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14.

5 Fluid Dynamics

Thus far, our study of uids has been restricted to uids at rest. We now turn our attention to uids in
motion. When uid is in motion, its ow can be characterized as being one of two main types. The ow
is said to be steady, or laminar, if each particle of the uid follows a smooth path, such that the paths of
different particles never cross each other, as shown in Figure 14.14. In steady ow, the velocity of uid
particles passing any point remains constant in time. Above a certain critical speed, fluid flow becomes
turbulent; turbulent flow is irregular flow characterized by small whirlpool-like regions, as shown in
Figure 14.15. The term viscosity is commonly used in the description of uid ow to characterize the
degree of internal friction in the uid. This internal friction, or viscous force, is associated with the
resistance that two adjacent layers of uid have to moving relative to each other. Viscosity causes part
of the kinetic energy of a uid to be converted to internal energy. This mechanism is similar to the one
by which an object sliding on a rough horizontal surface loses kinetic energy. Because the motion of real
uids is very complex and not fully understood, we make some simplifying assumptions in our approach.
In our model of ideal uid ow, we make the following four assumptions: 1. The uid is nonviscous. In a
nonviscous uid, internal friction is neglected. An object moving through the uid experiences no
viscous force. 2. The ow is steady. In steady (laminar) ow, the velocity of the uid at each point
remains constant. 3. The uid is incompressible. The density of an incompressible uid is constant. 4.
The ow is irrotational. In irrotational ow, the uid has no angular momentum about any point. If a
small paddle wheel placed anywhere in the uid does not rotate about the wheels center of mass, then
the ow is irrotational. The path taken by a uid particle under steady ow is called a streamline. The
velocity of the particle is always tangent to the streamline, as shown in Figure 14.16. A set of streamlines
like the ones shown in Figure 14.16 form a tube of ow. Note that uid (Serway&jewet:431)

Viscosity is the fluid analog of friction between solids; both are mechanisms by which the kinetic energy
of moving objects can be transferred to thermal energy. In the absence of friction, a block could glid e at
constant speed along a hortzontal surface. In the same way,an object moving through a nonviscous fluid
would experience no viscous drag force-that is, no resistive force due to viscosity; it could move at
constant speed through the fluid. The British scientist Lord Rayleigh noted that in an ideal fluid a ship's
propeller would not work, but, on the other hand, in an ideal fluid a ship (once set into motion) would
not need a propeller! (hilladay,risnick & walker: 371)
(giancoli:274-275)