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2016 HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE

EXAMINATION

Agriculture

Total marks 100

Section I Pages 225

General Instructions 80 marks


Reading time 5 minutes This section has two parts, Part A and Part B
Working time 3 hours
Part A 20 marks
Write using black pen
Attempt Questions 120
Draw diagrams using pencil
Allow about 30 minutes for this part
Board-approved calculators may
be used Part B 60 marks
Write your Centre Number and Attempt Questions 2127
Student Number at the top of Allow about 1 hour and 45 minutes for this part
pages 13, 15, 19, 21, 23 and 25
Section II Pages 2728

20 marks
Attempt ONE question from Questions 2830
Allow about 45 minutes for this section

2090
Section I
80 marks

Part A 20 marks
Attempt Questions 120
Allow about 30 minutes for this part

Use the multiple-choice answer sheet for Questions 120.

1 A portion of the instructions for usage of a pesticide is shown.

SAFETY DIRECTIONS
Product will irritate eyes and skin. Avoid contact with eyes
and skin. When preparing product for use, wear elbow
length PVC gloves and face shield or goggles. When
using a knapsack applicator wear waterproof clothing and
impervious footwear.

What pieces of personal protective equipment (PPE) should be worn when preparing this
chemical?

(A) PVC gloves and a face shield


(B) Rubber boots and PVC gloves
(C) Waterproof overalls and PVC gloves
(D) Waterproof overalls and rubber boots

2 Which of the following is most suited to using native pasture species?

(A) Semi-arid plains used for wool production


(B) A pasture ley phase on a wheat/sheep farm
(C) High fertility irrigated soils used for dairy production
(D) High rainfall coastal areas used for beef cattle production

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3 In the diagram, which phase or phases represent the reproductive stages of the plant?

Tillering Stem extension Heading Ripening

Phase W Phase X Phase Y Phase Z

(A) X only
(B) Z only
(C) X and Y
(D) Y and Z

4 What is the most effective way of managing riparian zones in order to improve water
quality?

(A) Applying fertiliser


(B) Constructing dams
(C) Clearing all vegetation
(D) Fencing to exclude livestock

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5 The photo shows lumps on the root system of a legume plant.

What is the most likely effect of these lumps on the growth of the plant?

(A) Increased growth because of increased water uptake


(B) Decreased growth because of the presence of a disease
(C) Increased growth because of an increase in available nutrients
(D) Decreased growth because of blockage of the root xylem vessels

6 Which of the following best describes the plant breeding technique known as selective
breeding?

(A) Crossing two existing varieties of a plant to produce a new variety


(B) Crossing two different species of plants to produce a new plant type
(C) Transferring a specific gene into a plant variety using laboratory techniques
(D) Retaining seeds from the best performing plants and using them to produce the next
generation of plants

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7 The table shows the weights of a group of lambs.

Lamb 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Weight (kg) 16 16 16 18 18 18 19 16 18 15

What is the mean weight for this group of lambs?

(A) 16
(B) 17
(C) 18
(D) 19

8 Which of the following graphs shows the correct order of development of tissues during
an animals life?

(A) (B)
Bone Muscle Fat Muscle Bone Fat

(C) (D)
Muscle Fat Bone Bone Fat Muscle

9 Which of the following is NOT an indicator of water quality?

(A) pH
(B) Turbidity
(C) Temperature
(D) Dissolved oxygen level

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10 Which of the following best describes the purpose of animal welfare legislation in animal
production systems?

(A) To ensure that farm animals have adequate food


(B) To eliminate all sources of pain and suffering for animals
(C) To promote the wellbeing of animals and prevent cruelty to them
(D) To prevent animal rights activists from interfering in farming activities

11 A student carried out the following procedure on a sample of dry soil.

1. Weighed the soil sample


2. Heated the sample at high temperature (400C) in an oven for six hours
3. Re-weighed the sample

What characteristic of the soil was the student measuring?

(A) pH
(B) Texture
(C) Bulk density
(D) Organic matter content

12 Which of the following soil textural classes would be most likely to have the highest ion
exchange capacity?

(A) Loam
(B) Clay loam
(C) Sand
(D) Sandy loam

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13 The diagram shows part of the nitrogen cycle.

Plant and animal


decomposition, manure
and urine
Plant
uptake
Soil organic
matter
Nitrogen gas (soil carbon) Z
N2
X

W Ammonia
NH4+
Nitrites
NO2 Y
Nitrates
NO3

Which arrow in the diagram represents the process of nitrification?

(A) W
(B) X

(C) Y

(D) Z

14 Which graph most accurately shows a demand curve for an agricultural product?

(A) (B)

Quantity Quantity

Price Price

(C) (D)

Quantity Quantity

Price Price

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15 A farm grows out 100 steers for a beef feedlot. An extract from its records is shown.

Purchase of steers $40 000


Crop and pasture maintenance $5000
Land rates $5000
Cartage $1000
Veterinary costs $5000
Income from sale of steers $76 000

What is the gross margin per steer?

(A) $200
(B) $250
(C) $710
(D) $760

16 Net assimilation rate (NAR) is an important measure of the rate of plant growth.

It is determined by calculating the balance between

(A) respiration and germination.


(B) respiration and transpiration.
(C) photosynthesis and respiration.
(D) photosynthesis and germination.

17 What is the name of the hormone that promotes development of the lining of the uterus
in mammals?

(A) Oxytocin
(B) Oestrogen
(C) Luteinising hormone
(D) Follicle stimulating hormone

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18 The table shows the estimated breeding values (EBVs) of four bulls.

Estimated breeding values of bulls

Bull Birthweight 200 day 400 day Eye muscle Rump fat
weight weight area
(kg) (kg) (kg) (cm2) (mm)
W +18 +50 +180 +9 +1
X +3 +60 +30 6 +6
Y 2 +60 +180 +6 +3
Z 8 18 6 2 +8

Which of the bulls would be most suited to use as a sire on heifers in a herd which
supplies steers to a feedlot?

(A) W
(B) X
(C) Y
(D) Z

19 Which row in the table correctly describes microbes involved in ruminant digestion?

Types of microbes Functions of microbes Location of microbes


present in the rumen
(A) Fungi and protozoa Utilise non-protein nitrogen Rumen only

(B) Bacteria and protozoa Synthesise vitamin B Rumen and reticulum


(C) Protozoa and helminths Digest cellulose Rumen and omasum
(D) Bacteria and fungi Synthesise vitamin C Rumen and abomasum

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20 A vegetable grower has a number of strategies available to control a pest in a crop of
cucumbers. The following information is provided to her by an agronomist.

Yield of cucumbers 250

200
(boxes/Ha)

150

100

50

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
Pest population
(moths per trap per day)

Strategies available Effect on the pest Cost of the treatment


to the farmer population ($/Ha)
No treatment Nil 0
Pest oil 30% kill 200
Soft insecticide 80% kill 600
Hard insecticide 100% kill 1200

Pest population Cucumber quality Market price/box


(moths/trap) ($)
<4 Premium 8
418 Good 6
>18 Poor 4

The farmer measured the pest population in the cucumber crop at 25 moths per trap.

Which of the strategies would be the most profitable to use on the cucumber crop?

(A) No treatment
(B) Pest oil
(C) Soft insecticide
(D) Hard insecticide

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2016 Board of Studies, Teaching and Educational Standards NSW
2016 HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION
Agriculture
Centre Number
Section I (continued)
Part B 60 marks
Attempt Questions 2127 Student Number
Allow about 1 hour and 45 minutes for this part

Answer the questions in the spaces provided. These spaces provide guidance for the expected
length of response.

Show all relevant working in questions involving calculations.

Question 21 (6 marks)

The table shows the nutritional analysis of two livestock feeds.

Feed A Feed B
Energy content (MJ/kg) 10 10
Protein (%) 15 18
Fibre (%) 12 3
Fat (%) 0 3

(a) Explain why Feed A would be more suitable than Feed B for feeding ruminant 2
animals.

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(b) For a named farm animal, explain why protein requirements are different at 4
TWO different stages of the animals life.
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Question 22 (7 marks)

(a) Describe TWO techniques that farmers can use to improve or maintain soil 4
organic matter (soil carbon) levels.

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(b) Name and describe a program where government and community groups work 3
together to protect soils and/or water resources.
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2016 Board of Studies, Teaching and Educational Standards NSW
2016 HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION
Agriculture
Centre Number
Section I Part B (continued)

Student Number

Question 23 (10 marks)

Please turn over

2092 15
Question 23 (10 marks)

A trial was conducted to investigate the effect of day length on the growth of meat
chickens. The features of this experiment are listed below.
Four similar sheds each housing 5000 chickens were used.
Each shed received a different number of hours of light per day by using electric
lights.
The industry standard stocking rate of 30 kg/m2 was used in each shed.
Chickens in each shed received the same diet.
After 48 days 100 chickens in each shed were randomly selected and weighed.
The industry standard for day length was chosen as one of the treatments.

The results of the trial are shown in the table.

Day length Average weight


(hours) (kg)
14 3.2
17 3.5
20 3.5
23 3.1

(a) Use the grid to construct a graph that represents the results of the trial. 3

Question 23 continues on page 17

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Question 23 (continued)

(b) Identify the FOUR features of the trial that contributed to the standardisation of 4
conditions.

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(c) Based on the trial outlined, propose a day length that could be recommended to 3
chicken meat producers AND justify your choice.
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End of Question 23

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2016 Board of Studies, Teaching and Educational Standards NSW
2016 HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION
Agriculture
Centre Number
Section I Part B (continued)

Student Number

Question 24 (11 marks)

(a) Identify sources of competition in crops. 2


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(b) Explain how a management strategy reduces competition in crops. 3


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Question 24 continues on page 20

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Question 24 (continued)

(c) Explain how farmers can manage plant production systems to maximise 6
photosynthesis. In your answer, give specific examples.

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End of Question 24

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2016 Board of Studies, Teaching and Educational Standards NSW
2016 HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION
Agriculture
Centre Number
Section I Part B (continued)

Student Number

Question 25 (6 marks)

For a named animal production system, describe ways that stress and/or harm to 6
animals is minimised when performing TWO animal husbandry practices.

Name of animal production system .........................................................................

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2016 Board of Studies, Teaching and Educational Standards NSW
2016 HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION
Agriculture
Centre Number
Section I Part B (continued)

Student Number

Question 26 (12 marks)

Answer parts (a), (b) and (c) in relation to an identified farm product.

Name of farm product ..............................................................................................

(a) Outline an advertising or promotional campaign that is aimed at increasing 2


consumption of this farm product.

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(b) Explain the purpose of TWO named market specifications for this product. 4
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Question 26 continues on page 24

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Question 26 (continued)

(c) Explain how TWO management strategies can be used to improve the quality of 6
this farm product.

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End of Question 26

24
2016 Board of Studies, Teaching and Educational Standards NSW
2016 HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION
Agriculture
Centre Number
Section I Part B (continued)

Student Number

Question 27 (8 marks)

(a) What are the benefits of vertical integration in the production and marketing of 4
agricultural products? In your answer, provide an example.
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(b) Explain how an increase in demand for a farm product may affect financial 4
decisions made by farmers.
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2016 Board of Studies, Teaching and Educational Standards NSW
2016 HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION
Agriculture
Section II

20 marks
Attempt ONE question from Questions 2830
Allow about 45 minutes for this section

Answer part (a) of the question in a writing booklet


Answer part (b) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet
Extra writing booklets are available

Your answers will be assessed on how well you:


demonstrate knowledge and understanding relevant to the question

communicate ideas and information using relevant examples

present a logical and cohesive response

Question 28 Agri-food, Fibre and Fuel Technologies (20 marks)

Answer part (a) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) (i) Why is research required when developing agricultural biotechnologies? 3

(ii) Explain how the design of a trial into the development or implementation 5
of an agricultural biotechnology led to reliable results being obtained.

Answer part (b) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(b) Discuss the production and use of biofuels as alternatives to fossil fuels. 12

OR

Please turn over

2097 27
Question 29 Climate Challenge (20 marks)

Answer part (a) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) (i) Why is research required when developing management strategies to 3


cope with a changing climate?

(ii) Explain how the design of a trial into either climate variability or 5
management strategies related to climate variability led to reliable
results being obtained.

Answer part (b) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(b) Discuss the effects of farming activities on the levels of greenhouse gases in the 12
atmosphere.

OR

Question 30 Farming in the 21st Century (20 marks)

Answer part (a) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) (i) Why is research required when developing new agricultural technologies? 3

(ii) Explain how the design of a trial into the development and/or 5
implementation of an agricultural technology led to reliable results being
obtained.

Answer part (b) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(b) Discuss a robotic technological development that is available for use in 12


Australian agriculture.

End of paper

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2016 Board of Studies, Teaching and Educational Standards NSW