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International Research Journal of Power and Energy Engineering IRJPEE

Vol. 3(2), pp. 118-124, November, 2017. www.premierpublishers.org, ISSN: 3254-1213x

Conference Paper

Assessment of BLDC Motor for EV Application


Considering Vehicle Design Strategy
*Chethan S1 and Abhijith Singh S2
1,2
School of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, REVA University, Bangalore, India

Brush less direct current (BLDC) motors have become a popular choice for electric vehicle (EV)
application in recent time because of their outstanding performance and control characteristics.
In this paper, a brief review of advantages of electric drive over internal combustion (IC) engine
for vehicles is done and a brief comparison is made between BLDC motor and the other motors
suitable for EV application. This paper describes the basic design considerations and
calculations that need to be followed when selecting the motor ratings for the desired vehicle.
Simulation results of Hall Effect sensor signals for controlling the brush less motor and motor
characteristics are obtained.

Keywords: BLDC motor, EVs, vehicle design, Permanent Magnet Synchronous Moto, AC Induction Motor

INTRODUCTION

Brush less direct current (BLDC) have become a vital part motors. However, the lack of acknowledgement of the
of the present industry in wide variety of applications advantages of energy-saving motors, and the high incipient
starting from medical, computers, electric vehicles, position cost, are hampering the development of superior
control, aeromodelling and domestic use. The latest performance motors
advancement in embedded technology and dedicated (http://www.todaysmotorvehicles.com/article/electric-
controllers available for motor control have eased the motor-market-revenue-motor-vehicles-51614/).
control of BLDC motors which was earlier considered as a
challenge. The research and development in the magnet A. Electric drive
material used in rotor design have resulted in obtaining a
greater power density with reduced cost The electrical actuator is an electromechanical system,
(https://www.ornl.gov/content/ornl-prototype-motor- which is a combination of electric motor acting as a prime
generates-75-more-power) which have further augment mover and a mechanism for motion or process control. The
the desire for BLDC motors. common application of electric drives includes fans,
compressor pumps, excavators, cars and electric
LITERATURE REVIEW locomotive (U.A.Bakshi and M.V.Bakshi, 2009). Typical
power drive systems include controllers, motor,
The present demand for superior performance and transmissions, and driven loads. The key difference
exceptional energy efficient motors is due to strict electricity between distinct types of electric drive systems is the type
consumption standards and electricity prices. The demand of controller.
for energy-saving motors is in raise globally on the account
of growing demand for motors for cars, household
appliances and other motor drive systems. Moreover, to *Corresponding author: Chethan S, School of Electrical
improve the efficiency of the motor, globally the and Electronics Engineering, REVA University, Bangalore,
manufacturers are encouraged to follow exacting design India. Email: chethans.eee@gmail.com Co-Author
and manufacturing standards resulting in energy-saving Email: abhijithsinghs@gmail.com

Assessment of BLDC Motor for EV Application Considering Vehicle Design Strategy


Chethan and Abhijith 119

Specific DC motor controller (Herman and Stephen L, Self-starting - No external boot device required, compared
2010) which includes motor starter, switches and operator with the hydraulic and diesel prime mover, it runs cleaner,
control or an electronic motor controller called a drive with less noise and less maintenance (U.A.Bakshi and
controller that uses the semiconductor having electronic M.V.Bakshi, 2009).
circuitry and software to perform the same function of
different DC motor control components Introduction to Various Motor Types
(http://www.ohioelectricmotors.com/2015/07/a-guide-to-
electric-drives-and-dc-motor-control). a. Brushed DC Motor

B. Choice of electric drive over IC engine The brush DC motor converts the direct current in the
armature coil as shown in Fig 1(a) into an alternating
The main advantage of the motor over the IC engine is that current by the commutator and brush arrangement. When
the full torque is provided by the motor at low speed and the current flows through the commutator through the
the fleet rated power can be two or three times the rated armature winding, the electromagnetic field repels the
power of the motor. These are the features that allow the magnet near the same polarity and causes the winding to
vehicle to have a peerless acceleration of the nominal rated turn to attract the magnet with opposite polarity. When the
motor. The motor produces high torque even at zero speed armature is rotated, the commutator reverses the current in
and typically has a constant power characteristic over a the armature coil to repel the nearby magnet, thereby
wide speed range. Therefore, the motor can be mounted causing the motor to rotate continuously. The motor can be
directly on the drive wheel and accelerate from zero speed driven by DC voltage and current, which is very attractive
to the maximum speed (Husain and Iqbal, 1964). for low cost applications. The limiting factor is the
Compared with other types of drive systems, electric drives commutator and brush arrangement causes arcing at the
have the following advantages, such as: Control features brushes resulting in heat, mechanical losses and electro-
can be adapted to application requirements, Simple and magnetic interference (EMI) problem
convenient speed control method. Electric brake can be (https://www.monolithicpower.com/Portals/0/Documents/P
easily applied, no pollution, Wide range of speed, power, roducts/Documents/appnotes/Brushless%20DC%20Motor
torque rating, more efficient, Brief time overload capacity, %20Fundamentals.pdf).

Fig 1 Structures of Different Types of Motors

Assessment of BLDC Motor for EV Application Considering Vehicle Design Strategy


Int. Res. J. Power Energy Engin. 120

b. Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Vehicle constraints

The BLDC motor uses the internal rotor position feedback Depend on vehicle type, vehicle weight and payload.
for commutation to determine the switching sequence of Energy source depends on batteries, fuel cells, capacitors,
the phases of stator winding. The layout is unveiled in Fig flywheels and a variety of hybrid power sources.
1. (b) Feedback normally requires additional rotary The process of identifying the preferred features and
encoders or Hall sensors. The windings of stator work in packaging options for power advance must be made at the
unison with the permanent magnets on the rotor to produce system level. The interaction between the subsystem and
an almost uniform magnetic flux density in the air gap. the possible impact of the system trade-off must be
Thus, the stator coil is directed by a persistent DC voltage checked.
(referred to as brushless DC), that switches directly from
one stator coil to the other to produce a trapezoidal shaped Concept of EV motors
voltage waveform
(https://www.monolithicpower.com/Portals/0/Documents/P The use of motors for EV application is quite different as
roducts/Documents/appnotes/Brushless%20DC%20Motor considered to typical application scenario, as it often
%20Fundamentals.pdf ). requires recurrent start / stop, intense acceleration /
retardation, excessive torque reduced speed climbing, flat
c. AC Induction Motor (ACIM) torque high speed cruising and extended operating ranges,
while industrial motors are often optimized for rated
A sinusoidal alternating current flow via the stator to conditions. Therefore, EV motors are unique, so they
produce a variable rotating magnetic field which causes a should be formed as a separate class. In addition to
current in the rotor (usually built of a non-ferrous metal meeting the above specific requirements, EV motor design
material). The induced current that circulates in the bar of also complies on the electric vehicle system technology.
the rotor which produces a magnetic field. These two From a technical point of view, the following key issues
magnetic fields run at different frequencies (usually the should be considered:
omega-s> -r of the motor) and generate torque. Fig 1. single motor or multi motor configuration
1(c)shows the motor layout 2. fixed or variable transmission
(https://www.monolithicpower.com/Portals/0/Documents/P 3. gear or gearless
roducts/Documents/appnotes/Brushless%20DC%20Motor 4. system voltage
%20Fundamentals.pdf).
Integrated motor and converter, controller, transmission
d. Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) and energy integration is the primary focus. EV motor
designers must be completely aware of the characteristics
PMSM motors have some resemblance to BLDC motors, of these components, so in this given environment design
but are made to run by sinusoidal signals by which lower of the motor. And the normal industrial drive under the
torque ripple is achieved. The sinusoidal conveyance of the standard power supply of ordinary standard motor is
multiphase stator windings produces a flux density which is completely different (Chan, C.C. and Chau, K.T, 2001).
sinusoidal that is different from the trapezoidal flux density
of the BLDC motor in the air gap. However, newer design D. MOTOR SELECTION FOR EV APPLICATION
can be achieved by this sinusoidal flux density through a
concentrated stator winding and an improved rotor The inherent advantages of BLDC give it more competitive
structure. The position of rotor magnet can significantly edge over other motors with low inertia, excessive torque,
change the electrical characteristics of the PMSM. The and extended speed range.it exhibits efficient thermal
rotor magnet is mounted on the surface with the result that features, high efficiency and increased power density than
the torque ripple is small and the magnet is buried Inside regular DC motors (S. K. Pillai, 2007). The miniature size
the rotor structure increases the significance, thereby has resulted in compromise in its weight and high speed
increasing the reluctance torque motor range is attainable due to the absence of brush-
(https://www.monolithicpower.com/Portals/0/Documents/P commutator arrangement. Lack of electrical and frictional
roducts/Documents/appnotes/Brushless%20DC%20Motor losses provides longer service life; absence of brushes and
%20Fundamentals.pdf). The structure of the PMSM is mechanical commutator make the BLDC motor almost
shown in fig 1(d). maintenance-free and reduced EMI and noise. Highly
recommended for unsafe environments (dirt, oil, grease
EV considerations and other foreign objects), because they can be enclosed
completely. Operative features comprise of high speed,
The choice of electric vehicle propulsion system depends overload, high torque control, short periods of action and
mainly on the driver's expectations which is defined by the high acceleration and deceleration ability.
driving characteristics, including acceleration, top speed,
acclivity, braking and range

Assessment of BLDC Motor for EV Application Considering Vehicle Design Strategy


Chethan and Abhijith 121

The superior performance features like low inertia and BLDC motor challenges
quick response of the BLDC motor is the result of rotor
design and special permanent magnets used. Very The cost of the BLDC motor and associated complexity in
common reason for rotor design of the BLDC motor is to design of the controller was the main hindrance for
connect the permanent "magnetic field" magnets axially to extensive use of BLDC as a mechanical source, however
the rotor shaft in a cylindrical or salient pole structure. The with the more advancement in electronics and embedded
armature coil of the motor is mounted on the stator housing technology the cost and complexity is reduced which has
core (Dale R. Patrick and Stephen W. Fardo, 2000). augmented (Machine Design Magazine. Brushless DC
Motors. Penton Media, Inc., 2012) the use of BLDC motors
Comparing BLDC motors with other motor types
in all the fields like medical, computers, automotive and
(https://www.monolithicpower.com/Portals/0/Documents/
domestic applications.
Products/Documents/appnotes/Brushless%20DC%20Mot
or%20Fundamentals.pdf)

Assessment of BLDC Motor for EV Application Considering Vehicle Design Strategy


Int. Res. J. Power Energy Engin. 122

The use of rare-earth magnets in BLDC motors has


increased the performance-to-cost ratio of motors (Jacek Step 5: Total Tractive Effort TTEis sum of all the obtained
F. Gieras, Rong-Jie Wang and Maarten J. Kamper. Axial results
Flux Permanent Magnet Brushless Machines. Springer,
2008. Page 96). TTE = RR + GR + FA+Fd
TTE = 166.9+2340+3100+307
Selection of motor rating based on Vehicle Design TTE = 5.92 KN
data
Step 6: Determine Torque required to accelerate the
The steps to choose a BLDC Motor capable of producing vehicle from rest (Mehrdad Ehsani, 2002).
enough torque to propel the example Vehicle
(https://www.mahindrae2oplus.com/pages/buyers- TW [N - m] = TTE* RW[M] * RF [-] (5)
guide/specifications) are discussed below. The various Where
design data of a vehicle are listed below: TW [N - m] = Wheel Torque
GVW: Gross Vehicle Weight (Vehicle + Passenger) = 1310 RW[M] = radius of the Wheel
Kgs.RW: Radius of wheel: 14 inches. Vmax: Desired Top RF = Co-efficient of rolling friction (0.01 for ordinary cars
Speed: 85 km/h (23.6 m/s). ta: Desired Acceleration Time: on asphalt)
10 s. : Maximum incline angle: 10.5. Gear ratio of 8.64:1 TW [N - m] = 5920 * 0.36 * 0.01*9.8 = 208.8 N-m

Step 1; Rolling Resistance (RR) force required to move a Step 7: Motor torque [MT] to be developed by the electric
vehicle over a surface motor to accelerate the car from rest. Considering the gear
ratio of 8.64:1
RR[N] = GVW[N] * Crr (1) (https://www.mahindrae2oplus.com/pages/buyers-
Where Crr= Rolling resistance co-efficient (car tires on guide/specifications) and including additional of 5 % for un
asphalt=0.013) accounted losses.
RR[N] = 1310*9.8* 0.031= 166.9 N
MT = (TW [N - m] *1.05*) /8.64(6)
Step 2: Grade Resistance (GR) force required to move a MTT= (208.8*1.05)/8.64
vehicle against a slope. MTT = 25.4 N m

GR[N] = GRW[N]*Sin() (2) Step 8: Motor selection


GR[N] = 1310*9.8*Sin (10.5)= 2.34 KN
After obtaining the above result we refer the BLDC motor
Step 3: Accelerating Force (FA) the force requires to bring manual for selecting the motor with required torque and
the vehicle to maximum speed from rest. speed. There are number of models of BLDC motors are
GVM [M]* VMAX m
available for this application out of which we are choice is
FA[N] =
s (3)
for Type: 72V3000W and Type: 48V3000W these models
run at a speed of Speed: 3000-5000 rpm and generate a
m
9.81 2 * t a (s)
s Rated torque:10 N.m and Peak torque: 25 N.m
13109.823.6 (http://goldenmotorcz.en.made-in
FA[N] = = 3.1KN china.com/product/DSXJArqMYfWu/China-Ce-Approved-
9.810
3kw-5kw-10kw-20kw-BLDC-Motor-for-Electri-Car-
Step 4: determining the effect of drag force Fd on the Motorcycle-Boat-Go-Carts.html).
vehicle (Chan, C.C. and Chau, K.T, 2001).

Fd= 0.5 * * Cd * A * (V + Vo)2 (4) SIMULATION RESULTS


Where A specific sequence of control signals is generated by
= Air Density 1.23 kg/m3 sensing the rotor position of BLDC motor using hall sensors
Cd = Aerodynamic Drag Co-efficient (for passenger car the embedded in the motor, these signals are used to control
is 0.2) the inverter module which further controls the operation of
A = Frontal Area m2 (Assuming 4 m2 of width) BLDC motor. Simulation is carried out in MAT lab Simulink
V = Vehicle Velocity m/s (assuming 85Km/h=11.1 m/s) environment for generating the control signals and the
Vo = Head Wind Velocity m/s (assuming 5 Km/h=1.38 m/s) results are shown as below.
2
Fd= 0.5 * 1.23 * 0.2 *4 * (23.6 + 1.38)
Fd = 307 N

Assessment of BLDC Motor for EV Application Considering Vehicle Design Strategy


Chethan and Abhijith 123

Fig 2. Matlab Simulink Model of BLDC Motor and Switching Sequence Circuit

Fig 5. Simulation Results: Stator Current


Fig 3. Simulation Results: Hall Sensor Signals

Fig 6. Simulation Results: Stator Back EMF


Fig 4. Simulation Results: Switching Sequence
Waveforms

Assessment of BLDC Motor for EV Application Considering Vehicle Design Strategy


Int. Res. J. Power Energy Engin. 124

https://www.mahindrae2oplus.com/pages/buyers-
guide/specifications
https://www.monolithicpower.com/Portals/0/Documents/P
roducts/Documents/appnotes/Brushless%20DC%20M
otor%20Fundamentals.pdf
https://www.monolithicpower.com/Portals/0/Documents/P
roducts/Documents/appnotes/Brushless%20DC%20M
otor%20Fundamentals.pdf
https://www.ornl.gov/content/ornl-prototype-motor-
generates-75-more-power
Husain and Iqbal (1964). Electric and hybrid vehicles:
Fig 7. Simulation Results: Rotor Speed in rpm & design fundamentals. ISBN 0-8493-1466-6 (alk. paper)
Electromagnetic Torque 1.
Jacek F. Gieras, Rong-Jie Wang and Maarten J. Kamper
(2008). Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Brushless
CONCLUSION REMARKS Machines. Springer. Page 96.
Machine Design Magazine (2012). Brushless DC Motors.
A review of some of the motors used for EV applications Penton Media, Inc.
are compared with respect to EV considerations. Mehrdad Ehsani. Modern electric, hybrid electric, and fuel
cell vehicles: fundamentals, theory, and design/ page
This paper throws light on the design considerations and 29-35.
procedural steps to be followed for selection of motor for S. K. Pillai (2007). A First Course On Electrical Drives.
EV applications. This paper can be referred for basic New Age International,. Page 184.
design of different type of EV applications. U.A.Bakshi and M.V.Bakshi (2009). Electrical Drives And
Control. 1st ed. Technical Publications Pune,. Page 1-
1
REFERENCES U.A.Bakshi and M.V.Bakshi (2009). Electrical Drives And
Control. 1st ed. Technical Publications Pune. Page 1-1
Chan C.C, Chau, K.T (2001). Modern Electric Vehicle
Technology, 1st ed.; Oxford University Press: New Accepted 23 October, 2017
York, NY, USA, pp. 1628.
Dale R. Patrick and Stephen W. Fardo (2000). Industrial Citation: Chethan S and Abhijith Singh S (2017).
Electronics: Devices and Systems, Second Edition. Assessment of BLDC Motor for EV Application
CRC Press, page 610. Considering Vehicle Design Strategy. International
Herman, Stephen L (2010). Industrial Motor Control. 6th Research Journal of Power and Energy Engineering, 3(2):
ed. Delmar Cengage Learning. Page 1 118-124.
http://goldenmotorcz.en.made-in
china.com/product/DSXJArqMYfWu/China-Ce-
Approved-3kw-5kw-10kw-20kw-BLDC-Motor-for-
Electri-Car-Motorcycle-Boat-Go-Carts.html.
Copyright: 2017. Chethan and Abhijith. This is an open-
http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/AppNotes/00885
access article distributed under the terms of the Creative
a.pdf
Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
http://www.ohioelectricmotors.com/2015/07/a-guide-to-
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,
electric-drives-and-dc-motor-control/
provided the original author and source are cited.
http://www.todaysmotorvehicles.com/article/electric-
motor-market-revenue-motor-vehicles-51614/

Assessment of BLDC Motor for EV Application Considering Vehicle Design Strategy