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Statics and Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 4-1

Internal force, normal and shearing


Stress

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Outlines

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Internal Forces - cutting plane
Result of mutual attraction (or repulsion) between molecules on
both sides of the cutting plane
These result is distributed over the entire surface of the cutting
plane

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Internal Forces - cutting plane
Each part of the body satisfies the equilibrium equation
The resultant of the internal forces R must be in
equilibrium with other applied forces in the body part
Stress is the intensity of the R
So either body part can be used to determine the
internal forces

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Internal Force cutting plane
If the cutting plane is perpendicular to the bar axis
the internal forces, internal stress, and the
resultant will be perpendicular in normal
direction
If the cutting plane is not perpendicular the
resultant will still be perpendicular, but it has
normal and tangential components

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Normal stress axial loading
Axial loading = the loading/force is
collinear with the axis of the bar
Stress = intensity of the internal force
Generally speaking,

Or symbolically,

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Normal stress some notes
Generally, the stress is not uniformly
distributed over the area
For many applications, itd be assumed that it
is uniformly distributed
Cross area changes under loading
Engineering stress uses initial cross sectional
area
True stress uses the deformed area

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Shearing stresses in connections
Loads are transmitted to individual members
through connections that use rivets, bolts, pins,
nails, or welds

Singleshear
Double shear
Punching shear
Bearing stress

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Single shear and double shear

Single shear Double shear

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Punching shear
Example: Shear stress developed due to action
of punch in forming a rivet hole

P

As
P P

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Bearing stress
Bearing stress = compressive normal stress
While the amount of the force = compression load, the
area depends on the mode of the contact
Examples:
Between the head of the bolt and the top plate (a)
Between the surfaces of the shanks and hole which
they pass (b)

F
b
Ab

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Units of Stress
Dimension = FL-2

USCS;
psi (pounds per square inch),
ksi (kilo pounds per square inch),
ksi = 1000 psi
SI;
Pa (Pascal = N/m2),
kPa (kilo Pa) = 1000 Pa, or
MPa (mega Pa) = 106 Pa

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Example Problem 4-1
The cross-sectional area = 3 in2.
Determine the axial stress in the
bar on a cross section;
20 to the right of A
20 to the right of B
20 to the right of C
Firstthing to do; to determine the
internal force on the section
use cutting plane

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Example Problem 4-4
The column
experiences
compression
Determine the bearing
stress on the surface
between the bearing
plate and the column

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Example Problem 4-4
FBD of the bearing plate
Compression developed in the timber beam

do

di

Compression developed in the column Cross section of the column


b
F
Ab
Ab
4
d 2
o d i2
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Problem 4-12
Average punching shear stress in the collar
Average bearing stress between the collar and the plate

Plate

Bearing stress
Punching shear stress
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Please read and practice example
problems 4-3, 4-4 and 4-5

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Maximum and minimum stresses
Maximum normal stress when = 0 (or 180)
P
max
A
Maximum shearing stress when = 45 (or 135)
(opposite directions) P
max
2A

Minimum stress = 0, when = 90


Note: maximum stresses dont appear on the same
angle

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Example Problem 4-7
Given:
A = 200x100 mm2
AB = 12.00 MPa
= 36o
Questions:
P?
AB=?
Max normal and shearing
stresses

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Example Problem 4-7: Answer
Followthe solution in
the book or use
P
n (1 cos 2 )
2A
n 2A
P 694.7 kN
(1 cos 2 )
P
sin 2 16.52MPa
2A
And the maximum are
P
max 34.7 MPa
A
P
max 17.37 MPa
2A

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