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AIR AND SOUND POLLUTION MONITORING SYSTEM

USING IOT

EMBEDDED SYSTEMS MINI


PROJECT

Under the Guidance of


Dr. Aparna P

Submitted By
B. Rushikesh 14EC112
M. Bhavani Shankar 14EC128
M. Ramasai - 14EC230

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering.

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Contents

Title Page-n.o

1. Introduction 3

2. Components description 4-6

3. Working 7

4. Results 8

5. Flow-chart 9

6. Circuit-built 10

7. References 11

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Introduction

Air and sound pollution is a growing issue these days. It is necessary to


monitor air quality and keep it under control for a better future and healthy living
for all. If system detects air quality and noise issues it alerts authorities so they can
take measures to control the issue near places like schools, hospitals and no honking
areas. The air we avail of is not ours. We make those people who exceed the limit,
pay the tax by this project. This system uses air sensors to sense presence of harmful
gases/compounds in the air and constantly transmit this data to microcontroller.
Also system keeps measuring sound level and reports it to the online server over
IOT. The sensors interact with microcontroller which processes this data and
transmits it over internet.

Objective:
Our aim is to design an embedded system which can monitor air and sound
pollution and can also assist in taking punitive measures for exceeding
permissible levels.

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COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION:

1. Micro controller - raspberry Pi-2 model B:


It has the following specifications:

A 900MHz quad-core ARM Cortex A7 CPU


1 GB RAM
40 General purpose input / output pins.
HDMI port, Ethernet port, USB ports and some interfaces.

It works on the basis of a Micro SD card which should be installed with


Raspbian or Noobs image file.

2. LCD Display (16x2) :


It consists of 2 rows and 16 columns. The HD44780U dot-matrix liquid crystal
display and driver LSI displays alpha-numeric and symbols. It has a total of 16
pins (8 data pins, command line pins, and power supply). It can be operated in
either 4 bit or 8 bit mode.

3.Smoke Sensor (MQ-2 gas sensor) :


Smoke sensor outputs a high value if the smoke level in air exceeds a threshold.
An inbuilt potentiometer is fixed on it to set the value of threshold. ADC (Analog
to Digital Converter) converts the analog output from sensor to a digital high or
low. It also consists of a LED which glows if output is high.

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4. Sound Sensor :
Sound sensor consists of a microphone to detect sound. Similar to smoke sensor,
it consists of inbuilt potentiometer to set the threshold above which if the noise
level exceeds will be detected and outputs a high value.

5. Ultrasonic Sensor (HC SR04)


Ultrasonic sensor is used to measure its distance to a solid object. It consists of
two pins namely Trigger and Echo. When a high input is given to trigger pin, it
transmits a pulse. The echo reflected when it hits an object is detected by Echo
pin and it goes high. The distance is calculated based on the time difference
between the two events.

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6. RFID Reader/Writer (MFRC-522)
RFID reader detects a RFID tag or card when placed above it based on the
principle of radio frequency detection. Its used for authentication as every RFID
tag consists of a unique identification number (U.I.D No).

7. Thingspeak.com:
It is online platform used to collect the data from sensors over internet in real
time. The platform provides different channels with unique API key. Each
channel consists of fields for different sensors. Using this Key the data from
sensors is transmitted to the channel and plotted in respective fields.

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Working:

Our project consists of two parts

Pollution Monitoring
Real Time Pollution Controlling

Pollution Monitoring:

The data output from the sensors is given to the raspberry pi (through its GPIO
pins). Raspberry pi outputs the results to be displayed on LCD display and
transmits it over Wi-Fi. So the results can be seen on online server
(Thingspeak.com) as graphs.

Pollution Controlling:

In this we detect the pollution emitted by every vehicle or any other source and
take necessary measures if they exceed permissible levels. For implementing
this we use RFID system. Every vehicle will be linked with a unique RFID tag
with a U.I.D number. RFID readers are fixed at every traffic light or any other
periodic places. RFID reader detects the tag when it is at a close distance. After
this the information from sensors is updated on the server in real-time, which
can be seen anywhere in the world and take necessary actions.

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The above figure shows the results obtained in the online web server
Thingspeak.com. It consists of three figures for Smoke, Sound, Ultrasonic
data respectively.
Flow-chart:

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Circuit we built:

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References

1. http://www.mrhobbytronics.com/raspberry-pi-rfid-card-reader/
2. https://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=38&t=64516
3. Connecting ultrasonic sensor to r pi 2 Youtube.com
4. http://www.learningaboutelectronics.com/Articles/MQ-2-smoke-sensor-
circuit-with-raspberry-pi.p

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