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SOIL LAB

Table of Content

NO. LAB TEST5: HYDROMETER

1 INTRODUCTION 1

2 OBJECTIVE 1

3 THOERY 1

4 APPARUTE 2

5 PROCEDURE 2

6 Results: Table 3

7 Discussion 4

8 CONC LUSI ON S 4

9 Refference 5

10 APPENDEX 6

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SOIL LAB

Introduction:

Hydrometer is the goal of the experiment is to bring the student in contact with operations related
to particle size distribution measurement of a soil. Specically, this experiment deals with silts and
clays, which were saved from the previous experiment, which separated soil particles mechanically
using sieves. This method further separates ne soil particles so that a complete grain size
distribution curve can be produced by the end of this experiment. From this curve, many important
aspects of the soil can be determined and a general classication of the soil can be made. the
hydrometer is it involves just one measurement. The hydrometer is placed in a container of the
liquid. The floating hydrometer has a numerical scale on it as shown at right. As you can see the
scale increases in value from top to bottom. This might seem strange but if a hydrometer is placed
in a low density liquid, it would sink further, leaving less of the hydrometer above the surface.
Where the surface of the liquid lines up on the scale, is the liquids specific gravity.

objective:

To obtain an approximate particle size distribution of soil passing sieve #200 by using the
hydrometer method.

Theory

Hydrometers memory specific gravity by use the present of Archimedes. This present holds that
an object in a liquid will to a fruit of liquid that weigh the scalene as the object. For example, a
hydrometer that weigh 1 oz. will always to 1 oz. liquid when Elbaite to float freely. By compound
this weight to the weight of an establishes volume of water at 4 degrees Celsius, a ointments can
be gathered for the hydrometer that will to the specific gravity of the liquid.

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SOIL LAB

Apparatus :

the following apparatus is required :

1. Balance minimum capacity of 200 g, accuracy of 0.01 g or less.


2. Stirring apparatus (either mechanical stirring device or an air dispersion device)
3. Hydrometer.
4. Sedimentation cylinder.
5. Mercury thermometer.
6. Standard U.S. sieves.
7. Oven, maintain at 110 5 C (230 9 F)
8. Evaporating dishes.
9. Water bath or constant temperature room.
10. Timing device with a second hand.
11. Breaker, 250 mL.

Materials:

1. Dispersing agent: a solution of sodium hexametaphosphate ( Calgon ) .


2. Solution of this salt.
3. Solution shall be prepared frequently ( at least once a month ).
4. Bottles containing solutions shall have the date of preparation marked on them.
5. Distilled or dematerialized water
6. Source of compression air, if air dispersion device is used.

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SOIL LAB

The Procedure.

Place 50 g of a well-pulverized oven-dried soil into a dry 1000 ml beaker.


Prepare the deflocculating agent (usually a 4% solution of Calgon which is sodium
hexameta-phosphate) by adding 40 g of the Calgon to 1000 cc of distilled water and
mix thoroughly.
Take 125 cc of the Calgon mixture prepared in step 2 and add to the soil in the beaker
from step 1. Allow to soak for 8 to 12 hours.
Take a 1000 cc graduated cylinder and add sufficient distilled water to the 125 cc of
deflocculating agent with soil in order to reach 1000 ml. Mix the solution well.
The cylinder from step 4 is the temperature bath; record the temperature T in C. Put
the hydrometer in the cylinder of step 5. Record the reading, making sure to use the
top of the meniscus. This is the zero correction Fz, which can be positive or negative.
Also observe the meniscus correction Fm.
Using a spatula, thoroughly mix the soil prepared in step 3. Pour it into the mixer cup.
During this step, some soil will stick to the side of the beaker. Use the plastic squeeze
bottle to wash the remaining soil in the beaker into the mixer cup.
Add distilled water to the cup to make it about 2/3 full, then mix for about 2 minutes
with the mixer.
Pour the mix into the second 1000 cc graduated cylinder. Make sure that all the soil
solids are washed out of the mixer cup. Fill the graduated cylinder with distilled water
to bring the water level up to the 1000 cc mark.
Secure a No. 12 rubber stopper to the top of the cylinder. Mix the contents well by
using both hands to gently rotate the cylinder.
Place the soil-suspension cylinder next to the constant temperature bath. Record the
time immediately. This is cumulative time t = 0. Insert the hydrometer into the cylinder
containing the soil-water suspension.

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SOIL LAB

Result:
Mathematic calculations:

1. Calculate Rh
Rh = Rh1 + Cm ; where Rh1 = from hydrometer

Cm = meniscus = 0.25

2. Calculate Hr
Hr = 210.65 4 Rh

3. Calculate Rd
Rd = Rh R0 ; where R0 = 0.3

4. Calculate D

Hr
C1
t
D= ; where C1 = 3.969
1000

5. C2 = 3.212

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SOIL LAB

Table 1. Hydrometer Sedimentation Test

D(mm) = K(%) = C2
Effective Rd
Reading, Rh = Rd =
Elapsed depth, Hr
C1
Time (min) Rh Rh + Cm Rh R0 t
Hr (mm)
1000

25.535
1 8 8.25 177.56 7.95 0.0396 mm

25.535
2 8 8.25 177.56 7.95 0.0324mm

23.929
4 7.5 7.75 179.65 7.45 0.0281mm

22.323
10 7.0 7.25 181.65 6.95 0.0106mm

20.717
20 6.5 6.75 183.65 6.45 0.0071mm

19.111
30 6.0 6.25 185.65 5.95 0.0051mm

17.505
40 5.5 5.75 187.65 5.45 0.0033mm

15.899
50 5 5.25 189.65 4.95 0.0015mm

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SOIL LAB

Discussion:

We must to applied due to the meniscus of the water surface, the reading shall be obtained from
the bottom of the meniscus but that is not possible because of the unclearness of the suspension.
In hydrometer analysis, the chemical such as sodium carbonate and sodium hexametaphosphate
are used. The purpose is to disperse or separates the silt and clay and avoids them from bending
because we need the percentage of clay and silt.

For this test, we can take any minutes that we want but must achieved 24 hours. The first reading
must fixed the minute to see whether got any changes of the readings.
Air bubble in the cylinder must be removed because air bubble will disturb the reading.

Conclusion:

We must do the wet and dry sieving, so that we know how many percent of gravel, sand, silt and
clay. For hydrometer analysis (wet sieving), will gives the value of percentage of silt and clay. So,
we obtain an approximate particle size distribution of soil passing sieve #200 by using the
hydrometer method.

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SOIL LAB

References

Analysis of Soils Hydrometer Analysis of Soils


- Hydrometer Analysis of Soils>> global Gilson

- Humboldt Construction Materials Testing Equipment

- Bouyoucos, G.J. 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size
analysis of soils. Agron. J. 54:464-465.

- Particle Size Analysis II Hydrometer Analysis GEL 324 Sedimentology

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SOIL LAB

Appendix