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Table of Contents by Standard

Standard 1: Transfer/ Cycling of Matter

Sarah B. Standard 2: Population Ecology

Standard 3: Biomolecules / Biochemistry

Standard 4: Photosynthesis / Cellular Respiration

Sarah B. Standard 5: Cell Transport

Sarah C. Standard 6: Homeostasis

Standard 7: Gene to Protein

Standard 8: Cellular Organization

Sarah C. Standard 9: Evolution


Standard 1: Transfer/ Cycling of Matter
Matter tends to be cycled within an ecosystem, while energy is transformed and eventually exits an
ecosystem.
Learning Targets Assessment Vocabulary Activities / Labs

a. Describe how energy flows through trophic levels Trophic Levels


Carnivore
Herbivore
Omnivore
Producer

b. Interpret the 10% Rule as it applies to trophic Energy Pyramid


levels 10% Rule

c. Predict outcomes of changes to ecosystems Ecosystem


(e.g., adding fertilizer, drought, removal of a Eutrophication
keystone species, introduction of an invasive
species)

d. Distinguish between matter and energy Matter


Energy
Flow
Cycle

e. Describe how matter is cycled and energy is lost Biogeochemical


through life processes

f. Describe how water cycling interacts to drive the Nitrification


cycling of nitrogen and phosphorus Nitrogen Fixation
Transpiration
Percolation

g. Describe how life processes impact the cycling of Photosynthesis


carbon on the planet. Cellular respiration
Glucose

h. Describe how the carbon cycle is impacted by Carbon Cycle


humans.
Sarah B. Standard 2: Population Ecology
The size and persistence of populations depend on their interactions with each other and on the abiotic
factors in an ecosystem.
Learning Targets Assessmen Vocabulary Activities / Labs
t Question

a. Analyze and interpret data about the impact of


removing keystone species from an ecosystem or
introducing non-native species into an ecosystem

b. Evaluate the ecological impacts of human dietary Energy Pyramid


choices Sustainability

c. Evaluate communities in terms of primary and


secondary succession as they progress over time

d. Evaluate data and assumptions regarding different


scenarios for future human population growth and
their projected consequences

e. Investigate ecosystem interactions, including


predator-prey, symbioses, competition, etc.

f. Explain how abiotic and biotic factors affect


carrying capacity of ecosystems at different
scales.

g. Analyze evidence about factors affecting


biodiversity and populations in ecosystems of
different scales.

f. Evaluate claims, evidence, and reasoning that Succession


the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain
relatively consistent numbers and types of
organisms in stable conditions, but changing
conditions may result in a new ecosystem.
g. Evaluate the impacts of human activities on the
environment and design a solution to reduce
those impacts.

h. Analyze and interpret data regarding population


growth curves.
Standard 3: Biomolecules / Biochemistry
Cellular metabolic activities are carried out by biomolecules produced by organisms

Learning Targets Assessmen Vocabulary Activities / Labs


t Question

a. Identify the 4 basic biomolecules and their Carbohydrate


functions in living systems Protein
Lipid
Nucleic acid

b. Identify the precursors/building blocks using direct and Monosaccharide


indirect evidence of the biomolecule. Amino acids
Glycerol
Fatty acid
Nucleotide

c. Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based C-bond


explanation that biomolecules follow the same rules of Macromolecule
ATP energy
chemistry as any other molecule.

d. Determine and justify the optimal conditions for enzyme Enyyme


activity. Substrate
Active site
pH & temperature vs.
Enzyme graph

e. Describe the consequences of altering the conditions Feedback loop


inside an organism (such as altered blood pH or high
fever) to suboptimal conditions for an enzyme on enzyme
function

f. Interpret data on the body's utilization of carbohydrates, Chemical bond


lipids, and proteins ATP energy

g. Describe how C, H, and O from carbohydrates may Transcription


combine with other elements to form amino acids and/or Translation
Cellular Respiration
other macromolecules Photosynthesis
Polymerization
Standard 4: Photosynthesis / Cellular Respiration
The energy for life primarily derives from the interrelated processes of photosynthesis and cellular
respiration. Photosynthesis transforms the sun's light energy into the chemical energy of molecular bonds.
Cellular respiration allows cells to utilize chemical energy when these bonds are broken.

Learning Targets Assessment Vocabulary Activities / Labs


Question

a. Determine and justify the optimal environment for Photosynthesis


photosynthetic activity Solar energy
Chlorophyll

b. Describe how autotrophic and heterotrophic life Autotroph


processes interact in the carbon cycle. Heterotroph
Photosynthesis
Carbon Cycle

c. Describe how cellular respiration gradually ATP energy


breaks the bonds in carbon compounds so cells Glycolysis
Energy Transfer
may store the released carbon-bond energy in
the bonds of ATP

d. Develop a model to show how photosynthesis Carbon cycle


and cellular respiration impact the cycling of Photosynthesis
Cellular Respiration
carbon in the ecosystem

e. Describe how photosynthesis transforms light UV light


energy into stored chemical energy. Chemical energy

f. Describe how ATP is used by the cell ATP


Sarah B. Standard 5: Cell Transport
Cells use passive and active transport of substances across membranes to maintain relatively stable
intracellular environments

Learning Targets Assessment Vocabulary Activities / Labs


Question

a. Analyze and interpret data to determine the Diffusion


Concentration
energy requirements and/or rates of substance gradient
transport across cell membranes

b. Compare organisms that live in freshwater and Osmosis


marine environments, and identify the challenges
of osmotic regulation for these organisms

c. Diagram the cell membrane schematically, and Receptor protein


Bi-lipid layer
highlight receptor proteins as targets of
hormones, neurotransmitters, or drugs that serve
as active links between intra and extracellular
environments

d. Use tools to gather, view, analyze, and interpret Passive transport


Active transport
data produced during scientific investigations that
involve passive and active transport

e. Use computer simulations and models to analyze Bi-lipid layer


Protein Pump
cell transport mechanisms
Sarah C. Standard 6: Homeostasis
Cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems maintain relatively stable internal environments, even in the face
of changing external environments

Learning Targets Assessment Vocabulary Activities / Labs


Question

a. Describe how body systems interact within Body system


healthy organisms Nervous
System
Endocrine
system
Skeleto-muscu
lar system

b. Use evidence [from an experiment] to support the Homeostasis


claim that feedback mechanisms maintain Feedback
Loop
homeostasis Positive
feedback
mechanism
Negative
feedback
mechanism

c. Use a model to show the hierarchical Cells


organization and interaction of cells, tissues, Tissues
Organs
organs, and organ systems Organ systems
Standard 7: Gene to Protein
Physical and behavioral characteristics of an organism are influenced to varying degrees by heritable genes,
many of which encode instructions for the production of proteins

Learning Targets Assessment Question Vocabulary Activities / Labs

a. Interpret data that genes are expressed portions Gene


of DNA. DNA

b. Describe the structure of DNA Backbone


Codon
Nitrogen Base

c. Describe how the structure of DNA allows it to DNA replication


accurately undergo the process of DNA
replication

d. Describe the process of transcribing and Transcription


translating a gene into the protein for which it Translation
codes.

e. Describe how we know DNA is processed in the GMOs


same way by all organisms

f. Describe the process of gene regulation. Gene regulation


Regulatory Protein

g. Describe how proteins mediate the effect of Regulatory region


genes on physical and behavioral traits in an Postive transcription
organism factor
Negative transcription
factor

h. Interpret data in support of the claim that genetic Cancer


mutations and cancer are brought about by Mutagen
exposure to environmental toxins, radiation, or Carcinogen
smoking.
i. Explain, using examples, how genetic mutations Silent mutation
can benefit, harm, or have neutral effects on an Point mutation
organism Frameshift mutation

j. Calculate how the meiotic processes of Independent


independent assortment of chromosomes, assortment
crossing over, and mutations make it statistically Crossing over
unlikely that offspring could be clones of their Meiosis
parents or siblings.

k. Describe the role of proteins, which carry out the


essential functions of life, through systems of
specialized cells.
Standard 8: Cellular Organization
Multicellularity makes possible a division of labor at the cellular level through the expression of select
genes, but not the entire genome.

Learning Targets Assessment Vocabulary Activities / Labs


Question

a. Describe how gene regulation allows for cell Gene regulation


differentiation and development in a multicellular Cell
Differentiation
organism

a. Describe how cells in multicellular creatures Gene regulation


Coding region
express some genes but not others in specialized Switches
tissues

b. Interpret data that show most eukaryotic Non-coding DNA


deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) does not actively
code for proteins within cells

c. Describe how a whole organism can be cloned Stem cell


Differentiation
from a differentiated cell. Potency
Sarah C. Standard 9: Evolution
Evolution occurs as the heritable characteristics of populations change across generations and can lead
populations to become better adapted to their environment.

Learning Targets Assessment Vocabulary Activities / Labs


Question

a. Explain how the diversity of life on Earth evolved Common


from a common ancestor ancestor

b. Analyze multiple forms of evidence supporting Comparative


the claim that all species are related by common anatomy
Biogeography
ancestry (e.g molecular studies, comparative Fossil record
anatomy, biogeography, fossil record, and Embryology
embryology) DNA
Molecular
studies

c. Analyze data for how speciation occurs over Gradualism


geologic time, (e.g. discrete bursts of rapid Punctuated
equilibrium
genetic changes and gradual changes) Speciation

d. Interpret data on how evolution can be driven by Natural selection


natural selection

e. Construct a phylogenetic tree showing how a Phylogenetic tree


group of organisms are descended from a Common
ancestor
common ancestor

f. Identify evidence for each of Darwins Four


Postulates of evolution: (1) organisms have
differing genetic traits, (2) some of those traits
are heritable, (3) more organisms are born than
survive, and (4) survival and reproduction are not
random so some traits increase/decrease in the
next generation
g. Explain how natural selection leads to adaptation Adaptation
of populations

h. Predict the outcome of changes in environmental Extinction


conditions in terms of speciation and extinction Mass
extinction