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FlightTestRiskReduction

andLessonsLearnedfrom
theScorpionAircraft
DevelopmentProgram

DaveSitz
FlightTestEngineer/Pilot
TextronAviation

SETPFlightTestSafetyWorkshop
May2015

Company Confidential and Competition Sensitive


1
Overview

WhatistheScorpionProgram?

AircraftDescription

RiskReduction/LessonsLearnedfrom3Scenarios:
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PreparationforFirstFlight Company
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- SpinChuteTaxiTest
InitialLandingGearOperations

Conclusion
Condenseourexperiencesintooneunifiedsafetyapproachortheme

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TheScorpionProgram

$$$$$$ 5th Gen

$$$$ 4th Gen

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Price

ConfidentialandCompetitionSensitive 3 Scorpion is
$20M designed to fill a
gap in the tactical
aircraft spectrum
$
Vast Majority of ISR/Strike
Missions

Capability
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AircraftDescription

DIMENSIONS AIRFRAME Standard Empty Weight 11,800 lbs


Wingspan: 47.3 Feet Composite Structure and Skin
Length: 43.5 Feet
Max Takeoff Weight 21,250 lbs

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS EXTERNAL STORES


Modular Architecture Scalable, Precision Munitions
Max Internal Fuel Load 6,000 lbs

RADAR Max Internal Payload 3,000 lbs


Weather, Growth Space
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Max External
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ENGINES Thrust >8,000 lbs


2 x Turbofans

SENSOR Maximum Speed 450 KTAS


EO/IR Ball, Laser Designator

PAYLOAD BAY Service Ceiling 45,000 ft


Sensors and Comms

Ferry Range 2,400 NM

* Design Targets

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AircraftDescription

Insert EXTRA
LARGE Flight Test
Instrumentation
Package HERE

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Communications SAT, Network,UHF,VHF,HF Hotspot,AirGround, AirAir,AirFirstResponders


Sensors EO/IRBall Passive
Fuel 3,000 lbs Auxiliary

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AircraftDescription

AircraftDesign
MaximumUseofExistingSystems
- Engines
- Avionics
- EjectionSeats
- SubSystems:Hydraulics,Electrical,Fuel,
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OBOGS,ECS,FlightControls Company
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NewCompositeAirframe
- NewMainLandingGearStruts
- EngineInlet

Airframe structure, and the main landing gear struts,


are the only completely original parts

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AircraftDescription

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Upper Drag Brace


Lower Drag Brace

MLG Axle
MLG Trunnion
Piston
Metering Pin
Stand Pipe

Torque Links

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RiskReduction/LessonsLearned

PreparationforFirstFlight AtaMacroLevel
WhereDoYouEvenStart?

CessnaEngineeringFlightTest
ProcessesandProcedures
- Quality/ConfigurationControl
- TestPlanning 6/16/20159:47AM Company
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- IndependentSafetyReviews
- FlightReadinessReviews
- SpecialInspection(PreFirstFlight)

SETPPilotsHandbook

Resources, processes, and procedures existed to


guide macro-level planning

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RiskReduction/LessonsLearned

PreparationforFirstFlight AtaMicroLevel
Aircrewinvolvedindesignprocessforover1yearsbeforefirstflight
Wherearetheboobytrapsduetouniqueconfigurations/interactions?
The4ForcesofFlight(whatsreallyimportant?):

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Flight Test had the time to identify and mitigate


- THRUST:Propulsion/FuelSystems
potential aircraft-unique booby traps
- LIFT:Aerodynamics/FlightControls

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Event1 PreparationforFirstFlight

FirstEngineRun September2013

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Event1 PreparationforFirstFlight

Inlet:AerodynamicsandAirframeLocation(behindGearDoors)

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Event1 PreparationforFirstFlight

EngineInlet
NaturalFlowVisualizationofVortices

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Event1 PreparationforFirstFlight

InletRiskReduction
WhatCanYouDotoReduceRisk?
PreFlightTaxi: TestWorstCaseGearDoor Configuration

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Event1 PreparationforFirstFlight

LandingGearAvailability
WhatCanYouDotoReduceRisk?

The first flight plan should


never6/16/20159:47AM
be more ambitious Company
than the ground test program
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that supported it
SETP Handbook

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Event1 PreparationforFirstFlight

The primary purpose of a First Flight


is to make a successful landing
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SETP Handbook

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Event1 PreparationforFirstFlight

December12,2013

One flight test condition is worth


a thousand expert opinions
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Wernher von Braun

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Event1 PreparationforFirstFlight

AcknowledgingtheTeamsEfforts

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Share the pilots exhilaration of a First
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Flight with the ground team. It is


probably the only good thing that has
happened to them in the last 6
months SETP Handbook
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Event2 SpinChuteTaxiTest

PreFlightTaxiTesting
Brakes/Steering
Low/ModerateSpeedTaxiTesting
ElevatorControlPowerEvaluation(Aerodynamics:RotationandFlare)
SpinChuteOperationalTest(Deploy/Jettison)
LastMinuteAircraftSquawk
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Event2 SpinChuteTaxiTest

SpinChuteControls
TwoChutes,FwdandAftPanels
Fwd:Drive,Aft:ExecuteTest

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Event2 SpinChuteTaxiTest

CrewResourceManagementinAction

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Event2 SpinChuteTaxiTest

Wasmyexperienceworkingagainstme?

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Event2 SpinChuteTaxiTest

WhatIexpected:
Deploy Confirmed or-
No Chute, No Chute

Mortar Fire Noise

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Kinesthetic (Seat of Pants)
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Visual

Control Panel

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Event2 SpinChuteTaxiTest

WhatIexpected: Whathappened:
Deploy Confirmed or-
Nothing (Com blocked)
No Chute, No Chute

Mortar Fire Noise Nothing (Com blocked)

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Kinesthetic (Seat of Pants) Nothing
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Visual Nothing

Control Panel No Change

My Conclusion: Failed Chute Deployment

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Event2 SpinChuteTaxiTest

WhatIexpected: Whathappened(Pilot):
Deploy Confirmed or-
Nothing (Com blocked)
No Chute, No Chute

Mortar Fire Noise Heard Mortar Fire

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Kinesthetic (Seat of Pants) Nothing
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Visual Nothing

Control Panel No Change

Pilot Conclusion: Jettison Chute

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Event2 SpinChuteTaxiTest

Inadequate/misleadingfeedbackledtodelayedchutejettison
AircrewCRMsavedtheday
Fortunately,theonly consequence wasafewextrathousandfeetofFOD
walkforgroundcrew

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Event3 InitialLandingGearOperations

InitialGearOps GearUpAttempt

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Event3 InitialLandingGearOperations

Underairloads,NLGdoorsoverlapped
MLGretractsequencedidnotcomplete
- NoticewhereMLGdoorsare

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Event3 InitialLandingGearOperations

InitialGearOps GearDownAttempt(theonethatcounts)

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Event3 InitialLandingGearOperations

GearDown
WhatWouldYouReport?

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Event3 InitialLandingGearOperations

GearDown CockpitIndications

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Event3 InitialLandingGearOperations

Chasereportedapparentdownandlocked
NoMLGgreensduetoincompletesequence?
WedidNOTdeclareaninflightemergency
Weweredoinggeartesting,afterall
ExperimentalLicensedictatesinitialtakeoffs/landingsfromhomefield
EmergencyGearExtension?
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BoobyTrap:Continuous3000psihydraulicsvs.oneshotpneumatics
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Airloads onMLGDragBracehigherthananticipated
Didnotquitereachovercenter
Gearlockedovercenterduringlandingrollout

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Event3 InitialLandingGearOperations

GearDown AfterLanding

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Event3 InitialLandingGearOperations

MLGForces

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Event3 InitialLandingGearOperations

TroubleshootingandChanges
ForGearUp:AdjustNLGDoors
ForGearDown:AlleviateMLGDragLoads
- PositiveGandengineRPM(toassistmechanicaladvantage)
- Adjustairspeed(toreduceairload onMLGdragbrace)
- Sideslip(tochangeairload directionfromaftgeardoors;airdam
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- Pulsebrakingonrollouttoensureloadassistsovercenterlocking
AdditionalInstrumentation

NextAttempt
NLGclosedbutmainsstilldidntcompletelylockovercenter
ThistimeweDIDdeclareanemergencywithMcConnellTower

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Event3 InitialLandingGearOperations

DeclaringanEmergency
Wewerecalledtotheprincipalsoffice

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Event3 InitialLandingGearOperations

DeclaringanEmergency
Wewerecalledtotheprincipalsoffice

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When you come to a fork in the
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road, take it Yogi Berra

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Event3 InitialLandingGearOperations

MoreTroubleshootingandChanges
EngineeringTigerTeam
MoreNLGDooradjustments,andnewactuator
AerodynamicFairingtoreduceMLGDragLoads
NewMLGactuator

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FinalSuccess ConfidentialandCompetitionSensitive 37
Aircraftunique changesworked
ProceduralLessons Learned
Followonimprovementsmade

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Event3 InitialLandingGearOperations

DragBraceAerodynamicFairing

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Event3 InitialLandingGearOperations

FinalGearOps GearUp(watchforspecialsignal)

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Event3 InitialLandingGearOperations

FinalGearOps GearDown

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Event3 InitialLandingGearOperations

FinalDragBraceDownlock Spring

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Conclusion

The(FlightTestSafety)TheoryofEverything
TheoryofRelativityandQuantumPhysics
There isnt one (yet)

MACRO:ProvenProcessesandProcedures
UseofCessnasEstablishedMethods
SETPGuidance
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GroundTestbeforeFlightTest

MICRO:IntegrationwithDesign;aircraftuniqueBoobyTraps
InletRiskReduction
ElevatorControlPowerEvaluation
InitialLandingGearOperations

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Questions?

PicturePlaceholder

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Dave Sitz
FlightTestPilot
TextronAviation
(316)8314252
dsitz@txtav.com
www.ScorpionJet.com
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PhotoGallery

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PhotoGallery

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PhotoGallery

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PhotoGallery

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PhotoGallery

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PhotoGallery

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PhotoGallery

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Questions?

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6/16/20159:47AM Company
ConfidentialandCompetitionSensitive 56

Dave Sitz
FlightTestPilot
TextronAviation
(316)8314252
dsitz@txtav.com
www.ScorpionJet.com
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