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You are on page 1of 45

What

is

Transpiration

1

.... Cont TRANSPIRATION (T)

evaporates through leaf stomata.

2

.... Cont TRANSPIRATION (T)

How to

ESTIMATE

TRANSPIRATION

3

.... Cont TRANSPIRATION (T)

BLANNEY-CRIDDLE METHOD

SEASON by the following formula :-

whereby :-

4

.... Cont TRANSPIRATION (T)

BLANNEY-CRIDDLE METHOD

Ks = Seasonal consumptive use coefficient applicable to a particular crop,

empirically derived (Table 2.2).

B = the summation of monthly consumptive use factor for a given season.

t = the mean monthly temperature (in F).

p = the monthly day time hour given as % of the year (Table 2.3).

k = the consumptive use coefficient

.... Cont TRANSPIRATION (T)

BLANNEY-CRIDDLE METHOD

following formula :-

where :-

u = monthly consumptive use (inch)

k = consumptive use coefficient

6

.... Cont TRANSPIRATION (T)

BLANNEY-CRIDDLE METHOD

consumptive use crop

coefficients (Ks) for

irrigated crops

7

.... Cont TRANSPIRATION (T)

BLANNEY-CRIDDLE METHOD

8

EXAMPLE 2.3

an alfalfa crop grown in southern California

for the month of July if the average monthly

temperature is 72oF, the average value of

daytime hours in percentage of the year is

9.88, and the mean monthly consumptive use

coefficient for alfalfa is 0.85

Given :-

Crop = Alfalfa p = 9.88 Find :-

Location = South k = 0.85 u ???

Time = July

T = 72F

9

SOLUTION

Step !!

From equation:-

0.85 72 9.88

u

100

10

EXAMPLE 2.4

tomato crop grown in New Jersey if the mean

monthly temperature for May, June, July and

August are 61.6, 70.3, 75.1 and 73.4o F,

respectively and the percent daylight hours for

the given months are 10.02, 10.8,10.22 and

9.54 as percent of the year, respectively

Given :-

T1 = 61.6F, T2 = 70.3F, T3 = 75.1F, T4 = 73.4F

p1 = 10.02, p2 = 10.08, p3 = 10.22, p4 = 9.54

Find :-

U ???

11

SOLUTION

Step !!

From equation:-

Growing season is

4 months

B

100 100 100 100

B 27.9

12

SOLUTION

lower values of Ks

Ks = 0.65

Therefore;

U 0.65 27.9

U 18.1 in of water

(4 months growing season)

13

EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

What

is

Evapotranspiration

14

.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

earth's land surface & transpiration

from plant to atmosphere.

Used for hydrologic modelling & 2 concepts

applied :-

Evaporation

potential (ETp)

Evaporation

Actual (ETa)

15

Potential Evapotranspiration (ETp ) - the

water loss which will occur if at no time

there is a deficiency of water in the soil for

the use of vegetation (have adequate water

in the soil profile).

to equal potential evapotranspiration when

there is ample water

16

.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

How to

ESTIMATE

EVAPOTRANSPIRATION

17

.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

ESTIMATING EVAPOTRANSPIRATION

EVAPOTRANSPIRATION :-

Thornthwaite method

Penman method

18

.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

1st METHOD

THORNHWAITE METHOD

Formula to calculate :-

SS

x

ET p GI k E p a

AWC

whereby :-

19

.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

1st METHOD

THORNHWAITE METHOD

GI = growth index of crop in percentage of maturity

k = ratio of GI to pan evaporation, usually 1.0 1.2 for short

grasses, 1.2 1.6 for crops up to shoulder height, and

1.6 2.0 for forest

Ep = pan evaporation ( in/day)

S = total porosity REFER Table 2.4

Sa = available porosity (unfilled by water)

AWC = porosity drainable only by evapotranspiration

REFER Table 2.4

G = moisture freely drained by gravity

20

.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

1st METHOD

THORNHWAITE METHOD

capacities of soil texture

classes

21

.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

2ndMETHOD

PENMAN METHOD

Widely used method more reliable approaches

Penman equation is theoretically based and shows

ET is directly related to the quantity of radiative

energy gained by exposed surface.

Penman, H.L. 1948: Natural evaporation from open water, bare soil and grass. Proc. Roy. Soc.

A, 193, 120-45.

22

.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

2ndMETHOD

PENMAN METHOD

ET p H E o

whereby :-

= the slope of saturated vapor pressure

curve of air at absolute temperature

(mmHg/F).

H = the daily heat budget at the surface

(estimate of net radiation)(mm/d)

E0 = daily evaporation (mm)

ET = the evapotranspiration for a given

period (mm/d)

= Psychrometric constant, 0.27

23

.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

2ndMETHOD

PENMAN METHOD

H R A (1 r ) 0.18 0.55

n

B 0.56 0.092e d

0.5

0.10 0.9

n

D D

OR

H Rl RB

Which

a d

24

.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

PENMAN METHOD

2ndMETHOD

ea = the saturation vapor pressure at mean air temperature (mmHg)

(Figure 2.7 or Table 2.1)

ed = the saturation vapor pressure at men dew point (actual vapor pressurein the

air) (mmHg)

h = ed /ea ed = h ea

h = relative humidity (in decimal)

RI = net of short wave radiation (mm/day)

RB = long wave radiation accepted by earth (mm/day)

R @ RA = the mean monthly extraterrestrial radiation (mmH2O evaporated/day)

(Table 2.6)

= curve slope of vapor pressure at t (mmHg/F) (Figure 2.8)

n/D = cloud ratio

n = actual duration of bright sunshine

D = maximum possible duration of bright sunshine

r = reflection coefficient of surface (in decimal)

Eo = daily evaporation (mm)

ETp = potential evapotranspiration (mm/day)

u2 = mean wind speed at 2m above the ground (mi/day)

H = daily heat budget at surface (mm/day)

B = variable given (Table 2.5) 25

.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

2ndMETHOD

PENMAN METHOD

saturated vapor pressure, ea

26

.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

2ndMETHOD

PENMAN METHOD

27

.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

2ndMETHOD

PENMAN METHOD

K = C + 273

28

.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

2ndMETHOD

PENMAN METHOD

29

EXAMPLE 2.5

the following data : temperature at water

surface = 22oC, temperature of air = 33oC,

relative humidity = 45%, wind velocity = 1.5

mph (36 mi/day). The month is June at latitude

33o north, r is given as 0.07 and n/D is to be

found 0.70

Given :-

Tw = 22C, Ta = 33C r = 0.07

h = 0.45, n/D = 0.7

u = 36 mi/day

Month = June

Latitude = 33 Find :-

ETp ???

30

SOLUTION

Step !!

From equation:-

ET p H 0.27 Eo

0.27

At Ta = 33C = 1.2 mm Hg/F

a d

31

SOLUTION

where:-

ea From Table 3.1, (at Ta = 33C)

have to interpolate ea

42.18

ea 42.18 31.83 e a 31.83

31.83

35 30 33 30

e a 38.04 inHg

30 33 35 (C)

ed = h ea

ed h = ed/ea ed = 0.45 38.04 = 17.12 mmHg

32

SOLUTION

therefore:-

Eo 0.3538.04 17.12 1 0.0098 (36)

Eo 9.91 mm/day

H R A (1 r ) 0.18 0.55

n

D

B 0.56 0.092e ad

0

.5 n

0.10 0.9

D

RA From Table 2.6,

(at North, Latitude = 33, June)

33

SOLUTION

where:-

RA have to interpolate

16.7

RA 16.7 16.5 R A 16.5

16.5 40 30 33 30

R A 16.56

30 33 40

B at T = 33C (air)

(C need to convert to K)

34

SOLUTION

K = C + 273

K = 33C + 273 = 306K

Again B have to interpolate

17.46 310 305 310 305

B 17.69

305 306 310 (K)

35

SOLUTION

therefore:-

H (16.56) (1 0.07) 0.18 (0.55 0.7)

(17.69) 0.56 0.092 17.12 0.10 (0.9 0.7)

H 6.38 mm / day

Thus:-

(1.2 6.38) (0.27 9.91)

ETp

1.2 0.27

36

EXAMPLE 2.6

evapotranspiration for June. The mean

monthly temperatures are shown in the Table

below. The average relative humidity is 50%.

The wind speed is 130 mi/day. Assume that n/D

= 70%, = 0.27, and r = 25% at 50 latitude

north.

Given :-

Ta = 24.2C or 75.5F r = 0.07 Find :-

h = 0.5, n/D = 0.7 Et ???

u = 130 mi/day = 0.27

Month = June

Latitude = 50 north

37

EXAMPLE 3.6

38

SOLUTION

Step !!

This is

From equation:-

Et H 0.27 Eo

0.27

At Ta = 24.2C (June) = 0.75 mm Hg

a d

SOLUTION

where:-

ea From Table 3.1, (at Ta = 24.2C)

have to interpolate es

23.76

ea 23.76 17.53 e a 17.53

17.53

25 20 24.2 20

e a 22.76 inHg

20 24.2 25 (C)

ed = h ea

ed h = ed/ea ed = 0.5 22.76 = 11.38 mmHg

40

SOLUTION

therefore:-

Eo 0.3522.76 11.38 1 0.0098 (130)

Eo 9.06 mm/day

H Rl RB

where:- ? n

R l R A (1 r ) 0.18 0.55

D

? n

R B B 0.56 0.092 e a 0.10 0.90

D

41

SOLUTION

Calculate Rl first :-

Need to find RA :-

RA at North, Latitude 50, June

RA From Table 3.6,

RA = 16.7

Therefore :-

R l 7.08 mm/day

42

SOLUTION

Next, compute RB :-

Need to find B :-

B at T = 75.5F have do interpolation

15.65 80 75 75.5 75

B 15.71

75 75.5 80 (F)

43

SOLUTION

Therefore :-

R B 15.71 0.56 0.092 11.38 0.10 (0.90 0.7)

R B 2.86 mm/day

Thus :-

H = 7.08 2.86

H = 4.22 mm/day

Hence :-

(0.75 4.22) (0.27 9.06)

Et

0.75 0.27

Et 5.5 mm/day

44

TIMES UP

THANK YOU

45

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