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Entropy

Redundancy of language

Key Equivocation & Unicity Distance

Equivocation of a simple cryptographic system

This be tricky toward argue that substance regarding cryptography devoid of submitting to

elementary concept of information theory. Claude Shannon a priest of regulation available in

1948 the determining job in which the principles were formulated of consistent transmission via

deafening conduit. Later this approach to protect hardware with the superior piece of

hypothetical basis for modern cryptography. The standard tackle for the protected transmission

are code and ciphers. A code is a permanent programmed thesaurus wherever each suitable

message is coded. Coding theory attend to noisy channel crisis whereby choose a fussy code, if a

communication M is fuzzy to M this slip could be noticed with accurate near M.

Entropy

system. Messages were generated that are soon transmitting a message channel. In almost

belongings, probabilistic replicas of data basis appear to be sufficient. So a source represented

via arbitrary variable S by the source sets are called by the messages S={s1,s2,,sk}and

linked probabilty P(S=si)= p(si) for every condition i= 1..k.

Each log2 ( 1/p(si)) signify the no. of bits desired to instruct the communication optimally .

whilst the mail be evenly liable p(s1)=p(s2)=..=p(sk)= 1/k the H(S)= log2k. if k= 2n after

that n bits be desired to instruct the message. The worth of H(S) vary b/w the max. value log2k

and its min worth zero when there is a lone message with the possibility 1.

1. speech Redundancy and Cryptanalaysis

o script were not uniformly exploited

o cf. Z,J,K,Q,X

Since example explained, there is no need of all letters to understand English text. Here vowels

can be erased. Similarly in parties "party conversations", can listen to one human being talking of

hubbub of numerous, yet once more as of redundancy in oral verbal communication also. This

redundancy is the cause of compressing; the hardware encode in more compact without losing

any information. Fundamentally seen with the count of the relative frequencies of letters the

resulting pattern is perceived as seen in Fig.5.1.

http://sjsu.rudyrucker.com/~haile.eyob/paper/frequency.jpg }

This chart is bottom on count up ready at ADFA in the belatedly 1980's, and worn to extend the

bench available in Seberry & Pieprzyk.

1. additional speech

o languages comprise dissimilar letters (cf. Norwegian)

2. apply in Cryptanalysis

o crest at: A-E-I spaced triple, NO pair, RST triple with U shape;

occurrences

Triple

Single Letter Double Letter

Letter

E TH THE

T HE AND

R IN TIO

N ER ATI

I RE FOR

O ON THA

A AN TER

S EN RES

Caesar cipher can be analyzed by by occurrence count too eg. Known "JXU WHUQJUIJ

TYISELUHO EV CO WUDUHQJYED YI JXQJ Q XKCQD RUYDW SQD QBJUH XYI YVU

RO QBJUHYDW XYI QJJYJKTUI" can count alphabets along with conspire as in Fig 5.2:

transcript has a idiosyncratic and predictable shape. A Caesar move "rotates" this allocation, and

it is probable to decide the shift by investigative the resulting occurrence graph.{source:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caesar_cipher#/media/File:English-slf.png}

also HIJ triple would fit as RST, DE is then NO though fewer apparent

The graph beyond is a immediately plot from krypto program. Contain the key, decrypt the

communication and recuperate: "THE GREATEST DISCOVERY OF MY GENERATION IS

THAT A HUMAN BEING CAN ALTER HIS LIFE BY ALTERING HIS ATTITUDES"

Think concerning an encoding scheme in below fig.5.3 , the cryptosystem contain of three

essential systems:

Message resource

Key producer

Encryption block

arithmetical assets of the tongue produced the source. The typescript set in the alphabet is M. the

key producer choose the input arbitrarily with the consistent possibility for the entire set K.

formerly select the key reside preset. The encryption block utilizes the publicly standard

algorithm to code message into cryptograms below the management of secret key. The

cryptograms group is represented by C.

For n successive mail constructs n matching cryptograms (cipher texts) is applied by the

recipients of the cryptosystem. The opponent cryptanalyst which does not recognize the secret

key except reading cryptograms might attempt to:

The invader also cannot identified the statistical possessions of the message resource and

consequently could compute the message and key evasion to discover the compilation of mainly

possible messages and the keys. As an invader recognized n cryptograms it be able to figure

communication evasion follows :

H(Mn | Cn) =

Examine a cryptographic scheme as in fig 5.3 which encrypts a binary communication utilizing a

binary keys following to formulae:

C= m addition mod 2 k

The communication is identified to produce basic bits by possibility

In favor of each communication session, a cryptographic key k is chosen by equal feasible binary

rudiments.

p(k=0)= p(k=1)=0.5

This helps in computing the cipher equivocation and predictable the unicity distance .

M E

Key

generator

operation for C= M (addition modulo 2) K

suppose this cryptosystem has produce n binary cryptograms in order that the possibility p(A)

wherever O be the occasion that prepared cryptograms order include i 0s and n-i 1s is defines

as :

The conditional belongings p(O|k=0) the possibility that the prearranged message series include

of i 0s and n-i 1s. conversely p(O|k=1) gives possibility to prearranged message n-i 0s and I

1s. consequently,

p(O|k=0)=vi (1-v)n-i

p(O|k=1)= vn-i(1-v)i

Henceforth it conclude:

Try:

2. Is MxS=SxM?

3. Demonstrate the unicity distance of the Hill Cipher (by p x p encryption matrix) < m/RL.

References

Journal, 28(1949), 656-715

2. Douglas Stinson, Cryptography Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition, Chapman &

Hall/CRC

3. Cover, TM, Thomas, JA. Elements of information theory, 1st Edition. New York:

Wiley-Interscience, 1991. ISBN 0-471-06259-6. 2nd Edition. New York: Wiley-

Interscience, 2006. ISBN 0-471-24195-4.

MA, 1977.

219, 1953.

universal coding. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, pages 714722, May 1995.

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