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Davorin Matanovi

Drilling
HOIST
The hoisting system of a rotary drilling rig consists of
the drawworks, the derrick or mast, the crown block,
the traveling block, and the drilling line (wire rope).
The system is used to:
lift drill string and casing during the processes of making hole
and lining it,
connect and disconnect pipes in joint threads,
rotate rotary table,
drive one or more mud pumps.

Front view
of
drawworks
The hoist itself is the lifting agent. It consists of:
1) a large revolving drum around which the drilling line is
spooled,
2) a series of gears, clutches, brakes, chains, and pulleys
to transmit and control power,
3) a catshaft on which catheads and often a sand reel are
mounted, and
4) drillers controls.

Rear view
of the
drawworks
The power flow of the drawworks and through it
depends on whether the chief power source of
the rig is mechanical or electrical.
Rig arrangements for mechanical drive are modified to
provide for electric drive by means of direct current
(DC) motors.
Electric drive makes it possible to simplify the
transmission section and eliminate a number of gears,
because the DC motor may have its direction of
rotation easily reversed and can be operated over a
wide range of revolutions per minute.
At the contrast, mechanical drive has what amounts to
a constant speed, for the internal-combustion engine
can generate enough torque only at considerable
speed.
As a result, wide variations in speed of the rig components can
be achieved only by changing gears or chains (sprockets).
Power needed to drive
drawworks
Qtk v k N power, W

N= Qtk hook load, N


vk hook velocity, ms-1
transmission efficiency coefficient

For defined conditions it is:

Q vk = const.
For any value of (v) adequate hook
load can be derived (Q), represented
by curve (1) .
Power utilization in such situation is
complete.
For that to be possible, the infinite
number of speed variations must be
Q (tons)
possible to comply with the change in
hook load as drilling progresses.
To be absolute correct it has to be:
100
the same number as the drill pipes of
80 collars are added to the drill string,
60 or at least the number of tribbles (three
pipes connected) for faster
40
1 manipulation,
20 or the power engine with adequate
2
0 soft" characteristics (DC motor with
0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 V (m/s) torque-converter).
Number of speeds, ratios
and efficiency

SPEEDS RATIO v2/v1 v3/v1 v4/v1 v5/v1 v6/v1 v7/v1 v8/v1 v9/v1 v10/v1
EFFICIENCY (%)
NUMBER OF
SPEEDS
1 50
2 2 66,7
3 1,5 3 75
4 1,33 2 4 80
5 1,25 1,67 2,5 5 83,3
6 1,2 1,5 2 3 6 85,7
7 1,17 1,4 1,75 2,33 3,5 7 87,5
8 1,14 1,33 1,6 2 2,67 4 8 88,9
9 1,12 1,29 1,5 1,8 2,25 3 4,5 9 90
10 1,11 1,25 1,43 1,67 2 2,5 3,33 5 10 90,9
Coefficient of power
Hook load: utilization can be
expressed as the rate of
Q = qL real to ideal engine time :
Tis
Where: s =
q pipe weight per unit length,
Nm-1
Ts
L string length, m
Where:
Power needed is: s coefficient of power
utilization
q L vk
N=
Tis ideal engine time, s

Ts real engine time, s


Power transmission (flow) -
mechanical

Three
engine
powered
drawwork;
eight
speeds on
the drum
possible.
Power flow of electric-
powered drawworks

Two electric
motors;
four
hoisting and
two rotary
speeds
combined
with variable
engine
speed.
Example
The task is to define kinematics of the drawwork.
Transmission from the gearbox to the drive shaft
uses two sprockets and chain 18/24, sheave block
combination is 4x5, and defined are:

Number of motor shaft rotations:


nm = 12 s-1
Gear box ratio: ik = 3
Mast height: Ht = 41 m
Drum diameter: Db = 0,4 m
Drum width: Bb = 0,77 m
Drilling line diameter: du = 0,254
m
Solution: To determine
average hook
Drum rotation: velocity it is
1st speed necessary to
nm z18 z11 12 18 11 determine:
nb1 = = = 1,22 s 1
ik z 24 z 27 3 24 27
D p = Db + d u =
2nd speed
0,4 + 0,0254 = 0,4254 m
nm z18 z18 12 18 18
nb 2 = = = 3,6 s 1
ik z 24 z15 3 24 15
Where:
Dp initial drum
Dp
diameter, m
Dk = D p + 2 a v (ev 1) du

aV

Where:
Dk final drum diameter,
m du

av distance between two


rope layers, m d u
2

a v = d u2 =
ev number of layers 2
when hook is in upper 0,0254
= 0,0254 2 = 0,022 m
2

most position 2
Number of layers (ev) is determined,
from the wire rope length spooled on
the drum when rising the hook to the
uppermost position.
H u = h1 + h2 = 13,36 + 216 = 229,36 m
Where:
h1 rope length used as securing coils on the drum
(10 coils), m
h2 rope length spooled when rising one
drill pipe tribble, m
Hu cumulative rope length, m
lp average tribble length = 27 m
ns number of working strings; for sheave block (4 x
5)=8
h1 = 10 D p = 10 3,14 0,4254 = 13,36 m
h2 = l p n s = 27 8 = 216 m
Cumulative rope length can be also
expressed as:
[ ]
H u = D p + a v (e v 1) e v n h

nh number of coils in horizontal


drum axis direction is calculated from:
Bb 0,77
nh = 2= 2 = 28,3 28
d u 0,0254

Calculated value is rounded to smaller


curtate value.
[ ]
H u = D p + a v (e v 1) e v n h
229,36 = [0,4254 + 0,022 (e v 1)] 3,14 e v 28
0,4034 3,14 28 e v + 0,022 3.14 28 e v2 229,36 = 0
1,934 e v2 + 35,67 e v 229,36 = 0
e v2 + 18,44 e v 118,6 = 0
18,44 18,44 2 + 4 118,6
e v (1, 2) = =
2
e v = 5,049 6

With six vertical layers, final drum


diameter is:
D k = D p + 2 a v (e v 1) =
= 0,4254 + 2 0,022 (6 1) = 0,6454 m
Mean drum diameter is:
D p + Dk 0,4254 + 0,6454
D sr = = = 0,5354 m
2 2
Mean speed of rope reeling on the drum is:
v 1sr = D sr nb1 = 0,5354 3,14 1,22 = 2,05 m s 1

v sr2 = D sr nb 2 = 0,5354 3,14 3,6 = 6,05 m s 1

Mean hook velocity (load velocity) is:

v 1sr 2,05
v 1sr .k = = = 0,256 m s 1
ns 8

v sr2 6,05
v sr2 .k = = = 0,756 m s 1
ns 8