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ChE 180: Agro-Industrial Waste Management

Section B, First Semester and A.Y. 2017-2018

Abinoja, Robin B. Madlangsakay, Aldous O.

BS Chemical Engineering, 2013-34338 BS Civil Engineering, 2012 47719

De Guzman, Ysabela Agustine C. Mendez, Carlo Riel G.

BS Civil Engineering BS Chemical Engineering, 2009-19243

Dumalaon, Jeremiah Vi R. Villaruz, Sharmaine P.

BS Chemical Engineering, 2013-07400 BS Chemical Engineering, 2013-08642
TOPIC 1: Effluent Management System in the University of the Philippines Los Banos



In pursuant to Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)

Administrative Order 2016-08, the effluent standards for specific types of industry and
water quality guidelines were established. At the present, the University of the
Philippines Los Banos (UPLB) is directly discharging its wastewater into the Molawin
Creek (Madlangbayan et al., 2014). However, if the wastewater when discharged
untreated will not only imposed a risk to the environment but to the people living near
this water body as well. Moreover, the Molawin River is a tributary river of the Laguna
Lake and with the current condition of the Laguna de Bay, monitoring the water quality
of Molawin Creek is necessary.


Effects of industrialization are natural resources depletion, waste accumulation,

dispersion of toxic substances, and people and environment contamination. As time
passes, the widening of industrialization can result to more resources being depleted,
to more wastes being accumulated, to more toxic substances being dispersed, and to
more people being affected. With the case of UPLB, extended research and
experimentations contribute to the waste accumulation. These problems need to be
addressed before they get out of hand. If more water will be consumed and more
wastewater will be released, increasing the risks of harmful substances. Effective
treatment methods are important to deal with the increasing wastewaters. This study
can be a reference and can also be utilized to improve the use of different treatment
methods. By further experimentation, it may be discovered that there is an efficient and
effective method or be combined methods for better results.


Generally, this study aims to review and evaluate the effluent management
system of the major units of UPLB. Its specific objectives are as follows:

1. Provide the effluent management system of major units in UPLB;

2. Quantitative analysis of the parameters essential to the effluent type;
3. Develop maintenance ways if the effluent management system is effective; and
4. Propose an alternative effluent management system if the current effluent
management system failed to comply with the effluent standards.


I. In pursuant to the Republic Act No. 9275, also known as the Philippine Clean
Water Act of 2004, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources
(DENR) issued Administrative Order (DAO) No. 2016-08, which provides water
quality guidelines and general effluent standards (DENR, 2016).

A. For this study, the Molawin Creek was considered and according to Sta.
Ana (2015) in her report about the Ecosystem Accounting for the Laguna
de Bay Basin, Molawin Creek was classified as a class worse than class D
as of October 2013, which means its conditions are worse than navigable
waters as shown by the water body classification table below.
Table 1. Water Body Classification and Usage of Freshwater.
Classification Intended Beneficial Use
Class AA Public Water Supply Class I Intended primarily for
waters having watersheds, which are uninhabited
and/or otherwise declared as protected areas, and
which require only approved disinfection to meet
the latest PNSDW
Class A Public Water Supply Class II Intended as sources
of water supply requiring conventional treatment
(coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and
disinfection) to meet the latest PNSDW
Class B Recreational Water Class I Intended for primary
contact recreation (bathing, swimming, etc.)
Class C 1. Fishery Water for the propagation and growth of
fish and other aquatic resources
2. Recreational Water Class II For boating,
fishing, or similar activities
3. For agriculture, irrigation, and livestock watering
Class D Navigable waters
Source: DAO 2016-08

B. However, Molawin Creek is one of the 100 streams that empty out to
Laguna de Bay and with that the water quality of Molawin Creek should
comply with standards set by DENR under significant parameters of Class
C classification as shown below.

Table 2. Water Quality Standards for Class C Water Body.

Parameter Unit Value
Ammonia mg/L 0.5
BOD mg/L 50
COD mg/L 100
Chloride mg/L 450
Inorganic Phosphate mg/L 1
Nitrate mg/L 14
Oil and Grease mg/L 5
pH range - 6.0-9.5
Temperature C change 3
TSS mg/L 100
Total Coliform MPN/100mL 10 000
Fecal Coliform MPN/100mL 400
Source: DAO 2016-08

II. The status of the Molawin Creekin terms of water quality was studied and
reported by the Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA) (n.d.) through their
Annual Water Quality Reports on the Laguna de Bay and its Tributary Rivers.

A. Based on the 1996 report of the Lake Management Division of LLDA, the
table below summarizes the physico-chemical properties of water in
Molawin River in the AMTEC station (Lasco & Espaldon, 2005).
Table 3. Physico-chemical properties of water in Molawin River at AMTEC station
in 1996.
Parameter Unit Value
Temperature C 28.1
pH - 7.5
DO mg/L 2.4
Conductivity mS/cm 0.31
Turbidity mg/L 22
BOD mg/L 5.58 0.24
COD mg/L 16.5 1.5
TOC mg/L 8.95 0.21
Alkalinity mg/L 120.6 2.6
Chloride mg/L 13.1 2.34
Hardness mg/L 311.88
TSS mg/L 7.6 0.8
TDS mg/L 288 20
Orthophosphate mg/L 0.44 0.06
Total Phosphate mg/L 0.64 0.03
Ammonia-N mg/L 3.62 0.54
Nitrate-N mg/L 0.26 0.01
Source: Lasco & Espaldon, 2005

B. However, based on the 2011 Annual Water Quality Reports on the Laguna
de Bay and its Tributary Rivers of the LLDA, there was a significant increase
in the amount of total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity in the Molawin
Creek (LLDA, n.d.).

Table 4. Physico-chemical properties of the Molawin Creek in 2011.

Parameter Units Value
Alkalinity mg CaCO3/L 164
Ammonia mg/L 0.19
BOD mg/L 4
Calcium Hardness mg/L 70
COD mg CaCO3/L 16
Chloride mg/L 42
DO mg/L 4.4
Inorganic Phosphate mg/L 0.36
Nitrate mg/L 0.7
Oil and Grease mg/L 2
pH mg/L 7.2
Temperature mg/L 28
TDS mg/L 327
Total Hardness mg/L 142
TSS mg/L 26
Turbidity NTU 31
Phytoplankton Counts/mL 4, 294
Total Coliform MPN/100 mL 9.6 0.4
Fecal Coliform MPN/100 mL 3.5 0.4
Source: LLDA, n.d.

C. On the other hand, based on the 2012 annual report of the LLDA as shown
by the table below, the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) as well as the
TSS increased greatly (LLDA, n.d.).
Table 5. Physico-chemical properties of Molawin Creek in 2012.
Parameter Units Value
Alkalinity mg CaCO3/L 187
Ammonia mg/L 0.28
BOD mg/L 3
Calcium Hardness mg/L 75
COD mg CaCO3/L 25
Chloride mg/L 42
DO mg/L 3.3
Inorganic Phosphate mg/L 0.29
Nitrate mg/L 0.5
Oil and Grease mg/L 1
pH mg/L 7.5
Temperature mg/L 29
TDS mg/L 355
Total Hardness mg/L 205
TSS mg/L 33
Turbidity NTU 27
Phytoplankton Counts/mL 17, 917
Total Coliform MPN/100 mL 7.1 + 0.4
Fecal Coliform MPN/100 mL 3.5 0.4
Source: LLDA, n.d.

III. Numerous efforts are being exerted by the institutions in UPLB and LLDA in order
to carry out a sustained community-based restoration, protection and
conservation of the Laguna Lake and its tributary rivers, which include the
Molawin River (Zafaralla, 2010).

A. According to Durian (2011), Dr. Macrina Zafaralla, an adjunct professor of

IBS, developed a simple and cost-effective water filtration system for lakes
and rivers using water hyacinth or water lilies.
B. On the other hand, the LLDA developed the Laguna de Bay Master Plan:
2016 and Beyond which constructed the Laguna de Bay Basin Updated
Master Plan Framework that adopts the Integrated Water Resource
Management (LLDA, 2016).


I. Selection of the significant units necessary for the research survey.

A. UPLB units which discharged a significant amount of effluent were
selected such as the Institute of Chemistry, Institute of Biological
Sciences and the Department of Chemical Engineering.
B. Interviews and research surveys will be done to each unit.
1. The director and/or chairman for each unit will be interviewed on
their effluent management system.
2. Nevertheless, due to time constraint, research surveys that will
comprehensively discuss their effluent management system will be
II. Based on the surveys and interviews conducted, important quantitative
parameters such as BOD, COD and TSS will be gathered and tabulated.
III. Evaluation of the parameters and their compliance to the general effluent
standards as set by DENR will be conducted.
1. If the values are within the set standards then it will be concluded that
the effluent management system is effective and will suggests ways on
the maintenance of these systems.
2. However, if the values failed to comply with the effluent standards of
DENR, the wastewater discharge fee will be calculated and a proposed
change to the effluent management system will be developed.
IV. After the whole study is finished, the results of the research will be sent to
the UPLB units.

TOPIC 2: Mycoremediation of Dairy Wastewater



Fungi have been natures own recycling system for practically since dawn of life on
terrestrial plane. It is known that fungi degrade biomass far more efficiently compared
to other microorganisms, and in fact, set up defense mechanisms against a great
number of the aforementioned microorganisms. The greatest example would be
Penicillin. In local small-scale livestock raisers, effluents from animal wastes tend to
leach into the soil or worse, runoff to bodies of water, causing disturbance to the
ecosystem of the water. Certain studies have utilized antimicrobial, antiviral, and
microfiltration capabilities of specific fungi species. Implementing such system would
always be a cheap and welcome addition to animal husbandry practices in the

In the US, mycological advances have been spearheaded by Paul Stamets, a

renowned mycologist who developed strains of hydrocarbon-digesting mycelia and
mycelia-based insecticides which are patented to work against colonies of pestilent
social insects such as ants and termites. In his book Mycelium Running (2005),
Stamets proposed four major applications of mushrooms and their mycelia for
revitalizing the environment and other major commercial applications: mycofiltration,
mycoforestry, mycoremediation, and mycopesticides. In the local setting, it has been
a recurring problem that livestock farms generally have wastewater carrying coliform-
loaded animal manure. It has been proven to be detrimental to the waters ecosystem
with the increased organic components and introduced coliforms upsetting the balance
that could lead to eutrophication. In this proposal, two of Stamets applications will be
proposed for the Philippine dairy industry setting: mycofiltration and mycoremediation.
In effect, mycofiltration is the result of the nature of mycelias network of microscopic
hyphae intertwining and forming mesh of a few microns in diameter. Mycofiltration
therefore can be considered a natural result of mycelia increasing their surface area in
contact with their source of nutrition, and thus inseparable with the main topic for the
proposal which is mycoremediation.

Mycoremediation, in simplest of terms, is the use of fungi to degrade or remove

toxins from the environment (Stamets, 2005). As the primary saprophytic species in
the environment, fungi can be considered to be able to universally degrade any organic
material produced in nature. In theory, the wastewater from local livestock can be
mycofiltered through mycelia of certain species of mushrooms, and letting them
mycoremediate the organics as well as concentrate metal ions such as Zinc and
Copper in animal manure (Price et al. 2001), and sterilize the wastewater with the
mycelias natural antibiotics that can be fatal to species of microorganisms.


Utilization of fungi for nonpoint sources has been done for years in the form of
activated sludge applications (NSFC, 2003). For point sources specifically wastewater
drainage for dairy cattle manure, there are no known and documented case of mycelial
application in the Philippines that the group is aware of. American Universities and the
EPA funded and researched applications for mycoremediation for storm water (EPA,
2012), fertilizer runoff (Herr, et al. 2014), among others, without any particular research
delving into animal waste purposes. Mycelia forming mushrooms after a certain period
of time can offer an alternative source of income. Animal manure in wastewater that
can no longer be economically collected for fertilizers can still be utilized as a carbon
source for mushroom mycelia and be sold for a profitable margin with little to no
investment after the initial set up.


The proposal aims to investigate the suitability of mycoremediation for the dairy
industry in the Philippines, and to qualify the characteristics of wastewater generated
by the industry before and after exposure to substrate inoculated with mushroom

1. To test physical characteristics of the wastewater before and after

substrates: color, turbidity and odor

2. To analyze samples after 1 week and 2 weeks of exposure to inoculated


3. If financially possible, compare the measured values to government

standards for compliance.


I. Sample wastewater will be outsourced from the Dairy Department of

the College of Agriculture, UPLB.

II. The mycelia will be outsourced from spent oyster mushroom

cultivation bags from Reao farms

III. All physical characteristics will be documented on a qualitative basis

with supporting photo documentation.


I. Based from Stamets mycofilter installation guide (2005),

mycoremediation can be simulated from a 500mL container filled with
undiluted wastewater samples.

II. Samples were llowed to stand for one and two weeks with a substrate
inoculated with mycelia, with each duration done in duplicates

III. The results are to be documented and photographed for data

TOPIC 3: Assessment and Update on the Solid Waste Management in UPLB



Different kinds of waste are constantly accumulated in the market area of Los
Baos, Laguna especially biodegradable waste such as fruits and vegetables which
are discarded and left on the ground. Some are washed away to nearby drainage
canals. One solid waste management program in Los Baos, Laguna is for biomass
or food wastes to be sorted out and be brought to MRFs. However, not everyone
complies with this program. This study can help to check if most of the citizens comply
with the program. If not, a solution or improvement of the program may be proposed.
Thus, this study aims to check the compliance of people on the program and provide
an update on the MRF in Los Baos, Laguna. In line with this, the study hopes to
suggest rules for the people of Los Baos to follow.

The aim of every solid waste management program is sustainable

development. Thus, sustainable solid waste management programs must be
considered. Today there are several ways of treating and handling solid wastes. In
China, different municipal solid waste management scenarios have been evaluated
considering life-cycle inventory analysis and impact assessment. SWMs are compared
in consideration with waste reduction, stabilization, materials recovery, energy
recovery, and greenhouse gas reductions (Liu et. al, 2017). These parameters may be
used in this study to compare the current SWM program of Los Baos with that of other
areas. Thus, the MRF of Los Baos must also be considered. Materials recovery
facilities are also called reclamation facility in which separation and preparation of
reusable materials are done before selling to manufacturers. A study by Ardolino et.
al. (2017) which assesses the performance of different configurations of MRFs also
used life-cycle assessment; however, it is focused on the environmental performance
of the MRF in the study. This can also be done in the assessment of the MRF in Los


This study is important for the assessment and improvement of the current solid
waste management programs of Los Baos, Laguna. It will help other studies whose
objective is to improve the SWM program of other areas. An update on the MRFs in
the vicinity will also be presented since it is related to the current SWM program.


Generally, this study aims to provide an assessment and improvement on the current
solid waste management program of Los Banos, Laguna. This study specifically aims

1. Determine the current state of the Solid Waste Management program and
Materials Recovery Facility in Los Banos Laguna;
2. Determine the status of compliance of the population of Los Baos to the Solid
Waste Management program; and
3. Suggest solutions to improve the SWM program based on the gathered data
and successful SWM programs in other places

Preliminary data were not provided since this study is an assessment case. No
data related on the previous and even the current MRF and SWM of Los Banos,
Laguna were provided on the internet. Only the Solids Waste Management
Department of the Municipality of Los Banos holds the data necessary for this


I. Find different references in order create a suitable questionnaire to hand

out during the survey.

II. Ask for permission from the Municipality of Los Baos to conduct a
survey on the solid waste management of households within the area.

III. Gather data from the proper authorities about the current status of the
materials recovery facility and the solid waste management program of
Los Baos

IV. Conduct the survey throughout the different barangays in Los Baos

V. Compare the current SWM program of Los Baos, Laguna with other
successful SWM programs throughout the country

VI. Visit the site where the materials recovery facility is located and assess
its status.

ARDOLINO, F., BERTO, C., ARENA, U. (2017). Environmental performances of

different configurations of a material recovery facility in a life cycle perspective.
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tributaries. Retrieved October 7, 2017

D. M. (2014). Mycoremediation ofagricultural fertilizers using the edible
gourmet oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus [Scientific Poster]. The
University of Findlay, Findlay, Ohio: Author.


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LASCO, R.D. & ESPALDON, M.V.O. (2005). Ecosystems and People: The Philippine
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) Sub-global Assessment. Retrieved
October 7, 2017

LIU, Y., XING, P., LIU, J. (2017). Environmental performance evaluation of municipal
solid waste management scenarios in China. Retrieved on October 7, 2017 at


(2014). Policy Options on Wastewater Management of the University of the
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METZGAR, C. (2003). Explaining the activated sludge process. Pipeline, 14(2), 1-8.
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PRICE, M. S., GLASSEN, J. J., & PAYNE, G. A. (2001). Aspergillus niger absorbs
copper and zinc from swine wastewater. Bioresource Technology, 77(1), 41-
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STAMETS, P. (2005). Mycelium running: how mushrooms can save the world. Hong
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ZAFARALLA, M.T. (2010). Macrophyte biosorption system of Molawin Creek to reduce

plant nutrient and heavy metal pollution of Laguna de Bay [Philippines].
Retrieved October 7, 2017 from