Sie sind auf Seite 1von 57

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Critical Success Tools for Research and Development Cycle

at Indian SMEs-A Theoretical Framework
A Mehta

This paper provides a review of literature for the identification of the critical success tools
(CSTs) for the development of R & D cycle at Indian SMEs. It proposed a theoretical framework
in terms of R & D cycle for the instrument development and testing in future research. The
findings of the secondary data review along with the proposed theoretical framework will help
the stakeholders to know the various possible aspects of the R & D cycle at Indian SMEs .It will
also help to integrate the concept of R &D with the innovation and strategic management for
Indian SMEs. It will provide guidance to the various agencies to formulate the strategies and
policies to boost the innovation at Indian SMEs that will finally promote systematic
implementation of innovation strategies during the regular management process at Indian SMEs
along with the CSTs supported by environmental analysis.

Keywords: CST, Innovation, Indian SMEs, Technology, R &D, R & D cycle, Strategy


In India the official source for industrial R&D statistics is the Department of Science and
Technology (DST). However, this source of information is known to hugely underestimate the
actual R&D investment as the primary survey is limited to just R&D units recognized by the
DSIR (Department of Scientific and Industrial Research) (Alagh, 1998)..SMEs are well-known
for their creativity and new product development capabilities. This applies in particular to SMEs
that have the ability to innovate effectively and develop new products more rapidly than larger
firms. Indeed, there is little doubt that SMEs are capable of effective innovation. However, many
SMEs still fail to see the opportunities and advantages that are open to them, such as the
flexibility of customizing products to the requirements of the consumer (ORegan et. al.,
2006)..Innovation, according to Rogers (2003), is an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as
new by an individual or other unit of adoption. This newness need not necessarily involve
new knowledge thereby effectively implying that the newness may also concern
advancement or modification of existing knowledge. Keeping in view this scope of innovation,
we may define innovation as invention and commercialization of new, or betterment of
existing, products, processes and/or services (Tiwari, 2007). The development of the neoclassical
growth theory supported by the introduction of new macroeconomic statistics and computing
capability in the 1950s marked the beginning of the rise of interest in innovation studies
(Fagerberg et al., 2005). However, the many who became interested in understanding the

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 86

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

processes of technological progress or innovation gradually created this research area, because
they all felt the limitations of the conceptual framework of the neoclassical model in capturing
the sophisticated processes of learning and innovating or technological progress (Nelson and
Winter, 1982). When defining strategic environmental management, according to Hart (1995,
p.78), Shrivastavy (1996, p.175) and (Stead&Stead, 1995, p.197), it is important not to forget
sustainable development and the strategy concept called sustainable development strategy. The
staring point for an introduction of sustainable strategic management into a company is a
strategic vision based on sustainability. This strategic vision forms a decision making basis that
supports a new definition of the company's long-term prosperity, which combines profit making
and responsible environmental behaviour. According to Blohlvek, Koat and ule (2001,
p.56), management is a process because it is a system of successive activities and tasks that are
mutually interlinked. It is a systematic process because a manager is to introduce order to his
activities, and to perform his tasks in a manner that is accepted by the other members of the
organisation and in line with their expectations. It is a process oriented at accomplishing
objectives, which means that tasks and activities are derived from objectives set to the members
of the organisation. Devenport and Bibby (1999) state that SMEs increasingly need to develop
their innovation capabilities beyond that of technological innovation. This need comes from
increased agility in larger organizations, which enables them to erode traditional SME niche
markets. Furthermore, increased internationalization has encouraged some SMEs to operate in
more competitive global markets where continual improvement is prerequisite to innovation, as
distinct from solely technological development. Thus people, process and product dimensions
are included (Tidd et al., 2001). Porter and Stern (1999), stress that such innovation involves
much more than just science and technology. In most cases while discussing the issue of firm
size the empirical literature concentrated on identifying the linear or non-liner relationship
between firm size and R&D intensity among relatively large Indian firms (e.g. Lall, 1983;
Katrak, 1985; Siddharthan, 1988, 1992; Basant, 1997; Pradhan, 2002; Kumar and Aggarwal,
2005, Kathuria, 2008). There are, of course, a few exploratory and survey based studies on
innovation issues by Indian SMEs (Sikka, 1999; Kharbanda, 2001; Kacker, 2005; Sahu, 2008)
and one statistical study at the sectoral level (Bala Subrahmanya, 2006).

Literature Review

As the purchase of external technologies is an alternative way of strengthening firms

competitive capabilities, it can discourage in-house R&D of purchasing firms. However, prior
studies on Indian firms overwhelmingly uphold a positive relationship between in-house R&D
and external technology purchase (e.g. Lall, 1983; Katrak, 1985; Siddharthan, 1988; Deolalikar
and Evenson, 1989; Pradhan, 2002). Therefore, exporting SMEs are forced to undertake
considerable R&D effort to improve their competitiveness and to meet heightened competition.
Their R&D investments are also necessitate for absorbing knowledge spillovers from export
activities regarding evolving technological and market conditions overseas (Aw, Roberts and
Winston, 2005). Moreover, exporting SMEs have the advantage of a larger market to do R&D
activities than a local market-oriented SME. Braga and Wilmore (1991) for Brazil, Siddharthan
and Agarwal (1992) for India and Rasiah (2007) for a sample of auto parts firms from a number

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 87

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

of East Asian and South-East Asian countries have indicated the possibility of favourable impact
of exports on firms R&D behaviour. Personal networks are important for an entrepreneur to
successfully start up a newfirm to potential customers, investors, authorities, and suppliers
(Birley 1996; Kowalkowski et al. 2005). Compared to the resource base of the business network,
the firms internal resources are often scarce; for this reason drawing on resources from network
relationships is important (Gummesson 2004; Hammarkvist et al. 1982; Johannisson 1998;
Ostgaard and Birley 1996). The firm itself is a new phenomenon when it is created and has
therefore no credibility in itself. This is why the personal network and the credibility of prior
actions within the network is an enabling factor that eases necessary transactions for the growth
of the company (Kowalkowski et al. 2005). Although there are a number of studies on continual
improvement in SMEs (Gunasekaran et. al., 1996; Bessant and Caffyn 1997; Bessant and
Francise 1999), there is a relative paucity of in depth studies of innovation implementation
(Humphreys, McAdam, Leckey, 2005) and strategies applied by SME entrepreneurs to attain
innovation advantage. In the ongoing globalization process of national markets, the role of
technological capabilities becomes critical for firms survival and growth. The disappearance of
inward FDI and import barriers that once protected national markets and the introduction of
product patent regime recently have vastly expanded the strategic role of technology in the
evolving competitive environment of national markets. While the large firms are well positioned
to face these globalizing competitive challenges with their better strategic asset bundle, the
resource-starved small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are expected to be at greater risks
(Etemad, 2004; Pradhan and Sahu, 2008).

Proposed CSTs for R & D at Indian SMEs

Societal Marketing- Corporate societal marketing is defined to encompass marketing

initiatives that have at least one non-economic objective related to social welfare and use the
resources of the company and/or one of its partners (Drumwright and Murphy 2001, p. 164).
According to Kraft Foods chief executive officer and president Robert Eckert, Consumers are
yearning to connect to people and things that will give meaning to their lives (Stark 1999, p. 8).
Muniz and OGuinn (2000) have defined brand communities as specialized, nongeographically
bound communities, based on a structured set of social relationships among users of a brand.
They note that, similar to other communities, a brand community is marked by (1) a shared
consciousness, (2) rituals and traditions, and (3) a sense of moral responsibility. A CSM program
with a well-chosen cause can serve as a rallying point for brand users and a means for them to
connect to or share experiences with other consumers or employees of the company itself. The
literatures on corporate social performance (CSP), responsibility (CSR1) and responsiveness
(CSR2) also argue that firms have societal responsibilities that may or may not reinforce the
profit objective (Wood and Jones, 1995). Societal marketing implies that organizations
(governments, businesses and nonprofits) need to determine the needs of target markets and to
deliver the desired satisfactions in a way that enhances the consumers and the societys well
being. Social marketing focuses on designing and implementing programs that increase the
acceptability of a social idea, cause, or practice in (a) target group(s) (Kotler, 1994).

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 88

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Green Marketing-In the past decade, interest in more sustainable use of earths resources has
increased and has spanned a wide range of industries and academic disciplines. Green topics
have been researched in marketing and engineering for decades under concepts such as
sustainable solutions, green products, green marketing, and green processes (Charter et al., 2002;
Ottman, 1997).Information provision about greenness is a key component of green marketing.
Clearly, firms should not advertise products environmental benefits unless such claims can be
credibly substantiated. Negative press reports on false or exaggerated claims often lead to
decreased sales (Polonsky, 1995). .Some scholars claim that green policies/products are
profitable: green policies can reduce costs; green firms can shape future regulations and reap
first-mover advantages (Porter and van der Linde, 1995; for a critique, see Rugman and Verbeke,
2000). However, this does not seem to be the norm within and across most industries. Many
believe that green policies are expensive, especially after the initial gains the low hanging
fruit in reducing end-of-the-pipe pollution have been harvested (Walley and Whitehead,
1994). An important strategic reason for green marketing is that it could help firms to pre-empt
command-and-control regulations that often hurt their profits (Fri, 1992), and enable them to
shape future regulations, thereby reaping first-mover advantages. the tasks of green marketers
who favor collective sacrifices as vehicles for achieving their objectives are complicated by the
politics of the nonmarket environment (Kollman and Prakash, 2001). Polonsky and Rosenberger
(2001) stated that green marketing is a holistic, integrated approach that continually re-
evaluates how firms can achieve corporate objectives and meet consumer needs while
minimizing long-term ecological harm. Peattie (2001) suggested that green marketing has
been used to describe marketing activities which attempt to reduce the negative social and
environmental impacts of existing products and production systems, and which promote less
damaging products and services. Charter (1992) defined green marketing as a holistic and
responsible management process that identifies, anticipates, satisfies and fulfils stakeholder
requirements, for a reasonable reward, that does not adversely affect human or natural
environmental wellbeing. Terms such as environmental marketing, ecological marketing,
greener marketing, sustainable marketing and marketing of green products have also been used
in the literature to describe similar activities (e.g. Coddington, 1993; Ottman and Herbert, 1993;
Polonsky, 1994).
Balances Score card-The balanced scorecard (which saw its initial development during the
years of 1987 - 1992) (Kaplan. and Norton,1992) links performance measures by looking at a
business's strategic vision from four different perspectives: financial, customer, innovation and
learning, and internal business processes. These four perspectives do not eliminate, but instead
support the goals of various management techniques (such as Strategic Planning, Total Quality
Management, and Core Competence) employed during the several decades surroundings the
balanced scorecard's appearance. Each of the four perspectives is considered by four
parameters(Kaplan. and Norton,1992) .Those parameters are:

Goals: What do we need to achieve to become successful

Measures: What parameters will we use to know if we are successful
Targets: What quantitative value will we use to determine success of the measure
Initiatives: What will we do to meet our goals

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 89

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Kaplan and Norton contend that, " to put the balanced scorecard to work, companies should
articulate goals for time, quality, and performance and service and then translate these goals into
specific measures."
Business Intelligence-Sometimes business intelligence refers to on-line decision making, that is,
instant response. Most of the time, it refers to shrinking the time frame so that the intelligence is
still useful to the decision maker when the decision time comes. In all cases, use of business
intelligence is viewed as being proactive. Essential components of proactive BI are [Langseth
and Vivatrat, 2003]:

real-time data warehousing,

data mining,
automated anomaly and exception detection,
proactive alerting with automatic recipient determination,
seamless follow-through workflow,
automatic learning and refinement,
geographic information systems
data visualization

BI assists in strategic and operational decision making. A Gartner survey ranked the strategic use
of BI in the following order [Willen, 2002]:

1. Corporate performance management

2. Optimizing customer relations, monitoring business activity, and traditional decision support
3. Packaged standalone BI applications for specific operations or strategies
4. Management reporting of business intelligence

Technology Transfer-Technology transfer is a crucial and dynamic factor in social and

economic development. Technology has been transferred intentionally or unintentionally.
Sometimes, a generator of technology has acquired a competitive advantage by undertaking the
dissemination of products, processes and maintenance systems (Bradbury, 1978). Technology
transfer is defined in the Work Regulations of the United Nations, as the transfer of systematic
knowledge for the manufacture of a product or provision of service (Yu, 1991). Mnaas (1990)
states that technology consists of four closely inter-linked elements: namely, technique,
knowledge, organisation and product. However, knowledge contributes the major part to
technology, which is the key to control over technology as a whole. It is important that the
understanding of explicit and tacit elements of knowledge will help identify the process of
knowledge transfer. With regarding to the appropriateness and effectiveness of technology
transfer, Samli (1985) models the pattern of technology transfer with consideration of six
dimensions: geography, culture, economy, business, people and government.
Technology marketing-Young firms are aware of the need to influence potential stakeholders
around them such as customers, venture capitalists, suppliers that their business is innovative and
is of commercial importance. Researchers have called this to bridge the credibility gap. Getting
one actor committed to the project will help establishing credibility to reach out to other actors
(Birley and Norburn 1985). Further research has proven that personal relationships are often the

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 90

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

factor that enables the first transactions and the founders of the firm are using their prior
credibility in the new firm (Kowalkowski et al 2005). News media is a key trigger of responses
from competitors according to Mark Kennedy (Kennedy 2005). He argues that both efficiency
and legitimacy concerns lead firms to rely on media coverage of their competitors rather than on
competitors direct public statements and shows in his study that being referenced by rivals
follows coverage rather than releases, but coverage itself follows producers influence attempts.
Thus, the media is behind the market mirror, and its image of demand is refracted by properties
of the reportersource interface.It can be supported by mobile, internet, radio, TV etc.
According to industry data released by Japan s largest advertising agency Dentsu in late
February, mobile advertising expenditures in the Japanese market in 2007 increased by almost
60% compared to the previous year, reaching 62.1 billion (ca. USD 621 million). Mobile
marketing, interpreted most broadly, could describe any approach to communicating with
consumers while they're on the move: all manner of electronic devices (MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)
A study featured in the Yahoo! Summit Series (September 2005) reported that across China,
India, and the United States, 13- to 24-year-olds were least favorable toward advertising on their
personal electronic devices compared with other new or traditional media. The study highlighted
the variation in acceptance of mobile advertising across countries: in India, 30 percent of youth
were positive toward mobile phone advertising, versus 23 percent in China and 9 percent in the
United States.
Virtual Enterprise-The VE life cycle involves a number of phases, basically VE creation /
configuration, VE operation, VE evolution, and VE dissolution (Camarinha-Matos et al, 98, 99),
(Spinosa et al., 98). Other authors also include the activities of business opportunity
identification, and partners search and selection as separate phases (Bremer et al., 99). A virtual
organization is "a collection of business units in which people and work processes from the
business units interact intensively in order to perform work which benefits all" (Porter, 1990).
Although virtual organizations have become a relatively widespread business approach to
structuring business, the underlying concepts of linking competencies across business units or
organizations have existed for some time earlier, too. These business linkages enable
organizations to more tightly coordinate the transactions and activities across a value chain.
Virtual reality, virtual space, virtual organizations, virtual teams; virtual is todays
organizational buzzword (Johansson, 1995; Potocan, 2001). Virtual organizations enable
organizational and/or individual core competencies to be brought together when needed, and
disbanded when no longer required. These new firms mirror the fluidity of the global markets,
creating, and disbanding resources as dictated by the marketplace. Global location, technical,
workforce and market expertise advantages can be heightened through the use of the virtual
organizational structure (Davidow, Malone, 1993). The rationale for forming a virtual
organization varies for the different entities involved in each relationship (Speier, Harvey, and
Palmer, 1998; Harvey, Speier, and Novicevic, 2000; Harvey, Dabic, 2001). Virtual global
strategic organizations involve inter-organizational relationships that exist in a variety of forms.
These relationships can be based on existing relationships between firms and often reflect prior
competitive or cooperative interactions (Hill, Hitt, and Hoskisson, 1992; Allcorn, 1997). In
addition to these inter-organizational strategic relationships, firms must have an economic
incentive for participation. Strategic needs, desire for performance enhancements, or an attempt
to foster innovation can drive these incentives. Nike, e.g., was one of the first organizations that
took advantage of advanced communication and logistic technology to create a global network of
ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 91
International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

organizations to produce athletic shoes instead of keeping all the work inside the organization
(Snow, Miles, and Coleman, 1992; Potocan, 1997; Harvey, Dabic, 2001) Five identifiable
models of virtual global strategic organizations begin to emerge from the existing literature (see:
Porter, 1990; Davidow, Malone, 1993; Rayport, Sviokla, 1995; Allcorn, 1997). These models
share common elements of coordination through the use of IT and communication technologies,
and the performance of work across time and space (Speier, Harvey, and Palmer, 1998; Harvey,
Speier, and Novicevic, 2000; Harvey, Dabic, 2001).

Supply chain management-Firms find that they can no longer compete effectively in isolation
of their suppliers or other entities in the supply chain (Sandeep, 1998).Accordingly, a
streamlined SCM is the network of facilities and distribution options to support an association of
vendors, suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, retailers, and other trading partners (Kwan,
1999)..SCM can form a loop that begins with the customer and ends with the customer (Yang
and Papazoglou, 2000).Supply-chain management (SCM) enables supply-chain partners to work
in close coordination through information sharing to facilitate supplier-customer interactions and
minimize transaction cost (Lawrence, 1999; Premkumar, 2000; Lee and Whang, 2000).
According to Ferguson (2000), the concept of SCM incorporates two important ideas: 1 SCM is
a collaborative effort that combines many parties or processes in the product cycle; and 2 it
shows that SCM can cover the entire product cycle, from the introduction of raw materials to the
point at which the consumer purchases the product. functional integration is required, which is
the process of integrating all business functions to work together, e.g. a firms logistics or
distribution functions must integrate with supply-management, manufacturing, and information
technology before the functional integration can be extended to other companies in the supply
chain (Ferguson, 2000).
Customer relationship management-Among some of the top trends identified during
conversations with technologists and marketers are the importance of firmwide initiatives,
including SharePoint intranets to improve information sharing, enterprise relationship
management (ERM) systems to better identify and grow key relationships and attorney-driven
Web communications including blogs and minisites for improved audience reach and
business development. Social media are on everyones mind. This is not surprising, considering
that sites like Twitter have around 23 million members, according to The Economist. Acquisition
of customers: this refers to the need of organisation to find new customers for their products.
This means they are required to develop strategies to attract potential customers to purchase the
product. The cost of attracting a new customer is estimated to be five times the cost of keeping a
current customer happy (Kotler, 1997). Retention of customers: organisations also need to
focus on existing customers in order to ensure that they continue purchasing and continue
supporting the product. Organisations can increase their profitability by between 20% and 125%
if they boost their customer retention rate by 5 percent (Peck, Payne, Christopher & Clark,
2004). Profitability: Customer profitability reflects the financial performance of customers with
respect to all the costs associated with a transaction (Gordon, 1998). Profitability in the case of
CRM is determined in the light of the lifetime value of the customer to the organisation, taking

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 92

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

account the income and expenses associated with each customer and their respective transactions
over time (Gordon, 1998). CRM includes the use of technology in the building of databases and
the use thereof to develop and improve the relationship with the various markets, including the
final consumer. In order to exploit this technology, skills among staff are required. Organisations
within developing markets have customer information in databases, though many do not have the
advanced technology or skills to exploit the information that is stored (Brunjes & Roderick,
2002). The success of any strategy is determined by the success with which it is implemented.
This is also true in the case of CRM strategies. Implementing CRM require that the organisation
and the associated business processes be in place in order to facilitate its success (Brunjes &
Roderick, 2002). The risk in implementing any CRM strategy is that the organisation is not ready
to do so and relying on technology to implement the strategy (Brunjes & Roderick, 2002).
Total quality management-A baseline technical definition of what TQM is all about has been
given by the American Federal Office of Management Budget Circular (cited in Milakovich,
1990, p. 209), TQM is a total organizational approach for meeting customer needs and
expectations that involves all managers and employees in using quantitative methods to improve
continuously the organisations processes, products and services. According to the latter
definition TQM is not merely a technical system. In fact, TQM is associated with the
organisation itself, which is also a social system. Pike and Barnes (1996) argue that organizations
are not only technical systems, but also human systems. In addition, Oakland (1993) states that
TQM is an attempt to improve the whole organisations competitiveness, effectiveness, and
structure. For Dale (1999), TQM is the mutual co-operation of everyone in an organisation and
associated business processes to produce products and services, which meet and, hopefully,
exceed the needs and expectations of customers. TQM is both a philosophy and a set of
management guiding principles for managing an organisation. (p. 9).
Enterprise resource planning-Kumar and Van Hillegersberg (2000) define ERP systems as
configurable information systems packages that integrate information and information-based
processes within and across functional areas in an organization. In this sense, ERP systems are
designed to integrate business functions and allow data to be shared across many boundaries and
divisions within the company. Enterprise resources planning (ERP) systems assist enterprises in
automating and integrating corporate cross-functions such as inventory control, procurement,
distribution, finance, and project management. In recent years as many companies began to
search for ways to replace their existing applications running on mainframes that no longer meet
the growing corporate needs, ERP systems have become fixtures to provide a basis for business
process management integration across business functions (Mabert et al., 2000) Gattiker and
Goodhue (2000) group the literature of ERP benefits into four categories: (1) improve
information flow across sub-units, standardization and integration facilitates communication and
better coordination; (2) enabling centralization of administrative activities such as account
payable and payroll; (3) reduce IS maintenance costs and increase the ability to deploy new IS
functionality; (4) ERP may be instrumental in moving a firm away from inefficient business
processes and toward accepted best of practice processes. Several research studies have
identified various important benefits the ERP systems bring to organizations. OLeary (2000)
stated that an ERP system integrates the majority of the business processes and allows access to
the data in real time. Furthermore, ERP improves the performance level of a supply chain by
helping to reduce cycle times (Gardiner et al., 2002). There are also some intangible benefits that
an organization may enjoy by implementing an ERP system including, better customer
ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 93
International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

satisfaction, improved vendor performance, increased flexibility, reduced quality costs, improved
resource utility, improved information accuracy and improved decision-making capability
(Siriginidi, 2000).
Strategic technology management-According to a recent definition, strategy is the readiness of
a enterprise for the future, Dedouchov (2001,s.1) "the strategy defines the company's long-term
objectives, the course of individual strategic operations and the allocation of corporate resources
necessary for the accomplishment of the set objectives in such a way that the strategy sets out
from the company's needs, takes into account changes in its resources and capabilities, and, at
the same time, adequately responds to changes in the company's external
environment".According to Koontz and Weihrich (1993, p.16), management is the process of
designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals work together in groups to
accomplish efficiently selected objectives. In his definition of strategic management, Bowman
(1995, p.9) sets out from the consequences of decisions on products, allocation and appointments
of top managers: he identifies important decisions with strategic objectives. The way these
important (strategic) decisions are made and implemented can be characterized as a process of
strategic management. Looking inside the firm of the buyer the adoption process of an
innovation is viewed as a five step process. (Rogers 1983)1) Knowledge is when the group
within the company which is the decision-making unit starts to understand what the innovation is
about and how that relates to their needs.2) Persuasion is when the decision-making unit
develops a positive or negative attitude towards this particular innovation. They try to evaluate if
the innovation could or could not be useful for their business.3) Decision is the third step and
here the unit may try the product or a smaller version of it. After the trial they decide.4)
Implementation is vital for the adaptation. If something goes wrong here and the start up firm is
not able to provide adequate information the buyer may cancel the transaction or just not use the
innovation.5) Confirmation is the last step where the buyer needs to get feedback on that they are
using the innovation correctly.
Business process management-Elzinga et al. (1995) propose that: Many companies are engaged
in assessing ways in which their productivity, product quality, and operations can be improved.
A relatively new area of such improvements is business process management (BPM). DeToro
and McCabe (1997) argue that BPM is re-emerging rather than a relatively new area but they
agree with Elzinga et al. (1995) and Corrigan (1996) that BPM incorporates the approaches
indicated above and that: There is renewed appreciation that no one performance improvement
path meets every need and a combination of these paths is required. process arena has been
focused on business process re-engineering (BPR) as described by Hammer (1990), Davenport
(1993), and Hammer and Champy (1993). Despite BPR being eagerly embraced by many
organisations it has failed to deliver the expected results, according to writers such as Harrington
(1998), Malhorta (1996), Mumford and Hendrick (1996), and Deakins and Makgill (1997).
Huffman (1997) makes the point: Organisations advocate a particular improvement strategy to
the extent that it becomes the strategy of choice, de-emphasising or excluding all others. This
need not, and must not, happen. A variety of approaches, techniques, and tools are available for
improving products, systems, processes and activities. Hammer and Champy (2001) defined
Business process re-engineering (BPR) as the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of
business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of
performance, such as cost, quality, service and speed. Somers and Nelson (2004) stated that
BPR plays a significant role in the early stages of implementation. Furthermore, it is important in
ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 94
International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

the acceptance stage and tends to be less important when the technology becomes routine. Nah
(2003) noted that reengineering should continue with new ideas and updates to take full
advantage of the ERP system when the system is in use. Organizations should be willing to
change their businesses to fit the software in order to reduce the degree of customizations
(Murray and Coffin, 2001). Many organizations have made unnecessary, complex
customizations to ERP software because the people making the changes do not fully understand
the organizations business practices (Nah 2003). Coombs and Hull (1996) believe that the
emergent business process paradigmlacks coherence of theories and practices and it is
characterised by an approach to strategy which shifts the focus to the important intrinsic
properties of the firm, rather than its environment alone and by a variety of ways of
understanding and managing the horizontal flows within and between organisations and by an
emphasis on organisational change. Talwar (1993) defines a process as a sequence of pre-
defined activities executed to achieve a pre-specified type or range of outcomes and Ould
(1995) says there are two types of processes: (1) the sort that starts when necessary and finishes
some time in the future; (2) the sort that is constantly running. Armistead et al. (1997) raises the
unanswered questions of: What is business process management? Firstly, is it a series of tools
and techniques for improving the performance of business processes whether they be categorised
as operational, support or directions setting. Or is it a way of integrating the management of the
whole organisation? Secondly, if business process management is the latter, how can it be made
to work? Finally, is it a tool for organisational design which needs to be understood by only a
few within the organisation? In his attempt to explain BPM, Zairi (1997) says BPM is
concerned with the main aspects of business operations where there is high leverage and a big
proportion of added value. BPM has to be governed by the following rules: Major activities
have to be properly mapped and documented. BPM creates a focus on customers through
horizontal linkages between key activities. BPM relies on systems and documented procedures
to ensure discipline, consistency and repeatability of quality performance. BPM relies on
measurement activity to assess the performance of each individual process, set targets and
deliver output levels which can meet corporate objectives. BPM has to be based on a
continuous approach to optimisation through problem solving and reaping out extra benefits.
BPM has to be inspired by best practices to ensure that superior competitiveness is achieved.
BPM is an approach for culture change and does not result simply through having good systems
and the right structure in place.
Enterprise systems-The notion that a company can and ought to have an expert (or a group of
experts) create for it a single, completely integrated supersysteman MISto help it govern
every aspect of its activity is absurd. (Dearden, 1972, p. 101). Whether because the capacity of
computers and programming languages was too small or organizations were content to manage
themselves along narrow functional lines, the 1970s vision of a single integrated information
system for the enterprise remained a mirage for the majority of computer-using organizations.
Instead, organizations created islands of automation (McKenney & McFarlan, 1982).
Integration. Enterprise systems promise seamless integration of all the information flowing
through a companyfinancial and accounting information, human resource information, supply
chain information, and customer information (Davenport, 1998, p. 121). Best practices
represent a powerful reason to adopt enterprise systems without modifying them because few
organizations claim to have redesigned all their business processes for cross-functional
efficiency and effectivenesswhich was the stated purpose of business process reengineering
ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 95
International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

(Hammer, 1990). best practices embedded in enterprise systems, most adopting organizations
must commit themselves to some degree of business process reengineering (Connolly, 1999).
Finally, some organizations adopt a best-of-breed strategy in which they try to integrate
several enterprise packages from different vendors, each designed to be the best fit in its class
with the needs of the adopting organizations. Examples of companies that have adopted the best-
of-breed approach are American Standard Companies (Bashein et al., 1997) and Starbucks
(Aragon, 1997). Given the richness of enterprise systems in terms of functionality and potential
benefits to adopting organizations, it should not be surprising that companies are adopting these
systems for many different reasons20 (Ross, 1999). In large companies, it is not unheard of to
find, say, 42 different general ledger packages or 22 separate purchasing applications in use at
the time of adopting an enterprise system. Boeing, for example, had 14 bill-of-material systems
and 30 shop-floor control systems before the company adopted ERP (Schneider, 1999). One
reason for nonadoption, partial adoption, or discontinuance is lack of featurefunction fit
between the companys needs and the packages available in the marketplace. There are very
few companies that dont have specialized processes dictated by their industry, according to one
consultant (Slater, 1999). More commonly, the organization may choose to adopt only certain
parts of an enterprise system or may modify the system to improve feature-function fit. Consider
examples of the implementation of SAP R/3 from Visio (a software company) (Koch, 1997).
Companies that continually change their organizational structures and business models and
particularly those that are not run in a very top-down manner may find enterprise systems
unsuitable as a corporate solution (Bancroft, Seip, & Sprengel, 1997). the nonadoption of
enterprise systems is the availability of alternatives for increasing the level of systems
integration. Data warehousing, a bundle of technologies that integrates data from multiple source
systems for query and analysis, provides what some describe as the poor mans ERP. The
usefulness of data warehousing as an integration strategy is limited by the quality of the source
systems. Another alternative to enterprise systems involves rearchitecting in-house systems
around a layer of middleware that isolates application systems from stores of master data.
When Dell abandoned SAP R/3 as its integration strategy, the company designed a flexible
middleware architecture to allow the company to add or subtract applications quickly and
selected software from a variety of vendors . . . to handle finance and manufacturing functions
(Slater, 1999). Enterprise systems represent an important contemporary phenomenon in the
organizational use of information technology. According to M. Lynne Markus and Cornelis
Tanis The most distinct differences between an enterprise system and other transaction-oriented
systems are that the enterprise system is a package versus a system custom developed in-house
(implying long-term dependence on a vendor) and that embedded in the enterprise system are
normative business practices (requiring many adopting organizations to undertake some form of
process reengineering).
Information management-Having decided to provide comprehensible information, firms face
yet another challenge: consumers must perceive information as being credible. As a reference,
many view industry as the least reliable source of information on environmental issues (Ottman,
1992; Stisser, 1994). Knowledge transfer is about connection not collection, and that connection
ultimately depends on choice made by individuals (Dougherty, 1999). Maitland (1999) argues
that the crucial factor in determining a company's competitive advantage is its ability to convert
tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge through organisational learning. Polanyi (1967)
considered human knowledge by starting from the fact that we know more than we can tell.
ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 96
International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Knowledge is increasingly being recognised as a vital organisational resource that gives market
leverage and competitive advantage (Leonard-Barton, 1995).
Environmental entrepreneurship-Sustainability, which is often used in unison with greenness,
includes issues such as population pressure and increased consumption, globalization, global
warming and climate change, ozone depletion, acid rain, genetic engineering and loss of habitats
and species diversity (Charter et al., 2002). According to the United Nations Brundtland
Report, sustainable development meet[s] the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their needs (United Nations, 1987). The three main
dimensions of sustainability are environmental (planet), economic (profit) and social (people),
also known as the triple bottom line (UNEP, 2007). Charter et al. (2002) combined the
concept of sustainability with marketing to define sustainable marketing as a broader
management concept which focuses on achieving the triple bottom line through creating,
producing and delivering sustainable solutions with higher net sustainable value whilst
continuously satisfying customers and other stakeholders. Chen et al. (2008) discussed the
aspects of sustainability in relation to information systems (IS) in detail and proposed a model
through which IS automation can be leveraged to achieve eco-efficiency. They also proposed
that ISs be used to build environmental awareness in organizations and the community to
transform organizations and industries so they achieve eco-effectiveness.However, if consumers
do not care much about who is greener, but they do penalize firms that violate environmental
laws or emit high levels of toxins, greenness is a hygiene variable 33% of adults claimed to
have avoided buying products, at least occasionally, from companies with poor environmental
records (Ottman, 1996). Menon and Menon (1997, p. 54) suggest that firms could adopt
enviroprenuerial marketing strategies: the processes for formulating and implementing
entrepreneurial and environmentally beneficial marketing activities with the goal of creating
revenue by providing exchanges that satisfy firms economic and social objectives.

Proposed theoretical framework

Proposed theoretical framework for CSTs for R & D at Indian SMEs (Part I)

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 97

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Proposed theoretical framework for CSTs for R & D at Indian SMEs (Part II)

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 98

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 99

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Proposed theoretical framework for CSTs for R & D at Indian SMEs Part III

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 100

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Proposed R & D cycle for Indian


ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 101

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012


Bessant and Francise (1998) suggest that effective innovation must involve all areas of an SME
with the potential to impact every discipline and process. Innovation can be transformational,
radical or incremental depending on the effect and nature of the change. Afuah (1998) suggest
that innovations do not have to be breakthroughs or paradigm shifts, though organizations should
strive for the larger innovation.Domestic R&D expenditure in India and China increased
substantially in recent years as both countries are undertaking concerted efforts to build cutting-
edge scientific capabilities, see e.g. OECD (2006). According to Bansal and Roth (2000), there
are three primary reasons for a firm go green: competitiveness, legitimation and ecological
responsibility. Improved competitiveness includes energy and waste management and process
intensification. Legitimation refers not only to complying with legislation but also to additional
actions that target long-term sustainability, avoid fines and penalties and lessen risks. Ecological
responsibility is a motivation that stems from the concern that a firm has for its social
obligations and values (Bansal and Roth, 2000). As Peattie and Crane (2005) argued, the free
market will never be able to turn every firm toward greener products, so legislation forces them
to undertake more sustainable business practices. However, regulations should still leave room
for innovations and create maximum opportunity for innovation by letting industries discover
how to solve their own problems (Porter and van der Linde, 1995). new regulations and
standards can be an advantage in business and in marketing. In addition to legislation, there are
competitors, customers, trade associations and other pressure groups that demand that firms
come up with more green solutions (Kassaye, 2001). According to Fuller (1999), sustainable
products possess positive ecological attributes that are nothing more than enhanced waste
management factors (ecoattributes) that have purposely been designed-in (embedded) through
decisions concerning how products are made/manufactured, what they are made of, how they
function, how long they last, how they are distributed, how they are used, and how they are
disposed of at the end of useful service life. According to Fuller and Ottman (2004), there are
three key design scenarios for sustainable products: short-term eco-redesigns that involve low-
functional changes of existing products, eco-innovations that provide complete new
functionalities and ways to use the product for customers, and sustainable technology
innovations that utilize emerging and sometimes even radical technology to provide new
customer benefits and changes in how products are used. Naturally, the last category is the
riskiest for small and even large firms. Bhat (1993) divided the sustainable considerations of the
design phase into two parts, source reduction and waste management strategies, along with their
respective subtasks, which are the most important ways to affect a products overall
sustainability during the design phase. Charter et al. (2002) provided a list of questions that a
developer of sustainable product should consider while designing a green product. With regard to
the firm size (FSIZE), previous empirical studies have found a decisive role for it in firms R&D
performance. Following the Schumpeterian assertion that large-scale enterprises are the key to
innovation driven capitalist development, firm size is postulated to have independent advantages
in conducting R&D. In addition to larger resource base and greater risk taking capabilities, larger
the firm generally implies the higher incentive to do R&D because the effect of cost reduction

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 102

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

(effected via R&D) applies to a larger output and so is more profitable for them (Cohen and
Klepper, 1996; Fishman and Rob, 1999). However, a number of empirical studies in India as
reviewed by Kathuria (2008) and elsewhere as reviewed by Cohen and Klepper (1996) suggested
that the influence of firm size on R&D performance is subject to a critical level of firm size.

References and Suggested Readings

(1998), Strategic Brand Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
(1999), The Malleable Self: The Role of Self-Expression in Persuasion, Journal of
Marketing Research, 36 (February), 4557.
(2001), Building Customer-Based Brand Equity: A Blueprint for Creating Strong
Brands, Marketing Management, 10 (July/August), 1519.
and David A. Aaker (1992), The Effects of Sequential Introduction of Brand
Extensions, Journal of Marketing Research, 29 (February), 3550.
and Patrick E. Murphy (2001), Corporate Societal Marketing, in Handbook of
Marketing and Society, Paul N. Bloom and Gregory T. Gundlach, eds. Thousand Oaks, CA:
Sage Publications, 16283.
and Peter A. Dacin (1997), The Company and the Product: Corporate Associations
and Consumer Product Responses, Journal of Marketing, 61 (January), 6884.
(1999a), ``Study finds growing interest in ERP and operations software, Vol. 38 No. 10,
October, p. 48.
Aaker, David A. and Erich Joachimsthaler (2000), Brand Leadership. New York: The Free
Aaker, Jennifer L. (1997), Dimensions of Brand Personality, Journal of Marketing
Research, 34 (August), 34757.
Abbott, P.G.,1985, Technology Transfer in the Construction Industry Infrastructure and
Industrial development. Special Report No.223
Abramowitz, M., Thinking about Growth, Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Afuah, A. (1998), Innovation Management : Strategies, Implementation and Profits, Oxford
University Press, New York, NY
Ahire, S., & O'Shaughnessy, K. (1998). The role of top management commitment in quality
management: An empirical analysis of the auto parts industry. International Journal of
Quality Science, 3(1), 537.
Alagh, Y.K. (1998) Technological Change in Indian Industry, Economic and Political
Weekly, 33 (4), pp. 181184.
Allcorn, S. (1997). Parallel virtual organizations - managing and working in the virtual
workplace. Administration & Society,29, 4, 412-439.
Allen, E. (1998) , ``Supply chain management software vendor comparison and analysis,
Dissertation, May, University of Texas at Austin.
Allenby, B.R. (2000), The fallacy of green technology , The American Behavioral
Scientist, Vol. 44 No. 2, pp. 213-28.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 103

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Al-Mashari M, Ghani S,W Al-Rashid W. 2006. A study of the Critical Success Factors of
ERP implementation in developing countries. Internet and Enterprise Management, 4(1): 68-
Al-Mashari, M, Al-Mudimigh A, Zairi M. 2003. Enterprise resource planning: A taxonomy
of critical factors, European Journal of Operational Research 146 352-364.
8048656? v=glance&vi=reviews. Current 9/25/2003.
Amiti, M., and J. Konings (2007), Trade Liberalization, Intermediate Inputs, and
Productivity: Evidence from Indonesia, American Economic Review, 97(5), pp. 16111638.
Anderson, J., Hakasson, M., Johnson, J. (1994). Dynamic business relationships within a
business network context. Journal of Strategic Management, 58, 1-15.
Anderson, J., Narus, J. (1990). A Model of Distributor Firm and Manufacturer Firm Working
Partnership. Journal of Strategic Management, 54, 42-58.
Andreasen, Alan R. and Minette E. Drumwright (2001) Alliances and Ethics in Social
Marketing, in Ethical Issues in Social Marketing, Alan K. Andreasen, ed. Washington, DC:
Georgetown University Press, 95124.
Anheuser-Busch Publications (2001), Making FriendsMaking A D i f f e r e n c e
(accessed December 13), [available at http:// www.anheuser-].
Armistead, C., Machin, S. and Pritchard, J.-P. (1997), Approaches to business process
management, in Ribera, J. and Prats, J. (Eds), Managing Service Operations: Lessons from
the Service and Manufacturing Sectors, papers from the 4th International Conference of the
European Operations Management Association, IESE, Barcelona, Spain.
Arvanitis, S., and Hollenstein, H. Determinants of Swiss Firms R&D Activities at Foreign
Locations, Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the Swiss Society of Economics and
Statistics, 2006.
Ashby, R. (1973). An Introduction to Cybernetics. London: Chapman in Hall.
AT Kearney Information Technology Monograph: Strategic Information Technology and the
CEO Agenda, 1996, 1998, 2000.
Atkinson, P. E. (1990). Creating cultural change: The key to successful TQM. London, UK:
IFS Publications. Alexandros G. Psychogios and Constantinos-Vasilios Priporas
Austin R., and Cotteleer, M. Current issues in IT: Enterprise Resource Planning.
Unpublished presentation, Harvard Business School, October 1999.
Avon Company (2001), Avon Breast Cancer Crusade (accessed December 13), [available at women/avoncrusade/].
Aw, B.Y., M. J. Roberts and T. Winston (2005), The Complementary Role of Exports and
R&D Investments as Sources of Productivity Growth, NBER Working Paper, No. 11774,
National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA 02138.
Ayers, J. (2000), ``A primer on supply-chain management, Information Strategy, Vol. 16
No. 2, Winter, pp. 6-15.
Bailey, J. Trash haulers are taking fancy software to the dump. Wall Street Journal, June 9,

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 104

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Bakos, J. Y. (1991). A Strategic Analysis of Electronic Marketplaces. MIS Quarterly, 15, 3,

Bala Subrahmanya, M H (2006), Technological Innovations in Indian Small & Medium
Enterprises (SMEs) Sector: Does Firm Size Matter?, International Journal of Innovation and
Learning, 3 (5), pp 499517.
Balasubramanian, V. and A. Bashian (1998) Document Management and Web
Technologies: Alice Marries the Mad Hatter, Communications of the ACM, 41(7), pp. 107.
Bansal, P. and Roth, K. (2000), Why companies go green: a model of ecological
responsiveness, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 43 No. 4, pp. 717-36.
Barich, Howard and Philip Kotler (1991), A Framework for Marketing Image
Management, Sloan Management Review, 32 (2), 94104.
Baron DP. 1995. Integrated strategy: market and nonmarket components. California
Management Review 37: 4765.
Barone, Michael J., Anthony D. Miyazaki, and Kimberly A. Taylor (2000), The Influence of
Cause-Related Marketing on Consumer Choice: Does One Good Turn Deserve Another?
Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (2), 24862.
Barrett S. 1991. Environmental regulations for competitive advantage. Business Strategy
Review 2: 115.
Barua, A., Kriebel, C., and Mukhopadhyay, T. Information technology and business value:
An analytic and empirical investigation. Information Systems Research 7 (4), 409-428, 1995.
Basant, R. (1997), Technology Strategies of Large Enterprises in Indian industry: Some
Explorations, World Development, 25(10), pp. 16831700.
BCG. Harnessing the Power of India: Rising to the productivity Challenge in Biopharma
R&D, The Boston Consulting Group, 2006.
Becker, J., Kugeler, M., Rosemann, N. (2000). Prozessmanagement. Heidelberg: Springer-
Beise, M. Lead Markets: Country-Specific Success Factors of the Global Diffusion of
Innovations, Physica-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2001.
Belitz, H. Forschung und Entwicklung in multinationalen Unternehmen, Study on Germanys
Innovation System No. 8-2004, Berlin, 2004.
Blohlvek F., Koan P., ule O.Management. Olomouc:Rubico,2002.ISBN 80-85839-45-
Berger IE, Kanetkar V. 1995. Increasing environmental sensitivity via workplace
experiences. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 14: 205215.
Bessant, J and Caffyn, S (1997), High-involvement innovation through continuous
improvement, International Journal of Technology Management, Vol 13, No. 1, pp 14-22
Bessant, J and Francis, D (1998), Implementing the new product development process,
Technovation, Vol 17, No. 4, pp 1987-97
Bessant, J. and Francis, D. (1999), Developing strategic continual improvement capability,
International Journal of Operations and Production Management, Vol. 19 No 11, pp 1106-
Besterfield, H. D., Besterfield-Michna, C., Besterfield, H. G., & Besterfield-Sacre, M.
(1999). Total quality management (2nd ed.). London: Prentice Hall.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 105

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Bhat, V.N. (1993), Green marketing begins with green design, Journal of Business &
Industrial Marketing, Vol. 8 No. 4, pp. 26-31.
Bhattacharya, C.B., Hayagreeva Rao, and Mary Ann Glynn (1995), Understanding the Bond
of Identification: An Investigation of Its Correlates Among Art Museum Members, Journal
of Marketing, 59 (October), 4657.
Bhattacharya, S., S.C. Sharma and K. Lal (2007), Study of R&D and Innovation Activity of
Firms in India, A Report Prepared by the National Institute of Science, Technology and
Development Studies (NISTADS) for the Department of Science and Technology,
Government of India.
Bicheno, J. (1998). The quality 60: A guide for service and manufacturing, Buckingham,
Biehal, Gabriel J. and Daniel A. Sheinin (1998), Managing the Brand in a Corporate
Advertising Environment: A Decision- Making Framework for Brand Managers, Journal of
Advertising, 27 (2), 99110.
Biemans, Wim G (1992), Managing Innovations within Networks. Londn: Routledge.
Biemens, W.G. Managing Innovation with Networks, Routledge, London, 1992.
Bingi, P., Sharma, M. and Godla, J. (1999), ``Critical issues affecting an ERP
implementation, Information Systems Management, Vol. 16 No. 3, Summer, pp. 7-14.
Birley, Sue and David Norburn (1985), "Small vs. Large Companies: The Entrepreneurial
Conundrum," The Journal of Business Strategy, Corporate Venturing.
Birley, Sue and Tone A. Ostgaard (1996), "New Venture Growth and Personal Networks,"
Journal of Business Research (36), 37-50.
Black JS, Stern PC, Elworth JT. 1985. Personal and contextual influences on household
Black, J., Edwards, S. (2000). Emergence of virtual or network organizations: Fad or feature.
Journal of Organizational Change Management, 13, 6, 567-576.
Blazing, Jennifer and Paul N. Bloom (1999), How Perceptions About the Purity of Sponsor
Motives Affect the Persuasiveness of Socially-Oriented Communications, working paper,
Department of Marketing, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Blinder, A.S. Offshoring: The Next Industrial Revolution, in Foreign Affairs, (85:2), 2006,
pp. 113-128.
Blumberg, R. and S. Atre (2003a) More than Search, DM Review, (13)3, pp. 42-47.
Blumberg, R. and S. Atre (2003b) The Problem with Unstructured Data, DM Review, (current Sept. 12, 2003).
Blumberg, R. and S. Atre (2003c) Automatic Classification: Moving to the Mainstream,
Bohemia, E. and Harman, K. (2008), Globalization and product design education: the
global studio, Design Management Journal, Vol. 3 No. 2, pp. 53-68.
Bon, R., 1996, Whither Global Construction? Some Results of the ECERU opinion survey
1993-1995 Building Research and Information Volume 24 No.2 p6
Bon, R., 1997, The Future of International Construction. Building Research and Information

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 106

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Boncella, R. (2003) Competitive Intelligence and the Web, Communications of AIS, (12)
Bonoma, T.V. (1982), "Major Sales: Who Really Does the Buying?" Harvard Business
Review (May-June), pp.111-19.
Borghoff, U., Pareschi, R. (1998). Information Technology for Knowledge Management.
Berlin: Springer-Velag.
Bourantas, D., Anagnostelis, J., Mantes, Y., & Kefalas, A. (1990). Culture gap in Greek
management. Organization Studies, 11(2), 261-283.
Boutellier, R., Gassmann, O., and von Zedtwitz, M. Managing Global Innovation:
Uncovering the Secrets of Future Competitiveness, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2000.
Bowman C. Strategick management. Pel. J. Vejdlek. 1. vyd. Praha: Grada Publishing,
1995. 52 s. ISBN 80-7169-230-1.
Bradbury, F.R., 1978, Technology Transfer Practice of International Firms. Netherlands:
Sijthoff & Noordhoff International Publishers BV
Branch, S. Hershey to miss earning estimates by as much as 10%. Wall Street Journal, B12,
September 14, 1999.
Braverman, H. (1974). Labour and monopoly in capital: The degradation of work in the
twentieth century. London: Monthly Review Press.
Bremer, C.; Mundim, A.; Michilini, F.; Siqueira, J.; Ortega, L. (1999), A Brazilian Case of
Brennan, M. (1991). Mismanagement and quality circles: How middle managers influence
direct participation. Employee Relations, 13(5), 22-32.
Bresnahan, T., Brynolfsson, E. and Hitt, L. Information technology, workplace, organization
and the demand for skilled labor: A firm level analysis. NBER Working Paper 7136.
Cambridge, MA: NBER.
British Government (2008), World First as Government Computers Go Green, press
release 17 July 2008, available at:
Brittan, D. (1997). Business lessons from Darwin. MIT Reporter, 12.01, 12-13.
Broniarczyk, Susan M. and Joseph W. Alba (1994), The Importance of the Brand in Brand
Extension, Journal of Marketing Research, 31 (May), 21428.
Brown JD, Wahlers RG. 1998. The environmentally concerned consumer: an exploratory
study. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice 6: 3947.
Brown, A. (1994). TQM: Implications for training. Training for Quality, 2(3), 4-10.
Brown, Tom J. (1998), Corporate Associations in Marketing: Antecedents and
Consequences, Corporate Reputation Review, 1 (3), 21533.
Brunjes, B & Roderick, R. 2002. Customer Relationship Management: Why it does and does
not work in South Africa. Paper presented at the 2002 IMM Marketing Educators
Conference, South Africa, September 2002.
Brynolfsson, E. and Hitt, L. and Yang, S. Intangible assets: How the interaction of computers
and organizational structure affects stock market valuations. MIT Working Paper, July 2000.
Brynolfsson, E. and Hitt, L. Beyond computation: Information technology, organizational
transformation and business performance. Journal of Economic Perspectives, Fall 2000.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 107

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Brynolfsson, E. and Hitt, L. Beyond the productivity paradox. Communications of ACM 41

(8), 49-55, August 1998.
Brynolfsson, E. and Hitt, L. Computing productivity: Are computers pulling their weight?
Mimeo, MIT and Wharton, 1998.
Brynolfsson, E. and Hitt, L. Information technology as a factor of production: The role of
differences among firms. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 3 (4), 183-200,
Brynolfsson, E. and Hitt, L. Paradox lost? Firm-level evidence on the returns to information
systems. Management Science 42 (4), 541-558, April 1996b.
Brynolfsson, E. and Hitt, L. The customer counts. Informationweek, 38-43, September 8,
Brynolfsson, E. and Yang, S. The intangible costs and benefits of computer investments:
Evidence from the financial markets. Proceedings of the International Conference on
Information Systems, Atlanta, Georgia, December 1997. Revised MIT Working Paper, April
Brynolfsson, E. The productivity of information technology: Review and assessment. Sloan
School of Management Working Paper 3417-92, 1991.
Business Intelligence by S. Negash
Buttle, F. The S.C.O.P.E. of Customer Relationship Management. Available from:
http://www.crmforum. com/library/aca/aca-07.html (accessed 29 July 2002).
Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H. (1999a), The Virtual Enterprise Concept, in
Infrastructures for Virtual Enterprises Networking Industrial Enterprises, Eds. L. M.
Camarinha- Matos and H. Afsarmanesh, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.3-14, October
Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Cardoso, T. (1999b), Selection of Partners for a Virtual Enterprise,
Carillo, P., 1996, Technology Transfer on Joint-venture Projects in Developing Countries.
Construction Management and Economics 14(1) January pp45-54
Carlson L, Stephen JG, Kangun N. 1993. A content analysis of environmental advertising
claims: a matrix approach. Journal of Advertising 22: 2740.
Centre for the Evaluation of Public Policy and Practice. (1992). Considering quality: An
analytical guide to the literature on quality and standards in the public services. (ISBN 1
872166 22 9).London: Brunel University.
Chandra P. (2006), Networks of Small Producers for Technological Innovation: Some
Models, Working Paper No. 2006-03-02, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad
Charter M, Polonsky MJ (eds). 1999. Greener Marketing: a Global Perspective on Greening
Marketing Practice, 2nd edn. Greenleaf: Sheffield.
Charter M. 1992. Greener Marketing: a Responsible Approach to Business. Greenleaf:
Charter, M. (1992), Greener Marketing: A Greener Marketing Approach to Business,
Greenleaf Publishing, Sheffield.
Charter, M., Peattie, K., Ottman, J. and Polonsky, M. (2002), Marketing and
Sustainability, Association with the Centre for Sustainability Design, Centre for Business
Relationships, Accountability, Sustainability and Society (BRASS), Cardiff.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 108

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Chay, K. Y. and J. L. Powell (2001), Semiparametric Censored Regression Models, Journal

of Economic Perspectives, 15 (4), pp. 2942.
Checkland, P., Holwell, S. (1998). Information, Systems, and Information Systems. Sussex:
John Wiley & Sons.
Chen, A.J.W., Boudreau, M.C. and Watson, R.T. (2008), Information systems and
Chernozhukov, V. and H. Hong (2002), Three-Step Censored Quantile Regression and
Extramarital Affairs, Journal of American Statistical Association, 97 (459), pp. 872 882.
Chesbrough H. (2003 and 2005), Open innovation the new imperative for creating and
profiting from technology, Harvard Business School Press, MA
Chicago, IL.
Chin, A.G. (ed.) (2001) Text Databases and Document Management: Theory and Practice,
Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing.
Christy, R., & Wood, M. (1999). Researching possibilities in marketing. Qualitative Market
Research: An International Journal, 2(3), 189-196.
Clark, F. (1996), Leadership for Quality: Strategies for Action, McGraw-Hill Book
Company, Maidenhead.
Cleary, B. (1996). Supporting empowerment with Deming's PDSA cycle empowerment.
Organizations, 3(2), 34-39.
Coddington W. 1993. Environmental Marketing: Positive Strategies for Reaching the Green
Consumer. McGraw- Hill: New York.
Coddington, W. (1993), Environmental Marketing: Positive Strategies for Reaching the
Cody, W.F. et al. (2002) The Integration of Business Intelligence and Knowledge
Management, IBM Systems Journal, (41)4, pp. 697-713.
Cohen, W.M. and S. Klepper (1996), A Reprise of Size and R&D, The Economic Journal,
106, pp. 925951.
Collard, R. (1989). Total quality: Success through people. Wimbledon, UK: Institute of
Personnel Management.
Communication during the fuzzy front-end, IEEE Transactions on Engineering
Management, Vol. 42 No. 3, pp. 243-58.
Communications of the Association for Information Systems (Volume13, 2004) 177-195 191
Business Intelligence by S. Negash
Communications of the Association for Information Systems (Volume 13, 2004)177-195
Communications of the Association for Information Systems (Volume13, 2004) 177-195 193
Business Intelligence by S. Negash
Concepcion, J.G., Constable, D.J.C., Curzons, A.D. and Cunningham, V.L. (2002),
Developing GSKs green technology guidance: methodology for case-scenario comparison
Cone Inc. (1999), Cone/Roper Cause-Related Trends Report. Boston: Cone Inc.
Consumer, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Conti, B., & Kleiner, B. (1997). How to increase teamwork in organizations. Training for
Quality, 5(1), 26-29.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 109

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Conti, T. (1997), Organizational Self-Assessment, Chapman & Hall, London.

Coombs, R. and Hull, R. (1996), The Wider Research Context of Business Process Analysis,
Warwick Manufacturing Group,
Cooper, D.R. & Emory, C.W. 1995 Business Research Methods. 5th edition. Chicago: Irwin.
Du Plessis, P.J., Jooste, C.J. & Strydom, J.W. 2001. Applied Strategic Marketing. Sandown:
Coordination, in Infrastructures for Virtual Enterprises Networking Industrial Enterprises,
Eds. L. M. Camarinha-Matos and H. Afsarmanesh, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.377-
386, October 1999.
Corbett, L., & Rastrick, K. (2000). Quality performance and organizational culture.
International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, 17(1), 14 -26.
Corrigan, S. (1996), Human and Organisational Aspects of Business Process Reengineering,
Warwick Manufacturing Group,
Cotteleer, M., Austin, R., and Nolan, R. Cisco Systems, Inc.: Implementing ERP. Harvard
Business School Case, Report no. 9-699-022, 1998.
Coulson-Thomas, C. (1992). Surveying the scene. The TQM Magazine, l4(1), 25-31.
Coyle-Shapiro, J. (1997). The impact of a TQM intervention on teamwork: A longitudinal
assessment. Team Performance Management, 3(3), 150-161.
Cravens, Karen S. and Chris Guilding (1999), Strategic Brand Valuation: A Cross-
Functional Perspective, Business Horizons, 42 (4), 5362.
Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design. Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods
approaches (2nd edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Critical success factors in ERP implementation: A review European and Mediterranean
Conference on Information Systems 2008 (EMCIS2008) May 25-26 2008,
Critical success factors in ERP implementation: A review European and Mediterranean
Conference on Information Systems 2008 (EMCIS2008) May 25-26 2008,
Crosby, B. P. (1979). Quality is free: The art of making quality certain. New York: McGraw-
Crosby, B. P. (1984). Quality without tears: The art of hassle-free management. New York:
Dabic, M. (2000). The Development of Market Democracy Through the Use of Information
Technology, Market Democracy in Croatia situation and Prospects Varadin. 26 i 27
October, pp. 167-181.
Dale, B. G. (1996). Sustaining a process of continuous improvement: Definition and key
factors. The TQM Magazine, 8(2), 49-51.
Dale, B. G. (1999). TQM: An overview. In B. G. Dale (Eds.), Managing quality (3rd ed., pp.
3-33). Oxford, UK: Blackwell-Business.
Dale, B. G., & Oakland, J. (1991). Quality improvement through standards. Leckhampton,
UK: Stanley Thornes Publishers.
Dangayach, G.S., Pathak, S.C., and Sharma, A.D. Managing Innovation, in Asia Pacific
Tech Monitor, (22:3), 2005, pp. 30-33.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 110

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Darrow, B. (Feb. 3, 2003) Making The Right ChoiceSolution Providers are Evaluating a
Plethora of Options as they Puzzle over the Future of Business Intelligence, Computer
Reseller News, pp. 16.
Davenport, S.; Bibby, D. (1999). Rethinking a national innovation system: the small country
as SME. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 241-55.
Davenport, T. (1998a) , ``Serving up ERP value, CIO, Vol. 11 No. 8, February, pp. 26-9.
Davenport, T. (1998b), ``Putting the enterprise into the enterprise system, Harvard Business
Review, Vol. 76 No. 4, July-August, pp. 121-31.
Davenport, T.H. (1993), Process Innovation Re-engineering Work through Information
Technology, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA.
Davenport, T.H. and L. Prusak (1998) Working Knowledge: How Organizations Manage
What They Know Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Davenport, T.H. Putting the enterprise into the enterprise system. Harvard Business Review,
121-131, July - August 1998.
Davidow, W. H., Malone, M. S. (1993). The Virtual Corporation. New York: Harper
Davis JJ. 1993. Strategies for environmental advertising. Journal of Consumer Marketing 10:
Davis, J. (1991), Blueprint for green marketing, Journal of Business Strategy, Vol. 12 No.
Davis, R. (1980), The Contract Net Protocol: High-Level Communication and Control in a
Distributed Problem Solver, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 29,
Davison, R. 2002 Cultural Complications of ERP, COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM,
45(7), 109 - 111.
Dawar, Niraj and Madan M. Pillutla (2000), Impact of Product- Harm Crises on Brand
Equity: The Moderating Role of Consumer Expectations, Journal of Marketing Research, 37
(May), 21526.
Day, R.L. and P.A. Herbig (1990), "How Diffusion of Industrial Innovations is Different
from New Retail Products," Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 19, pp. 261-6.
De Young R. 198889. Exploring differences between recyclers and non-recyclers: the role
of information. Journal of Environmental Systems 18: 431351.
Deakins, E. and Makgill, H.H. (1997), What killed BPR? Some evidence from the
literature, Business Process Management Journal, Vol. 3 No. 1, pp. 81-107.
Dedouchov M. Strategie podniku. 1.vyd. Praha:C.H.Beck,2001 256s. ISBN 80-7179-603-4.
Delbridge, R., Turnbull, P., & Wilkinson, B. (1992). Pushing back the frontiers: Management
control and work intensification under JIT/TQM regimes. New Technology, Work, and
Employment, 7(1), 97-106.
Deming, E. (1986). Out of the crisis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Deolalikar, A. B. and R. E. Evenson (1989), Technology Production and Technology
Purchase in Indian Industry: An Econometric Analysis, The Review of Economics and
Statistics, 71 (4), pp. 687697.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 111

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Department of Internal Affairs Public Administration and Decentralisation. (1998). Journal:

Dimosiografika. Department of Internal Affairs, Public Administration, and Decentralisation.
61 The Qualitative Report March 2007
Derksen L, Gartrell J. 1993. The social context of recycling. American Sociological Review
58: 434442.
Dess, G. G., Rasheed, A. M., McLaughlin, K. J., Priem, R. L. (1995). The new corporate
architecture. Academy of Management Executive, 9, (3), 7-17.
DeToro, I. and McCabe, T. (1997), How to stay flexible and elude fads, Quality Progress,
Vol. 30 No. 3, pp. 55-60.
Deutscher Industrie- und Handelskammertag (German Chamber of Commerce), 2005.
Diamantopoulos, A. & Schlegelmilch, B. 1997. Taking the Fear Out of Data Analysis: A
Step-by-Step Approach. London:The Dryden Press.
DIHK. FuE-Verlagerung: Inovationsstandort Deutschland auf dem Prfstand,
Dolmetsch, R., Huber, T., Fleisch, E., and sterle, H. Accelerated SAP: 4 case studies.
Institute for Information Management, University of St. Gallen, Switzerland, 1998.
Doms, M., Dunne, T., and Troske, K. Workers, wages, and technology. The Quarterly
Journal of Economics, 112 (1), 253-290, 1997.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 112

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Dopson, S., Risk, A., & Stewart, R. (1992). The changing role of the middle manager in the
United Kingdom. International Studies of Management and Organisation, 22(1), 40-49.
Dougherty, V., 1999, Industrial and Commercial Training, Volume 31. Number 7. 1999 pp
262-266 MCB University Press. ISSN 1019-7858
Drukker, D. M. (2002), Bootstrapping a conditional moments test for normality after tobit
estimation, The Stata Journal, 2(2), pp. 125139.
Drumwright ME. 1994. Socially responsible organizational buying: environmental concerns
as a noneconomic buying criterion. Journal of Marketing 58: 119.
Drumwright, Minette (1996), Company Advertising with a Social Dimension: the Role of
Noneconomic Criteria, Journal of Marketing, 60 (October), 7187.
Dyer, G. China overtakes Japan on R&D, in Financial Times, 3.12.2006.
Dyer, J. (1996), ``How Chrysler created an American Keiretsu, Harvard Business Review,
Vol. 74 No. 4, July-August, pp. 42-52.
Economics Production and Consumption Branch, Evaluation of Environmental Impacts in
Egbu, C., 2000, Knowledge Management in Construction SMEs: Coping with the Issues of
Structure, Culture, Commitment and Motivation. Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual
Conference of association of Researcher in ConstructionManagement (ARCOM), Glasgow
Caledonian University, September 6-8 2000
Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. (1989), "Building Theory from Case Study Research," Academy of
Management Review, 14 (4), 532-50.
EIU. Scattering the seeds of invention: The globalisation of research and development,
Economist Intelligence unit, 2004.
Electronic Buyers News (1997), ``Customer efforts pay off for supply chain, November, p.
Ellen P, Weiner JL, Cobb-Walgren C. 1991. The role of perceived consumer effectiveness in
motivating environmentally-conscious behavior. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 10:
Elzinga, D.J., Horak, T., Chung-Yee, L. and Bruner, C. (1995), Business Process
Enterprise, Dec. 5, 2002, pp. 26. [LexisNexis Academic].
Environmental Marketing, Polonsky MJ, Mintu- Wimsatt AT (eds). Haworth: Binghamton,
Ernst, D. Innovation Offshoring: Asias Emrging Role in Global Innovation Network, East-
West Center Special Reports, No. 10, 2006.
Ernst, D., and Kim, L. Global Production Networks, Knowledge Diffusuion, and Local
Capability Formation. A Conceptual Framework, East-West Center Working Paper No. 21,
Escalle, C., Cotteleer, M. and Austin, R. Enterprise resource planning (ERP). Harvard
Business School Case, Report No. 9-699-020, 1999.
Esteves J Pastor J Casanovas J 2003, A goal/question/metric research proposal to monitor
user involvement and participation ERP implementation projects, Information Resources
Management Association Conference (IRMA), Philadelphia (USA) 325-327

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 113

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Etemad, H. (2004), Internationalization of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises: A

Grounded Theoretical Framework and an Overview, Canadian Journal of Administrative
Sciences, 21(1), pp.121.
Everdingen, Y., Hillergersberg, J., and Waarts, E. 2000. ERP adoption by European midsize
companies. Communications of the ACM, 43 (4): 27-31.
Fabian, C. Internationalisation of Pharmaceutical R&D into Emerging Markets The Case of
India, Difo-Druck GmbH, Bamberg, 2006.
Fabian, C., and Schmidli, C. Problems of R&D Internationalization of Small and Medium
Companies, Proceedings of the European Academy of Management Annual Conference
2005, Munich, CD-ROM version.
Fagerberg, J. Innovation: A Guide to the Literature, in The Oxford Handbook of
Innovation, J. Fagerberg et al. (eds.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2005, pp. 1-23.
Fagerberg, J., Nelson, R.R., and Mowery, D.C. The Oxford Handbook of Innovation, Oxford
University Press, 2005.
Farquhar, Peter H. (1989), Managing Brand Equity, Marketing Research, 1 (September),
Farrel, D. Can Germany Win from Offshoring?, McKinsey Global Institute, 2004.
Ferguson, B. (2000) , ``Implementing supply chain management, Production and Inventory
Management Journal, Vol. 41 No. 2, 2nd quarter, pp. 64-7.
Fierman L. 1991. Procter and Gamble zeros in on green. American Demographics July: 16.
File, Karen Mary and Russ Alan Prince (1998), Cause Related Marketing and Corporate
Philanthropy in the Privately Held Enterprise, Journal of Business Ethics, 17, 152939.
Fisher, R.J., Maltz, E. and Jarowski, B.J. (1997), Enhancing communication between
marketing and engineering: the moderating role of relative functional identification, Journal
Fishman, A. and R. Rob (1999), The Size of Firms and R&D Investment, International
Economic Review, 40(4), pp. 915931.
Fisk G. 1974. Marketing and the Ecological Crisis. Harper and Row: London.
Flood, R. (1999). Rethinking the Fifth Discipline: Learning with the Unknowable. London:
Florida, R. The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It's Transforming Work, Leisure,
Community and Everyday Life, Basic Books, 2002.
Floyd, R.E. (2003) Text Databases and Document Management: Theory and Practice,
IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 46(2), pp. 147.
Fournier, Susan (1998), Consumers and Their Brands: Developing Relationship Theory in
Consumer Research, Journal of Consumer Research, 24 (3), 34373.
Foxall, G.R. (1979), "Farmers Tractor Purchase Decisions: A Study of Interpersonal
Communication in Industrial Buying Behaviour," European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 18
(No. 8), pp. 299-308.
Foxall, G.R. (1980), "Adoption of Discontinous PDM Innovation in Agriculture: Rough-
Terrain Forklift Trucks," European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 14 (No. 1), pp. 75-82.
Freeman RE. 1984. Strategic Management: a Stakeholder Approach. Pitman: Boston, MA.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 114

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Freeman, C. and L. Soete (1997), The Economics of Industrial Innovation (3rd Edition),
Reprinted in 2004 by Routledge, London.
Freeman, C. Technology Policy and Economic Performance: Lessons from Japan, Pinter
Publishing Ltd., 1987.
Fri RW. 1992. The corporation as a non-governmental organization. The Columbia Journal
of World Business 27: 9195.
Friedman M. 1970. The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York
Times Magazine 13 September: 3233, 122126.
Friedman, T., The World is Flat, Holtzbrinck Publishers, 2006.
Fry, R., Stoner, C. (2000). Business: An Integrative Approach. Boston: McGraw Hill.
Fulcher, T. (2000) , ``Make the connection, Manufacturing Systems, Vol. 18 No. 3, March,
pp. 76-86.
Fuller D. 1999. Sustainable Marketing: Managerial Ecological Issues. Sage: Thousand
Oaks, CA.
Fuller, D.A. (1999), Sustainable Marketing: Managerial-ecological Issues, Sage Publications,
Thousand Oaks, CA.
Fuller, D.A. and Ottman, J.A. (2004), Moderating unintended pollution: the role of
sustainable product design, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 57, pp. 1231-8.
Gable, G. and Vitale, M.R. (Guest Editors). The Future of Enterprise Resource Planning
Systems. Special Issue of Information Systems Frontiers, 2 (2), 2000.
Galanakis, K. (2006), Innovation process: Make sense using systems thinking, Technovation,
26(11), 1222-1232.
Galbraith, J. Organization design: An information processing view. Interfaces, 4 (3), 28-36,
Gardiner, S.C., Hanna, J.B. and LaTour, M.S. 2002, ERP and the re-engineering of
industrial marketing processes: a prescriptive overview for the new-age marketing manager.
Industrial Marketing Management, 31: 357-365.
Gatchalian, M. (1997). People empowerment: The key to TQM success. The TQM
Magazine, 9(6), 429-433.
Gattiker, T., and Goodhue, D. Understanding the plant level costs and benefits of ERP: Will
the ugly ducking always turn into a swan? In: R. Sprague, Jr. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 33rd
Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences ( CD-ROM), Los Alamitos,
CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, 2000.
Gershenkron, A. Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective, Harvard University
Press, 2nd edn., 1966.
Gibson, N., Holland, C., and Light, B. A case study of a fast track SAP R/3 implementation
at Guilbert. International Journal of Electronic Markets, 9 (3), 190-193, 1999.
Gilmore, A., & Carson, D. (1996). Integrative qualitative methods in a services context.
Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 14(6), 21-26.
Ginsberg, J.M. and Bloom, P.N. (2004), Choosing the right green marketing strategy,
MIT Sloan Management Review, Vol. 46, pp. 79-84.
Glaser, B. & Strauss, A. (1967), The Discovery of Grounded Theory - Strategies for
Qualitative Research (London, Weiderfeld and Nicolson).

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 115

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Goetsch, D., & Davis, S. (1994). Introduction to total quality: Quality, productivity,
competitiveness (2nd ed.). London: Macmillan.
GOI. Science and Technology Policy 2003, Government of India, Dept. of Science and
Technology, Statement by Indias Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh, online:, retrieved: 21.04.2007
Golder, Peter N. and Gerard J. Tellis (1993) Pioneer Advantage: Marketing Logic or
Marketing Legend? Journal of Marketing Research, 30 (February), 15870.
Goodman, M. (1999). The pursuit of value through qualitative market research. Qualitative
Market Research: An International Journal, 2(3), 111-120.
Gordon, I. 1998. Relationship Marketing: New strategies, Techniques and Technologies to
win customers you want and keep them forever. John Wiley and Sons: Canada.
Govindarajan V. and Trimble C (2005), 10 Rules for Strategic Innovators From Idea to
Execution, Harvard Business School Press, MA
Graeff, Timothy R. (1996), Image Congruence Effects on Product Evaluations: The Role of
Self-Monitoring and Public/Private Consumption, Psychology & Marketing, 13 (5), 48199.
Grant, M. R., Shani, R., & Krishnan, R. (1994, Winter). TQM's challenge to management
theory and practice. Sloan Management Review, 25-35.
Greenbaum, J. (2003) The Paradox of ROI, Intelligent Enterprise, (5)18, pp. 60-62. Hall,
H. (2000) Online Information Sources: Tools of Business Intelligence? Journal of
Information Science, (26)3, pp. 139.
Greenpeace. 1994. The Greenpeace Book of Greenwash. Greenpeace International:
Griffin, A. and Hauser, J.R. (1996), Integrating R&D and marketing: a review and analysis
of the literature, Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 13 No. 3, pp. 191-215.
Gummesson, Evert (2004), Many-to-Many Marketing: Frn one-to-one till manyto- many i
ntverksekonomins marknadsfring: Liber Ekonomi.
Gunasekaran, A., Okko, P., Martikainen, T. And Yli-Olli, P. (1996), Improving Productivity
and Quality in Small and Medium Enterprises : cases and analysis, International Small
Business Journal, Vol. 15 No. 1
Gundlach, G., Achool, R., Mentzer, J. (1995). The structural commitment in exchange.
Journal of Strategic Management, 59,(4), 78-82.
Gunton, T. (1998). Infrastructure: Building a Framework for Corporate Information
Handling. New York: Prentice Hall.
Guo, Y. Asias Educational Edge. Current Achievements in Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China,
and India, Lexington Books, Lanham, 2005.
Gustavsen, G.W., D. Joliffe and K. Rickertsen (2008), Censored quantile regression and
purchases of ice cream, Food Economics, 5(3), pp. 152163.
Habitat for Humanity International (2001), Corporate Partners (accessed December 13),
[available at CP/featured.html].
Hall, B.H. The manufacturing sector master file: 1959-1987. Documentation. NBER
Working Paper 3366, 1990.
Halpern, L., M. Koren and A. Szeidl (2005) Imported Inputs and Productivity, CEPR
Discussion Paper, No. 5139.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 116

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Hammarkvist, Karl-Olof, Hkan Hkansson, and Lars-Gunnar Mattsson (1982),

Hammer, M. (1990), Re-engineering work: dont automate, obliterate, Harvard Business
Review, July-August, pp. 104-12. Business process management 225
Hammer, M. and Champy, J. (1993), Re-engineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for
Hammer, M. and J. Champy. 2001, Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for
Business Revolution, Harper Business, New York, NY, USA
Hannula, M. and V. Pirttimaki (2003) Business Intelligence Empirical Study on the Top 50
Finnish Companies, Journal of American Academy of Business, (2)2, pp. 593-601.
Hansen E. 1997. Forest certification. Forest Products Journal 47: 1622.
Hardin G. 1968. The tragedy of the commons. Science 162: 12431248.
Harrigan, K. (1988). Joint Ventures and Competitive Strategy. Strategic Management
Journal, 9, 141-158.000
Harrington, H.J. (1995), Total Improvement Management The Next Generation in
Harrington, H.J. (1998), Performance improvement: the rise and fall of re-engineering, The
TQM Magazine, Vol. 10 No. 2, pp. 69-71.
Hart SL, Ahuja G. 1997. Does it pay to be green? Business Strategy and the Environment 5:
Harvey, M., Dabic, M. (2001). The Management of Strategic Global Relationship
Knowledge: A Virtual Perspective. In: International Conference on Global Business &
Economic Development. Bratislava: November 2001.
Harvey, M., Speier, C., Novicevic, M. (2000). An Innovative Global Management Staffing
system: A Competency-Based Perspective.Human Resource Management Journal, Vol. 39
Henion KE, Kinnear TC (eds). 1976. Ecological Marketing. American Marketing
Association: Chicago, IL.
Herstatt, C., Buse, S., Tiwari R., and Stockstrom C. Innovationshemmnisse in KMU der
Metropolregion Hamburg: Ergebnisse einer empirischen Untersuchung in ausgewhlten
Branchen, Research study, Hamburg University of Technology, 2007.
Herzberg F. 1966. Work and the Nature of Man. World: Cleveland, OH.
Hill, C., Hitt, M., Hoskisson, R. (1992). Cooperative versus competitive structures in related
and unrelated diversified firms.Organization Science, 3 (4), 501-521.
Hill, S. (1991). Why quality circles failed but total quality might succeed. British Journal of
Industrial Relations, 29(4), 541-568.
Hill, S. (1995). From quality circles to total quality management. In A. Wilkinson & H.
Willmott (Eds.), Making quality critical: New perspectives on organizational change (pp. 33-
53). London: Routledge.
Himmelberg, C. P. and B. C. Petersen (1994), R&D and Internal Finance: A Panel Study of
Small Firms in High-Tech Industries, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 76(1), pp.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 117

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Hirschfeld, K.Indien: Harte Traumjobs, in Bangalore statt Bblingen: Offshoring und

Internationalisierung im IT-Sektor, A. Boes, and M. Schwemmle (eds.), VSA-Verlag,
Hamburg, 2005, pp. 76-85.
Hirschman AO. 1970. Exit, Voice, Loyalty. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA.
Hitt, L. and Brynolfsson, E. Productivity, business profitability, and consumer
Hitt, L. Information technology and firm boundaries: Evidence from panel data. Information
Systems Research, 10 (2), 134149, June 1999.
Ho, S., & Fung, C. (1994). Developing a TQM excellence model. The TQM Magazine, 6(6),
Hoblitzell, T. (2003) Implementing Best Practices to Drive ROI, DM Review, Vol. 13(1),
pp. 14,
Hoffman AJ. 1997. From Heresy to Dogma. New Lexington: San Francisco, CA.
Holland, D., 1999, Ten Ways to Embed Knowledge Management into Organisational
Culture. Knowledge Management review. Issues 7
Houdeshel, G. and H.J. Watson (1987) The Management Information and Decision Support
Systems (MIDS) at Lockheed-Georgia MIS Quarterly, (11)1, pp. 127-141.
Hough, J, Neuland, EW & Bothma, N. 2003. Global Business Environments and Strategies.
2nd Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press:.
Huffman, J.L. (1997), The four Res of total improvement, Quality Progress, Vol. 30 No.
1, pp. 83-8.
Humphreys P., McAdam R., Leckey J. (2005) , Longitudinal evaluation of innovation
implementation in SMEs, European Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 8 No 3 pp 283
Iles, A. (2008), Shifting to green chemistry: the need for innovations in sustainability
marketing, Business Strategy and the Environment, Vol. 17, pp. 524-35.
Imhoff, C. (2003) Keep your Friends Close, and your Enemies Closer, DM Review, (13)4,
pp. 36-37, 71.
IMI (1994), Business Processes an IMI Briefings briefing paper, Innovative
Manufacturing Initiative, EPSRC, Swindon.
Improvement, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Information Technology, MIS Quarterly, (24)1, pp. 1-2.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 118

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Infrastructures for Virtual Enterprises Networking Industrial Enterprises, Eds. L. M.

Camarinha- Matos and H. Afsarmanesh, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.259-278, October
INNO METRICS. European Innovation Scoreboard 2006: Comparative Analysis of
Innovation Performance, Initiative of the European Union, online:
http://www.proinnoeurope. eu/doc/EIS2006_final.pdf, retrieved: 21.04.2007
integration of supply chain management and enterprise resources planning systems, The
Journal of Computer Information Systems, Vol. 41 No. 1, Fall, pp. 84-93.
Intelligent Systems for Manufacturing Multi-Agent Systems and Virtual Organizations,
Eds. Luis M. Camarinha-Matos, Hamideh Afsarmanesh and Vladimir Marik, Kluwer
Academic Publishers, pp. 159-170.
Ireland, R., Hitt, M. (1997). Performance Strategies for high Growth Entrepreneurial Firms.
Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research,9-104.
Ishikawa, K. (1985). What is TQC. The Japanese way. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Jacob, G. (1999), ``Rapid ERP implementation: the Tuolumne County, California
experience, Government Finance Review, Vol. 15 No. 4, August, pp. 33-6.
Janowski, T.; Yonghe, L.; Biqing, H. (1999), Automating Partner Selection for a Virtual
Organization, in Infrastructures for Virtual Enterprises Networking Industrial Enterprises,
Eds. L. M. Camarinha-Matos and H. Afsarmanesh, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.433-
448, October 1999.
Johannisson, Bengt (1998), "Personal networks in emerging knowledge-based firms: spatial
and functional patterns," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 10 (4), 297-312.
Johansson, J. (1995). International alliances: Why now? Journal of Academy of Marketing
Science, 23, (4), 301-304.
Johns, N., & Ross-Lee, D. (1998). Research methods in service industry. London: Cassell.
Johnson, Michael D. (1984), Consumer Choice Strategies for Comparing Noncomparable
Alternatives, Journal of Consumer Research, 11 (December), 74153.
Juran, J. (1988). The quality function. In J. M. Juran (Eds.), Juran's quality control handbook
(pp. 1-13). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Juran, J. (1993, July-August). Made in USA: A renaissance in quality. Harvard Business
Review, 42-50.
Kacker, S. (2005), Overcoming Barriers to Innovation for Indian SMEs, Paper presented at
the INSME Annual Meeting on International Cooperation to Seize Innovation Opportunities
for SMEs, Barcelona, Spain, 1315 April.
Kahle, Lynn R., Basil Poulos, and Ajay Sukhdial (1988), Changes in Social Values in the
United States During the Past Decade, Journal of Advertising Research, 28
(February/March), 3541.
Kajzer, S., Mulej, M. (1999). Systemtheoretisch fundierte Ethik als Ueberlebungskonzept in
turbulenten Zeiten der Innovativen Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. In: Schwaninger, M. (Hrsg.),
Ueberlebungskonzepte fr turbulente Zeiten. Berlin: Humblot.
Kaplan, Robert S. and David P. Norton, "The Balanced Scorecard - Measures that Drive
Performance," HBR 71 (1992)

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 119

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Kassaye, W.W. (2001), Green dilemma, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol 19, Nos.
6/7, pp. 444-55.
Kathuria, V. (2008), The impact of FDI inflows on R&D investment by medium- and high-
tech firms in India in the post-reform period, Transnational Corporations, 17(2), pp. 4566.
Katrak, H. (1985), Imported Technology, Enterprise Size and R&D in a Newly
Industrializing Country: The Indian Experience, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and
Statistics, 47, pp. 213230.
Kazmierczak, M.F., and James, J. Losing the Comeptitive Advantage: The Challenges for
Science and Technology in the United States, American Electronics Association, 2005.
Kazmierczak, M.F., and James, J. We are Still Losing the Comeptitive Advantage: Now is
the Time to Act, American Electronics Association, 2007.
Keller, Kevin Lane (1993), Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based
Brand Equity, Journal of Marketing, 57 (January), 122.
Kelley, M. Productivity and information technology: The elusive connection. Management
Science, 40 (11), 1406-1425, 1994.
Kempton W, Darley JM, Stern PC. 1992. Psychological research for the new energy
problems. American Psychologist 47: 12131223.
Kekovsk M., Drdla M.Strategick zen firemnch informac.1.vyd. Praha:C.H.Beck,2003
187 s. ISBN 80-7179-730-8.
Kestelyn, J. (2003) Intelligence, Intelligent Enterprise, (6)2, pp. 30
KfW. Innovationsverhalten kleiner und mittlerer Unternehmen Ergebnisse des ifo
Innovationstests, in KfW-Beitrge zur Mittelstands- und Strukturpolitik, No. 5, 1998, pp.
Kharbanda, V. P. (2001) Facilitating innovation in Indian small and medium enterprises
The role of clusters, Current Science, 80 (3), pp. 343348.
Kirkpatrick, D. (1998), ``The e-ware war: competition comes to enterprise software,
Fortune, Vol. 138 No. 11, December, pp. 103-12.
Klen, A. P.; Rabelo, R. J.;Ferreira, A. C.; Spinosa, L. M. (1999), Distributed Business
Kochan, A. (2000) , ``Real timely, Works Management, Vol. 53 No. 8, August, pp. 24-6.
Kocmanov A., Fedorov A., Hyrlov J., Hjek M. Environmentln management
podniku:Environmentln etnictv a
Kollman K, Prakash A. 2001. Green by choice?: crossnational variations in firms responses
to EMS-based environmental regimes. World Politics 53: 399430.
Kontzer, T. (2004). Companies are choking on information employees create. And a spate
of vendor mergers has yet to deliver tools to deal with the problem. InformationWeek, Current Jan.
19, 2004.
Kootz,h-Weihrich H. Management. 10 vyd. Praha: East Publisching, 1998. 659 s. ISBN 80-
Kotler P. 1994. Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation and Control 8th
edn. Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 120

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Kotler P. Marketing,Management. 1.vyd. Praha:Grada Publishing,2001. s.230.ISBN 80-247-

Kotler, P. 1997. Marketing management: analysis, planning, implementation, and control.
New Jersey: Prentice Hall International.
Kotler, P. 2002. When to use CRM and When to forget it! Paper presented at the Academy of
Marketing Science, Sanibel Harbour Resort and Spa, 30 May.
Kowalkowski, Christian, Jakob Rehme, and Peter Svensson (2005), "The Role of
Relationship Selling in Technology Start-up Firms: Two Case Studies in Europe and Asia,"
in IMP - Building social capital in networks. Merlin Beach Resort, Phuket, Thailand.
KPMG. Erfolgreiches Standortmanagement von Forschung und Entwicklung: Aktives
Gestalten und Managen von F&E-Standorten, Stuttgart, 2007.
Krippendorff, K. (1980). Content analysis. An introduction to its methodology. Newbury
Park, CA: Sage.
Kroenke, D. (2008) Experiencing MIS, Prentice Hall.
Kumar, K. and Van Hillegersberg, J. (2000), ``ERP experiences and evolution,
Communications of the ACM, Vol. 43 No. 4, April, pp. 22-6.
Kumar, N. and A. Aggarwal (2005), Liberalization, outward orientation and in-house R&D
activity of multinational and local firms: a quantitative exploration for Indian
manufacturing, Research Policy, 34(4), pp. 441460.
Kumar, N. and M. Saqib (1996), Firm Size, Opportunities for Adaptation, and In-house
R&D Activity in Developing Countries: The Case of Indian Manufacturing, Research
Policy, 25(5), pp. 712722.
Kwan, A. (1999) , ``The use of information technology to enhance supply chain management
in the electronics and chemical industries, Production and Inventory Management Journal,
Vol. 40 No. 3, 3rd quarter, pp. 7-15.
Lagrosen, S. (2001). Strengthening the weakest link of TQM: From customer focus to
customer understanding. The TQM Magazine, 13(5), 348-354.
Lall, S. (1983), Determinants of R&D in an LDC: The Indian Engineering Industry,
Economic Letters, 37 (3), pp.379383.
Lamprecht, L. J. (1992). ISO 9000: Preparing for registration. New York: Marcel Dekker
Lancaster, G.A. and M. White (1976), "Industrial Diffusion, Adoption and Communication,"
European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 10 (No. 5), pp. 280-98. Innovation Journalism Vol.3
No.4 May 29 2006 P.Svensson, D.Nordfors: Media Comm. for Startups The Third
Conference on Innovation Journalism
Langseth, J. and N. Vivatrat (2003) Why Proactive Business Intelligence is a Hallmark of
the Real-Time Enterprise: Outward Bound, Intelligent Enterprise, (5)18, pp. 34-41.
Laudon, K., Laudon, J. (1998). Management Information Systems: A Contemporary
Perspective. New York: McMillan Publishing.
Lavelle, L. (Nov. 2001) The Case of the Corporate Spy in a Recession: Competitive
Intelligence can Pay Off Big, Business Week, (56)26.
Lawler, E. E. (1994). Total quality management and employee involvement: Are they
compatible. Academy of Management Executive, 8(1), 68-76.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 121

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Lawrence, B (1999), ``Closing the logistics loop: a tutorial, Production and Inventory
Management Journal, Vol. 40 No. 1, 1st quarter, pp. 43-51.
Lawrence, J. (1991), The green revolution: mobil, Advertising Age, Vol. 62 No. 5, pp.
Lee, H. and Whang, S. (2000), ``Information sharing in supply chain, International Journal
of Technology Management, Vol. 20 No. 3/4, pp. 373-87. Logistics Management and
Distribution Report
Lee, R.G. and Dale, B.G. (1998), Policy deployment: modelling the process, Quality
Management Journal
Leonard-Barton, D., 1995, Wellsprings of Knowledge: Building and Sustaining the resources
of Innovation. Harvard University Press
Lichtenstein, Donald R., Minette E. Drumwright, and Bridgette M. Braig (2000),
Perceptions of Corporate Giving on Customer Corporation Identification: Beneficial
Effects for Customer, Corporation, and Nonprofit, working paper, College of Business
Administration, University of Colorado, Boulder.
Life Cycle Assessment, Meeting Report, Brussels 1998 and Brighton 2000.
Li-Hua, R., and Greenwood, 2000, Technology Transfer in International Joint Ventures in
China Glasgow Caledonian University ARCOM Conference Proceedings
Logistics Management and Distribution Report (1999b), ``Supply chain market tops $2
Loh T. C. and Koh S. C. 2004. Critical elements for a successful enterprise resource
planning implementation in small- and medium-sized enterprises, International Journal of
Production Research, 42(17) 34333455.
Longenecke, C., & Scazzero, J. (1996). The ongoing challenge of total quality management.
The TQM Magazine, 8(2), 55-60.
Lovelock, Christopher 1991. Services Marketing. New York: Prentice Hall International
Lowe A. (1995), The basic social process of entrepreneurial innovation, International Journal
of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, Bradford: Vol. 1(2)
Lowi T. 1964. American business, public policy, case studies, and political theory. World
Politics 16:677715.
LTT Research. The implications of R&D off-shoring on the innovation capacity of EU firms,
Study on behalf of PRO INNO Europe initiative of the European Union, 2007.
Lucey, T. (1998). Management Information Systems. London: Letts Company.
Lynes, J.K. and Dredge, D. (2006), Going green: motivations for environmental
commitment in
Mabert, V., Soni, A. and Venkataramanan, M. (2000) , ``Enterprise resource planning survey
MacIntyre, B. (2004). Information Technology Challenges Keep Rising. The Business
Journal of Portland, Jan. 23, 2004.
Mahmood, I.P., and W. Mitchell (2004), Two Faces: Effects of Business Groups on
Innovation in Emerging Economies, Management Science, 50 (10), pp. 13481365.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 122

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Maiden, N., James, L., Ncube, C. (1999). "Evaluating Large COTS software Packages: Why
Requirements and Use Cases are Important". First Workshop on Ensuring Successful COTS
Development (1999).
Maitland, A., 1999, Management Knowledge Management: Lessons can be learned from
failed attempts to capture and use employees' knowledge Management and Technology. The
Financial Times
Maitland, A., 1999, Management of Knowledge Management: Lessons can be learned Failed
Attempts to Capture and Use Employees Knowledge, Management and Technology, The
Financial Times
Makridimitris, A. (2001). Public administration in the political system: The government, the
prime minister, the ministers. In P. E. Spiliotopoulos & A. Makridimitris (Eds.), Public
administration in Greece (pp.19-48). Athens, Greece: Sakkoulas.
Makridimitris, A., & Michalopoulos, N. (2000).
: 1950-1998 [Experts Reports for the Greek Public Administration: 1950
1998]. Athens, Greece: Papazisis. Alexandros G. Psychogios and Constantinos-Vasilios
Priporas 62
Malhorta, Y. (1996), Business Process Redesign: An Overview,

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 123

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Malhotra, N. K., & Peterson, M. (2001). Marketing research in the new millennium:
Emerging issues and trends. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 19(4), 216-235.
Management Fashion, Warwick Manufacturing Group,
Management- und Fuhrungslehre. Poeschel, Stuttgart 1988, 367-382.
Management, in Infrastructures for Virtual Enterprises Networking Industrial Enterprises,
Eds. L. M. Camarinha-Matos and H. Afsarmanesh, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.241-
258, October 1999.
Marchington, M., Dale, B., & Wilkinson, A. (1993). Who is really taking the lead on quality.
Personnel Management, 25(4), 30-33.
Marketing, Corporate Social Initiatives and the Bottom Line, Chapel Hill, NC (March 14
Marknadsfring fr konkurrenskraft (First ed.). Malm, Sweden: Liber-Hermods. Hallen,
Ben (2006), Working paper, Stanford University
Markus, M., Axline, S., Petrie, D., Tanis, C. (2000). "Learning from Adopters' Experiences
with ERP: Problems Encountered and Success Achieved". Journal of Information
Technology, vol. 15, n. 4, December (2000), 245-266.
Markus, M., Tanis, C. (2000). "Enterprise Systems - from Adoption to Business Value".. R.
W. Zmud Ed., Framing the Domains of IT Research: Glimpsing the Future Through the Past,
Cincinnati, OH: Pinnaflex Educational Resources Inc.
Markus, M., Tanis, C., Fenema, P. (2000). "Multisite ERP Implementations".
Communications of the ACM, vol. 43, n. 4, April (2000), 42-46.
Markus, M.L. and A. Lee (2000) Using Qualitative, Interpretive, and Case Methods to Study
Markus, M.L., Axline, S., Petrie, D. and Tanis, C. (2000), Learning from adopters
experiences with ERP: problems encountered and success achieved, Journal of Information
Technology, 15: 245-265.
Martilla, J.A. (1971), "Word-of-Mouth Communication in the Industrial Adoption Process,"
Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. VIII (May), 173-8.
Martin, M. An ERP strategy. Fortune, 95-97, February 2, 1998.
Marwaha, S., Seth, P., and Tanner, D.W. What global executives think about technology
and innovation, in McKinsey on IT, No. 5, 2005, pp. 18-21.
Maslow AH. 1943. A theory of human motivation. Psychology Review July: 370396.
MASSYVE (2000),
Mathews, B. P., Ueno, A., Periera, Z. L., Silva, G., Kekal, T., & Repka, M. (2001). Quality
training: Findings from a European survey. The TQM Magazine, 13(1), 61-71.
Mathur, L.K. and Marhur, I. (2000), An analysis of the wealth effects of green marketing
strategies, Journal of Business Research, Vol, 50 No. 2, pp. 193-200.
McAfee, A. The impact of enterprise resource planning systems on company performance.
Unpublished presentation at Wharton Electronic Supply Chain Conference, December 1999.
McAfee, A., and Upton, D. Vandelay industries. Harvard Business School Case, Report No.
9-697-037, 1996.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 124

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

McClelland L, Canter RJ. 1981. Psychological research on energy conservation: context,

approaches, methods. In Advances in Environmental Psychology, BaumA, Singer JE (eds).
Erlbaum: Hillsdale, NJ; 126.
McDonalds Corporation (2001), Corporate: Social Responsibility R M H C (accessed
December 13), [available at http://].
McGee, M. (1998), ``Gift company gets R/3 help supply chain engine to feature software
McGuire WJ. 1985. Attitudes and attitude change. In Handbook of Social Psychology,
Lindzey G, Aronson E (eds). Random: New York; 233346.
McKinsey. Offshoring: Is is a Win-Win Game?, McKinsey Global Institute, 2003.
McKnight, W. (2003) Bringing data mining to the front line, part 2, DM Review, 13(1), pp.
Mendel, B. (1999) , ``Overcoming ERP project hurdles, InfoWorld, Vol. 21 No. 29, July, p.
Mendleson N, Polonsky MJ. 1995. Using strategic alliances to develop credible green
marketing. Journal of Consumer Marketing 12: 418.
Menell PS. 1995. Structuring a market-oriented federal eco-information policy. Maryland
Law Review 54: 14351474.
Menon A, Menon A. 1997. Enviropreneurial marketing strategy: the emergence of corporate
environmentalism as market strategy. Journal of Marketing 61: 5167.
Menon, Ajay and Anil Menon (1997), Enviropreneurial Marketing Strategy: The
Emergence of Corporate Environmentalism as Market Strategy, Journal of Marketing, 61
(January), 5167.
Merry, U. (1999). Nonlinear Organizational Dynamics.
Merry, U. (2000). Organizations versus natural systems., 08.12.2000.
Meyer, Harvey (1999), When the Cause Is Just, Journal of Business Strategy, 20
(November/December), 2731.
Meyer, T. Offshoring to new shores: Nearshoring to Central and Eastern Europe, Deutsche
Bank Research, 2006.
Michalopoulos, N. (2001). Methods of management and organisation of state-citizen
relations. In P. E. Spiliotopoulos & A. Makridimitris (Eds.), Public Administration in Greece
(pp. 189-204). Athens, Greece: Sakkoulas.
Michalopoulos, N. (2002). Aspects of citizen-public services relationships: The case of
Greece. Chinese Public Administration Review, 1(2), 177-184.
Michalopoulos, N., & Psychogios, A. G. (2003). Knowledge management and public
organizations: How well does the model apply to Greece? Chinese Public Administration
Review, 2(1/2), 64-80.
Milakovich, M. E. (1990). Total quality management in the public sector. National
Productivity Review, 10(2), 195-215.
Mitchell RK, Agle BR, Wood DJ. 1997. Towards a theory of stakeholder salience. Academy
of Management Review 22: 853886.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 125

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Mitchell, R.W. (1991), An Introductory Guide to Writing Business Processes and

Procedures, Rank Xerox Ltd, London.
Mnaas, C., 1990, Technology Transfer in the Developing Countries. 15 London: The
Macmillan Press Ltd.
Modis, T. (1998): Conquering uncerainty: Understanding corporate cycles and positioning
your company to survive the changing environment. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Moenaert, R.K., De Meyer, A., Souder, W.E. and Deschoolmeester, D. (2003),
Mohr LA, Eroglu D, Ellen PS. 1998. The development and testing of a measure of
skepticism towards environmental claims in marketers communications. Journal of
Consumer Affairs 32: 3055.
Molina, A.; Flores, M.; Caballero, D. (1998), Virtual Enterprises: A Mexican Case Study, in
Molla, A., Cooper, V., Deng, H. and Lukaitis, S. (2009), A Preliminary report on green IT
attitude and actions among Australian IT professionals, Green IT Working Paper No.
Moore, G., Hopkins, W., & Hopkins, S. (1998). Quality and empowerment programs: Dual
paths to customer satisfaction? Managing Service Quality, 8(2), 133-141.
Moores, L. (2003) WebQL Harvests Competitive Prices for Illuminet DM Review, (Current Sept. 18, 2003).
Morgan Stanley Dean Witter (MSDW) CIO Survey Series: Enterprise Software, Releases 1.1
2.1, March 1999 March 2001.
Morgan, C., & Murgatroyd, S. (1997). Total quality management in the public sector.
Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.
Morris, H. (2003) The Financial Impact of Business Analytics: Build vs. Buy, DM Review,
(13)1,pp. 40-41.
Morris, S., R. Basant, K. Das, K. Ramachandran and A. Koshy (2001), The Growth and
Transformation of Small Firms in India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Moss, L.T. (2003) Nontechnical Infrastructure of BI Applications, DM Review, (13)1, pp.
Moss, L.T. and S. Atre (2003) Business Intelligence Roadmap: The Complete Project
Motwani, J. G., Frahm, M. L., & Kathawala, Y. (1994). Quality training: The key to quality
improvement. Training for Quality, 2(2), 7-12.
Moustakis, V. Material Requirements Planning MRP. Technical Report, Management
Systems Lab, Department of Production and Management Engineering, Technical University
of Crete, January 2000.
Mraz, S.J. (2008), Just what is sustainability?, Machine, pp. 76-78, August 7.
Mller, O. Walldorf spiegelt sich Indien, in Handelsblatt, 17.4.2004.
Mukhopadhyay, T., Lerch, F., and Mangal, V. Assessing the impact of information
technology on labor productivity A field study. Decision Support Systems, 19 (2), 109-122,
Mukhopadhyay, T., Rajiv, S., and Srinivasan, K. Information technology impact on process
output and quality. Management Science, 43 (12), 1645-1659, 1997.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 126

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Mulej, M. (et al.) (2000). Basics of Systems Theory. Maribor: University of Maribor, Faculty
of Economics and Business, International Program FEBA.
Mulej, M., Kajzer, S. (1998). Ethics of Interdependence and the Law of Requisite Holism. In:
Rebernik, M., Mulej, M. (eds.):STIQE '98. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference
on Linking Systems Thinking, Innovation, Quality, Entrepreneurship and Environment.
Maribor: Institute for Systems Research.
Mumford, E. and Hendrick, R. (1996), Reegineering Rhetoric and Reality: the Rise and Fall
of a
Muniz, Albert M., Jr., and Thomas C. OGuinn (2000), Brand Community, Journal of
Consumer Research, 27 (March), 41232.
Murray, M., & Coffin, G. (2001). A case study analysis of factors for success in ERP system
implementations. Proceedings of the Seventh Americas Conference on Information Systems,
Boston, 10121018.
Muscular Dystrophy Association (2001), Ways to Help MDA: S p o n s o r S h i p (accessed
December 13), [available at http://].
Nah, F. and Lau, J. 2001. Critical factors for successful implementation of enterprise
systems. Business Process Management Journal, 7 (3): 285-296.
Nah, F.F-H., Zuckweiler, K.M., (2003) ERP implementation: chief information officers
perceptions of critical success factors, International Journal of Human-Computer
Interaction, 6(1): 522.
Nah, F.F-H., Zuckweiler, K.M., et al. (2003) ERP implementation: chief information
officers perceptions of critical success factors, International Journal of Human-Computer
Interaction, 16(1):522.
Narayanan, K. and R. Thomas (2010), R&D and Internationalisation in the Pharmaceutical
Sector in India, in Siddharthan, N.S. and K. Narayanan (eds.) Indian and Chinese
Enterprises: Global Trade, Technology and Investment Regimes, Routledge, New Delhi, pp.
National Bank of Greece. (1998). [Quality in Public
Administration]. (Research Report: ISBN 960 86146 0 0). Athens, Greece: National Bank of
National Science Foundation (2008) Science and Engineering Indicators 2008, Arlington,
Virginia, USA.
Nelson, R. and Winter, S. An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change, Harvard University
Press, 1982.
Nelson, R. Technology, Institutions, and Economic Growth, Harvard University Press, 2005.
Nmeek P. a kol. Mon trendy rozvoje podnik. 1.vyd. Brno: Akademick nakladatelstv
CERM, s.r.o.,2004. s.148.ISBN 80-
Nmeek P. Podnikov management. 7.vyd. Brno: Ing.Zdenk Novotn,CSc. 2001. ISBN
80-86510-14-X. 86s.
OBrien TP, Zoumbaris SJ. 1993. Consumption behaviors hinge on financial self-interest.
American Psychologist 48: 10911092.
OLeary, D. (2000) Enterprise Resource Planning Systems: Systems, Life Cycle, Electronic
Commerce, and Risk. New York: Cambridge University Press,

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 127

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

OLeary, D. Enterprise Resource Planning Systems: Systems, Life Cycle, Electronic

Commerce, and Risk. Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Oakland, J. (1989). Total quality management. Oxford, UK: Heinemann.
Oakland, J. (1993). Total quality management: The route to improving performance. London:
Butterworth Heinemann.
Oates, D. (1998). Outsourcing and the Virtual Organization. New York: Barron-s Business
Success Guide.
Obeng, E. and Crainer, S. (1994), Making Re-engineering Happen, Pitman, London.
OECD. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2006, Organisation for Economic
Co-Operation and Development, 2006.
Ofori, G., 1994, Construction Industry Development: Role of Technology Transfer.
Construction Management and Economics 12(5) pp379-392
Oliner, S.D., and Sichel, D.E. Computers and output growth revisited: How big is the puzzle?
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: Microeconomics 2, 273-334, 1994.
Olson M. 1965. The Logic of Collective Action. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA.
O'Regan N., Ghobadian A. and Sims N.(2006) , Fast tracking innovation in manufacturing
SMEs, Technovation, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 251-261
Osterhus TL. 1997. Pro-social consumer influence strategies: when and how do they work?
Journal of Marketing 61: 1629.
sterle, H., Feisch, E. and Alt, R. Business Networking: Shaping Enterprise Relationships on
the Internet. New York: Springer, 2000.
Ostgaard, Tone A. and Sue Birley (1996), "New Venture Growth and Personal Networks,"
Journal of Business Research, 36 (1), 37-50.
Ottman J. 1992. Greener Marketing. NTC: Lincolnwood, IL.
Ottman J. 1996. Green consumers not consumed by ecoanxiety. Marketing News 30: 13.
Ottman, J. (1997), Green Marketing: Opportunity for Innovation, 2nd ed., NTC Business
Ottman, J. and Herbert, J. (1993), Green Marketing: Challenges & Opportunities for the New
Marketing Age, NTC Business Books, Chicago, IL.
Ottman, J. and Terry, V. (1998), Strategic marketing of greener products, The Journal of
Sustainable Product Design, Vol. 5, pp. 53-7.
Ould, M.A. (1995), Business Processes: Modelling and Analysis for Re-engineering and
Improvement, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.
Palaniswamy, R. and Frank, T. (2000) , ``Enhancing manufacturing performance with ERP
systems, Information Systems Management, Vol. 17 No. 3, Summer, pp. 43-55.
Palmerino, M. (1999). Take a qualitative approach to qualitative research. Marketing News,
33(12), 35-36.
Papalexandris, N. (1992). Human resource management in Greece. Employee Relations,
14(4), 38-52.
Papalexandris, N., & Nikandrou, I. (2000). Benchmarking employee skills: Results from best
practice firms in Greece. Journal of European Industrial Training, 24(7), 391-402.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 128

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Park, C. Whan, Sandra Milberg, and Robert Lawson (1991), Evaluation of Brand
Extensions: The Role of Product Feature Similarity and Brand Concept Consistency,
Journal of Consumer Research, 18 (September), 18593.
Patel, A. (1993). Total quality management: Paving the way for future training. Industrial
and Commercial Training, 25(2), 23-32.
Pavitt, K (1984), Sectoral Patterns of Technical Change: Towards a Taxonomy and a
Theory, Research Policy, 13(6), pp. 343373.
Payne, A. Christopher, M. Clark, M. & Peck, H. 2001. Relationship marketing for
competitive advantage. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Peattie K, Ratnayaka M. 1992. Responding to green movement. Industrial Marketing
Management 21: 103110.
Peattie K. 1995. Environmental Marketing Management. Pitman: London.
Peattie K. 1999. Rethinking marketing. In Greener Marketing 2nd edn, Charter M, Polonsky
MJ (eds). Sheffield; 5770.
Peattie, K. (1999), Trappings versus substance in the greening of marketing planning,
Peattie, K. (2001), Towards sustainability: the third age of marketing, The Marketing
Peattie, K. and Crane, A. (2005), Green marketing: legend, myth, farce or prophesy?,
Qualitative Market Research, Vol. 8 No. 4, pp. 357-70.
Peck, H., Payne, A., Christopher, M. and Clark, M. 2004. Relationship Marketing Strategy
Peppers, D, Rogers, M & Dorf, B. 1999b. Is Your Company Ready For One-To-One
Marketing? Harvard Business Review, Jan-Feb.
Phillips LE. 1999. Green attitudes. American Demographics 21: 4647.
Pike, J., & Barnes, R. (1996). TQM in Action: A practical approach to continuous
performance improvement. London: Chapman and Hall.
Plepys, A. (2002), The grey side of ICT, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Vol.
22 No. 5, pp. 509-23.
Polanyi, M., 1967, The Tacit Dimension. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, London
Pollard, S., Peaceful Conquest: the Industrialization of Europe, 17601970, Oxford
University Press, 1981.
Polonsky MJ. 1995. Cleaning up environmental marketing claims: a practical checklist. In
Polonsky, M. (1994), An introduction to green marketing, Electronic Green Journal, Vol.
1 No. 2, pp. 1-10.
Polonsky, M.J. and Rosenberg, P.J., III (2001), Reevaluating green marketing: a strategic
approach, Business Horizons, Vol. 44 No. 5, pp. 21-30.
Porter M.E and Stern, S (1999), The New Challenge of Americas Prosperity: Finding from
the Innovation Index, Council on Competitiveness, Washington D.C.
Porter ME, Van der Linde C. 1995. Toward a new conception of the environment
competitiveness relationship. Journal of Economic Perspectives 9: 97118.
Porter, M. (1985). Competitive Advantage. New York: Free Press.
Porter, M. (1990). Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: Free Press.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 129

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Porter, M. and van der Linde, C. (1995), Green and competitive: ending the stalemate,
Harvard Business Review, Vol. 73 No. 5, pp. 120-34.
Potocan, V. (1997). Synergy and integration processes in business. Management, Vol. 2 (2),
pp. 13-24.
Potocan, V. (2001). Synergies in a virtual company. Journal for Management and
Development. Vol. 2 (4), 45-60.
Potocan, V., Kajzer, S., Mulej, M. (1997). The Standardization of the Methodological Basis
of Business Decision-making as a Contribution to the Revival of the Systems Theory. In:
Problems of excavating cybernetics and systems. Systemica, Southsea -Amsterdam, N. 1 - 6,
pp. 259 - 268.
Powell, J.H. and J.P. Bradford (2000) Targeting Intelligence Gathering in a Dynamic
Competitive Environment, International Journal of Information Management, (20)3, pp.
Powell, J.L. (1984), Least Absolute Deviations Estimation for the Censored Regression
Model, Journal of Econometrics, 25, pp.303325.
Powell, J.L. (1986), Censored Regression Quantiles, Journal of Econometrics, 32, pp. 143
Powell, T. C. (1995). Total quality management as competitive advantage: A review and
empirical study. Strategic Management Journal, 16(1), 15-38.
Power, D. J. (2004)
Power, D.J. (2002) Decisions Support Systems: Concepts and Resources for Managers,
Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Pradhan, J. P. (2002), Liberalization, Firm Size and R&D Performance: A Firm Level Study
of Indian Pharmaceutical Industry, Journal of Indian School of Political Economy, 14(4), pp.
Pradhan, J.P. and P. P. Sahu (2008) Transnationalization of Indian Pharmaceutical SMEs,
Bookwell Publisher, New Delhi.
Pradhan, J.P. and S. Puttaswamaiah (2008) Trends and Patterns of Technology Acquisition
in Indian Organized manufacturing: An Inter-Industry Exploration, The Indian Journal of
Economics, LXXXIX(353), pp. 269315.
Prakash A. 2000a. Greening the Firm: the Politics of Corporate Environmentalism.
Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Prakash A. 2000b. Responsible Care: an assessment. Business and Society 39: 183209.
Preimesberger, C. (2008), HP expands green IT push, eWeek, November 10.
Premkumar, G.P. (2000) , ``Interorganization systems and supply chain management: an
information processing perspective,Information Systems Management, Vol. 17 No. 3,
Summer, pp. 56-69.
PriceWaterhouseCoppers, 1999.
PriceWaterhouseCoppers. Technology Forecast. Palo Alto, CA:
Pringle, Hamish and Marjorie Thompson (1999), Brand Spirit. West Sussex, England: John
Wiley & Sons.
Prior-Smith, K. and Perrin, M. (1996), Ideas on motivating people, addressing complaints
and training (IMPACT): an application of benchmarking. Learning best practice from

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 130

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Hewlett- Packard, Business Process Re-engineering and Management Journal, Vol. 2 No. 1,
pp. 7-25.
Priporas, C. V., Gatsoris, L., & Zacharis, V. (2005). Competitive intelligence activity.
Evidence from Greece. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 23(7), 659-669. 63 The
Qualitative Report March 2007
PRODNET-II (1999),
Psychogios, A. G., & Priporas, C. V. (2007). Understanding total quality management in
context: Qualitative research on managers awareness of TQM aspects in the Greek service
industry. The Qualitative Report, 12(1), 40-66. Retrieved [Insert date], from

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 131

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Psychogios, G. A. (2005). Towards a contingency approach to promising business

management paradigms: The case of total quality management. Journal of Business and
Society, 18(Double Issue 1&2), 120-134.
Pujari, D., Peattie, K. and Wright, G. (2004), Organizational antecedents of environmental
responsiveness in industrial new product development, Industrial Marketing Management,
Vol. 33, pp. 381-91.
Pujari, D., Peattie, K. andWright, G. (2003), Green and competitive, influences on
environmental new product development performance, Journal of Business Research, Vol.
56, pp. 657-71.
Rabelo, R. J. (1997), A Framework for the Development of Manufacturing Agile Scheduling
Rabelo, R. J., Klen, A. P., Spinosa, L. M., Ferreira, A. C (1999a), Agile Supply-Chain
Coordination in the Virtual Enterprise Environment, in Proceedings 4th IFAC/IFSA
Brazilian Symposium on Intelligent Automation SBAI99, pp.289-294.
Rabelo, R. J.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H. (1999b), Multi-agent-based Agile
Rabelo, R. J.; Geszychter, M.; Jacomino, A (1999c), MASSYVE-KIT - Kit for the
Development of Multi-agent Systems (Version 2.0), Technical Report GSIGMA 004/99,
Radding, A. (1999), ``ERP more than an application, InformationWeek, No. 728, April,
pp. 1A-8A.
Radosevich, L. Bankrupt drug company sues SAP. InforWorld, August 27,
Ragowsky, A., and Somers, T. Call for papers: JMIS special section on ERP, May 2000,
Rajkot Chamber of Commerce and Industries, 2005,2006,2007,2008 Annual Reports 17)
Rajkot Engineering Association, 2005,2006,2007,2008 Annual Reports
Rammer, C., Zimmermann, V., Mller, E., Heger, D., et al. Innovationspotenziale von
kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen, Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), 2005.
Rampersad, H. (2001). 75 painful questions about your customer satisfaction. The TQM
Magazine, 13(5), 341-347.
Rasiah, R. (2007), Export Orientation and Technological Intensities in Auto Parts Firms in
East and Southeast Asia: Does Ownership Matter?, Asian Economic Papers, 6(2), pp. 55
Raynes, M. (2002) Document Management: is the Time Now Right? Work Study, 51(6/7),
Rayport, J. F., Sviokla, J. J. (1995). Exploiting the virtual value chain. Harvard Business
Review, November-December, 75-85.
Rebernik, M., Mulej, M. (2000). Requisite holism, isolating mechanisms and
entrepreneurship. Kybernetes, Vol. 29, No. 9/10, pp.1126 1140.
Reda, S. (1998), ``The ERP dilemma: packaged solution or best-of-breed?, Stores, Vol. 80
No. 10, October, p. 24.
Reis, J.; Mamede, N.; ONeill, H. (1999), Agent Communication for Scheduling in the
Extended Enterprises, in Infrastructures for Virtual Enterprises Networking Industrial

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 132

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Enterprises, Eds. L. M. Camarinha-Matos and H. Afsarmanesh, Kluwer Academic

Publishers, pp.353-364, October 1999.
Remus U. 2006. Critical Success Factors of Implementing Enterprise Portals. Proceedings
of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences
Review, NavID=55 &EdID=6501 (current Sept. 12,2003).
Revolution, Nicholas Brearly, London.
Ricadela, A. (2009), Software: lean and green, Business Week, February 8.
Ring, P., Van De Ven, A. (1992). Structuring Cooperative Relationships Between.
Organizations. Strategic Management Journal,13, 531-544.
Ritchie JRB, McDougall GHG. 1985. Designing and marketing energy conservation policies
and programs. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 4: 1432.
Rivera-Camino, J. (2007), Re-evaluating green marketing strategy: a stakeholder
Rocha, A.; Oliveira, E. (1999), An Electronic Market Architecture for the Formation of
Virtual Enterprises, in Infrastructures for Virtual Enterprises Networking Industrial
Enterprises, Eds. L. M. Camarinha-Matos and H. Afsarmanesh, Kluwer Academic
Publishers, pp.421-432, October 1999.
Rogers, E.M. (1983), Diffusion of Innovations. New York: The Free Press.
Rogers, E.M. Diffusion of Innovations, 5th Edition, Free Press, New York, 2003.
Rosario, J. G., 2000, On the leading edge: critical success factors in ERP implementation
projects. Business World, 17: 1529.
Ross, J.W. The ERP revolution: Surviving versus thriving. MIT White Paper, Cambridge,
MA, November 1998.
Rouach, D. and P. Santi (2001) Competitive Intelligence Adds Value: Five Intelligence
Attitudes, European Management Journal, (19)5, pp. 552.
Rouibah, K. and S. Ould-ali (2002) Puzzle: A Concept and Prototype for Linking Business
Intelligence to Business Strategy The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, (11)2, pp.
Rudin, K. and D. Cressy (2003) Will the Real Analytic Application Please Stand Up? DM
Review, (13)3, pp. 30-34.
Rugman A, Verbeke A. 2000. Environmental regulations and the global strategies of
multinational enterprises. In Coping with Globalization, Prakash A, Hart JA (eds).
Routledge: London; 7793.
Russom, P. (2003) Decision Support: Two Heads are Better than One, Intelligent
Enterprise, Vol. 6 (2), pp. 14-16.
Rust, Roland, Valarie Zeithaml, and Katherine Lemon (2001), Quantifying the Impact of
Corporate Ethics on Customer Equity, presentation at Marketing Science Institute
Sahu, P. P., (2008), Technological Constraints of Small Scale Industries in India: Some
Evidence from a Field Survey, in S. K. Bhaumik (ed.), Reforms in Indian Agriculture for
Employment Expansion and Poverty Reduction, Sage Publications: New Delhi, pp. 498516.
Salop SC, Scheffman DT. 1983. Raising rivals costs. American Economic Review 73: 267

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 133

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Samli, A., 1985, Technology Transfer: Geographic, Economic, Cultural and Technical
Dimensions. Greenwood Press, USA.
Sandeep, P. (1998) , ``ERP and Web-based self service, Computing Canada, Vol. 24 No.
42, November, p. 31.
SAP Annual Report, 1996. (75% of market-share for the large firms.)
SAP, Information Week, No. 686, June, p. 26.
Sarkis, J., and Gunasekaran, A. (Editors). Enterprise Resource Planning Modeling and
Analysis. Special Issue of European Journal of Operational Research, in progress, 2001.
Saxenian, A., The New Argonauts, Harvard University Press, 2006.
Schaltegger S. Corporate environmental accounting. New York. Wiley and Sons. 1996. ISBN
0-471-96784-X .
Schauer, V. (2003) Business Objects, DM Review, vol. 13(1), pp. 34-36.
Scheduling, In International Journal of Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Special Issue on
Multi- Agent Systems Applications, N 27 pp. 15-28, North-Holland.
Schmidheiny S, Zorraquin FJL. 1996. Financing Change. MIT Press: Cambridge, MA.
Schmillen, A. and J. Mller (2009), Determinants of Lifetime Unemployment - A Micro
Data Analysis with Censored Quantile Regressions, Working Papers, No. 275, October
2009, Osteuropa-Institut Regensburg, University of Regensburg.
Scholtes, R. P. (1992). The team handbook. Madison, WS: Joiner Associates.
School of Business Information Technology, RMIT University, Melbourne.
Schultheis, R., Sumner, M. (1998). Management Information System. Boston: McGraw Hill.
Schumann, David W., Jan M. Hathcote, and Susan West (1991), Corporate Advertising in
America: A Review of Published Studies on Use, Measurement, and Effectiveness, Journal
Schwalbe K. 2000, Information Technology Project Management, Cambridge, MA.
Scott, J. and Kaindl, L. (2000) , ``Enhancing functionality in an enterprise software
package, Information & Management, Vol. 37 No. 3, April, pp. 111-22.
Scubert U.Der Management-Kreis. In:Management fr alle Fhrungskrfte in Wirtschaft und
Verwaltung.Stuttgart, 1972.s.43 a n.
Seidel E. Ecological Controlling (in German: Okologisches Controlling). Wunderer (Hrsg.):
Betriebswirtschaftslehre als
Seidman, I. (1998). Interviewing as qualitative research. A guide for researching in education
and the social sciences. New York: Teachers College Press.
Sen, Sankar and C.B. Bhattacharya (2001), Does Doing Good Always Lead to Doing
Better? Consumer Reactions to Corporate Social Responsibility, Journal of Marketing
Research, 38 (May), 22543.
September BPM Forum (2003). Current 09/25/2003.
Sewell, G., & Wilkinson, B. (1992). Someone to watch over me: Surveillance,
Shang, S. and Seddon, P. (2002) Assessing and Managing the Benefits of Enterprise
Systems: the Business Managers Perspective, Information Systems Journal, 20(12): pp.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 134

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Share Our Strength (2001), Charge Against Hunger (accessed December 13), [available at partnerships/charge/charge.htm].
Shehab, E., Sharp, M., Supramaniam, L. and Spedding, T. 2004. Enterprise resource
planning: An integrative review. Business Process Management Journal, 10 (4): 359-386.
Sherman, E. (2000) , ``ERP attitude adjustments, Computerworld, Vol. 34 No. 7, February,
pp. 52-3.
Shrivastava P. Greening business.Cincinnati,OH:Thompson Executive Press,1996.
Shukla P. (2004), WTO and Survival of Small-scale Industry: The Five Myth Entrepreneurial
Framework with Case Study of Rajkot Diesel Engine Industry, Journal of Entrepreneurship,
Vol. 13 No. 1
Siddharthan, N. S. (1988) In-house R&D, imported technology, and firm size: Lessons from
Indian experience, The Developing Economies, XXVI-3, pp. 212221.
Siddharthan, N. S., and R.N. Agarwal (1992), Determinants of R&D Decisions: A Cross-
Section Study of Indian Private Corporate Firms, Economic Innovation and New
Technology, 2(2), pp.103110.
Siddharthan, N.S. (1992), Transaction costs, technology transfer, and in-house R&D,
Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 18 (2), pp. 265271.
Sikka, P. (1999), Technological innovations by SME's in India, Technovation, 19 (5), pp.
Sinclair, J., & Collins, D. (1994). Towards a quality culture. International Journal of Quality
and Reliability Management, 11(5), 19-29.
Siriginidi, S.R. (2000), Enterprise resource planning in re-engineering business, Business
Process Management Journal, 6(5): 376-91.
Skeels, C. L. and F. Vella (1999), A Monte Carlo investigation of the sampling behavior of
conditional moment tests in tobit and probit models, Journal of Econometrics, 92, pp. 275
Slater, D. (1998), ``The hidden costs of enterprise software, CIO, Vol. 11 No. 7, January,
pp. 48-55.
Smith, M. (2002) Business Process Intelligence BI and Business Process Management
Technologies are Converging to Create Value Beyond the Sum of their Parts, Intelligent
Smith, M. (2008), Eco-friendly inks, Package Printing, Vol. 55 No. 7, pp. 20-22.
Smith, Warren and Matthew Higgins (2000), Cause-Related Marketing: Ethics and
Ecstatic, Business and Society, 39 (3), 30422.
Snow, C., Miles, R., Coleman, H. (1992). Managing 21st Century Network Organizations.
Organizational Dynamics, 20, (3), 5-20.
Soejarto, A. (Mar. 20, 2003) Tough Times Call for Business Intelligence Services, an
Indisputable Area of Growth, http://vb.channelsupersearch. com/news/var/40682.asp or
Sofka, W. Innovation Activities Abroad and the Effects of Liability of Foreignness: Where it
Hurts, Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), Discussion Paper No. 06-029, 2006.
Soh, C., Kien, S. and Tay-Yap, J. (2000), ``Cultural fits and misfits: is ERP a universal
solution?, Communications of the ACM, April, Vol. 43 No. 4, pp. 47-51.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 135

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Somers T.M. and Nelson K.G. 2001. The Impact of Critical Success Factors across the
Stages of Enterprise Resource Planning Implementations, Proceedings of the 34th Hawaii
International Conference on System Sciences.
Somers T.M. and Nelson K.G. 2004. A taxonomy of players and activities across the ERP
project life cycle, Information and Management, 41(3):257278.
Sousa-Poza, A., Nystrom, H., & Wiebe, H. (2001). A cross-cultural study of the differing
effects of corporate culture on TQM in three countries. International Journal of Quality and
Reliability Management, 18(7), 744-761.
Speier, C., Harvey, M., Palmer, J. (1998). Virtual Management of Global Marketing
Relationships. Journal of World Business,Vol. 33 (3).
Spielkamp, A., and Rammer, C. Balanceakt Innovation: Erfolgsfaktoren im
Innovationsmanagement kleiner und mittlerer Unternehmen, Centre for European Economic
Research (ZEW), 2006.
Spinosa, L. M.; Rabelo, R. J.; Klen, A. P. (1998), High-Level Coordination of Business
Processes in a Virtual Enterprise, in Globalization of Manufacturing in the Digital
Communications Era of the 21st Century: Innovation, Agility, and the Virtual Enterprise,
Edited by Jacucci, G., Olling, G.J., Preiss, K. and Wozny, M., Kluwer Academic Publishers,
pp. 725-736.
Sprague, R.H. (1995) Electronic Document Management: Challenges and Opportunities for
Information Systems Managers MIS Quarterly, March 1995, pp. 29-49.
Sprott, D. (2000), ``Componentizing the enterprise application packages, Communications
of the ACM, Vol. 43 No. 4, April, pp. 63-9.
Sprott, D. 2000. Componentizing the enterprise application packages. Communication of
the ACM, 43(2): 63-69.
Srinivasan, P. Think Research. Think India, in Business Today, Issue: 18, 2004, pp. 166-
167. The Hindu. Google to set up R&D centre in Bangalore, in The Hindu, 13.12.2003.
Stark, Myra (1999), Brand Aid: Cause Effective, Brandweek, 40 (February 22), 2022.
Stedman, C. (1999), ``Survey: ERP costs more than measurable ROI, Computerworld, Vol.
Stein, T. (1998a) , ``ERP links to supply chain, InformationWeek, January, No. 663, pp.
Stein, T. (1998b) , ``SAP moves beyond ERP, InformationWeek, No. 701, September, p.
Stemand, C. Big retail SAP project put on ice. Computerworld, pp. 1, 104. November 2,
Stemand, C. ERP user interfaces drive workers nuts. Computerworld, pp. 1, 24, November 2,
Stisser P. 1994. A deeper shade of green. American Demographics 16: 2429.
Stodder, D. (2003) Enabling the Intelligent Enterprise: The 2003 Editors Choice Awards,
Intelligent Enterprise, (6)2, pp. 22-33.
Sunami, A. Learning from the JapaneseResearch & Development Policies of the UK and
the US in the 1980s, published dissertation, Columbia University, 2001.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 136

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

surplus: Three different measures of information technology value. MIS Quarterly 20 (2),
121-142, 1996.
Survey and Methodology, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 24 No. 2,
sustainability, Journal of Systems and Information Technology, Vol. 10 No. 3, pp. 186-201.
Systems A Multi-agent Approach [in portuguese], Ph.D. Thesis, New University of Lisbon,
Talwar, R. (1993), Business re-engineering a strategy-driven approach, Long Range
Planning, Vol. 26 No. 6, pp. 22-40.
Taylor, W. A. (1995). Senior executives and ISO 9000: Attitudes, behaviors, and
commitment. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, 12(4), 40-57.
Tegarden, D.P. (1999) Business Information Visualization Communications of the
Association for Information Systems (1)4, /articles/1-4/default.asp
(May 15, 2003).
Teo, T. and W.Y. Choo (2001) Assessing the Impact of Using the Internet for Competitive
Intelligence, Information & Management, (39)1, pp. 67.
the airline industry. a case study of Scandinavian airlines, Journal of Sustainable Tourism,
Vol. 14 No. 2, pp. 116-38.
Thomsen, E. (2003) BIs Promised Land, Intelligent Enterprise, (6)4, pp. 21-25.
Tidd, J., Bessant J. and Pavitt K (2001), Managing Innovation : Integrating Technological,
Market and Organizational Change, 2nd Edition, Chichester, John Wiley
TIFAC. FDI in the R&D sector: Study for the pattern in 1998-2003, Technology Information,
Forecasting and Assessment Council, Department of Science and Technology, Government
of India, 2006.
Tiwari / Buse / Herstatt (2007): Innovation via Global Route TIM/TUHH Working Paper 49
Tiwari / Buse / Herstatt (2007): Innovation via Global Route TIM/TUHH Working Paper 49
NASSCOM. Indian IT Industry: NASSCOM Analysis, online:, retrieved:
Tiwari / Buse / Herstatt (2007): Innovation via Global Route TIM/TUHH Working Paper 49
Tiwari, R. The Early Phases of Innovation: Opportunities and Challenges in Public- Private
Partnership, in: Asia Pacific Tech Monitor, (24:1), 2007, pp. 32-37.
Tiwari, R., Buse, S. and Herstatt, C. (2007): Innovation via Global Route: Proposing a
eference Model for Chances and Challenges of Global Innovation Processes, in:
Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Management of Globally Distributed
Work, Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore, July 25-27, pp. 451-465.
Tobin, J. (1958), Estimation of relationships for limited dependent variables, Econometrica,
26(1), pp. 2436.
Torrington, D., & Hall, L. (1998). Human resource management (4th ed.). London: Prentice
Tsang, E.W.K., 1995, The Implementation of Technology Transfer in Sinoforeign Joint
Ventures. International Journal of Technology Management, 10,7/8, pp757-766
Tsiotras, G., & Gotzamani, K. (1996). ISO 9000 as an entry key to TQM: The case of Greek
industry. International Journal of Quality, 13(4), 64-76.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 137

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Turban, E., Leidner, D., Mclean, E. and Wetherbe, J. 2006. Information Technology for
Management: transforming organizations in the digital age. 5th ed, John Willy & Sons.
Umble, Elisabeth; Ronald Haft; M. Michael Umble. 2003. Enterprise Resource Planning:
Implementation procedures and Critical Success Factors, European Journal of Operational
Research 146: 241257
UNCTAD. Globalization of R&D and Developing Countries, Proceedings of the Expert
Meeting, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 2005 (a).
UNCTAD. UNCTAD survey on the internationalization of R&D: Current patterns and
prospects on the internationalization of R&D, United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development, Occasional Note, 2005 (b).
UNCTAD. World Investment Report 2005: Transnational Corporations and the
Internationalization of R&D, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 2005
UNEP (2003), United Nations Environment Programme, Division of Technology, Industry
UNEP (2007), United nations environment programme. Life cycle management, a business
guide to sustainability, available at: sitelcinit&page_idF14E0563-
6C63-4372-B82F-6F6B5786CCE3 (accessed 27 January 2009).
UNIDO, Cluster Development Studies, 2002,2003,2004,2005, UNIDO Publications, New
United Nations (1987), Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development
Our Common Future, Brundtland Report, United Nations General Assembly, available at:
Van Donk, P. D., & Sanders, G. (1993). Oprganizational culture as a missing link in quality
management. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, 10(5), 5-15.
Van Heerden, CH. 2001. Factors affecting decision-making in South African sport
sponsorships. Unpublished D Com thesis. University of Pretoria, South Africa.
Varadarajan, P. Rajan and Anil Menon (1988), Cause-Related Marketing: A Coalignment of
Marketing Strategy and Corporate Philanthropy, Journal of Marketing, 52 (July), 5874.
Varadarajin, R., Cunningham, M. (1995). Strategic alliances: A synthesis of conceptual
foundations. Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, 23, (4), 282-296.
Vardarajan PR. 1992. Marketings contribution to strategy: the view from a different looking
glass. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 20: 323343.
Varian, H. Microeconomic Analysis. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1990.
Vedder, R.G. and S.C. Guynes (2002) CIOs Perspectives on Competitive Intelligence,
Information Systems Management, (19)4, pp. 49.
Vernon, G., & Rees, C. (2001, April). Transnational capital and the end of national social
settlements? Recent developments in Sweden. Paper presented at the IREC network
conference on globalization, competitiveness, and the government of employment in Europe:
Structures, strategies, and actors, Madrid, Spain.
Verworn, B., Herstatt, C., and Nagahara, A. The impact of the fuzzy front end on new
product development success in Japanese NPD projects, Proceedings of the R&D
Management Conference 2006, Manchester, CD-ROM version.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 138

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Verworn, B., Ltje, C., and Herstatt, C. Innovationsmanagement in kleinen und mittleren
Unternehmen, Working Paper No. 7, Institute of Technology and Innovation Management,
Hamburg University of Technology, 2000.
Vogel D. 1995. Trading Up: Consumer and Environmental Regulation in a Global Economy.
Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA.
Vogel D. 1996. Kindred Strangers: the Uneasy Relationship between Politics and Business in
America. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ.
Vouzas, F. (1997). Middle management and quality improvement: Evidence from five
countries. In Livian Yves-Frdric & G. J. Burgoyone (Eds.), Middle managers in Europe
(pp. 155-172). London, UK: Routledge.
Vouzas, F. (2004). HR utilization and quality improvement: The reality and the rhetoric - the
case of Greek industry. The TQM Magazine, 16(2), 125-135.
Wah, L. (2000), ``Give ERP a chance, Management Review, Vol. 89 No. 3, March, pp. 20-
Waldman, D. A. (1994). The contributions of total quality management to a theory of work
performance. Academy of Management Review, 19(3), 510-536.
Walley N, Whitehead B. 1994. Its not easy being green. Harvard Business Review May-
June: 4651.
Walley, P., & Kowalski, E. (1992). The role of training in total quality implementation.
Journal of European Industrial Training, 16(3), 25-31.
Webb, Deborah J. and Lois A. Mohr (1998), A Typology of Consumer Responses to Cause-
Related Marketing: From Skeptics to Socially Concerned, Journal of Public Policy &
Marketing, 17 (2), 22638.
Webster, F.E., Jr (1970), "Informal Communication in Industrial Markets," Journal of
Marketing Research, Vol. VII (May), pp. 186-9.
Webster, F.E., Jr and Y. Wind (1972), Organizational Buying Behaviour. Englewood Cliffs,
NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Wei, C. and Wang, M. 2004. A comprehensive framework for selecting an ERP system.
International Journal of Project Management, 22: 161169.
Weiner JL, Doescher. 1991. A framework for promoting cooperation. Journal of Marketing
55: 387.
Weiner JL. 1993. What makes people sacrifice their freedom for the good of their
community? Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 12: 244260.
Weir, J. (2000) A Web/Business Intelligence Solution, Information Systems Management,
(Winter) pp. 41-46.
Westerman, G., Cotteleer, M., Austin, R., and Nolan, R. Tektronix: Implementing ERP.
Harvard Business School Case, Report No. 9-699-043, 1999.
Wheatley, M. (2000), ``ERP training stinks, CIO, Vol. 13 No. 16, June, pp. 86-96.
White, J., Clark, D., and Ascarelli, S. This German software is complex, expensive and
wildly popular. Wall Street Journal, p. 1, March 17, 1997.
Whiting, R. (Jan. 13, 2003) Look WithinBusiness-Intelligence Tools have a New
Mission: Evaluating All Aspects of a Companys Business, InformationWeek, pp. 32.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 139

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Wiggins, B. (2001) "The Intelligent Enterprise Butler - Competitive Use of Intelligence in

Business", International Journal of Information Management, (21)5, pp. 397.
Wilhelm, M. O. (2008), Practical Considerations for Choosing Between Tobit and SCLS or
CLAD Estimators for Censored Regression Models with an Application to Charitable
Giving, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 70(4), pp. 559582.
Wilkinson, A. (1998). Empowerment: Theory and practice. Personnel Review, 27(1), 40-56.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 140

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Wilkinson, A., & Willmott, H. (1995). Introduction. In A. Wilkinson & H. Willmott (Eds.),
Making quality critical: new perspectives of organizational change (pp. 1-32). London:
Wilkinson, A., Marchington, M., Goodman, J., & Ackers, P. (1992). Total quality
management and employee involvement. Human Resource Management Journal, 2(4), 1-20.
Wilkinson, A., Redman, T., & Snape, E. (1993). Quality and the manager. London: Institute
of Management. Alexandros G. Psychogios and Constantinos-Vasilios Priporas 64
Willen, C. (Jan. 14, 2002) Airborne Opportunities, Intelligent Enterprise, (5)2, pp. 11-12.
Woojong, S. and L. Heeseok (2001) Hypermedia Document Management: A Metadata and
Meta-Information System, Journal of Database Management, 12(2), pp. 25-36.
Williamson, O. (1991). Comparative economic organizations: The analysis of discrete
structural alternatives. Administrative Service Quarterly, 36, 269-296.
Wilson JQ. 1980. The Politics of Regulation. Basic Books: New York.
Woo H. 2007. Critical success factors for implementing ERP: the case of a Chinese
electronics manufacturer Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management 18 (4), 431-
Wood DJ, Jones RE. 1995. Stakeholder mismatching: a theoretical problem in empirical
research on corporate social performance. The International Journal of Organizational
Analysis 3: 229267. (current May 5, 2003).
Wyke, A., Mulder, J., and Go, R. The future of the life sciences industries: Strategies for
Success in 2015, Deloitte white paper, 2006.
Yang, J. and Papazoglou, M. (2000) , ``Interoperation support for electronic business,
Communications of the ACM, Vol. 43 No. 6, June, pp. 39-47.
Yin, Robert K. (1994), Case study research: design and methods (2. ed.). Thousand Oaks,
CA: Sage.
Yingling, R. (1997), How to manage key business processes, Quality Progress, Vol. 30 No.
4, pp. 107-10.
Yu, X.Y., 1990, International Economic Law. Nanjing: University Press
Zairi, M. (1997), Business process management: a boundaryless approach to modern
competitiveness, Business Process Management, Vol. 3 No. 1, pp. 64-80.
Zairi, M. (2000). Managing customer satisfaction: A best practice perspective. The TQM
Magazine, 12(6), 389-394.
Zaltman, Gerald and Robin Higie (1995), Seeing the Voice of the Customer: The Zaltman
Metaphor Elicitation Technique, Marketing Science Institute Report Number 93-114.
Cambridge, MA: Marketing Science Institute
Zantout, H. and F. Marir (1999) Document Management Systems from Current Capabilities
towards Intelligent Information Retrieval: An Overview. International Journal of Information
Management, 19(6), pp. 471.
Zhang L, K.O. Lee K.O, Banerjee P (2002). Critical Success Factors of Enterprise Resource
Planning Systems Implementation Success in China. Proceedings of the 36th Hawaii
International Conference on System Sciences

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 141

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue6- 2012

Zhang, M. Q., 1987, International Technology Trade. Beijing: Foreign Trade and Education
Zhang, Z., Lee, M., Huang, P., Zhang L. and Huang, X. 2005. A framework of ERP systems
implementation success in China: An empirical study. International Journal of Production
Economics, 98: 56-80.
Zheng, S., Yen, D. and Tarn, J. (2000), The new spectrum of the cross-enterprise solution

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 142