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TRANSPIRATION (T)

What
is
Transpiration

1
.... Cont TRANSPIRATION (T)

Process water moves through plants &


evaporates through leaf stomata.

2
.... Cont TRANSPIRATION (T)

How to
ESTIMATE
TRANSPIRATION

3
.... Cont TRANSPIRATION (T)

BLANNEY-CRIDDLE METHOD

Consumptive use of water during GROWING


SEASON by the following formula :-

whereby :-

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.... Cont TRANSPIRATION (T)

BLANNEY-CRIDDLE METHOD

U = Consumptive use of water during the growing season (inch).


Ks = Seasonal consumptive use coefficient applicable to a particular crop,
empirically derived (Table 2.2).
B = the summation of monthly consumptive use factor for a given season.
t = the mean monthly temperature (in F).
p = the monthly day time hour given as % of the year (Table 2.3).
k = the consumptive use coefficient
.... Cont TRANSPIRATION (T)

BLANNEY-CRIDDLE METHOD

Monthly consumptive use is determined by the


following formula :-

where :-
u = monthly consumptive use (inch)
k = consumptive use coefficient
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.... Cont TRANSPIRATION (T)
BLANNEY-CRIDDLE METHOD

Table 2.2: Seasonal


consumptive use crop
coefficients (Ks) for
irrigated crops

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.... Cont TRANSPIRATION (T)

BLANNEY-CRIDDLE METHOD

Table 2.3: Daytime hours coefficient (p)

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EXAMPLE 2.3

Determine the monthly consumptive use of


an alfalfa crop grown in southern California
for the month of July if the average monthly
temperature is 72oF, the average value of
daytime hours in percentage of the year is
9.88, and the mean monthly consumptive use
coefficient for alfalfa is 0.85

Given :-
Crop = Alfalfa p = 9.88 Find :-
Location = South k = 0.85 u ???
Time = July
T = 72F
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SOLUTION

Step !!
From equation:-

0.85 72 9.88
u
100

u 6.05 inch of water

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EXAMPLE 2.4

Determine the seasonal consumptive use of a


tomato crop grown in New Jersey if the mean
monthly temperature for May, June, July and
August are 61.6, 70.3, 75.1 and 73.4o F,
respectively and the percent daylight hours for
the given months are 10.02, 10.8,10.22 and
9.54 as percent of the year, respectively

Given :-
T1 = 61.6F, T2 = 70.3F, T3 = 75.1F, T4 = 73.4F
p1 = 10.02, p2 = 10.08, p3 = 10.22, p4 = 9.54

Find :-
U ???
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SOLUTION

Step !!
From equation:-

Find B value first :-


Growing season is
4 months

61.6 10.2 70.3 10.08 75.1 10.22 73.4 9.54


B
100 100 100 100

B 27.9
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SOLUTION

Ks value is obtained from Table 3.2 :-

Because New Jersey is humid area take


lower values of Ks

Ks = 0.65
Therefore;
U 0.65 27.9
U 18.1 in of water
(4 months growing season)

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EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

What
is
Evapotranspiration

14
.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

Process sum of evaporation from the


earth's land surface & transpiration
from plant to atmosphere.
Used for hydrologic modelling & 2 concepts
applied :-

Evaporation
potential (ETp)
Evaporation
Actual (ETa)
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Potential Evapotranspiration (ETp ) - the
water loss which will occur if at no time
there is a deficiency of water in the soil for
the use of vegetation (have adequate water
in the soil profile).

Actual Evapotranspiration (ETa ) - is said


to equal potential evapotranspiration when
there is ample water

16
.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

How to
ESTIMATE
EVAPOTRANSPIRATION

17
.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

ESTIMATING EVAPOTRANSPIRATION

TWO (2) methods used to estimate


EVAPOTRANSPIRATION :-

Thornthwaite method

Penman method

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.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

1st METHOD
THORNHWAITE METHOD

Method used to calculate ETp.


Formula to calculate :-
SS
x
ET p GI k E p a

AWC

whereby :-

x = AWC/G REFER Table 3.4

19
.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

1st METHOD
THORNHWAITE METHOD

ETp = evapotranspiration potential (in/day)


GI = growth index of crop in percentage of maturity
k = ratio of GI to pan evaporation, usually 1.0 1.2 for short
grasses, 1.2 1.6 for crops up to shoulder height, and
1.6 2.0 for forest
Ep = pan evaporation ( in/day)
S = total porosity REFER Table 2.4
Sa = available porosity (unfilled by water)
AWC = porosity drainable only by evapotranspiration
REFER Table 2.4
G = moisture freely drained by gravity

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.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

1st METHOD
THORNHWAITE METHOD

Table 2.4: Hydrologic


capacities of soil texture
classes

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.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

2ndMETHOD
PENMAN METHOD

Combine mass transport & energy budget theories


Widely used method more reliable approaches
Penman equation is theoretically based and shows
ET is directly related to the quantity of radiative
energy gained by exposed surface.

Penman, H.L. 1948: Natural evaporation from open water, bare soil and grass. Proc. Roy. Soc.
A, 193, 120-45.

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.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

2ndMETHOD
PENMAN METHOD

Formula used to calculate ETp :-

ET p H E o
whereby :-
= the slope of saturated vapor pressure
curve of air at absolute temperature
(mmHg/F).
H = the daily heat budget at the surface
(estimate of net radiation)(mm/d)
E0 = daily evaporation (mm)
ET = the evapotranspiration for a given
period (mm/d)
= Psychrometric constant, 0.27

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.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

2ndMETHOD
PENMAN METHOD


H R A (1 r ) 0.18 0.55
n

B 0.56 0.092e d
0.5
0.10 0.9
n

D D
OR
H Rl RB
Which

a d
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.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

PENMAN METHOD
2ndMETHOD
ea = the saturation vapor pressure at mean air temperature (mmHg)
(Figure 2.7 or Table 2.1)
ed = the saturation vapor pressure at men dew point (actual vapor pressurein the
air) (mmHg)
h = ed /ea ed = h ea
h = relative humidity (in decimal)
RI = net of short wave radiation (mm/day)
RB = long wave radiation accepted by earth (mm/day)
R @ RA = the mean monthly extraterrestrial radiation (mmH2O evaporated/day)
(Table 2.6)
= curve slope of vapor pressure at t (mmHg/F) (Figure 2.8)
n/D = cloud ratio
n = actual duration of bright sunshine
D = maximum possible duration of bright sunshine
r = reflection coefficient of surface (in decimal)
Eo = daily evaporation (mm)
ETp = potential evapotranspiration (mm/day)
u2 = mean wind speed at 2m above the ground (mi/day)
H = daily heat budget at surface (mm/day)
B = variable given (Table 2.5) 25
.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

2ndMETHOD
PENMAN METHOD

Figure 2.7: Relation between temperature, T and


saturated vapor pressure, ea

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.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

2ndMETHOD
PENMAN METHOD

Table 2.6: Getting values of R or RA

27
.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

2ndMETHOD
PENMAN METHOD

Figure 2.8: Getting values of


K = C + 273

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.... Cont EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)

2ndMETHOD
PENMAN METHOD

Table 2.5: Getting variables of B

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EXAMPLE 2.5

Using the Penman method, estimate ETp, given


the following data : temperature at water
surface = 22oC, temperature of air = 33oC,
relative humidity = 45%, wind velocity = 1.5
mph (36 mi/day). The month is June at latitude
33o north, r is given as 0.07 and n/D is to be
found 0.70
Given :-
Tw = 22C, Ta = 33C r = 0.07
h = 0.45, n/D = 0.7
u = 36 mi/day
Month = June
Latitude = 33 Find :-
ETp ???
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SOLUTION

Step !!
From equation:-

ET p H 0.27 Eo
0.27

1. Find value first from figure 3.8:-


At Ta = 33C = 1.2 mm Hg/F

2. Calculate Eo value from the following formula :-

a d

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SOLUTION

where:-
ea From Table 3.1, (at Ta = 33C)
have to interpolate ea

42.18
ea 42.18 31.83 e a 31.83
31.83
35 30 33 30

e a 38.04 inHg
30 33 35 (C)

ed = h ea
ed h = ed/ea ed = 0.45 38.04 = 17.12 mmHg
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SOLUTION

therefore:-
Eo 0.3538.04 17.12 1 0.0098 (36)

Eo 9.91 mm/day

3. Calculate H value from the following formula :-



H R A (1 r ) 0.18 0.55

n
D


B 0.56 0.092e ad

0
.5 n
0.10 0.9
D
RA From Table 2.6,
(at North, Latitude = 33, June)

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SOLUTION

where:-
RA have to interpolate
16.7
RA 16.7 16.5 R A 16.5

16.5 40 30 33 30

R A 16.56
30 33 40

B From Table 3.5,


B at T = 33C (air)
(C need to convert to K)
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SOLUTION

K = C + 273
K = 33C + 273 = 306K
Again B have to interpolate

B 18.60 18.60 17.46 B 17.46



17.46 310 305 310 305

B 17.69
305 306 310 (K)

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SOLUTION

therefore:-
H (16.56) (1 0.07) 0.18 (0.55 0.7)

(17.69) 0.56 0.092 17.12 0.10 (0.9 0.7)
H 6.38 mm / day

Thus:-
(1.2 6.38) (0.27 9.91)
ETp
1.2 0.27

ETp 7.02 mm/day


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EXAMPLE 2.6

Estimate the monthly potential


evapotranspiration for June. The mean
monthly temperatures are shown in the Table
below. The average relative humidity is 50%.
The wind speed is 130 mi/day. Assume that n/D
= 70%, = 0.27, and r = 25% at 50 latitude
north.
Given :-
Ta = 24.2C or 75.5F r = 0.07 Find :-
h = 0.5, n/D = 0.7 Et ???
u = 130 mi/day = 0.27
Month = June
Latitude = 50 north
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EXAMPLE 3.6

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May June

Tm(0F) -1.5 5.2 30.2 40.2 58.1 75.5

Tm(0C) -18.6 -14.9 -1.0 4.6 14.5 24.2

Month July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Tm(0F) 70.3 67.5 51.0 40.2 31.2 15.2

Tm(0C) 21.3 19.7 10.6 4.6 -0.4 -9.3

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SOLUTION

Step !!
This is
From equation:-

Et H 0.27 Eo
0.27

1. Find value first from figure 2.8:-


At Ta = 24.2C (June) = 0.75 mm Hg

2. Calculate Eo value from the following formula :-

a d
SOLUTION

where:-
ea From Table 3.1, (at Ta = 24.2C)
have to interpolate es

23.76
ea 23.76 17.53 e a 17.53
17.53
25 20 24.2 20

e a 22.76 inHg
20 24.2 25 (C)

ed = h ea
ed h = ed/ea ed = 0.5 22.76 = 11.38 mmHg
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SOLUTION

therefore:-
Eo 0.3522.76 11.38 1 0.0098 (130)

Eo 9.06 mm/day

3. Calculate H value from the following formula :-


H Rl RB
where:- ? n
R l R A (1 r ) 0.18 0.55
D
? n
R B B 0.56 0.092 e a 0.10 0.90
D
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SOLUTION

Calculate Rl first :-
Need to find RA :-
RA at North, Latitude 50, June
RA From Table 3.6,
RA = 16.7
Therefore :-

R l 16.7(1 0.25) 0.18 0.55 0.7


R l 7.08 mm/day

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SOLUTION

Next, compute RB :-
Need to find B :-
B at T = 75.5F have do interpolation

B 16.25 16.25 15.65 B 15.65



15.65 80 75 75.5 75

B 15.71
75 75.5 80 (F)

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SOLUTION
Therefore :-

R B 15.71 0.56 0.092 11.38 0.10 (0.90 0.7)
R B 2.86 mm/day

Thus :-
H = 7.08 2.86
H = 4.22 mm/day
Hence :-
(0.75 4.22) (0.27 9.06)
Et
0.75 0.27

Et 5.5 mm/day
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TIMES UP

THANK YOU
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