument
calibration are expected to be reduced to about f 5
A5.2 American National Standard 249.1, Safety in percent, or at the most, f 10 percent of the measured
Welding and Cutting (published by the American Weld- ferrite value.
ing Society), discusses the ventilation that is required
during welding and should be referred to for details.
Attention is drawn particularly to the section of that 1. Available from the Welding Research Council,345 East
document on Health Protection and Ventilation. 47th Street, New York, New York 10017.

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A5.4 92 U 07842b5 0 5 0 0 5 2 b5 0 9

17

A6.4 In the opinion of the WRC Subcommittee,it has between the copper bars for the size of the electrode
been impossible, to date, to accurately determine the beingtestedmust be as specified in Figure Al. An
true absolute ferrite content of weld metals. optional welding fixture is shown'in Figure A2. If car-
bon steel is used asthe base plate,the weld pad must be
A6.5 Even on undiluted pads, ferrite variations from
built up to a minimum height of 5/8 in. (16 mm).
pad to pad must be expected due to slight changes in
welding and measuring variables. On a large group of A6.9.3 Typical welding currents used for the size of
pads from one heat or lot and using a standard pad the electrode being tested are shown in Figure A 1. The
welding and preparation procedure, two sigma values arc length should be as short as practicable. The weld
indicate that 95 percent of the tests are expected to be bead layers may be deposited with a weave, if necessary,
within a range of approximately f 2.2 FN at about 8 to fill the space between the copper bars. The arc shall
FN. If different pad welding andpreparation procedures not beallowed to impinge on the copper bars.The
are used, these variations will increase. welding direction should be alternated from pass to
pass. The weld stops and starts must be located at the
A6.6 Even larger variations may be encountered if the
ends of the weld buildup. Each pass must be cleaned
welding technique allows excessive nitrogen pickup, in
prior to depositing the next weld bead. The maximum
which casethe ferrite can be much lower than it should
interpass temperatures should be 20O0F (95O C). Between
be.High nitrogen pickup can cause a typical 8 FN
passes, the weld pad may be cooled by quenching in
deposit to drop to O FN. A nitrogen pickup of 0.10
water not sooner than 20 seconds after the completionof
percent will typically decreasethe FN by about 8.
each pass. The last pass must be air cooled to below
A6.7 Plate materials tend to be balanced chemicallyto 800O F (430O C) prior to quenching in water.
have an inherently lower ferrite content than matching
A6.9.4 The completedweld pad mustbe draw filed to
weld metals. Weld metal diluted with plate metal
will usu-
provide sufficient finished surfaceto make the required
ally be somewhat lower in femte thanthe undilutedweld
ferrite readings.
metal, though this does vary depending onthe amount
Draw filing must be performed with a 14 in. (360 mm)
of dilution and the composition of the base metal.
mill bastard file held on bothsides of the weld with the
--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

A6.8 In the E300 series electrodes, many types such as long axis of the file perpendicular to the long axis of the
E310, E320, E320LR, E330, E383 and E385 are fully weld. Files shall either be new or shall have been used
austenitic. The E3 16group canbe made with little or no only on austenitic stainless steel.
ferrite and generally is used inthat form because it has Filing must be accomplished by smooth draw filing
better corrosion resistance in certain media. It also can strokes (one direction only) along the length of the weld
be obtained in a higher ferrite form, usually over4 FN,if while applying a firm downward pressure. Cross filing,
desired. The remaining E300 series electrodes can be Le., filing intwo different directions, shall not be.permit-
made in low ferrite versions, but commercial practice ted. The finished surface must be smooth with all traces
usually involvesferrite control above 4 FN. Because of ofweld ripple removed and must be continuous in
chemistrylimitscoveringthese grades and various length where measurements areto be taken. The width
manufacturing limits, most lots will beunder 10 FN and of the prepared surface shall not be less than 1/ 8 in.
it is unlikely to go over 15 FN commercially. E14-8-2 (3 mm).
generally is controlled at alow ferrite level, under 5 FN;
E312,E2553, and E2209generally are quite highin A6.9.5 A totalof six ferrite readings must be taken on
ferrite, usually over 20 FN. the filed surface along the longitudinal axis of the weld
pad with an instrument calibrated in accordance with
A6.9 When it is desired to measure ferrite content, the the procedures specified inANSI/ AWS A4.2,Standard
following procedure is recommended: Procedures for Calibrating Magnetic Instruments to
A6.9.1 Weld pads as detailed in Figure Al are pre- Measure the Delta Ferrite Content of Austenitic and
pared as described in A6.9.2 through A6.9.4. The base Duplex Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless Steel Weld Metal
plate must be Type301,302, or 304 conforming to (latest edition).
ASTM Specification A147 or A240. Carbon steel may A6.9.6 The six readings obtained must be averaged
be used provided that the weld pad is built up to the to a single value for conversion to Ferrite Number.
minimum height specified inA6.9.2. A6.10 The ferrite content of welds may be calculated
A6.9.2 The weld pad must be built up between two from the chemical composition of the weld deposit. This
copper bars laid parallelon the base plateby depositing can be done from oneof several constitution diagrams.
single weld bead layers, one on top of the other to These are the WRC-1988 Diagram (Figure A3), the
a minimum height of 1/ 2 in. (13 mm). The spacing Espy Diagram (Figure A4), and the DeLong Diagram

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
18

FERRITE SHALL BE
MEASURED IN THIS
AREA - FREE OF
lwI- ARC STARTS AND
CRATERS

1
--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

BASE PLATE
I
I
4- 2-112 MIN

NOTE: ALL DIMENSIONS


INCHES.ARE IN SI Equivalents
in.
- -
mm
1/16 1.6
5/64 2.0
Electrode Approximate Dimensions of 3/32 2.4
Welding Current Amperesa 118 3.2
Diameter, in. Deposit,
in. -15, -16,
-26 -17, -25, W L 5/32 4.0
3/16 4.8
1/16 0.25 1-114 7/32 5.6
5/64 45-60 0.25 1-114 1I 4 6.4
3/32 0.25 6.4
1/a 20 90-1 0.4 1-112 0.3 7.6
5/32 120-1 50 0.5 1-1/2 3/8 9.5
3/16 160-200 0.6 1-1/2 0.4 10
7/32 200-240 0.7 1-112 0.5 13
1/4 240-280 0.7 1-112 0.6 15
a. Recommended welding current will vary widelydepending on the type of core wire 0.7 18
employed. Consultthemanufacturerfor specific recommendations. Welding current 1 25
used to produce the test specimen shouldbe reported. 1-1/4 32
1-1/2 38
2-1 /2 64
Figure A l -Weld Pad for Ferrite Test 3 76

(Figure A5). There may be a wide range of results ob- of the WRC-1988 Diagram are independent of silicon
tained from one diagram to another. Thefollowingpara- and manganese contents because these elements were
graphs give some explanation of the differences among not foundto have statisticallysignifcanteffects. The WRC-
these diagrams and their recommended applications. 1988 Diagram is preferred for 300series stainless steels
and for duplexstainless alloys. It may not be applicable
A6.10.1 WRC-1988 Diagram (Figure A3) predicts
to compositions having greater than0.2 percent of nitro-
ferrite in Ferrite Number This diagram is the gen and greater than 10 percent of manganese.
newest of the diagrams mentioned. Studies within the
WRC Subcommitteeon Welding of Stainless Steel and A6.10.2 Espy Diagram calculates the percent ferrite
within Commission II of the International Instituteof (Figure A4) rather than FN of deposits of the 200
Welding show a closer agreement between measured series (see A2.1) having manganese levels up to 15 per-
and predicted femte using this diagram thanwhen using cent and nitrogen contents up 0.35 percent (nitrogen
the DeLong Diagram. It should be noted that predictions strengthened austenitic stainless steel^).^

2. McCowan, C. N., Siewart, T. A., and Olson,D. L. Stain-


less steel weld metal prediction of femte. Bulletin 342. New 3. Espy, R.H. Weldability of nitrogen-strengthenedstainless
York: Welding Research Council, April 1989. steels. Welding Journal, 61(S): 149s-lS6s, 1982.

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A5.4 92 07842b5
0500528 38L

19

COPPER BAR 3-3/8 LONG OF


CROSS SECTION AS SHOWN IN
A-A BELOW

COPPER BAR
BAR COPPER 5/8 HIGH x - SAME AS
3/8 THICK X 2-3/4 LONG SHOWN AT
OPPOSITE
END

THREADED STUDS
OR BOLTS - ONE
SIDE BEING
ADJUSTABLE

NOTE: ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES. TYPE 1


FOR 5/32 DlAM ELECTRODES AND SMALLER

SI Equivalents

-in. mm
__
51 32 4.0
3/16 4.8
3/ 8 9.5
518 16
1 25
2-3/4 70
3-3m a5 I

THIS DESIGN ALLOWS INCREASED VISIBILITY,


MAKING IT EASIER TO HOLD ASHORT ARC LENGTH

CROSS SECTION A-A

TYPE 2
FOR 3/16 & LARGER DlAM WELDING ELECTRODES
AND FOR ANY PADS ON CARBON STEEL BASE PLATE

Figure A2 -Optional Welding Fixturefor Welding Ferrite Test Pads


--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A 5 - 4 9 2 0784265 0500529 218

20

18

16

z
a+
o
3 14
.-+
z
Il

.-B
z
12

10

A6.10.3 DeLong Diagram4is a modified Schaeffler measured ferrite values isalso strongly dependent on the
Diagram5 predicting the Ferrite Number (FN) up to a quality of the chemical analysis.Variations in the results
maximum of 18 F N . The diagram includesthe nitrogen of the chemical analyses encountered from laboratory to
level into thecalculation to predict the FN. The DeLong laboratory canhave sigdcant effects on thecalculated
modificationsto the Schaeffler Diagram provide a better ferrite value, changing it as much as 4 to 8 FN.
correlation between the calculated and measured ferrite
content of the weld metal, therefore, the SchaefflerDia-
gram is not shown inthis specification. The new WRC A7. Description and Intended Use
1988 Diagram, see Figure A3, is the most accurate and of Filler Metals
preferred diagram for predicting the ferrite in 300
series stainless steel weld metals. Future publications of A7.1 E209. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this
this specificationmay not include the DeLong Diagram. weld metal is 22 Cr, 11 Ni, 5.5 Mn, 2 Mo, and0.20 N.
Electrodes of this composition are most often used to
A6.10.4 The differences between measured and cal- weld AIS1 Type 209 (UNS S20910) base metals. The
culated ferrite are somewhat dependent on the ferrite alloy is a nitrogen-strengthened austenitic stainless steel
levelof the deposit, increasing as the ferrite level exhibiting high strength with good toughness over a
increases. The agreement between the calculated and wide range of temperatures. Nitrogen alloying reduces
the tendency for intergranular carbide precipitation in
the weld area by inhibiting carbon diffusion and thereby
4. DeLong, W. T.(1974 Adams Lecture) Ferrite in austenitic increasing resistance to intergranular corrosion. Nitro-
stainless steel weld metal. WeZding Journal, 53(7): 273s to gen alloying coupledwith the molybdenum content
286s, 1974. provides superior resistanceto pitting and crevice corro-
5. Schaeffler, A. E. Metal Progress (56): 680-680B. sion in aqueouschloride- containing media. Type E209

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A5.4 72 0784265
0500530 T3T m

21

30
28
26
24
22
20
la
16
14
12
10
a
6
4
2
O
o 2 4 6 a IO 12 14
16 la 20 38
36
34
32
30
28
26
24
22 40

CHROMIUM EQUIVALENT = Z C r + Mo + 1.5 x %Si + 0.5 x %Cb (Nb) + 5 x % V + 3 x % A l

Figure A4 -Espy Percent Ferrite Diagram for Stainless Weld Metal


electrodes have sufficient total alloy content for use in strength withgoodtoughnessoverawiderange of
joining dissimilar alloys, like mild steel
and the stainless temperatures. Significant improvement in resistanceto
steels and also for direct overlayon mild steelfor corro- wear in particle-to-metal and metal-to-metal (galling)
sion applications. applications is a desirable characteristic when compared
A7.2 E219. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this to the more conventional austenitic stainless steels like
weld metal is 20 Cr, 6 Ni, 9 Mn, and0.20 N. Electrodes Type 304. Nitrogen alloying reduces the tendency for
of this composition are most often used to weld AISI intergranular carbide precipitation in the weld area by
Type 219 (UNS S21900) base metals. This alloy is a inhibiting carbon diffusion and thereby increasing resist-
nitrogen-strengthened austenitic stainless steel exhibit- ance to intergranular corrosion.
ing highstrength with good toughness over awide range Nitrogen alloying also improves resistanceto pitting
of temperatures. Nitrogen alloying reduces the tendency and crevice corrosion in aqueous chloride-containing
for intergranular carbide precipitation in the weld area media. In addition, weldments in alloys AISI 240 and
by inhibiting carbon diffusion and thereby, increases AISI 241 when compared to Type 304, exhibit improved
resistance to intergranular corrosion. Nitrogen alloying resistance to transgranular stress corrosion cracking in
also improves resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion hot aqueous chloride-containing media. The E240 elec-
in aqueous chloride containing media. The E219 elec- trodes have sufficienttotal alloy content for use injoin-
trodes have sufficienttotal alloy content for use injoin- ing dissimilar alloys, like mild steel and the stainless
ing dissimilar alloys, like mild steel and the stainless steels, and also for direct overlayon mild steelfor corro-
steels, and also for direct overlayon mild steelfor corro- sion and wear applications.
sion applications.
A7.4 E307. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this
A7.3 E240. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this weld metal is 19 Cr, 9.8 Ni, 4 Mn. Electrodes of this
weld metal is 18 Cr, 5 Ni, 12Mn, and0.02 N. Electrodes composition are used primarily for moderate strength
of this composition are most often used to weld AISI weldswith good crackresistancebetweendissimilar
Type 240 and 241 base metals. These alloys are nitrogen- steelssuch as austeniticmanganesesteel and carbon
strengthened austenitic stainless steels exhibiting high steel forgingsor castings.

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A 5 - 4 92 = 078q265 0500533 9 7 b

22

18 17 16 24 23 22 20 21 27 25 26
CHROMIUM, EQUIVALENT = %Cr +%Mo + 1.5 x %Si + 0.5 x %Cb

Calculate the nickeland chromium equivalents from the weld metal analysis. If nitrogen analysis of the weld metal is not available,
assume 0.06% for GTA and covered electrode, or 0.08%for GMA weld metals. If the chemistry is accurate the diagram predicts the WRC
Ferrite Number within plusor minus 3 in approximately90% of the tests for the308,309, 316 and 317 families.

Figure A5 -DeLong (FN) Diagram for Stainless SteelWeld Metal


A7.5 E308. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this be adequate in weld metal, even though it is recognized
weld metal is 19Cr, and 10 Ni. Electrodesof this compo- that similar base metal specifications require
a 0.03 per-
sition are most often used to weld base metal of similar cent limitation. This lowcarbon alloy, however,is not as
composition such as AIS1 Types301,302,304, and305. strong at elevated temperature as the columbium-
stabilized alloys or 304H.
A7.6 E308H. These electrodes are the same as E308
except that the allowable carbon content has been re- A7.8 E308Mo. These electrodes are the same as E308,
stricted to the higher portion of the E308 range.Carbon except for the addition of molybdenum. E308Mo elec-
content in the range of 0.04-0.08 provides higher tensile trodes are recommended for welding ASTM CF8M
and creep strengths at elevated temperatures. These elec- stainless steel castings,
as they matchthe base metal with
trodes are used for welding Type 304H base metal. regard to chromium, nickel, and molybdenum. They
may also be used for welding wrought materials suchas
A7.7 E308L. The compositionof the weld metal is the
Type 316 stainlesswhenincreased ferrite isdesired
same as E308, exceptfor the restricted carbon content.
beyond that attainable with E316 electrodes.
The 0.04 percent max carbon content of weld metal
deposited by these electrodes reduces the possibility of A7.9 E308MoL. Theseelectrodes are recommended
intergranular carbide precipitation and thereby increases for welding ASTM CF3M stainless steel castings, as
the resistance to intergranular corrosion without the use they match the base metal with regard to chromium,
of stabilizers such as columbium (niobium) titanium.
or nickel, and molybdenum. E308MoL electrodes may also
A carbon content of 0.04 percent max has been shown to be used for welding wrought materials such as Type
--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A 5 . 4 92 O784265 0500532 802

23

3 16L stainless when increased ferrite is desired beyond HK by the Alloy Castings Institute. The alloy has high
that attainable with E316L electrodes. strength at temperatures over 1700OF (930O C). It is not
recommended for high sulfur atmospheres or where
A7.10 E309. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this severe thermal shock is present. Long time exposure to
weld metal is 23.5Cr, 13 Ni. Electrodes of this composi-
temperatures in theapproximate range of1400 to
tion are commonly used for welding similar alloys in
1600OF (760to 870C) may induce formation of sigma
wrought or cast form. They are used for welding dissimi-
and secondary carbides which may result in reduced
lar metals, such as joining Type 304 to carbon steel,
corrosion resistance, reduced ductility, or both.
welding the clad sideof Type 304 clad steels,and apply-
ing stainless steel sheet linings to carbon steel shells. A7.17 E310Cb. The composition of this weld metal is
Occasionally,they are used to weld Type 304 and similar the same as that deposited by E3 10electrodes, except for
base metals wheresevere corrosionconditions exist the additionof columbium (niobium) and a reduction in
requiring higher alloy weld metal. carbon limit. These electrodes are used for the welding
A7.11 E309L. The composition of this weld metal is the
of heat resisting castings, Type 347 clad steels, or the
overlay of carbon steels.
same as that deposited by E309electrodes,except for the
restricted carbon content. The 0.04 percent max carbon A7.18 E310Mo. The composition of this weld metal is
content of these weld deposits reduces the possibility of the same as that deposited by E310electrodes,except for
intergranular carbide precipitation and thereby increases the additionof molybdenum and a reduction in carbon
the resistance to intergranular corrosionwithout the use limit. These electrodes are used for the welding of heat
of stabilizers such as columbium (niobium) and tita- resisting castings, Type 3 16 clad steels,or for the
overlay
nium. This low carbon alloy, however, isnot as strong at of carbon steels.
elevated temperature as the columbium-stabilized alloys
A7.19 E312. The nominal composition (wt. %) of this
or high carbon content Type 309 deposits.
weld metal is 30 Cr, 9 Ni. These electrodes were origi-
A7.12 E309Cb. The composition of this weld metal is nally designed to weld cast alloys of similar composi-
the same as Type 309, except for the additionof colum- tion. They have been found to be valuable in welding
bium (niobium) anda reduction in the carbonlimit. The dissimilar metals, especially if one of them is a stainless
columbium (niobium) providesresistance to carbide steel, high in nickel. This alloy gives a two-phase weld
precipitation and thusincreases intergranular corrosion deposit with substantial amounts of ferrite in an aus-
resistance and alsoprovides higher strength in elevated teniticmatrix. Evenwith considerable dilution by
temperature service. E309Cbelectrodes are used also for austenite-forming elements, such as nickel, the micro-
welding Type347 clad steelsor for the overlay of carbon structure remains two-phase and thus highly resistant to
steel. weld metal cracks and fissures. Applications should be
A7.13 E309Mo. The composition of this weld metal is limited to service temperature below 800' F (420" C)to
the same as that deposited by E309electrodes,except for avoid formation of secondary brittle phases.
the addition of molybdenum and a small reduction in A7.20 E316. The nominal composition (wt. %) of this
the carbon limit. These electrodes are used for welding weld metal is 18.5 Cr, 12.5 Ni, 2.5 Mo. These electrodes
Type 316 clad steels or for theoverlay of carbon steels. are used for welding Type 316 and similar alloys. They
A7.14 E309MoL. The composition of this weld metal have beenused successfully incertain applicationsinvolv-
is the same as that deposited by E309Mo electrodes, ing special base metalsfor high-temperature service. The
except for therestricted carbon content. The
lower car- presence of molybdenum provides creep resistance at
bon contentof the weld metal reduces the possibility of elevated temperatures. Rapid corrosion of Type 316
intergranular corrosion. weld metal may occur when the following three factors
coexist:
A7.15 E310. The nominal composition (wt.910)of this (1) The presence of a continuous orsemicontinuous
weld metal is 26.5Cr, 21 Ni.Electrodes of this composi- network of femte in theweld metal microstructure
tion are most often used to weld base metals of similar (2) A compositionbalance of the weld metal giving a
composition. chromium-to-molybdenum ratio of less than 8.2 to 1
A7.16 E310H. The composition of this weld metal is (3) Immersion of the weld metalin a corrosive
the same as that deposited by E310 electrodes, except medium
that carbon ranges from 0.35 to 0.45 percent. These Attempts to classify the media in which accelerated
electrodes are used primarily for welding or repairing corrosion will take place by attack on the ferritephase
high alloy heat and corrosion resistant castings of the have not been entirely successful. Strong oxidizing and
same general composition which are designated as Type mildly reducing environments have been present where

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A 5 9 4 92 0784265 0500533 749

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

24

a number of corrosion failures were investigated and of similar composition for applications where resistance
documented. The literature shouldbe consulted for to severe corrosion is required for a wide range of chem-
latest recommendations. icals including sulfuric and sulfurous acids and their
salts. These electrodes can be usedto weld both castings
A7.21 E316H. These electrodes are the same as E316,
andwrought alloys of similar composition without
except that the allowable carbon content has been re-
postweld heat treatment.
stricted to the higher portion of the E316 range. Carbon A modification of this gradewithoutcolumbium
content in the range of 0.04 to 0.08 provides higher
(niobium) is available for repairing castings which do
tensile and creep strengths at elevated temperatures. not contain columbium. With this modified composi-
These electrodes are used for welding 316H basemetal. tion, solution annealing is required after welding.
A7.22 E316L. This composition isthe same as E3 16, ex- A7.27 E320LR (Low Residuals). Weld metaldepos-
cept for therestricted carbon content.The 0.04 percent ited by E320LR electrodes has the same basic composi-
max carboncontent of weldmetal deposited by these elec- tion as that deposited by E320 electrodes; however, the
trodes reduces the possibility of intergranular carbide
elements C, Si, P, and S are specified at lower maxi-
precipitation and therebyincreases the resistance to
mum levels, and Cb (Nb) and Mn arecontrolled within
intergranular corrosion without the use of stabilizers
narrower ranges. These changes reducethe weld metal
such as columbium (niobium) or titanium. These elec-
fissuring (while maintaining the corrosion resistance)
trodes are used principally for weldinglow carbon, frequently encountered in fully austenitic stainless steel
molybdenum-bearing austeniticalloys. Tests have shown weld metals. Consequently, welding practices typically
that 0.04 percent carbon limit in the weld metal gives
used to deposit ferritecontaining austenitic stainless
adequate protection against intergranular corrosion in
steel weld metals can be used. Type 320LR weld metal
most cases. This low carbon alloy, however, is not as
has a lower minimum tensile strength than Type 320
strong at elevated temperatures as Type E316H.
weld metal.
A7.23 E317. The alloy content of weld metal deposited
A7.28 E330. The nominal composition (wt.96) of this
by these electrodesis somewhat higher than thatof E316
weld metal is 35 Ni, 15.5 Cr. These electrodes are com-
electrodes, particularly in molybdenum.Theseelec- monly used where heat- and scale-resisting properties
trodes are usuallyused for weldingalloys of similar
above1800F (98OOC) are required. However,high-
composition and areutilized in severely corrosive envi-
sulfur environments may adversely effect performance
ronments (such as those containing halogens) where
at elevated temperature. Repairs of defects in alloy cast-
crevice and pitting corrosion are of concern.
ings and the welding of castings and wrought alloys of
A7.24 E317L. The composition of this weld metal is the similar composition are themost common applications.
same as that deposited by E3 17 electrodes,except for the
A7.29 E330H. The composition of this weld metal is
restricted carbon content. The 0.04 percent max carbon
the same as that deposited by E330 electrodes, except
content of weld metal deposited by these electrodes re-
that carbon ranges from 0.35 to 0.45 percent. These
duces the possibility of intergranular carbide precipita- electrodes are used primarily for thewelding and repair-
tion and thereby increases the resistanceto intergranular
ing of high alloy heat and corrosionresistant castings of
corrosion without the use of stabilizers such as colum-
the same general composition whichare designated HT
bium(niobium) or titanium. Thislow carbon alloy, by the Alloy Castings Institute. This compositioncan be
however, is not as strong at elevated temperatures as the used to 2100F (1 150C)in oxidizing atmospheres and
columbium (niobium)-stabilized alloys or the standard at 2000" F ( 1090C) in reducing atmospheres. However,
Type 317 weld metal with ahigher carbon content. high-sulfur environments may adversely affect perform-
A7.25 E318. The composition of this weld metal isthe ance at elevated temperature.
same as that deposited by E3 16electrodes,except for the A7.30 E347. The nominal composition (wt.96) of this
addition of columbium (niobium). Columbium (nio-
weld metal is 19.5 Cr, 10 Ni with Cb(Nb) or Cb(Nb) plus
bium) provides resistance to intergranular carbide pre- Ta added as a stabilizer. Either of these additions re-
cipitation and thus increased resistance to intergranular duces the possibility of intergranular chromium carbide
corrosion. These electrodes are used primarily for weld- precipitation andthus increases resistance to inter-
ing base metals of similar composition. granular corrosion.
A7.26 E320. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this These electrodes are usually used for welding chro-
Cr, 34 Ni, 2.5 Mo, 3.5 Cu, with Cb(Nb)
weld metal is 20 mium-nickel alloys of similar composition stabilized
added to improve resistance to intergranular corrosion. either withcolumbium(niobium) or titanium. Elec-
These electrodes are primarily used to weld base metals trodes depositing titanium as a stabilizing element are

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A 5 0 4 92 m 0784265 0500534 685 m

25

not commercially available because titanium is not read- A7.34 E410. This 12 Cr alloy is an air-hardening steel.
ily transferred across the arc in shielded metalarc weld- Preheat andpostheat treatments are required to achieve
ing. Although columbium (niobium) is the stabilizing welds of adequate ductility for many engineering pur-
element usually specified Typein 347 alloys, it should be poses. The most common application of these electrodes
recognized that tantalumalso is present. Tantalum and is for welding alloys of similar compositions.
columbium (niobium) are almost equallyeffectivein They are also used for surfacing of carbon steels to
stabilizing carbon and in providing high-temperature resist corrosion, erosion, or abrasion.
strength. This specification recognizes the usual com-
mercial practice of reporting columbium (niobium)as A7.35 E410NiMo. These electrodes are used for weld-
the sum of columbium (niobium)plus tantalum. If dilu- ing ASTM CA6NM castings or similar materials, as
tion by the base metal produces a low ferrite or fully well as light gage Type 410,41OS, and 405 base metals.
austenitic weld metal deposit, crack sensitivity of the Weld metal deposited by these electrodes are modified
weld may increase substantially. to contain less chromium and more nickel than weld
metal deposited by E410 electrodes. The objectiveis to
--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Some applications, especially those involving high-


temperature service, are adversely affected if the ferrite eliminate ferrite in the microstructure, as ferrite has a
content is too high. Consequently, a high ferrite content deleterious effect on mechanical properties of this alloy.
should notbe specified unlesstests prove it to be abso- Final postweld heattreatment should not exceed 1150 F
lutely necessary. (62OOC). Higher temperaturesmay result in rehardening
due to untempered martensite in the microstructure
A7.31 E349. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this after cooling to room temperature.
weld metal is 19.5 Cr, 9 Ni, 1 Cb(Nb), 0.5 Mo, 1.4 W.
A7.36 E430. The weld metal deposited by these elec-
These electrodes are used for welding steels of similar
trodes contains between 15 and 18 Cr (wt.%). The com-
composition suchas AIS1 Type 65 1 or 652. The combi-
position is balanced by providing sufficient chromium
nation of columbium (niobium), molybdenum, and
to give adequate corrosion resistance for the usual appli-
tungsten with chromium and nickel gives good high-
cations and yet retain sufficient ductility in the heat-
temperature rupture strength. The chemical composi-
treated condition to meet the mechanical requirements
tion of the weld metal results in an appreciable content
of the specification. (Excessivechromium will result in
of ferrite which increasesthe crack resistance of the weld
metal. lowered ductility.) Welding with E430 electrodes usually
requires preheat and postheat. Optimum mechanical
A7.32 E383. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this properties and corrosion resistance are obtained only
weld metal is28 Cr, 31.5Ni,3.7 Mo, 1 Cu. These when the weldment isheat treated following the welding
electrodes are used to weld base metal of a similar operation.
composition to itself and to other grades of stainless
A7.37 E502. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this
steel. Type E383 weld metal is recommended for sul-
weld metal is 5 Cr, 0.5 Mo. These electrodesare used for
phuric and phosphoricacid environments.
welding base metal of similar composition, usually in the
The elements C, Si, P, and S are specified at low
form of pipe or tubing. The alloy is an air-hardening
maximum levels to minimize weld metal hot cracking
material; therefore, when welding with these electrodes,
and fissuring (while maintaining the corrosion resist-
preheat and postweld heat treatment are required.
ance) frequently encountered in fullyaustenitic stainless
steel weld metals. A7.38 E505. The nominal composition (wt.%) of this
weld metal is 9 Cr, 1 Mo. These electrodes are used for
A7.33 E385. The nominal composition (W.%) of this welding basemetal of similar composition, usually inthe
weld metal is20.5 Cr, 25 Ni, 5 Mo, 1.5 Cu.These form of pipe or tubing. The alloy is an air-hardening
electrodes are used primarily for welding of Type 904L material and, therefore, when welding with these elec-
materials for the handlingof sulphuric acid and many trodes, preheat and postweldheat treatment are required.
chloride-containing media. E385 electrodesalso may be
used to join Type 3 17L material where improvedcorro- A7.39 E630. The nominal composition (wt.%) of these
sion resistance in specific media is needed. E385 elec- electrodes is 16.4Cr, 4.7 Ni, 3.6Cu. These electrodesare
trodes also can be usedfor joining Type 904L base metal primarily designedfor welding ASTM A564 Type 630,
to other grades of stainless. The elementsC, Si, P andS and some other precipitation-hardening stainless steels.
are specified at lower maximum levels to minimize weld The weld metal is modified to prevent the formation of
metalhot cracking and fissuring(while maintaining ferrite networks in the martensite microstructure which
corrosion resistance) frequently encountered infully could have a deleterious effecton mechanical properties.
austenitic weld metals. Dependent on the application and weld size, the weld

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
26

metal maybe usedeither as-welded, welded and precipi- A8.2 The type of covering applied to a core wire to
tation hardened,or welded, solution treated and precip- make a shielded metalarc welding electrode determines
itation hardened. the usability characteristics of the electrode. The follow-
A7.40E16-8-2. The nominalcomposition (wt.%) of ing discussionof covering typesis based upon terminol-
this weld metal is 15.5 Cr, 8.5 Ni, 1.5 Mo. These elec- ogy commonly used by the industry; no attempt has
trodes are used primarilyfor welding stainless steel, such been made to specifically define thecomposition of the
as Types 16-8-2, 316, and 347, for high-pressure, high- different covering types.
temperature piping systems. The weld deposit usually A8.3Usability Designation -15. The electrodes are
has a Ferrite Number nohigher than 5 FN.The deposit usable with dcep (electrode positive) only. While use
also has good hot ductility properties which offer rela- with alternating current is sometimesaccomplished,
tive freedom from weld or crater cracking even under they are not intended to qualify for use withthis type of
high-restraint conditions. The weld metal is usable in current. Electrode sizes 5/32 in. (4.0 mm) and smaller
either the as-welded or solution-treated condition. These may be used in all positions of welding.
electrodes dependon avery carefully balanced chemical
composition to develop their fullest properties. Corro- A8.4 Usability Designation -16. The coveringfor these
sion tests indicate that Type 16-8-2 weldmetal may have electrodes generallycontains readily ionizing elements,
less corrosion resistance than Type316base metal such as potassium, in order to stabilize the arc for weld-
depending onthe corrosive media. Wherethe weldment ing with ac. Electrode sizes
5/32 in. (4.0 mm)and smaller
--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

isexposed to severe corrodents, the surfacelayers may be used inall positions of welding.
should be deposited with a more corrosion resistant A8.5 Usability Designation -17. The covering of these
weld metal. electrodes is a modification of the -16 covering in that
A7.41 E7Cr. The nominal composition(wt.%) of this considerable silica replaces some of the titania of the -16
weld metal is 7 Cr, 0.5 Mo. These electrodes are primar- covering. Since both the -16 and the -17 electrode cover-
ily used in welding base metal of similar composition. ings permit ac operation, both covering types were classi-
The 7 Cr base metal usually is furnished as tubing, pipe, fied as -16 in the past because there was no classification
or casting. This alloy is an air-hardening material and alternative until this revision of ANSI/ AWS A5.4. How-
requires the useof both preheat and postweld heat ever, the operational differences between the two types
treatment for satisfactory weldingand service. have become significant enough to warrant a separate
classification.
A7.42 E2209. The nominal composition(wt.%) of this On horizontal fillet welds, electrodes with a -17 cover-
weld metal is 22.5Cr, 9.5 Ni, 3 Mo, O. 15N. Electrodes of ing tend to produce more of a spray arc and a finer
this composition are usedprimarily to weld duplex rippled weld-bead surface than do those with the -16
stainless steels whichcontain approximately 22 percent coverings. A slower freezing slag of the -17 covering also
of chromium. Weld metal deposited by these electrodes permits improved handling characteristics when employ-
has duplex microstructure consisting of an austenite- ing a drag technique. The bead shape on horizontal
ferrite matrix. Weld metal deposited by E2209 elec- fillets is typically flat to concave with -17 covered elec-
trodes combines increased tensile strength with improved trodes as compared to flat to slightly convex with -16
resistance to pitting corrosive attack and to stress corro- coveredelectrodes. When making filletweldsin the
sion cracking. vertical position with upward progression, the slower
A7.43 E2553. The nominal composition(wt.%) of this freezing slag of the -17 covered electrodes requires a
weld metal is 25.5 Cr, 7.5 Ni, 3.5 Mo, 2 Cu and 0.17 N. slightweave technique toproduce the proper bead
These electrodesare used primarilyto weld duplex stain- shape. For this reason, the minimum leg-size filet that
less steels which contain approximately 25 percent of can be properly made with a -17 covered electrode is
chromium. Weld metal depositedby these electrodeshas larger than that for -16 a covered electrode. While these
a duplex microstructure consisting of an austenite- electrodes are designed for all-position operation, elec-
ferrite matrix. Weld metal deposited byE2553elec- trode sizes 3/ 16 in. (4.8 mm)and larger are notrecom-
trodes combines increased tensile strength with improved mended for vertical or overhead welding.
resistance to pitting corrosive attack and to stress corro-
A8.6Usability Designation -25. Thisslagsystem is
Sian cracking.
very similar in composition and operating characteristics
to that of the -15 designation, and so that description
AS. Classification as to Usability also applies here. The electrode differs from the -15 type
A8.1 Five basic usability classifications are provided in in that the core wire may be ofa substantially different
this specification, as shown in Table 2. composition, such as mild steel,that may requirea much

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A5.4 92 W 07842b50500536 458 m

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

27

higher welding current. The additional alloys necessary of specimens required from the pad. Specimens measur-
to obtain the required analysis are contained in the ing 1/ 2 X 2 X 1/ 4 in. (13 X 50 X 6.4 mm) are machined
covering which will beof greater diameter than the from the top surface of the pad in such a way that the 2 in.
corresponding -15 type. Theseelectrodesarerecom- (50 mm) dimension of the specimen is parallel to the
mended for weldingonlyin the flat and horizontal 2-1 / 2 in. (65 mm) width dimension of the pad and the
positions. 1/ 2 in. (13 mm) dimension is parallel to the length of the
pad.
A8.7 Usability Designation -26. Thisslagsystem is
very similar in composition and operating characteris- A9.4 The heat treatments, surface finish, and marking
tics to thatof the -16 designation, and so that description of the specimens prior to testing should be in accordance
also applies here. The electrode differs from the -16 type with standard practices for tests of similar alloys inthe
in that the core wire may beof a substantially different wrought or cast forms. The testing procedure should
composition suchas mild steelthat may requirea much correspond to the ASTM G4, Standard Method for
higher weldingcurrent. The additional alloys necessary ConductingCorrosionTests inPlant Eguipment or
to obtain the required analysis are contained in the ASTM A262, Standard Practicesfor Detecting Suscep-
covering which will be of much larger diameter thanthe tibility to Intergranular Attack in Austenitic Stainless
corresponding -16type.Theseelectrodesarerecom- Steels.
mended for weldingonlyin the flat and horizontal A9.5 Tests for mechanical properties ofjoint specimens
positions. may be desired when the intended application involves
the weldingofdissimilarmetals. Procedures for the
mechanical testing of such joints should be in accord-
A9. Special Tests ance with the latest edition of ANSI/AWS B4.0, Stan-
dard Methods for Mechanical Testing of Welds.
A9.1 Although welds made with electrodes coveredby
this specification are commonly used in corrosion- or A9.6 Tests ofjoint specimens maybe influenced by the
heat-resisting applications, it is not practical to require properties of the base metaland welding procedures and
tests for corrosion or scale resistance on welds or weld may not provide adequate tests of the weld metal. Such
metal specimens. Such special tests whichare pertinent tests should be considered as tests
for qualifying welding
to the intended application may be conductedas agreed procedures using approved materials rather than tests
upon between supplier and purchaser. This section is for qualifjing the electrodes.
included for the guidance of those who desireto specify A9.7 Where fabrication codes require tests of welds in
such special tests. heat-treated conditions other than those specified in
Table 2, all-weld-metal tests of heat-treated specimens
A9.2 Corrosion orscaling testsof joint specimens have
the advantage that the joint design and welding proce- may be desired. For the preparation of such specimens,
the procedures outlined in Section10, Tension Test and
dure canbe made identical to those being used infabri-
Section I l , Fillet Weld Test, should be followed.
cation. They have the disadvantage of being a test of the
combined properties of the weld metal, the heat-affected A9.8 Fully austenitic stainlesssteel weld metals are
zone of the base metal, and the unaffected base metal. known to possessexcellent toughnessat cryogenic
Furthermore, it is difficultto obtain reproducible data if temperatures such as - 32OOF (- 196 C). An example of
a difference exists between the corrosion or oxidation this is the successful use of E310 (which deposits fully
rates of the various metal structures (weld metal, heat- austenitic weld metal) to join9 percent nickel steelfor
affected zone, and unaffected base metal). Test samples use in cryogenic service.To ensure freedom from brittle
cannot be readily standardized ifwelding procedure and failure, Section VI11 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure
joint design are to be considered variables. Joint speci- Vessel Code requires weldments intended for cryogenic
mens for corrosion tests should notbe usedfor qualify- servicebequalifiedby Charpy V-notchtesting. The
ing the electrode but may be usedfor qualifying welding criterion for acceptability is the attainment of a lateral
procedures using approved materials. expansion opposite the notch of not less than 15 mils
(0.38 mm) for each of three specimens. In general, fully
A9.3 All-weld-metal specimens for testing corrosion or
austenitic stainless steel weld metals suchas Types 3 10,
scale resistanceare preparedby following the procedure
320,32OLR, and 330 can be expectedto meet the 15 mils
outlined for the preparation of pads forchemical analysis
(0.38 mm) requirementat -320F (- 196OC).
(see Section 9.). The pad size should be at least 3/4 in.
(19mrn)inheightby2-1/2in.(65mm)widebyl+n5/8 A9.9 Austeniticstainlesssteel weld metals oflower
in. (25+ n16 mm)long, where nrepresents the number alloy content than those noted above usually are not

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
A U S A 5 0 4 92 D 07842b5 0500537 39'4

28

fully austenitic but contain some delta femte. It has been


found that such weld metals require judicious composi-
tional balances to meet the 15 mils (0.38 mm) lateral
expansion criteria even at moderately lowtemperatures
such as - 150F (- 100OC).
A9.10 Electrode classifications which can beused if
special attention is given to the weld deposit composi-
tion content to maximize toughness are E308L-XX,
E309LXX, and E316L-XX. Published studies of the
effect of composition changes on weldment toughness NOTE:SPECIMENSIZE TO BE IN ACCORDANCEWITH
ANSVAWS B4.0, STANDARD METHODS FOR MECHANICAL
properties for these types have shownthe following: TESTING OF WELDS.
A9.10.1 Both carbon and nitrogen contents have
strong adverse affects on weld metal toughness so that
their contents should be minimized. Low carbon weld -
Figure A6 Orientation and
metals with a nitrogen content below 0.06 percent are Location of Impact Specimen
preferred.
A9.10.2 Nickel appears to be the only element whose
increased content in weld metal improves weld metal A9.12 Wherecryogenicservice[below - 150'F
toughness. (- IOO'C)] is intended, it is recommended that each lot
of electrodes be qualified with Charpy V-notch impact
A9.10.3 Delta ferrite is harmful; therefore, minimiz- tests. When such tests are required, the test specimens
ing ferrite in weld metal (3 FN m a ) is recommended. must be taken from atest plate prepared in accordance
Weld metal free of ferrite (fully austenitic) is preferred; with Figure 2. The impactspecimens mustbe located in
the more austenitic, the better. the test plate as shown in Figure A6. The specimens
must be prepared andtestedinaccordancewiththe
A9.10.4 Fully austenitic E316L weld metal appears
impact test sectionsof the latestedition of ANSI/ AWS
to be the preferred composition because of the ease in
achieving ferrite-freeweld metal, while compositionally
B4.0,Standard Methods for Mechanical Testingof Welds.
The test temperature must be selected on the basis of
conforming to AWS A5.4 and retaining crack resistance.
intended service.
A9.10.5 Limecoveredelectrodestend to produce
weldmentshavingslightly superior lateral expansion
values for CharpyV-notch impact specimens than tita- Alo. Safety Considerations
nia covered electrodes when weld metal composition
factors are essentially the same. This appearsto be due A1O.l Burn Protection. Molten metal, sparks, slag,
to two factors: and hot work surfacesare produced by welding,cutting,
and allied processes. These can cause bums if precau-
A9.10.5.1 Lime coated SMAW electrodes usually tionary measures are not used. Workers should wear
provide better protection from nitrogen incursion into protective clothing made of fire-resistant material.Pant
--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

the weld metal than that provided by titania coated cuffs, open pockets, or other places on clothing that can
electrodes. Nitrogen, as noted above, has significantly catch and retain molten metal orsparks should not be
adverse effects on weld toughness. worn.High-topshoes or leather leggingsandfre-
resistant gloves should be worn. Pant legs should be
A9.10.5.2 Lime coated SMAW electrodes appear
worn over the outside of high-top shoes. Helmets or
to produce weld metals of lower oxygen levelsor inclu-
hand shields that provideprotection for the face, neck,
sion population (i.e., cleaner weld metal), or both. The
and ears, and a head coveringto protect the head should
above suggestions are particularly important when the
be used. In addition, appropriate eye protection should
intended application involvesverylow temperatures
be used.
such as -320'F (-196OC).
When welding overhead or in confined spaces, ear
A9.11 Limited SMAW electrode weld-metal data have plugs to prevent weld spatter from entering the ear canal
indicated that welding in the vertical position, as com- should be worn in combination with goggles,or equiva-
pared to flatposition welding, does not reduce tough- lent, to give added eye protection. Clothing should be
ness properties, providing good operator's technique is kept free of grease and oil. Combustible materials
employed. should not be carried in pockets. If any combustible

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A 5 - 4 7 2 07842b5 0500538 220 W

29

substancehasbeenspilled on clothing, a change to used only to complete the welding circuit. A separate
clean, fire-resistant clothing shouldbemade before connection is required to ground the workpiece. The
working with openarcs or flame. Aprons, cape-sleeves, workpieceshouldnot be mistakenfor a ground
leggings,andshoulder covers with bibs designed for connection.
--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

welding service should be used. The correct cable size should beused, since sustained
Wherewelding or cutting of unusually thick base overloading will cause cable failure and resultin possible
metal isinvolved, sheet metal shields should be used for electrical shock or fire hazard. All electricalconnections
extra protection. Mechanization of highly hazardous should be tight, clean, and dry. Poor connections can
processes orjobs should beconsidered. Other personnel overheat and even melt. Further, they can produce dan-
in the work area shouldbe protected by the useof gerous arcs and sparks. Water, grease, or dirt should not
noncombustible screens or by the useof appropriate be allowedto accumulate on plugs, sockets, or electrical
protection as described in the previous paragraph. units. Moisture canconduct electricity. To prevent
Before leaving a work area, hot work pieces should be shock, the work area, equipment, and clothing should
marked to alert other persons of this hazard. No attempt be kept dry at all times.
should be made to repair or disconnect electrical equip- Weldersshouldwear dry gloves and rubber soled
ment when it is under load. Disconnection under load shoes, or stand on a dry board or insulated platform.
produces arcing of the contacts and may causeburns or Cables and connections should be kept in good condi-
shock, or both. (Note: Burns can be causedby touching tion.Improper or worn electrical connectionsmay
hotequipment suchas electrodeholders, tips, and create conditions that could cause electrical shock or
nozzles. fierefore, insulated gloves shouldbeworn short circuits. Worn, damaged, or bare cables should
when theseitems are handled, unless anadequate cool- not be used. Open circuit voltage should be avoided.
ingperiod has been allowed before touching.) When several weldersare working with arcs of different
The following sources are formore detailed informa- polarities, or when a number of alternating current
tion on personal protection: machines are being used, the open circuit voltages can be
(1) American National Standards Institute. ANSI/ additive. The added voltages increase the severity of the
ASC 249.1, Safety in welding andcutting(pub1ished by shock hazard.
the American Welding Society). Miami, FL: American In case of electric shock, the power should beturned
Welding Society. off. If the rescuer must resort to pulling the victim from
(2) . ANSI/
ASC 287. 1, Practice for the live contact, nonconducting materials shouldbe
occupational and educational eye and face protection. used. If the victim is not breathing, cardiopulmonary
New York: American National Standards Institute.6 resuscitation (CPR) should be administered as soon as
(3) . ANSI/ASC 241.1, Safety-toe contact with the electrical source is broken. A physician
footwear. NewYork:American NationalStandards should be calledand CPR continued until breathing has
Institute. been restored, or until a physician has arrived. Electrical
(4) Occupational Safety and Health Administration. burns are treated as thermal burns; that is, clean, cold
Code of federal regulations, Title 29 Labor, Chapter (iced)compressesshouldbe applied. Contamination
XVII, Part 1910. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government should be avoided; the area should be covered with a
Printing Office. clean, dry dressing; and the patient should be trans-
ported to medical assistance.
A10.2 Electrical Hazards. Electricshockcan kill. Recognizedsafety standards suchas ANSIiASC
However, it can be avoided. Live electrical parts should 249.1, Safety in Weldingand Cutting,and NFPA No. 70,
not be touched. The manufacturers instructions and National Electrical Code available from National Fire
recommended safe practices should be read and under- Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy,
stood. Faulty installation, improper grounding,and MA 02269, should be followed.
incorrect operation andmaintenance of electricalequip-
ment are all sources of danger. A10.3 Fumes and Gases. Many welding, cutting, and
All electricalequipment andthe workpieces shouldbe allied processes produce fumesand gases which may be
grounded. Theworkpiece lead isnot a ground lead. It is harmful to health. Fumes are solid particles which origi-
nate from weldingfillermetals and fluxes, the base
metal, and any coatings present on thebase metal. Gases
6. ANSI documents are available from the American National are produced during the welding process or maybe
Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018. producedby the effectsof process radiation on the
7. OSHA documents are available from U.S. Government surrounding environment. Management, welders, and
Printing office, Washington, D.C., 20402. other personnel alike should be aware of the effects of

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A 5 - 4 92 0781.1265 0500539 l b 7

30

these fumes and gases. The amount and composition of ordinarily controlled within acceptance limitsby use of
these fumesand gases dependupon thecomposition of suitable shielding enclosing the welding area.
the filler metal and base metal, welding process, current
level, arc length, and other factors. A10.4.2 Non-Ionizing Radiation. The intensity and
The possible effectsof over-exposure rangefrom irri- wave lengths of non-ionizing radiant energy produced
tation ofeyes,skin, and respiratorysystem to more depend on many factors, such as the process, welding
severe complications. Effects may occur immediately or parameters, electrode and base metal composition,
at some later time. Fumes can cause symptoms such as fluxes, and any coating or plating on the base metal.
nausea, headaches, dizziness,and metal fume fever. The Some processessuch as resistancewelding and cold
possibility of more serious health effects exists when pressure welding ordinarily produce negligible quanti-
especially toxic materials are involved. In confined ties of radiant energy. However, most arc welding and

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
spaces, the shielding gases and fumes might displace cutting processes(exceptsubmerged arc whenused
breathing air and cause asphyxiation. Ones head should properly),laserwelding and torch welding,cutting,
always be kept out of the fumes. Sufficient ventilation, brazing, or soldering can produce quantities of non-
exhaust at the arc, or both, should be usedto keep fumes ionizing radiation such that precautionary measures are
and gases from your breathing zone and the general necessary.
area. Protection from possible harmful effects caused by
In some cases, natural air movementwillprovide non-ionizing radiant energy from welding include the
enough ventilation. Whereventilation may be question- following measures:
able, air sampling should be usedto determine ifcorrec- (1) One should not look at weldingarcsexcept
tive measures should be applied. through welding filter plates which meet the require-
More detailed information on fumes and gases pro- ments of ANSI/ ASC287.1, Practicefor Occupational
duced by the various welding processes may found be in and Educational Eye and Face Protection, published by
the following: American National Standards Institute. It should be
(1) The permissible exposure limits required by noted that transparent welding curtains are not intended
OSHA can be found in Code of Federal Regulations, as welding filter plates, but
rather are intended to protect
Title 29, Chapter XVII Part 1910. a passerby from incidental exposure.
(2) The recommended threshold limit values for these (2) Exposed skin should be protected with adequate
fumes and gases may befound in the ACGIH, Thresh- gloves and clothing as specified ANSI/ASC 249.1,
old Limit Valuesfor Chemical Substances and Physical Safety in Welding and Cutting, published by American
Agents in the Workroom Environment.8 Welding Society.
(3) The results of an AWS-funded study are available (3) Reflections from welding arcs should be avoided,
in a report entitled, Fumes and Gases in the Welding and allpersonnelshouldbeprotected from intense
En~ironment.~ reflections. (Note: Paints usingpigmentsof substantially
zinc oxide or titanium dioxide have a lower reflectance
A10.4Radiation. Welding,cutting, and alliedopera-
for ultraviolet radiation.)
tions mayproduce radiant energy (radiation) haqnful to
(4) Screens, curtains, or adequate distance from
health. One should become acquainted withthe effects
aisles, walkways, etc., should be used to avoid exposing
of this radiant energy.
passersby to welding operations.
Radiant energy may be ionizing (suchas x-rays), or
( 5 ) Safetyglasseswith UV protectivesideshields
non-ionizing (such as ultraviolet, visible light,or infra-
have been shownto provide some beneficialprotection
red). Radiation canproduce a variety of effects such as
from ultraviolet radiation produced by welding arcs.
skin burns and eye damage, depending on the radiant
energys wavelengthand intensity, if excessive exposure
A10.4.3 Ionizing radiationinformation sources
occurs.
include:
A10.4.1IonizingRadiation. Ionizing radiation is
ANSI AWS F2.1-78, Recommended Safe Practices
produced by the electron beam welding process. It is
for Electron Beam Welding and Cuttingand the Manu-
facturers product information literature.
8. ACGIH documents are available from the American Con-
ference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 6550 Gleyway A10.4.4 The following include non-ionizing radia-
Avenue, Building D-5, Cincinnati, OH 4521 1. tion information sources:
9. AWS documents are available from theAmerican Welding (1) American National Standards Institute. ANSI
Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, P.O. Box 351040, Miami, 2136.1, Safe use of lasers. New York, NY: American
FL 33 135. National Standards Institute.

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A 5 - 4 92 W 0784265 0 5 0 0 5 4 0 989

31

(2) . ANSI/
ASC
249.1, Safety in (7) Optical radiation levels produced by air-carbon
welding and cutting. (published by AWS) Miami, FL: arc cutting rocesses. Welding Journal.March 1980.
American Welding Society. (8) National Technical Information Service.Non-
(3) . ANSIIASC 287.1, Practice for Ionizing Radiation Protection Special Study No. 42-
occupational and educational eye and face protection. 0053-77, Evaluation of the potential hazardsfrom
New York, NY: American National StandardsInstitute. actinic ultraviolet radiation generated by electric weld-
(4) Hinrichs, J. F. Project committee on radiation- ing and cutting arcs. Springfield, VA: National Techni-
summary report. Welding Journal.January 1978. cal Information Service. ADA-033768.
( 5 ) Moss, C. E. and Murray, W. E. Opticalradiation (9) . Non-Ionizing Radiation Protec-
levels produced in gas welding, torch brazing, and oxy- tion Special Study No. 42-0312-77, Evaluation of the
gen cutting. Welding Journal.September 1979. potential retina hazards from optical radiation gener-
(6) Moss, C. E. Optical radiation transmission levels ated by electrical welding and cutting arcs. Springfield,
through transparent welding curtains. Welding Jour- VA: National Technical Information Service.ADA-
nal. March 1979. 043023.

--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
AWS A 5 . 4 92 W O784265 0500541 815

~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~

AWS Filler Metal Specifications and Related Documents


AWS Desianation Title
FMC Filler Metal Comparison Charts
A42 Standard Procedures for Calibrating Magnetic Instruments to Measure the Delta
Ferrite Content of Austeniticand Duplex Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless SteelWeld Metal
A4.3 Standard Methods for Determination of the Diffusible Hydrogen Content Mar- of
tensitic, Bainitic, and Ferritic Steel Weld Metal Producedby Arc Welding
A5.01 Filler Metal Procurement Guidelines
A5.1 Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding
A5.2 SDecification for Carbon and Low Allov Steel Rods for Oxvfuel Gas Weldina
A5.3 Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc
Weldina
A5.4 Specification for StainlessSteel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding
A5.5 Specification for
Low
Alloy Steel
Covered Arc Welding Electrodes
A5.6 Specification for Covered Copper and Copper Alloy Arc Welding Electrodes
--``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

A5.7 Specification for Copper and Copper Alloy Bare Welding Rods and Electrodes
A5.8 SDecification for Filler Metals for Brazina
A5.9 Specification for BareStainless
Steel
Welding Electrodes and Rods
A5.10 Specification for Bare Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods
A5.11 Specification for Nickel and Nickel Alloy Welding Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc
Weldina
A5.12 Specification for Tungsten and Tungsten Alloy Electrodes for Welding and Cutting
A5.13 Specification for
Solid Surfacing WeldingRods
and Electrodes
A5.14 Specification for Nickel and Nickel Alloy Bare Welding Electrodes and Rods
A5.15 Specification for Welding Electrodes and Rods for Cast Iron
A5.16 Soecification for
Titanium and Titanium Allov Weldina Electrodes and Rods
A5.17 Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding
~ 5 .a1 Specification for Carbon Steel Filler Metals for Gas Shielded Arc Welding
A5.19 Specification for Magnesium Alloy Welding Rods and Bare Electrodes
A5.20 Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding
A5.21 SDecification for Comoosite Surfacina Weldina Rods and Electrodes
A5.22 Specification for Flux Cored Corrosion-Resisting Chromium and Chromium-Nickel
Steel Electrodes
A5.23 Specification for Low Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding
A5.24 Specification for
Zirconium and Zirconium Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods
A5.25 Specification for Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Electroslag
Weldina
A5.26 Specification for Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for Electrogas Welding
A5.27 Specification for Copper and Copper Alloy Rods for Oxyfuel Gas Welding
~5.28 SDecification for Low Allov Steel Filler Metals for Gas Shielded Arc
Weldina
A5.29 Specification for Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding
A5.30 SDecification for Consumable Inserts
A5.31 Specification for Fluxes for Brazing and Braze Welding
For additional information, contact the Order Department, American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune
Road, P.O. Box 351040, Miami, Florida 33135.

Copyright American Welding Society


Provided by IHS under license with AWS
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale