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Quartz School

4.1. Casing for WellMaterials


Dimensions, Site Supervisors
& Strengths

Module 4
Casing Selection
& Design

Section 1
Dimensions, Materials
& Strengths

C. Alvarez Quartz School. Module 4: Casing Selection & Design / Section 1


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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

Contents:

1. Basis for Casing Design

2. Functions of Casing Strings

3. Types of Casing Strings

4. Dimensions, Materials, Connections

5. Mechanical Properties

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

1. Considerations for Casing Design

Collapse Strength
Bursting Strength
Tension Strength
Tri-axial Stress
Casing Wear

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

2. Functions of Casing String


Prevent well bore collapses
Isolate troublesome formations (lost circulation, reactive / sensitive
shales, unstable formations, etc.)
Separate incompatible low & high pressure zones,
Avoid contamination of aquifer sands
Serve as a barrier for formation pressure and fluids containment
Isolate and contain drilling / completion fluids left in the annulus
Serve as conduit to run pipe strings and equipment in the hole
Give support to well head assembly and to the weight of
subsequent casing strings
Support BOP stack while drilling and Christmas Tree upon
completing the well
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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

3. Types of Casing String 2. H


3. O
4. N
5. D

Conductor Casing (stove pipe) 6. A

Surface Casing
Intermediate
Production Casing
Drilling Liner
Contingency Liner
Production Liner
Liner Tie-Back

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

3. Types of Casing String


Conductor Casing
Covers and supports unconsolidated shallow formations
that are commonly drilled without installing a BOP stack
Conductor casing can be set in three different ways: 2.
3.
H
O
4. N
5. D

Cemented in a drilled hole 6. A

Driven with pneumatic jar until the refusal depth


By Jetting the soft / unconsolidated formation with
an inner drilling string run simultaneously with the
conductor, until finding a consolidated formation
where jetting is not possible or is too slow

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

3. Types of Casing String


Surface Casing
2. H
3. O

Protect aquifer zones from contamination with 4.


5.
N
D

drilling fluids
6. A

Allow the installation of a BOP stack on the top of


its head to drill subsequent sections of the well
Acts as the structural support for all well head
components and all subsequent casing strings
It is cemented from bottom to surface, which is
verified by the proper return of cement to surface or
to sea bed

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

3. Types of Casing String


Intermediate Casing
2. H
3. O

Run to isolate potential or known lost circulation zones 4.


5.
N
D
6. A

or zones of low and high pressure incompatible


The top of cement behind the casing is left above the
more troublesome shallow zone
It is not required cement returns to surface, except in
special cases and well completion needs
Intermediate casing can be a conventional string
extended from bottom to surface or a liner string hung
inside the lower section of the last casing installed in
the well
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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

3. Types of Casing String


Production Casing

Isolates incompatible zones for not to produce


comingled, and thus allowing a complete
reservoir management
Acts like a safe conduit of reservoir fluids to
surface Conductor Csng.

Production casing can be conventional from


bottom to the surface or a liner type casing hung
from the lower section of previous casing Surface Csng.

Serves as a barrier to prevent formation kicks Intermediate Csng.

Allows the installation of production / injection


Production Csng.
string and subsurface tools
Can be or not isolated from produced fluids
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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

3. Types of Casing String


Drilling / Contingency Liner

Installed to isolate troublesome zones


Some times is installed to case hole sections
left open by casing stuck while running,
unexpected abnormal zones, drilling problems,
etc.
Most of the time it is the best an most
economical solution to achieve the TD
In occasions it is run due to limitations of rig
capacity
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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

3. Types of Casing String

Production Liner

Installed by economical reasons or due to rig capacity


limitations
Reduces drilling and completion costs
Limits the size of production / injection string and
down hole tools
Gives options to install production or injection string
above the hanger, increasing the options of larger
tubing and tool sizes.

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections

Outside Diameter and Wall Thickness


Weight
Length
Steel Grades
Casing Connections

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Outside Diameter (D) & Wall Thickness (t)
Determine the pipe body structure
The outside diameter of casing couplings determines the hole size that
best fit the casing size
Wall thickness determines inside diameter and pipe weight

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Outside Diameter (D) & Wall Thickness (t)
API Tolerances to OD and t

API recommended tolerances for Outside Diameter D are


found in Table API Spec. 5CT as follows:

Casing Outside Diameter (in) Tolerance ( mm.)


> 4 + 1.00, -0.50% D
< 4 + 0.79%

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Outside Diameter (D) & Wall Thickness (t)
API Tolerances to OD and t

API recommended tolerance for wall thickness of non upset pipe is 12.5 %

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Outside Diameter (D) & Wall Thickness (t)
API Tolerances to OD and t

API recommended tolerance for wall thickness of upset pipe is 12.5 %

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Adjusted Weight of a Casing Joint

It is calculated with the formula:

WL = ( Wpe x L ) + ew
Where :

WL = Adjusted weight per joint length, (lb)


Wpe = Weight of pipe body (w/o coupling) (lb/ft)
L = Joint length, including coupling (ft)
ew = Gained or lost weight due to the threads (lb)

Adjusted weight for all casing pipes can be obtained from API Spec.
5CT, Section 8, table 20

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Adjusted Weight of a Casing Joint

Can also be calculated with the formula:

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Adjusted Weight of a Casing Joint

API Tolerances for casing pipe weight:

According to API 5 CT weight tolerances are:

For single joints + 6.5% , -3.5%


For loads above 40,000 lbs. -1.75%
For loads below 40,000 lbs. - 3.5%

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Casing Pipe Length

API has defined three ranges for casing pipe lengths, as follows:

RANGE LENGTH AVERAGE LENGTH


(feet) (feet)
1 16 25 22
2 25 34 31
3 > 34 42

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Steel Grades for Casing
Color Code for Steel Grades Recommended by API 5CT / ISO 11960

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Steel Grades for Casing
Color Code for Steel Grades Recommended by API 5CT / ISO 11960

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Steel Grades for Casing

API has defined nine steel grade for casings, as follows:

H 40, J 55, K 55, C 75, L 80, N 80, C 95, P 110,


and Q 125

Each steel grade is determined by alloy steel composition,


manufacturing process, and mechanical properties:

Steel alloy formulation


Heating and cooling processes during its manufacturing
Minimum yield strength

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Steel Grades for Casing
Service Levels
Steel grades are further classified in Service Level or
recommended application, as follows:

Level 1: Grades H 40, J 55, K 55 y N 80


Sweet environment: limited concentration of H2S
Working pressure < 5,000 psi

Level 2: Grades M 65, L 80, C 90, C 95 y T 95


WP >10M with limited concentration of H2S
Low WP and high concentration of H2S
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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Steel Grades for Casing
Service Levels

Level 3: Grade P 110


Low concentration of H2S;
High Temperature / High Pressure

Level 4: Grades above Level 3 like, Grade Q 125


HP wells with high concentrations of H2S
The total joints used for each application can be
easily tracked with the serial number of each joint

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Steel Grades for Casing
Composition of Steel Alloys
The raw steel material used for casing
manufacturing does not have one defined micro
structure
Both the steel micro structure and mechanical
properties can be improved mainly with the
addition of special steel alloys and thermal
processes
After a complex manufacturing procedure the
steel used for casing tubular is adapted to suit
specific environments and service levels
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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Steel Grades for Casing
Composition of Steel Alloys
Tables 2 and 3 from API Spec. 5CT in the next two slides show
metallurgic composition and mechanical properties for each one of the
steel grades used in casing manufacturing

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Steel Grades for Casing

Las tablas 2 y 3 del API Spec. 5CT muestran los requerimientos qumicos y
mecnicos para cada uno de los grados de tubera.

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Steel Grades for Casing

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Steel Grades for Casing
V150: Is used for casing manufacturing but not one API Steel Grade
Properties:
Yield Strength range: 150,000 to 180,000 psi.
Minimum Yield Strength: 160,000 psi.
Not recommended for any H2S concentration at all temperatures

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Casing & Tubing Connections

API Connections: Premium Connections:

Round Buttress Extreme Line NU Coupled Upset Formed Flush

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Casing & Tubing Connections

API Connections:

Round Thread: Short, STC or Long, LTC


Buttress Thread, BTC (also, BCN)
Extreme Line Thread, XL (integral connection)

Premium Connections (Proprietary Connections):

Hydril
Manesman
VAM
Etc.

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Casing & Tubing Connections

API Connection Round Thread:

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections
Casing & Tubing Connections
API Connection Round Thread:
External-End-Upset

Hot Forging

Round Thread

Round Thread

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Casing & Tubing Connections
API Connection Round Thread:

Characteristics:

Eight (8) threads per inch


Thread profile V shaped with 60 between flanks
Taper close to per foot
Crest and root thread round cut,
Leak trajectory along the threads
Not recommended for gas wells or HP wells
Short and weak engagement surface.

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Casing & Tubing Connections
API Connection Round Thread:

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Casing & Tubing Connections

API Connection Buttress Thread:

Characteristics:

Trapezoidal shaped thread having five (5) threads per inch

Taper:

for OD < 7-5/8


1 for OD > 7-5/8

The trapezoidal design has the ability of transmitting higher axial loads
than the API Round Thread (8 RD)

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Casing & Tubing Connections

API Connection Buttress Thread:

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Casing & Tubing Connections

API Connection Buttress Thread:

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Casing & Tubing Connections

API Connection Buttress Thread:

Other Characteristics

Higher possibility of leaking than the round thread


Lower bursting strength than the round thread
Strong for axial and flexing loads
Prone to strand and stuck while making connections
Does not work well under compression
Best threads are located toward the tip of the pin

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Casing & Tubing Connections

API Connection Buttress Thread:

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Casing & Tubing Connections

API Connection Extreme Line Thread:

Characteristics:

No leaking path present as long as the make up friction force is above the
internal pressure
Seal area is located at the tip of the pin
Sealing is not affected by compression or flexion stresses
Pin is prone to impact damages
Does not get strand or stuck while making the connection due to threads
tolerance

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Casing & Tubing Connections

API Connection Extreme Line Thread:

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Casing & Tubing Connections
Premium Connections Non API

Characteristics:

High performance threads


Less dimensional tolerances than API threads
More variety of angle between thread flanks
Higher mechanical properties: tension, compression, and flexion strengths'
Torsion shoulder in the threads that absorbs from 15 % to 85% of the make
up torque
Metal-to-Metal seal to assure tightness under extreme conditions
Exact value of make up torque must be applied to grant seal

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Casing & Tubing Connections
Premium Connections Non API
Buttress Improved Thread

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Casing & Tubing Connections

Premium Connections Non API


ATS LD Thread

Stabbing Root
Flank Crest Load Flank

Thread Pitch
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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Casing & Tubing Connections

Premium Connections Non API


STL IFJ Thread

Smooth ID

Geometric Transparency
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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Casing & Tubing Connections
Premium Connections Non API
Hydril 513 Thread

Metal to Metal Seal

Cold Forming Dovetail Thread

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths

4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections


Casing & Tubing Connections
Premium Connections Non API

Hydril SLX Thread Metal To Metal seal

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections
Casing & Tubing Connections
Premium Connections Non API
Box
TC - II Thread
Fiber Seal

Pin

Consider Box shape

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections
Casing & Tubing Connections
Premium Connections Non API
New Vam Thread

Shoulder

Sealing Area

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections
Casing & Tubing Connections
Premium Connections Non API
New Vam & BTC Threads

NEW-VAM BTC
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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections
Casing & Tubing Connections
Premium Connections Non API
Types of Joints:
Threaded and Coupled Joint
Threads built on pipe body ends connected by independent coupling
Examples: Tenaris Blue, AMS, MVAM, VAM TOP, HD563,

Up Set Joint
Pin and Box threads built on upset pipe ends are connected together
without using separate coupling
Examples: Tenaris PJD, XL, VAMFIT, VAMACEXS, HD533, RTS

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections
Casing & Tubing Connections
Premium Connections Non API
Types of Joints:
Near Flush Joint
Closed pin and cold expanded box are built on NU ends of
pipe body, respectively and are connected together without
using separate coupling
Examples: Tenaris Blue Near Flush, ANJO, HDSLX, SLIJII

Flush Joint
Pin and box threads built in each NU end of pipe body connected
together without using independent coupling

Examples: VAMFJL, HD511, STL, HDL

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections
Casing & Tubing Connections
Premium Connections Non API
Thread Selection:
Thread selection should be based on the
application, required performance and its cost

In general, the tread for a Production Casing


according to the type of fluid to be handled and
the expected pressure, is selected as follows:

liquid API Thread <5000 psi> Premium


Thread
Gas API Thread <3500 psi> Premium
Thread

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
4. Dimensions, Materials and Connections
Casing & Tubing Connections
Premium Connections Non API
Thread Selection:

For an Intermediate Casing the thread selection is based


on the differential pressure on the connection expected:

If the expected differential pressure across the connection


is > 7,500 psi, it is recommended the use of premium
connections
API Connections could be used by improving the design
but the seal is not reliable

The API 5C2 gives the leak resistance for API connections

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
5. Mechanical Strengths

1. Tension Strength

2. Bursting Strength

3. Collapse Strength

4. Torsional Strength

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
5. Mechanical Strengths
Tension (Yield) Strength
Yield Strength
A test specimen of the material is tensioned along its axis which
results in an increase of its length (or stretch) proportional to the
applied tension
While the tension remains below a certain value, the strain
experienced by the specimen is proportional and can be
eliminated if the tension is taken out, returning to its original
condition
For a given value of the applied tension the specimen will
experience permanent deformation and the strain cannot be
dissipated which means that the specimen will not recover its
original length when the tension load is eliminated.
Further increase of the tension will increase considerably the
strain until the strength limit resulting in the specimen breaking,
as can seen in the following graph
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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
5. Mechanical Strengths
Tension (Yield) Strength
Tension Load Vs. Strain for a given material

Ultimate Yield Strength


C Breaking Point
Yield Point B

Elastic Limit
A
Tension Load

0
Stretch (Elongation) > Strain

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
5. Mechanical Strengths
Tension (Yield) Strength

API defines Minimum Yield Strength like the tension stress value
required to produce one strain (elongation) of 0.5% per unit length in
the test specimen of a given material

For Steel Grades P- 105 y P- 110 the elongation is 0.6%

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
5. Mechanical Strengths
Yield Strength for Casing Pipe Body

API defines Yield Strength of a pipe body as the product of the


sectional area times the minimum yield strength of the steel
grade.
Py = 0.7854 (D2 d2) Yp
Where,
Py = Yield Strength for the pipe body (psi)
Yp = Minimum Yield Strength of the pipe body (psi)
D = Nominal Outer Diameter of the pipe (pulg.)
d = Nominal Internal diameter (pulg.)

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
5. Mechanical Strengths
API Yield Strength

API Grade Yield Strength (psi) (%) of elongation for


Minimum Maximum breaking the specimen

H-40 40,000 80,000 29.5


J-55 55,000 80,000 24.0
K-55 55,000 80,000 19.5
C-75 75,000 90,000 19.5
L-80 80,000 95,000 19.5
N-80 80,000 110,000 18.5
C-90 90,000 105,000 18.5
C-95 95,000 110,000 18.0
P-110 110,000 140,000 15.0

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
5. Mechanical Strengths
Burst Strength

Bursting Strength is defined as the value of internal pressure


that is required to make the pipe body to yield

Bursting failure is followed by pipe body or coupling leaks

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
5. Mechanical Strengths
Burst Strength

Casing Bursting Yield Pressure can be calculated with the formula:

Where,
P = Minimum Bursting Yield Pressure (psi)
Yp = Minimum Yield Strength of pipe (psi)
t = Nominal pipe wall thickness (in)
D = Outside diameter of pipe body (in)

The factor 0.875 corresponds to the maximum tolerance allowed on the


pipe wall thickness, which is of 12.5 %

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
5. Mechanical Strengths
Burst Strength
Exercise:

Calculate the Bursting Yield Pressure for a 20, K 55, 133 lb/ft
casing, having nominal wall thickness of 0.635

Solution:

The minimum Yield Strength for grade K-55 is 55,000 psi

Replacing terms in the formula for Internal Yield Pressure, we get:

Pbr = 0.875 (2)(55,000)(0.635)/20 = 3,056 psi

Which is the bursting Pressure for one externally unsupported or


without external pressure pipe.
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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
5. Mechanical Strengths
Collapse Strength

It is defined as the external pressure


value required to deform one pipe
specimen, assuming that there is not
internal pressure or fluid column
which hydrostatic pressure opposes
to the external pressure

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
5. Mechanical Strengths
Collapse Strength

Examples of collapsed casing pipes


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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
5. Mechanical Strengths
Collapse Strength

Types of Collapse

Collapse by Yield
Plastic Collapse
Transition Collapse
Elastic Collapse

Details on Collapse calculations can be found in API - 5CT


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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
5. Mechanical Strengths
Minimum Strengths Requirements for Casing

Minimum strength requirements for casing and tubing pipe


manufacturing are specified in the API Bulletin API 5CT.

Likewise, the minimum strength requirements for Line Pipe and


Drill Pipe are specified in API Bulletins 5L and 5D, respectively

Manufactures can produce tubulars with their own specs as long


as they meet or exceed those minimum requirements given by
the API

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
5. Mechanical Strengths
Effects of Tension and Compression on Collapse and Bursting

Effects of Tension:

Collapse Strength for a tubular is drastically reduced if it is under tension


at the same time.

On the other hand, Bursting Strength of a tubular is drastically increased


if the tubular is under tension.

Effects of Compression:

The two previous statements are opposed when the tubular is under
compression at the same time: Collapse Strength is increased while
Bursting Strength is reduced with compression simultaneous on the pipe

C. Alvarez Quartz School. Module 4: Casing Selection & Design / Section 1


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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
5. Mechanical Strengths
Casing Wear

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
5. Mechanical Strengths
Casing Wear Causes:

Direct and repetitive contact of the drill string while


tripping or rotating inside the casing
Dragging action against the casing of PDC bits run
with directional assemblies of high bent angle
Direct contact of wire line / slick line tools in
deviated holes
Long time exposure to corrosive fluids both from the
formation or used in stimulation jobs
Sanding produced by abrasive solids in the drilling
fluid while drilling or circulating

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
5. Mechanical Strengths
Casing Wear Mechanisms:

Fatigue Wear

Accumulation of repetitive stresses above the


endurance limit of the material

Abrasive Wear

Caused by sandy effect of solid particles


contacting casing walls

Erosive Wear

Caused by stream of abrasive particles


transported in the fluid stream produced or
injected along the casing string

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
5. Mechanical Strengths
Casing Wear Mechanisms:

Corrosive Wear

Caused by the influence of the surrounding


environment

Wear by Contact

The sum of the previous four wearing mechanisms

Adhesive Wear

Occurring by the transference of material from one


surface to the other in relative movement, specially
in the case of welded surfaces

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
5. Mechanical Strengths
Casing Wear Consequences:

Downgrading of mechanical properties


of casing material
Sudden lost circulation events
High costs of fishing and / or casing
repairing operations
Invasion of unwanted fluids into the well
bore
Decrease of well productivity
Casing plug back with formation solids
transported by the produced fluids

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4.1. Casing Dimensions, Materials & Strengths
5. Mechanical Strengths
Casing Wear Control:

Well Design
Avoiding dog legs and improving well
trajectory
Avoid drilling long open hole sections
Mud Type
Preferable with low solids content and
with the minimum weight required
Casing Selection
According to the exposition time to
corrosive fluids or sour gases
Mechanical protection
Installation of wear bushing, DP protectors,
Centralizers, use of down hole motors, etc.
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