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Timber Engineering

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Timber Engineering

Edited by

Sven Thelandersson
Lund University, Sweden

and

Hans J. Larsen
Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark

JOHN WILEY &. SONS, LTD


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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Timber engineering/edited by Sven Thelandersson and Hans J. Larsen.


p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-470-84469-8 (alk. paper)
1. Building, Wooden. 2. Timber. I. Thelandersson, Sven, 1944 II. Larsen, Hans J.

TA666 .T495 2003


624.1'84dc21
2002027217

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN 0-470-84469-8

Typeset in 10/12pt Times by Laserwords Private Limited, Chennai, India


Printed and bound in Great Britain by Antony Rowe Ltd, Chippenham, Wiltshire
This book is printed on acid-free paper responsibly manufactured from sustainable forestry in which at least two trees are
planted for each one used for paper production.
Contents
List of Contributors vii

Preface ix

1 Timber Engineering - General Introduction 1


Sven Thelandersson

Part One Basic Properties of Wood-Based Structural Elements 13

2 Introduction: Wood as a Construction Material 15


Sven Thelandersson

3 Grading of Timber with Respect to Mechanical Properties 23


Carl-Johan Johansson

4 Structural Timber - Variability and Statistical Modelling 45


Tord Isaksson

5 Mechanical Performance and Modelling of Glulam 67


Erik Serrano

6 Engineered Wood Products for Structural Purposes 81


Frank Lam, Helmut Prion

7 Fracture Perpendicular to Grain - Structural Applications 103


Per Johan Gustafsson

8 Strength Under Long-term Loading 131


Preben Hoffmeyer

9 Effects of Climate and Climate Variations on Strength 153


Alpo Ranta-Maunus
vi Contents

Part Two Design Aspects of Timber Structures 169

10 Introduction: Safety and Serviceability in Timber Engineering 171


Sven Thelandersson

11 Reliability of Structures with Timber and Wood-Based Products 177


Ricardo O. Foschi

12 Design of Structures based on Glulam, LVL and Other Solid Timber Products 201
Hans J. Larsen

13 Short- and Long-term Deformations of Timber Structures 221


Annika Martensson

14 Vibrations of Timber Floors: Serviceability Aspects 241


Ian Smith

15 Design for Earthquake Resistance 267


Erol Karacabeyli and Marjan Popovski

Part Three Joints and Structural Assemblies 301

16 Introduction: Fasteners, Joints and Composite Structures 303


Hans J. Larsen

17 Joints with Dowel-type Fasteners 315


Hans J. Blass

18 Structural Adhesive Joints Including Glued-in Bolts 333


Simon Aicher

19 Trusses and Joints with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners 365


Jacob Nielsen

20 Shear Walls and Diaphragms 383


Helmut G.L. Prion, Frank Lam

21 Composite Structures 409


Ario Ceccotti

Index 429
List of Contributors
Simon Aicher Forschungs- und Materialprufungsanstalt fur das Bauwesen
Otto-Graf-Institut, Universitat Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 4
D-70569 Stuttgart (Vaihingen), Germany
Hans J. Blass Universitat Karlsruhe, Ingenieurholzbau und Baukonstruktion
Eschenweg 2, 76297 Stutensee, Germany
Ario Ceccotti Trees and Timber Institute - National Research Council of Italy, NRC-TTI,
via Barazzuoli 23, 50136 Florence, Italy
Ricardo O. Foschi The University of British Columbia, Department of Civil Engineering,
2324 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C., V6T 1Z4 Canada
Per Johan Gustafsson Lund University, Structural Mechanics,
Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
Preben Hoffmeyer Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Department of Civil Engineering,
Brovej - Building 118, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Tord Isaksson Lund University, Structural Engineering
Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
Carl-Johan Johansson SP, Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, Box 857,
SE-501 15 Boras, Sweden
Erol Karacabeyli Forintek Canada Corp., Western Laboratory, 2665 East Mall,
Vancouver B.C., V6T 1W5 Canada
Frank Lam Dept. of Wood Science, Univ. of British Columbia, 2329 West Mall,
Vancouver, B.C., V6T 1Z4 Canada
Hans J. Larsen Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Department of Civil Engineering,
Brovej - Building 118, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Annika Martensson Lund University, Structural Engineering,
Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
Alpo Ranta-Maunus VTT Building Technology, Structures, P.O. Box 1805,
FIN-02044 VTT, Finland
viii List of Contributors

Jacob Nielsen Aalborg University, Building Technology and Structural Engineering,


Sohngaardsholmsvej 57, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark
Marjan Popovski Forintek Canada Corp., Western Laboratory, 2665 East Mall,
Vancouver B.C., V6T 1W5 Canada
Helmut Prion Depts. of Civil Engineering and Wood Science, Univ. of British Columbia,
2329 West Mall, Vancouver, B.C., V6T 1Z4 Canada
Erik Serrano Lund University, Structural Mechanics,
Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
Ian Smith University of New Brunswick, Structural/Timber Engineering,
P.O. Box 44 555, Fredericton, NB, E3B 6C2 Canada
Sven Thelandersson Lund University, Structural Engineering
Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
Preface
Timber engineering deals mainly with the struc- The book has been written by a number of
tural aspects of timber construction, including international renowned experts, who were invited
material behaviour and properties on wood ele- to write high quality state-of-the-art papers on their
ment level. The field is closely related to wood specific subject with a selection of key references.
science, which provides an important basis for the The result is a collection of advanced teaching
structural behaviour on a larger scale. For basic materials, with a good chance of being usable for
elements of wood science, the reader is referred some future time period.
to Dinwoodie (2000). The relations between clear So that the content of the book has a high
wood properties and the behaviour of timber in actuality in time and space, it is mainly concerned
structural sizes is described in a very instructive with research-based knowledge, and is independent
way by Madsen (1992). Another book by Mad- of codes and standards. Codified rules developed
sen (2000) gives a comprehensive overview of the from research are given on some occasions, but
structural behaviour of timber connections. they should then be seen as examples. The goal
The purpose of the present book is to summarise has been to present the best knowledge available
the state-of-the-art in timber engineering, with a at the time of writing about the phenomena treated
focus on key issues for the understanding of in the book. The intention is that readers world
wide should be able to use this book as a basis for
timber as a modern engineered construction understanding the background for any particular
material with controlled and documented prop- code.
erties; The book starts with a general introduction to
the background for the design of structural timber engineering. Then, the contributions from
systems based on timber and engineered wood different authors are grouped into the follow-
products; and ing sections:
the background for the structural design of joints Part One: Basic properties of wood-based struc-
in structural timber systems. tural elements (seven chapters).
Part Two: Design aspects on timber structures
To read this book it is necessary to have a prior (five chapters).
knowledge of the elementary design of timber Part Three: Joints and structural assemblies (five
structures, as well as a general background in chapters).
structural engineering at a basic level. The book A general overview is presented as an introduc-
could be thought of as a teaching resource at tion for each of the sections.
masters level, or correspondingly. For more basic
elements of timber engineering, including methods
of design, the reader is referred to STEP (1995), Lund and Copenhagen 2002
for example. Sven Thelandersson, Hans J. Larsen
x Preface

REFERENCES Madsen B. (2000) Behaviour of Timber Connections.


Timber Engineering Ltd., Vancouver, Canada.
Dinwoodie J.M. (2000) Timber: Its nature and behaviour, STEP (1995) Timber Engineering, STEP, Volumes 1 and
2nd ed., E&FN Spon, London. 2, Centrum Hout, Netherlands.
Madsen B. (1992) Structural Behaviour of Timber. Tim-
ber Engineering Ltd., Vancouver, Canada.
1

Timber Engineering - General


Introduction
Sven Thelandersson

1.1 Timber - our oldest building material


1.2 Modern timber construction
1.3 The timber frame building concept
1.4 Large-scale timber construction

1.1 TIMBER - OUR OLDEST various forms has been used ever since, especially
BUILDING MATERIAL in forested regions.
Some parts of Asia have a very long history
Protection and shelter against wind, rain and cold of timber construction. In Japan the oldest tim-
is a very basic need for mankind. Since ancient ber structure still in existence is from the seventh
times, wood has been the most important material century (Yasumura, 2000). A typical historical tim-
used for this purpose. In developed cultures, the art ber building is the three storey pagoda, shown in
of house construction was already quite advanced Figure 1.2. This building, which still exists, was
several thousand years ago. Figure 1.1 shows an constructed in 730 AD. It has a double roof in each
archaeological reconstruction of a so-called long storey supported by a central wooden pole.
house in Central Europe from 3000 BC (Kuklik, Another region with a long tradition of tim-
2000). The width of this type of house was in ber construction is Scandinavia, where wood is
the range of 5.5-7 m and the length varied from a resource that has always been easily available.
20-45 m. The main structural elements were made The oldest existing timber building in Scandinavia
from round timber. This can be seen as an early is the Borgund church in Norway, built in the
example of a timber framed house, which in twelfth century (see Figure 1.3). The load-bearing
Figure 1.1 Archaeological reconstruction of long
house from 3000 BC (Reproduced from Kuklik, 2000 Figure 13 Borgund church, Norway, twelfth century
by permission of Petr Kuklik, Prague University) (Photo: Lund University)

Another important application for timber con-


struction is bridges. Before the emergence of mod-
ern structural materials such as steel and concrete,
timber was the dominating structural material in
bridge construction. In 55 BC, the emperor Julius
Caesar had a 140 m long temporary timber bridge
built across the Rhine (Figure 1.4). The bridge was
5-6 m wide, and allowed two lane traffic. Only
10 days were needed to complete the bridge (Tim-
ber Bridges, 1996).
One of the oldest existing timber bridges is the
222 m long Chapel Bridge in Luzern, Switzerland,
which was built in 1333 (Stadelmann, 1990). This
bridge is a well-known tourist attraction. As with
many other bridges in Switzerland, it is covered by
a roof, which effectively protects the wood from
biological deterioration. Unfortunately, the bridge
was partly destroyed by a fire in 1993, but has been
rebuilt in its original form (see Figure 1.5).
Although historic timber structures have disap-
peared to a greater degree than, for example, struc-
tures made of stone, these examples show that
timber has excellent durability provided that the
Figure 1.2 Three storey pagoda, Yakusiji Toto, structures are properly designed and maintained.
built 730 (Yasemura, 2000). (Reproduced by permission One aspect of long-term durability of timber struc-
of M. Yasemura)
tures is that they are often designed in such a way
that damaged elements can easily be replaced.
structure is a three-dimensional frame with round- The fact that timber has been used extensively
wood poles and horizontal timber trusses con- as a building material for a very long time does not
nected by semi-rigid arch-shaped joints. mean that we have a deep scientific understanding
General Introduction

of the behaviour of the material. On the contrary,


timber construction has to a large extent been based
on empirical experience and craftsmanship. Wood
is therefore often seen as a material with inade-
quate control and documentation of its properties
and behaviour. The purpose with this book is to
present recent advances in research to improve
our understanding of the structural performance
of timber.

1.2 MODERN TIMBER


CONSTRUCTION
Today, the growing stock volume of wood world-
wide is estimated to 490 billion m3 (FAO, 2000a).
The total world production of timber in 1999 was
3275 million m3 (FAO, 2000b). It is estimated that
around 55% of this volume is used as fuel. A sub-
stantial part of the raw material is used for pulp and
paper, and 317 million tons of paper was produced
worldwide in 1999. The total volume of sawn tim-
ber and panel products produced in the same year
was 592 million m3, which is 18% of the total raw
material production. The relative amounts of dif-
ferent wood products are shown in Table 1.1.
Timber is used as a major structural material
in a great variety of building and civil engineer-
Figure 1.4 Caesar's bridge across Rhine 55 BC ing applications. Lightweight timber frame systems
(Jacob, 1726) (based on structural timber, engineered wood prod-
ucts and panels) may be used for single family
houses, multi-storey residential buildings and com-
mercial buildings. Similar elements are used as
walls and roofs in industrial buildings. Timber is
often used for roof construction in buildings, even

Table 1.1 Production of sawn goods and wood-based


panels in the world, 1999 (FAO, 2000b)
Product Volume, Volume, %
106 m3
Sawn goods, softwood 323.2 55
Sawn goods, hardwood 108.5 18
Fibreboard 30.2 5
Particle board 75.2 13
Veneer sheets 6.4 1
Figure 1.5 Chapel bridge in Luzern, Switzerland orig- Plywood 48.1 8
inally built 1333, restored after fire damage 1993 (Photo: Total 591.6 100
Sven Thelandersson)
Timber Engineering

if the rest of the structure is made from concrete


or steel. Large-scale timber systems (based on glu-
lam, LVL and other engineered wood products)
may be used for industrial and commercial build-
ings with long spans, as well as for bridges, park-
ing decks, etc. Worldwide, the potential to increase
the utilisation of timber for these applications in
the future is large.
There are many general advantages in using tim-
ber for building purposes. It is an environmentally
friendly, easily recyclable material. The energy
consumption during production is very low com- Figure 1.6 The anatomy of a typical timber frame
pared to that of other building materials. Timber small house
has a low weight in relation to strength, which
is advantageous for transport, erection and pro- Timber frame systems can be conceived as com-
duction. The foundation can be simplified and posite wall and floor units built up from timber
low inertia forces make the building less sensitive framing, panel products, insulation, cladding, etc.,
to earthquakes. Furthermore, wood has aesthetic with good possibilities to adapt the design to vari-
qualities, which give great possibilities in archi- ous requirements. One and the same composite unit
tectural design. in a timber frame system can be utilised for the
Building systems based on wood has a great
potential to be rational and cost-effective. Expe- transfer of vertical loads,
riences from North America, where timber frame stabilization of wind and earthquake loads,
building systems have a dominating position in the physical separation,
market, indicate that it is possible to reduce the cost
of low-to-medium rise buildings significantly by fire separation,
using lightweight building systems based on tim- sound insulation, and
ber and panel products. These systems have the thermal insulation.
advantage of simple construction techniques at the
It is important that the design is made so that all the
building site, and very short construction times can
relevant requirements are met in an optimal way.
be achieved.
In the design of walls and floors, different aspects
can be identified as critical. The factors governing
1.3 THE TIMBER FRAME the design of walls are, in order of priority:
BUILDING CONCEPT fire resistance,
Timber frame buildings are built up by a skeleton horizontal stabilisation,
of timber joists and studs, covered with panels sound insulation, and
fastened to the wood elements. Wood-based panels, vertical loading.
such as plywood, OSB, fibre-board or chipboard,
with structural quality, are commonly used in A typical design of a load-bearing, stabilising wall
timber frame buildings. Gypsum panels or similar used for separation between flats is shown in
products are also widely used in combination with Figure 1.8.
timber, mainly to provide fire resistance. A typical For the design of floors, the most important
timber frame house is shown in Figure 1.6. factors are, in order of priority:
The timber frame concept is also very competi-
tive for multi-storey, multi-residential buildings up impact sound insulation,
to 5-6 storeys (see Figure 1.7). vibration control,
General Introduction

Figure 1.7 Four storey platform frame timber house under construction (Reproduced by permission of Holger
Staffansson, Skanska AB)

timber joists are to some extent used in Central


Europe.
A very crucial issue for the efficiency of a timber
frame system is the solution of wall-floor joints. In
the design of such joints, a number of aspects must
be taken into account:
sound performance,
load transfer vertically and in shear,
fire separation,
shrinkage and settlement of the joint (perpendic-
Figure 1.8 Horizontal section of double wall separa- ular to the grain),
tion between flats. Double fire guard gypsum panels are thermal insulation,
used
air tightness,
ease of erection,
simplicity in production, and
degree of prefabrication of walls and floors, and
possibility for the installation of services. economy.
In many countries, customers expect acoustic per- In the platform frame system commonly used in
formance of a high standard. It is possible to meet North America, standard solutions are available for
these requirements with lightweight floor struc- wall/floor joints (see Figure 1.9a). Since the verti-
tures, but the solutions often become complicated cal forces are transferred in compression perpen-
and expensive. For this reason, there is a need dicular to the grain in the whole joint, substantial
to develop better floor solutions. One alternative shrinkage and vertical settlements will occur. The
could be to use floors based on laminated tim- deformations created by this can be quite difficult
ber decking, where the material cost is higher, but to handle in a multi-storey building. An example
the floor is still competitive due to a simpler pro- of a wall-floor joint solution, designed to minimise
duction process. Composite floors with concrete shrinkage settlements in the joint, is shown in
on top of timber decking, or in combination with Figure 1.9b.
Timber Engineering

Bottom plate

220 Nogging

45

Figure 1.9 Wall-floor joints, (a) Platform frame design, (b) design to minimise shrinkage

In concrete and masonry buildings, staircase


and elevator shafts as well as cross walls can
be used to stabilise the building. In timber
frame construction, timber frame shear walls are
used for lateral stabilisation against wind and
earthquakes (see Figure 1.10). For multi-storey
timber framed buildings, the issue of stabilisation
is not trivial. A trend towards narrow houses to
provide good daylight, as well as requirements of
high acoustic performance, makes it more difficult
to stabilise the buildings in an economical manner.
To ensure good acoustic performance, double
walls are used between flats (see Figure 1.8), and
to prevent flanking transmission, the horizontal
floor diaphragms should be disconnected at the
double walls. However, continuity in the floor Figure 1.10 Force transfer in multistorey timber frame
diaphragms is needed for efficient horizontal building under lateral loading. (Drawing: Sverker
stabilisation. This conflict must be resolved by Andreasson. Reproduced by permission of Lund
the structural engineer. Recent research has shown University)
that a better understanding of the force transfer
in timber frame systems can contribute towards
achieving a more economical and flexible design system is sufficient, i.e. if the forces can be trans-
of the stabilising system in timber frame buildings ferred through the wall boards required for fire
(e.g. see Andreasson (2000) and Paevere (2001)). protection, or whether it is necessary to use more
The economy of multi-storey timber houses de- expensive wood-based panels and extra studs and
pends very much upon whether a simple bracing anchorages.
General Introduction

1.4 LARGE-SCALE TIMBER


CONSTRUCTION
The maximum dimension of solid timber sawn
from logs is of the order of 300 mm or even
less, depending on species and growth region. This
means that the maximum possible span of struc-
tural timber beams in practice is limited to 5-7 m.
Before the appearance of engineered wood prod-
ucts such as glulam, timber trusses were therefore
commonly used to achieve larger spans, which is
often needed in roof and bridge construction. Tim-
Figure 1.12 Glulam arch roof for Stockholm central
ber trusses produced from structural timber are still railway station, built 1925. Reproduced by permission
the most common solution for roof structures in of Svenskt Limtra AB
small residential houses (Figure 1.11). This type
of truss is today almost exclusively designed with principle unlimited, but for practical reasons max-
punched metal plate fasteners, creating stiff and imum depths are of the order of 2 m. This makes
strong truss joints at a low cost. Timber roof trusses glulam an ideal material to create structures for
are frequently used for spans of up to 12 m, but large spans. A variety of structural systems based
can be designed for spans up to 30-40 m. on straight and curved glulam members has been
Another possibility to extend the spans for tim- developed for roofs with spans of up to 100 m
ber structures is to use laminated beams, i.e tim- (see Figure 1.13). Today, several other wood-based
ber laminations stacked on top of each other and products are available for large-scale timber struc-
structurally connected to form members with large tures, such as Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL)
cross-sections. Early applications used mechani- and Parallel Strand Lumber (PSL) (see Chapter 4
cal fasteners, such as bolts, dowels and rods, to in Part One). These products are suitable for larger
connect the laminations. The potential of the lami- spans in a similar way as straight glulam members.
nation technique was, however, not fully exploited For straight and tapered beams, spans of 30 m
until synthetic glues became generally available and more can be achieved. Figure 1.14 shows a
in the early twentieth century (see Figure 1.12). typical glulam roof with straight tapered beams for
Glued laminated timber or glulam became one of hall buildings.
the first engineered wood products, and is still very Spans of up to 50 m can be realised by three
competitive in modern construction. By bending hinge frames built up by two curved glulam ele-
the laminations before gluing, it can be produced ments, as shown in Figures 1.13 and 1.15. Frames
in curved shapes. The cross-section depth is in can also be made from straight members, with

Web bracing

Figure 1.11 Typical roof truss for a single family house (Drawing: Jacob Nielsen, Aalborg University, Denmark)
Timber Engineering

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION SPAN SECTION


m DEPTHS

Straight beam <30

Tapered beam 1030

Pitched cambered 1020 h~l/30


beam

Three-hinged 1550 h=l/30


truss with tie-rod

Three-hinged 20100 h~l/40


truss with tie-rod
and trussed beams

Three-hinged arch 20100 h~l/50

Three-hinged 1550
curved frame /15

Three-hinged 1035
frame with finger- /13
jointed knee

Three-hinged 1035
frame with /15
trussed knee

Figure 1.13 Structural systems for glulam (Glulam Manual, 1995. Reproduced by permission of Svenskt Limtra AB)

the moment resisting frame corners manufactured in Figure 1.16. For spans larger than 60 m, the
using a finger jointing technique. Several types of difficulty associated with transport of the curved
mechanical joints are also commonly used for such elements is usually a restricting factor. Glulam
frame corners, but they are generally less effective arches are normally designed as three-hinged,
in resisting moments. which gives simpler joints to be arranged at the
Similarly, plane arches can be constructed building site. Also, a statically determinate system
by pre-manufactured curved glulam elements for is usually preferred to avoid restraint forces from
spans of up to 100 m. An example is shown moisture movements in the wood.
General Introduction

fasteners. Rational methods for manufacturing


such joints have been developed, making trass
systems of this type competitive. Examples
of trussed glulam structures are shown in
Figures 1.17 and 1.18.
Glulam or other engineered wood products may
also be used efficiently for spatial frames and dome
structures. Special detailing solutions are usually

Figure 1.14 Roof structures with straight glulam


beams can be used for spans of up to 30-40 m. Steel
wires are used for diagonal wind bracing

Figure 1.15 Three-hinged glulam curved frame.


Reproduced by permission of Svenskt Limtra AB

Figure 1.17 Glulam arch truss with a free span of


86 m for a sports facility in Lillehammer, Norway
(Photo: Sven Thelandersson)

Figure 1.16 Glulam arch structure made from two


curved glulam elements. Reproduced by permission of
Svenskt Limtra AB

Figure 1.18 Roof structure for Gardemoen air termi-


For very large spans, glulam trusses may be nal, Oslo, Norway. The main girder is a slightly curved
used. Very efficient truss joints can be made glulam truss, covered by plywood for the sake of appear-
by slotted-in steel plates combined with dowel ance. Reproduced by permission of Svenskt Limtra AB
10 Timber Engineering

developed for the three-dimensional joints in such


systems. Figure 1.19 shows one of the largest
timber structures in the world, with a diameter
of 162 m.
Many good architects around the world prefer
to work with wood as a major structural material.
There are numerous examples worldwide of large
span timber buildings with excellent architecture
and innovative design. An example is shown in
Figure 1.20.
Another important application for large-scale
timber construction is bridges. For small spans,
Figure 1.19 Interior from the Tacoma Dome, Wash- straight beams of solid wood, glulam or other
ington, USA with a 162 m span (Photo: Sven Thelander- engineered wood products can be used as the
sson) primary load-bearing elements. Trusses, arches or
framed structures can be used as primary structures
for larger spans. A very common solution for the
bridge deck is to use laterally prestressed timber
plates of the type shown in Figure 1.21. As an
alternative to lateral prestress, the planks can be
nailed to each other, although this gives lower
transverse stiffness of the deck.
In modern bridge construction, timber is
growing in popularity for foot and bicycle bridges
as well as road bridges with moderate spans,
especially in the USA, Central Europe and
Scandinavia. One reason for this is environmental
awareness and the trend towards the use of
ecologically sound materials in construction. New
efficient jointing techniques developed in recent
years are also very important for competitiveness
in timber bridge construction. An excellent
Figure 1.20 Glulam roof for a swimming hall in
Bad Durrheim, Germany, built 1987 (Reproduced by example of a modern timber bridge for road traffic
permission of Arge Holz, Dusseldorf) is shown in Figure 1.22.

Figure 1.21 Bridge with laminated timber decking (Reproduced by permission of Svenskt Tra)
General Introduction 11

in house construction. With such floor structures,


combined with concrete or other materials, good
solutions for sound insulation and fire can be
achieved at reasonable costs. Massive timber
constructions are sometimes also used for the
whole structural building system, including wall
units.

REFERENCES
Andreasson S. (2000) Three-Dimensional Interaction in
Stabilisation of Multi-Storey Timber Frame Building
Systems. Report TVBK-1017, Division of Structural
Engineering, Lund University, Sweden.
FAO (2000a) The Global Forest Resource Assess-
ment 2000, Summary report.
FAO (2000b) Yearbook of Forest Products.
Glulam Manual (1995) Svenskt Limtra, Stockholm (in
Swedish).
Jacob L. (1776) Brucken und Bruckenbau (Theatrum
Pontificate, oder Schauplatz der Bruckenbaues). In Th
Figure 1.22 Europabrucke, Murau, Austria, built Schafer GmbH Hannover, 1982.
1993. Glulam structure with concrete bridge deck Kuklik P. (2000) Development of timber framed houses
(Reproduced by permission of Holger Gross) in Central Europe. Proc. of COST E5 Workshop,
Timber Frame Building Systems, Ed. A. Cecotti,
S. Thelandersson, Venice, Italy.
A key factor for timber bridge design is dura- Paevere P. (2001) Full-Scale Testing, Modelling and
bility. Preservative chemical treatment is not an Analysis of Light-Framed Structures Under Earth-
attractive alternative considering environmental quake Loading. PhD thesis, Civil and Environmental
Engineering, University of Melbourne.
policies of today. However, by careful design and Stadelmann W. (1990) Holzbrucken der Schweiz ein
detailing, the wood material in a timber bridge can Inventar. Verlag Bundner Monatsblatt, Chur, Switzer-
be kept more or less constantly dry, so that bio- land.
logical decay is avoided and long lifetimes can Timber Bridges (1996) Trainformation AB, Stockholm,
be achieved with or without very limited use of Sweden (in Swedish).
Yasemura M. (2000) Seismic performance of timber
preservative treatment. structures in Japan. Proc. of COST E5 Workshop,
Laminated decks of the type shown in Timber Frame Building Systems, Ed. A. Cecotti,
Figure 3.16 have also become popular for floors S. Thelandersson, Venice, Italy.
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PART ONE

Basic Properties of Wood-Based Structural Elements


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1

Introduction: Wood as a Construction


Material
Sven Thelandersson

2.1 Wood - a high strength fibre composite 15


2.2 Structural timber 16
2.3 Engineered wood products 18
2.4 The anisotropic nature of wood 19
2.5 Wood and moisture 20
2.6 Duration of load effects in timber 21

2.1 WOOD - A HIGH STRENGTH shape, with length in the range 2-4 mm and a
FIBRE COMPOSITE length/diameter ratio of about 100:1. They are
predominantly oriented in one direction, called
Wood material is biologically 'produced' in the the fibre direction or grain direction. This is
growing tree to meet the needs of the tree itself. the strong direction, generally parallel with the
In this respect, it is a high quality fibre composite, longitudinal axis of the stem. In the vicinity
optimally designed to resist loads acting on the of branches, the fibres are redirected to form
tree, but also to provide transport of water and very efficient 'structural' joints between the stem
nutritional agents. The stem and branches of the and the branches (see Figure 2.1). For conifers,
tree are designed to resist gravity loads and the fibre structure in zones predominantly under
wind loads. The wood structure is adapted to compression (e.g. in the lower part of branches)
create maximum strength in stressed directions, is different from 'normal' wood and optimised to
whereas in other directions the strength is quite resist compression stresses. Under special growth
low. The wood cells in conifers are oblong in conditions, a similar fibre structure will be formed
16 Timber Engineering

Timber engineering deals with the properties


and performance on the engineering levels above
clear wood. However, clear wood properties and
more detailed levels are very important for a
basic understanding of the key problems in timber
engineering. In this book, the term 'wood' is
usually reserved for small clear wood elements
more or less free from defects and irregularities on
the macro level. The term 'timber', or sometimes
'lumber', is used to describe elements on a
Figure 2.1 (a) The fibre orientation around a knot structural scale, where the influence of macro
creates a structurally efficient joint between branch and defects on the performance is important. Wood
stem, (b) the fibre structure resembles flow lines around being a biological material means that there is a
the knot (Foley, 2000)
considerable variability at all levels.

in the stem, especially in the lower part of the tree.


This type of wood is called 'compression wood'.
2.2 STRUCTURAL TIMBER
The strength and stiffness in the fibre direction Sawn timber in structural dimensions is a non-
are very large in relation to the weight of the homogeneous material, which contains growth
material, especially in tension. Table 2.1 shows defects in the form of knots, zones with
a comparison of strength/density ratios for some compression wood, oblique fibre orientation, etc.
structural materials. Such growth characteristics, which were once
For clear wood this ratio is significantly higher created to serve the needs of the tree, will usually
than for other building materials. Also, in the reduce the strength significantly when the timber is
case of structural timber, where natural defects sawn and used for other purposes. This is described
reduce strength, the strength in relation to weight in the following excellent way by Borg-Madsen
is of the same order of magnitude as ordinary (1992):
structural steel. The strength/density ratio is
more advantageous for fibre reinforced synthetic Mother nature spent millions of years devising an
polymers, but the price of such products is also arrangement whereby the branches grew perpen-
dicular to the stem of the tree without impairing
significantly higher. the strength of the branch and retaining the full
The chain from micro level to macro level for strength of the stem. ... It is well known that
wood is illustrated in Figure 2.2. poles made from the stem are very strong but

Table 2.1 Strength/density ratios for some structural materials


Material Density Strength, Strength/Density
kg/m3 MPa 103 MPa-m3/kg
Structural steel 7800 400-1000 50-130
Aluminium 2700 100-300 40110
Concrete, compression 2300 30-120 13-50
Clear softwood, tension 400-600 40-200 100-300
Clear softwood, compression 400-600 30-90 70-150
Structural timber, tension 400-600 15-40 30-80
Glass fibre in epoxi, typical 500
value, tension
Carbon fibre in epoxi, typical 1000
value, tension
Wood as a Construction Material 17

Figure 2.2 The wood chain from micro level to macro level

when we cut through the knots representing the and they can only be applied if the stresses are
intricate handiwork of mother nature, what was determined by elastic theory.
a proficient pattern to carry the branch becomes This is the reason why different strength values
a severe weakness. The interlocking of the fibres
is destroyed, leaving the unsupported fibres where are valid for different loading modes such as
tension perpendicular to grain stresses can initiate bending, tension and compression. Figure 2.3
crack growth. shows typical cumulative distribution functions for
strength of timber in tension, compression and
Therefore, the mechanical behaviour of timber bending.
cannot be derived with any reliability from The coefficient of variation in bending for struc-
the properties of clear wood. Furthermore, the tural timber is in the range 20-40%, depending
presence and character of knots and other defects
vary from one timber board to another, which
means that the structural properties of sawn
timber exhibits a significant variability. Strength
properties of structural timber are therefore usually
determined by direct testing of timber elements
according to a standardised methodology, and
strength is defined on the element level rather
than on the material level. Strength data associated
with structural timber therefore reflects moment,
tension, compression and shear capacity of a
timber element, even if the data are expressed
in stress units, obtained assuming that the theory 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
of elasticity is valid. The bending strength, for Strength [MPa]
instance, is defined as the moment capacity of a
Figure 2.3 Cumulative distribution of the strength
timber beam determined by testing, divided by the of structural timber (Spruce, Picea Abies, grown in
elastic section modulus. The influence of defects is Scandinavia) for different loading modes (Hansson &
implicitly included in the strength values specified, Thelandersson, 2001)
18 Timber Engineering

upon species and growth conditions, as well as on


the method and strategy used to grade the timber.
When timber is to be used for structural pur-
poses, some type of non-destructive evaluation of
strength (or grading) is required to guarantee the
safety of the structure. Historically, the most com-
mon method was visual grading of each timber
element, following specified rules. Nowadays, a
number of different machine grading methods are
also used, although visual grading is still very com-
mon in practice. Typical for all types of grading
methods is that one or several indicating properties
are observed in each timber element, and the grad- Figure 2.4 Some examples of Engineered Wood Prod-
ing is based on the expected correlation between ucts, (a) LVL, (b) Composite I-beam, (c) Glulam,
the indicative properties and strength. This corre- (d) Parallel strand lumber
lation is generally not very high, which means that
there is an uncertainty associated with the grading into larger structural members. Some examples are
procedure which has to be considered. The state- shown in Figure 2.4.
of-the-art concerning strength grading of structural EWPs have several advantages:
timber is presented by Johansson in Chapter 3.
The fact that the load-bearing capacity of timber They can be produced in sizes which are not
is governed by the presence and characteristics of limited by the tree dimensions.
random growth defects means that the strength of They allow a more efficient utilisation of the raw
timber elements also depends upon the size of the wood material.
structural element itself, and the way in which it is The strength reducing effects of defects present
loaded. This is described in more detail by Isaksson in solid wood will be more or less neutralised,
in Chapter 4. depending on the type of product.
Their dimensional stability and tolerances are
generally significantly better than for sawn
2.3 ENGINEERED WOOD timber.
PRODUCTS They can more easily be adapted to market
requirements.
Engineered Wood Products (EWP) represent a
broad class of materials intended for structural A disadvantage is that EWPs, as a rule, are
use. They are typically produced from wood more expensive. Moreover, the ecological image
which has been processed to smaller fractions by of wood as a natural material is impaired by
sawing, peeling, chipping, slicing or defibration. incorporating adhesives into the products.
The wood constituents used for EWP can be sawn The growth defects of solid wood are either
laminations, veneers, strands, flakes or sawdust. removed in the production process or distributed in
The constituents are bonded together to form panel the finished product so that the strength is affected
products, timber-like elements in different sizes, or less and the variability of the product becomes
shaped structural products. The bonding between smaller. This means a more efficient utilisation
constituents is most often made with adhesives of the material. As an example, the probability
mixed with the constituents or sprayed on their density functions for glulam and structural timber
surfaces, with application of heat and pressure in are compared in Figure 2.5. Although glulam is
the production process. One type of products are made from laminations of structural timber, the
made by gluing solid sawn timber or laminations decisive strength, defined as the fifth percentile,
Wood as a Construction Material 19

Frequency. Difference in Difference in


Frequency 5th percentile mean value

Glulam

Timber

Strength
Figure 2.6 Microscopic picture of softwood. The cells
Figure 2.5 Probability density functions for solid have a typical tubular shape
wood and glulam

is significantly higher for glulam than for timber.


The reason for this is the load sharing between
laminations in the glulam, which allows locally
weak zones to redistribute stress to adjacent
stronger regions.
Similar mechanisms will be active in other types
of EWP.
A detailed presentation of the mechanical beha-
viour and properties of glulam can be found
in Chapter 5 by Serrano, and an overview of
currently used Engineered Wood Products and
their characteristics is given by Lam and Prion in Figure 2.7 Failure in tension perpendicular to the
Chapter 6. grain in a timber joint.

Failures of timber structures observed in practice


2.4 THE ANISOTROPIC NATURE are often due to tension perpendicular to the
OF WOOD grain, which commonly occurs in curved elements,
in joints in timber structures (see Figure 2.7) and
Wood is anisotropic, i.e. its physical properties in discontinuities created by wholes and notches in
depend upon direction. The tension strength is timber members. The effective load-bearing capac-
30-50 times smaller perpendicular to the grain ity of timber members under tension perpendicular
than in the fibre direction, and most people know to the grain depends upon the magnitude of the
that it is quite easy to split wood along planes stressed volume (e.g. see Barrett, 1974).
parallel to the fibres. The reason for this is quite Our present understanding of fracture processes
obvious in view of the anatomy and fibre structure related to perpendicular to grain failure is limited.
of wood (see Figure 2.6). The weakness exhibited In engineering design, empirical rules for detailing,
by wood in cross grain directions must always be such as minimum recommended distances between
carefully considered in the design and detailing of fasteners as well as edge distances in mechanical
timber structures. joints, are commonly employed to avoid the
20 Timber Engineering

risk for splitting failure. The reliability of such in relation to weight of dry wood) can be of the
design methods is limited, however, especially order 100% or more in sapwood. Part of the water
when applied in large-scale real world situations, is free and stored in cavities of the wood cell, the
different from the laboratory tests from which they rest is bound in cell walls. When wood is dried,
are derived. the free water disappears first, and at around 30%
A promising line of research during recent years moisture content almost all of the remaining water
is the application of rational fracture mechanics, is bound in the cell wall. This moisture state is
which has contributed significantly to a better called the 'fibre saturation point'. When wood is
understanding and more reliable design methods dried below fibre saturation, mechanical properties
concerning perpendicular to grain failure. A will depend upon moisture content, so that both
comprehensive summary of the findings from this strength and stiffness will increase when the wood
research is given by Gustafsson in Chapter 7. becomes drier.
The strong anisotrophy in wood is also valid Wood is hygroscopic and interacts with the
for stiffness properties. The elastic modulus humidity of the ambient air. The moisture content
perpendicular to grain is typically 50-80 times in a wood element will always change towards an
smaller than parallel to grain. When wood equilibrium corresponding to the relative humidity
is subjected to compression perpendicular to of the surroundings. Building components in
grain, significant deformations will occur even practice are usually exposed to changing climate
at low load levels. Another manifestation of conditions of a more or less random nature. The
wood anisotrophy is moisture-induced strain, i.e. response of a wood element is quite slow, so that
shrinkage and swelling. Large moisture-induced the average moisture content of cross-sections in
strains occur in directions perpendicular to grain, structural sizes will respond only to changes in
typically 510 times larger than parallel to grain. weekly or monthly averages of humidity. This
Likewise, strains induced by moisture change are slowness in response implies that the moisture
1.5-2 times larger in the tangential than in the distribution in timber elements becomes non-
radial direction. For this reason, cross-sections of uniform. Figure 2.9 shows the continuous change
sawn timber change shape when they are initially in moisture distribution over the width of a glulam
dried and subsequently when moisture changes cross-section, exposed to outdoor conditions under
occur (see Figure 2.8). shelter during 45 weeks starting from November.
The presence of moisture gradients of the type
2.5 WOOD AND MOISTURE shown in Figure 2.9 means that moisture-induced
stresses will develop in timber elements, due to
Wood in green condition contains large amounts
constrained shrinkage or swelling. Such stresses
of water. The moisture content (weight of water
may be present in all material directions, but
they are negligible in the longitudinal direction,
where the strength is also high. In cross grain
directions, however, moisture-induced stresses are
much larger, and can easily become significant in
relation to the low strength in these directions.
The internal stresses in glulam cross-sections
induced by the moisture gradients shown in
Figure 2.9 were determined by testing (Jonsson,
2001). Tensile stresses larger than the characteristic
tensile strength (0.5 MPa) were present under a
period of 12 weeks during the winter season.
Figure 2.8 Distortion of cross-sections after drying of Surface cracking of timber elements due to
sawn timber taken from different positions in the log non-uniform moisture-induced stresses is very
Wood as a Construction Material 21

mc (%) Day 0 Day3 Day 11 Day 20 - Day 33 Day 42 - Day 62


Day 76 Day 90 Day 104 Day 118 Day 132 Day 146 -Day 161
22 .Day 188 Day 203 Day 221 Day 230 - Day 244 -Day 258"
Day 287 Day 304 Day 317

10 11

Figure 2.9 Measured moisture content distributions in glulam cross-section (90 x 270 mm2) exposed to outdoor
conditions under shelter during a winter and summer period (Jonsson, 2001). The specimens were conditioned in RH
60% before the test

common. The presence of moisture-induced materials, but for timber the loss of strength
internal stresses has a strong influence on under sustained load is so large that it has to be
load-bearing capacity associated with tension considered in everyday engineering design. The
perpendicular to grain failure modes. The fact that design strength values are adjusted by a reduction
internal moisture-induced stresses are always more factor, depending upon the expected load duration.
or less present in timber structures is not normally For solid timber the strength reduction under ten
considered in engineering design, implying that years load duration can be as high as 40%.
predictions of failure in tension perpendicular to The mechanisms behind the strong duration of
grain are associated with large uncertainties. This load effects exhibited by wood is still not fully
is probably an important reason for the large understood, although a large amount of research
frequency of accidental failures of this type in has been carried out. There are several circum-
practice. stances which makes research about duration of
Further research is clearly needed to understand load effects quite difficult, expensive and time con-
the complex interaction between moisture and suming. Experimental investigations take a long
mechanical performance of timber structures. The time if results of relevance for the timescales of
present state-of-the-art in this field is presented by interest in practice are to be found. Quantification
Ranta-Maunus in Chapter 9. of duration of load effects involves a comparison
between the strengths of specimens under long-
term loading and standard short-term tests. These
2.6 DURATION OF LOAD EFFECTS two different tests have to be performed on two
IN TIMBER different sets of specimens, since the same piece
of wood cannot be broken twice. The large vari-
The strength depends upon the rate of loading and ability of wood, especially for solid timber, makes
duration of the load for all structural materials. any observations of the relative effect of duration
This is of little practical importance for most of load uncertain. For structural timber the most
22 Timber Engineering

common method is to compare matched samples, effects for wood, timber and wood-based products
but to do this in a reliable way, a large number of is given by Hoffmeyer in Chapter 8.
specimens is needed.
Furthermore, duration of load tests are com-
monly performed under constant load acting until REFERENCES
failure occurs, or alternatively with some type of Barrett J.D. (1974) Effect of size on tension perpendic-
ramp loading applied at different rates. For a tim- ular to grain strength of Douglas Fir. Wood and Fiber
ber structure in practice, a significant part of the 6(2): 126-143.
load will vary in a random manner over the life- Foley C. (2001) A three-dimensional paradigm of fiber
orientation in timber. Wood Science and Technology,
time of the structure. It is still an open question as 35, 435-465.
to how results from duration of load tests should Hansson M. and Thelandersson S. (2001) Capacity of
be interpreted and used for arbitrary time varia- timber roof trusses considering statistical system
tions of loads. Several theoretical damage models effects. Holz als Roh und Werkstoff. In press.
have been proposed, but due to the experimental Jonsson J. (2001) Moisture induced stresses in glulam
cross sections. Proc. CIB W18, Paper 34124, Venice,
difficulties mentioned above, the validation of such Italy.
models is not satisfactory. An excellent summary Madsen B. (1992) Structural Behaviour of Timber. Tim-
of the state-of-the-art concerning duration of load ber Engineering Ltd, Vancouver, Canada.
3

Grading of Timber with Respect


to Mechanical Properties
Carl-Johan Johansson

3.1 Introduction 23
3.2 Strength and stiffness of timber and related properties 24
3.3 Relation between strength/stiffness and timber characteristics that can be
measured non-destructively 29
3.4 Grading of timber - effect of grading accuracy on the yield 33
3.5 Machine grading principles 34
3.6 Grading machines on the market 37
3.7 Operation and control of grading machines 39
3.8 Properties and yield of machine stress graded timber in relation to
visually graded timber 40
3.9 Future development 41

3.1 INTRODUCTION board, where a certain material quality is obtained


by changing the composition of the raw materials
A pre-requisite for the use of timber in load- or by changing some of the environmental condi-
bearing constructions is that the strength and stiff- tions (temperature, pressure, etc.). There are a few
ness properties are known and can be controlled examples where the properties of solid wood can
to stay within desirable limits. This cannot be be influenced in a similar way. It is possible to
achieved in the same way as for man-made prod- improve the durability of wood to different levels
ucts such as steel, concrete, plastics and wood fibre by chemical or thermal treatment. With chemical
24 Timber Engineering

modification the dimensional stability as well as properties need to be known and controlled. The
the durability can be controlled. However, as far as density is also of importance as the strength of
the mechanical properties of wood are concerned, mechanical connections in timber is linked to it.
the only realistic way of obtaining quality within When the terms 'strength grading' and 'strength
desired limits is grading. There are presently two class' are used in the further text, they normally
types of strength grading systems: refer to grading with respect to strength as well as
stiffness and density.
Visual strength grading, which is based on visual The purpose here is to describe the basis for
inspection to ensure that the pieces do not have strength grading, with the main focus on machine
visible defects in excess of the limits specified strength grading. Timber properties of importance
in the relevant grading rule. will be described as well as the relationship between
Machine strength grading, where the pieces are properties and how they vary within the timber.
passed through a machine which measures one Different techniques for non-destructive testing
or several parameters non-destructively. Based applicable to timber will be presented, as well
on these measurements, strength and stiffness as most of the machine grading systems that are
are predicted. available on the market. In connection with this,
an explanation will be given of how the accuracy
Some more or less primitive forms of visual
of the grading method affects the yield in a certain
strength grading have been used ever since man
strength class.
began using wood in load-bearing constructions.
It was, however, not until the beginning of the
twentieth century that formal grading rules were
3.2 STRENGTH AND STIFFNESS
established. In the USA ASTM Standard D245,
originally published in 1927, contained guidelines OF TIMBER AND RELATED
for developing grading rules (Madsen, 1992). From PROPERTIES
the 1930s onwards, grading rules were introduced
in various European countries (Glos, 1995). The
3.2.1 General
grading rules developed over the last 60 years Development of accurate grading systems requires
differ widely with respect to grading criteria, a profound knowledge and understanding of how
number of grades and grade limits. This is due the strength and stiffness properties of timber de-
to the large number of wood species, timber pend upon the clear wood properties, and of the
qualities and building traditions. All visual grading effect of different kinds of defects, such as knots,
rules have in common the general deficiency that, slope of grain and top failure. The main emphasis
for practical reasons, only visually recognisable here is on the properties of European species used
characteristics can be taken into consideration, in construction.
and only simple combination rules are possible.
Important strength determining characteristics such 3.2.2 Clear Wood Properties -
as density cannot be assessed satisfactorily.
Interrelation and Variation
The idea of using non-destructive measurements
to predict strength and use that as a basis for Looking at the microstructure of wood with its
grading timber was proposed concurrently in the cells, it is reasonable to regard it as being built up
USA and Australia in the late 1950s (Madsen, of small tubes bonded together (see Figure 3.1).
1992). The main purpose was to improve the The tube width as well as the wall thickness can
accuracy of strength grading processes with the vary, but the wall material properties are very
aim of achieving a better utilisation of the available similar in all wood species. This in particular
timber qualities. applies to the wall material density, which is about
Strength grading is not only a matter of strength. 1500 kg/m3 (Kollmann et al., 1968). This means
To use timber as a structural material, its stiffness that wood material properties such as Modulus
Grading of Timber 25

Figure 3.1 Schematic drawing of the microstructure of wood (Ormarsson, 1999)

Of Elasticity (MOE) and strength along the grain about 6000 N/mm2 at the pith to 12000 N/mm2 at
and density are strongly linked to the cell or tube an outer corner of a 67 x 195 mm cross-section of
wall thickness. This explains why the correlation Norway spruce timber. This, in a way, contradicts
between clear wood properties in general is very what was stated earlier about the good correlation
good. For small, defect-free specimens of Norway between MOE and density, and indicates that
spruce (Picea abies), Foslie (1971) found the there are other important factors that control the
following coefficient of determination values (R2): relationship. One is the microfibril angle in the S2
layer (Persson, 2000) (see Figure 3.3). The density
Bending strength vs. modulus R2 = 0.76 is rather uniformly distributed, but the MOE drops
of elasticity from the twelfth growth ring to the pith due to
Bending strength vs. density R2 = 0.66 the strong increase in microfibril angle. Another
Modulus of elasticity vs. density R2 = 0.64 factor is spiral grain (Ormarsson, 1999), which
normally seems to affect the MOE less than the
In timber the wood properties are not uniformly microfibril angle.
distributed, as can be seen in Figure 3.2 (Steffen
et al., 1997). In this particular case, the density
varies from about 400 to almost 600 kg/m3, and 3.2.3 Defects in Timber
the MOE from 1000022000 N/mm2. As far as Timber normally contains defects of various kinds,
the MOE is concerned, Dahlbom et al. (2000) such as knots, top rupture, compression wood,
and Bengtsson (2000) obtained similar results. slope of grain, decay, bark pockets, wane and resin
They measured altogether 3400 small defect-free pockets. The seriousness of these defects is not
specimens of Norway spruce, and found that the only a matter of how much each individual defect
MOE increased by a factor of about 2 from the reduces the strength, but also how often they occur.
pith and outwards. Figure 3.2 and results from Knots are regarded as very serious defects as they
Wormuth (1993) indicate that the density varies can greatly reduce strength and are almost always
less. Wormuth also presents examples where the present in large numbers in a piece of timber. Top
density is almost constant over the whole timber ruptures can have a dramatic effect on strength,
cross-section, but where the MOE increases from but they occur less frequently and normally as a
26 Timber Engineering

Figure 3.2 Distribution of density (at 12% m. c.) and MOE along the grain determined on 9 x 9 x 200 mm
specimens cut from a 67 x 195 mm defect-free board section of Norway spruce (Picea abies) (Steffen et al., 1997)

single defect in a piece of timber. Johansson et al. Knots, and in particular narrow face knots,
(1998) give an indication of the importance of are by far the most important downgrading
different defects (see Figure 3.4). Norway spruce defects. They account for 66% (Grader 1) and
timber was graded by two independent graders 78% (Grader 2) of the downgrading. The other
at two different institutes using the following defects are far less influential. Compression wood
criteria: is one example. In addition to being moderately
Wide face knots <l/5 of the width influential, it is also difficult to assess. This most
likely explains why Grader 1 has a downgrading
Slope of grain <1/14
percentage of 17%, whereas Grader 2 only
Narrow face knots <l/3 of the thickness has 1%.
Annual ring width <4 mm The importance of knots is also underlined by
Knot clusters <l/5 of the width +1/3 of the fact that in destructive bending or tension
the thickness tests, the failure is almost exclusively caused by
Top failure - not allowed knots. Schniewind et al. (1971) tested 2x6 inch
Hard decay - not allowed redwood timber (Sequoia sempervirens), and in
95% of the cases failure occurred at knots or
Wane <1/10 of the width and thickness,
local slope of the grain, which in most cases was
respectively
related to knots. Further evaluation of the results
Compression wood - not allowed from Johansson et al. (1998) shows that 91% of
Resin pockets - minor ones allowed the failures were caused by knots, and only 1%
Bark pockets - length <2 times timber width, by slope of the grain. In the remaining 8% it
depth <l/4 of thickness and width <l/6 of was not possible to clearly identify what caused
timber width. the failure.
Grading of Timber 27

600

500

E 400
-*
>; 300

Q 200

100

0
0 3 7 12 18 34 48 58 69 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Growth ring no. Growth ring no.
U

18
co 16
Q_
0 14
LU
O 12
1 10

'f> 6 .....
-3 4

2
n
7 12 18 34 48 58 69
Growth ring no.

Figure 3.3 Effect of the microfibril angle on the longitudinal MOE in Norway spruce (Persson, 2000)

Figure 3.4 Distribution of downgrading defects for grading of Norway spruce performed at two different institutes.
LT40 denotes pieces that fulfil the grading criteria. Annual ring width is not to be regarded as a defect, but is included
as it is an important visual grading parameter (Johansson et al., 1998)
28 Timber Engineering

Knots can occur in clusters, which is normally Knots affect the strength of timber both by
the case in species like Norway spruce, or they the cross-sectional reduction they cause and by
are solitary, as in for example Douglas fir (Pseu- the effect of the related fibre distortion. The
dotsuga menziesii). Isaksson (1999) demonstrates effect on the stiffness is primarily linked to the
fibre distortion.
the presence of knots in Norway spruce timber by
The use of slope of grain as a strength reducing
using the parameter CWAR (Clear Wood Area),
parameter does not normally refer to knot-related
which is the knot free portion of the timber cross- fibre deviations, but to the general slope of grain
section (see Figure 3.5). Minima corresponding to that occurs for instance in boards cut from curved
knot clusters occur at every 0.5-0.6 m. The dis- logs or from butt logs due to the conical shape of
tance normally increases with the growth rate. the stem at the butt (Perstorper, 1999).

100

1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000


Longitudinal direction of the beam [mm]

Figure 3.5 CWAR (Clear Wood Area) along a piece of Norway spruce timber. CWAR = 100(1-TKAR)%, where
TKAR is the sum of the projected knot areas located within 150 mm of the timber length divided by the cross-sectional
area (Isaksson, 1999)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O

Figure 3.6 Distribution of density and longitudinal MOE in a section of Norway spruce timber containing
compression wood, see upper left corner (Wormuth, 1993)
Grading of Timber 29

Compression wood develops in areas of the non-destructively on the other. The strength of
stem exposed to large compressive stresses during these relationships is indicated by the coefficient
growth, for instance due to wind, and can be of determination, R2. As can be seen, the
observed as annual rings with a darker colour R2 values differ considerably between different
and slightly eccentric shape. Compression wood investigations. This is most likely due to the fact
can only be found in conifers. It is developed to that the material and test methods differ.
counteract the effect of the compressive stresses.
At the microscopic level, compression wood can
be distinguished from normal wood by the thicker
3.3.2 Knots
cell walls of the late wood tracheids. Of great Knots alone are poor strength predictors. The
importance is also that the S2 layer is modified and R2 values for Norway spruce in Table 3.1 vary
has a much larger microfibril angle than in normal between 0.16 and 0.42. If the location of the
wood. The effect of this is a strongly reduced knots in the timber cross-section is also taken into
longitudinal MOE. This can be seen in Figure 3.6, account, the correlation can be improved quite
where there is compression wood in the upper left considerably. By only using the knot area ratio (see
comer of the cross-section. The density is rather definition for TKAR in Figure 3.5) Schniewind
evenly distributed, but a pronounced drop in MOE et al. (1971) obtained an R2 value of 0.32 for
can be noted. redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) tested in tension.
By also using information about the position of the
3.3 RELATION BETWEEN knots in the timber cross-section, they managed to
improve the correlation to R2 = 0.50. Johansson
STRENGTH/STIFFNESS AND (1976), who studied Norway spruce in tension,
TIMBER CHARACTERISTICS however, only noted an improvement of the R2
THAT CAN BE MEASURED value from 0.30 to 0.35.
NON-DESTRUCTIVELY Kunesh et al. (1972) studied Douglas fir (Pseu-
dotsuga menziesii) with knot diameters ranging
3.3.1 General Overview from 3/431 inches. They separated edge knots
Table 3.1 presents an overview of relationships and centre knots and obtained R2 values of 0.67
between strength on the one hand and a and 0.69, respectively, for the relationship between
number of characteristics that can be measured tensile strength and knot size.

Table 3.1 Correlation coefficients from various investigations of the relationship between strength and non-
destructively obtained characteristics for Norway spruce (Picea abies) timber (Hoffmeyer, 1995). The numbers in
the table head refer to the following investigations: 1: Johansson et al. (1992), 2: Hoffmeyer (1984), 3: Hoffmeyer
(1990), 4: Lackner et al. (1988), 5: Glos et al. (1982), 6: Johansson (1976)
Characteristics that can be measured Coefficient of determination R2
non-destructively
Bending strength Tensile strength
Source 1 2 3 4 1 5 6
Knots 0.27 0.20 0.16 0.25 0.36 0.42 0.30
Annual ring width 0.21 0.27 0.20 0.44 0.36 0.33 0.28
Density 0.16 0.30 0.16 0.40 0.38 0.29 0.38
MOE, bending or tension 0.72 0.53 0.55 0.56 0.70 0.69 0.58
MOE, flatwise, short span 0.74
Knots and annual ring width 0.37 0.42 0.39 0.49
combined
Knots and density combined 0.38 0.38 0.55 0.61 0.64
Knots and MOE 0.73 0.58 0.64 0.70 0.76 0.78
30 Timber Engineering

3.3.3 Density and Annual Ring Width Johansson et al. (1998) studied the relationships
between density, annual ring width and also
Both density and annual ring width are regarded latewood ratio in Norway spruce from eight
as measures of the clear wood strength and different sawmills in Finland, Norway and Sweden.
stiffness. The correlation with the strength of Looking at the whole material, they concluded
timber, however, is poor, with R2 values ranging that the correlations were modest, if they existed
from 0.16 to 0.40 for the density and from 0.20 at all. However, when analysing properties from
to 0.44 for the annual ring width, according to each individual sawmill, it was verified that
Table 3.1. relationships exist, but depending on the origin of
the timber (see Table 3.2).
Table 3.2 Correlation (R2) between density, annual
ring width and latewood ratio. About 150 pieces in each 3.3.4 Modulus of Elasticity
sample, except for sample G that contains 75 pieces
(Johansson et al, 1998) The stiffness, which is normally expressed as a
MOE, is by far the best individual predictor of
Sawmill Density vs. Density vs. Latewood ratio
annual ring latewood vs. annual
strength. The coefficient of determination R2 in
width ratio ring width Table 3.1 and Table 3.3 ranges from 0.51 to 0.73.
The highest value was obtained for a relatively
E 0.38 0.51 0.64 short test span in flatwise bending. In contrast
G 0.20 0.12 0.06
H 0.28 0.39 0.48 to what was observed for the density and the
I 0.21 0.15 0.08 annual ring width, the coefficient of correlation
K 0.18 0.40 0.47 for strength vs. MOE seems to be independent
L 0.38 0.09 0.15 of the origin of the timber (see Table 3.3). The
M 0.38 0.42 0.64 regression function, however, can differ consider-
S 0.30 0.16 0.24
All 0.25 0.12 0.26 ably from one sawmill to another (see Table 3.4).
The constant A in the simple regression func-
tion ranges from 2.78 for sawmill L to 3.14 for
Table 3.3 Relation between strength and MOE of sawmill I, so for a certain MOE timber from I is
40 x 145 mm Norway spruce expressed as a coefficient about 13% stronger than the timber from L. Simi-
of determination (R2) (Johansson et al., 1998) lar results were obtained by Chrestin et al. (1997),
Sawmill Tension Bending who studied the bending strength of timber from
2 seven sawmills in Sweden. The main reason why
N R N R2
the relation between strength and MOE can dif-
E 149 0.65 50 0.73 fer from one location to another is the presence of
G 150 0.70 knots, and that the knot sizes differ. Timber from
H 150 0.62
I 149 0.51 50 0.60
sawmill I had a mean knot area ratio which was
K 152 0.69 50 0.54 only 70% of that of timber from L.
L 153 0.68 The relationship between bending strength
M 139 0.66 and MOE can also be affected by the way
S 154 0.63 56 0.63 in which the timber is dried. Bengtsson et al.

Table 3.4 Regression function for 40 x 145 mm Norway spruce timber from eight different locations
in Finland, Norway and Sweden (Johansson et al., 1998). Tensile strength (/,) as a function of flatwise
MOE (Em, flat)
f1 = A 10-3 Em, flat Origin
E G H I K L M S
A 2.89 3.03 3.04 3.14 3.01 2.78 2.80 2.87
Grading of Timber 31

(2000) tested Norway spruce timber dried in a Concerning the relationship between the MOE
common low temperature process and at high and other non-destructive parameters, Hoffmeyer
temperature (115120C). The edgewise MOE (1995) concludes that only the density of the
was not affected, but the mean bending strength timber shows a reasonably good correlation. The
was roughly 10% lower in the high temperature coefficients of determination in investigations he
dried material. studied were between 0.25 and 0.50, and additional
The MOE for timber, the way it is normally information about knots does not seem to improve
determined, contains not only information about the prediction of MOE.
the clear wood strength properties, but also to It is surprising, in a way, that the correlation
a large extent about knots and slope of grain. between MOE and density for timber is rather
The knots affect the stiffness by disturbing poor considering that the correlation for clear
the surrounding grain, which decreases the wood is good (R2 0.64; see Section 3.2.2), and
longitudinal stiffness. MOE measurements are also that the effect of knots seems to be small. One
likely to pick up compression wood and spiral explanation can be found in Figure 3.2 and 3.6,
grain, at least if they are severe. Looking at the where it is shown that the MOE and the density
strength versus MOE plot in Figure 3.7, one can vary over the timber cross-section. The density
assume that points above the regression line have used in most studies is determined on a test
smaller than average knots, and points below the piece cut across the timber, which means that
line have larger. the density obtained is a mean value. The MOE,
on the other hand, can be determined either in
100-i edgewise or flatwise bending or in tension. The
R2 = 0.63
CV r =18% edgewise MOE values will, to a large extent,
80-
= 407 be controlled by the MOE at the edges, which,
60-
at least for Norway spruce, seems to be higher
40- than the average MOE in the cross-section. MOE
20- determined in tension tests is in principle equal
0- to the mean MOE in the cross-section, and
0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 the correlation with the mean density should be
Modulus of elasticity [MPa] better than between edgewise MOE and mean
density. Coefficients of determination found in
Figure 3.7 Relationship between edgewise bending
strength and modulus of elasticity for Norway spruce the literature seem to indicate that the correlation
(Hoffmeyer et al., 1999). Function of linear regression: between tensile MOE and density is better (see
/ = 0.0045 M0E-8. 14 Table 3.5).

Table 3.5 Correlation coefficients from various investigations of the relationship between MOE and density for
Norway spruce (Picea abies) timber. The numbers in the table head refer to the following investigations: 1:Johansson
(1976.), 2:Johansson et al. (1998), 3:Chrestin (1997), 4:Bostrom (1994)
Source 1 2 3 4
2 2
Dim. (mm) R Dim. (mm) R 2
Dim. (mm) R Dim. (mm) R2
Tensile MOE vs. density 33 x 155 0.69 40 x 95 0.50
40 x 145 0.44
40 x 195 0.25
Edgewise MOE vs. 40 x 145 0.38 45 x 145 0.49 45 x 120 0.18
density
45 x 195 0.39
70 x 170 0.26
32 Timber Engineering

3.3.5 Combination of Non-Destructive gives considerably better correlation than when


Parameters the parameters are used individually. This is
also demonstrated by Hoffmeyer et al. (1999)
In the previous sections it was demonstrated
(see Figure 3.8). Note that for bending strength,
how individual parameters relate to the strength
the narrow face knot contains most of the knot
and stiffness properties. By combining two or
information, and that adding wide face knot and
several parameters the prediction can be improved.
knot cluster data only increases the R2 value
By how much is a matter of whether or not
marginally.
the parameters are interrelated. Hoffmeyer (1995)
Modulus of elasticity alone gives a better
used multiple regression analysis and obtained the
prediction than density, annual ring width and
following results:
knot data combined (Hoffmeyer, 1995). This is,
Bending strength vs. knots, annual ring width as has already been pointed out, due to the fact
and density: R2 0.4. that the MOE for timber also contains information
Tensile strength vs. knots, annual ring width and on the clear wood properties (density/annual ring
density: R2 % 0.5. width), knots, slope of grain and possibly also
other characteristics. It is therefore not surprising
Combining information about knots and annual that rather little is gained by combining MOE with
ring width as well as combining knots and density other data. This is demonstrated in Table 3.6.

z: 1,0 -i

1 2 3 4 5 6
Number of predictors

Figure 3.8 Multiple regression analysis for bending (1) and tensile (2) strength (Hoffmeyer et al., 1999). Knots are
measured according to INSTA 142 (Anon. 1997)

Table 3.6 Effect of adding knot data to MOE on the coefficient of determination. MOE
determined in flatwise bending
Source Coefficient of determination (R2)
Strength vs. MOE Strength vs. MOE
and knot data
Johansson, (1992)
58 x 120 mm Norway spruce, bending 0.49 0.59
34 x 145 mm Norway spruce, tension 0.66 0.71
Johansson et al. (1998)
40 x 145 mm Norway spruce, tension 0.55 0.65
Orosz, 1969
50 x 100 mm Southern pine, tension 0.59 0.76
Grading of Timber 33

Johansson et al. (1992) and Bostrom (1994) both are estimated at some distance with the naked eye.
showed that for edgewise bending it is enough The measurement error is likely to be large.
to add edge knot data to the MOE to improve A statistical analysis of machine strength
the correlation. Other knot information seems to grading has been carried out by Hoffmeyer (1995),
be redundant. based on a model developed by Glos et al.
(1982), to demonstrate the importance of grading
accuracy. A stochastic model is used, where
3.4 GRADING OF TIMBER - the relationship between strength and grading
EFFECT OF GRADING parameter is described by means of a two-
ACCURACY ON THE YIELD dimensional normal distribution. Further, it is
The basis of grading is an estimation of the assumed that a linear relationship between strength
strength properties based on measurement of one and grading parameter exists. A typical result is
or several characteristics which are related to shown in Figure 3.9. In this example, the timber
the strength properties. The ability of a grading is assumed to have a mean bending strength
system to estimate strength accurately depends of 45 N/mm2 and a coefficient of variation of
upon how well the measured characteristic(s) can 25%. These values are typical for Norway spruce
predict the true strength of the timber, and how from the Nordic countries. The graph describes
well the characteristics can be measured. The conditions relating to grading of class C30 and
coefficient of determination, R2, can be used as better (lower fifth percentile bending strength
a measure of how strong the relationship between >30 N/mm2). For a machine with a coefficient
the grading characteristic and the strength is. of variation, CoV, lower than 0.1, the grading
The measurement error can be represented by a yield increases considerably with the coefficient of
coefficient of variation, CoV. determination for the relationship between strength
Take, for instance, visual grading. The R2 values and measured characteristic up to 0.4. For values
presented in the previous chapter are based on knot above that the increase in yield is moderate. Most
and annual ring width data measured carefully by a existing machines have a CoV-value of less than
ruler. In the practical visual grading situation they 0.1. However, the coefficient of determination is

0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0


Coefficient of determination, r2

Figure 3.9 Yield as a function of the coefficient of determination, R2, between the grading characteristic and the
bending strength and the coefficient of variation (CoV) of the machine when determining the grading characteristic
(Hoffmeyer, 1995)
34 Timber Engineering

100 list of commercial grading machines in Hoffmeyer


(1995), seven out of ten types in the world were so-
called bending machines. Since then, new machine
types have been introduced, but it seems that less
than 5% of the total number of machines are based
on principles other than flatwise bending.
The flatwise bending stiffness/MOE has the
advantage of being very simple to measure. In
principle a three-point loading test is carried
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 out continuously. The span lengths are between
Coefficient of determination, r2 600 and 1200 mm. The most common is around
900 mm. The timber is passed through the machine
Figure 3.10 Yield as a function of the coefficient of between load and support rollers (see the example
determination, R2, between the grading characteristic in Figure 3.11). Two systems for measuring the
and the bending strength (Hoffmeyer, 1995). The
coefficient of variation of the measurement error of the flatwise stiffness/MOE exist: (1) the load is kept
machine when determining the grading characteristic is constant and the deflection measured; (2) the
set to CoV = 0.1, which is a realistic value timber is forced to a certain pre-set deflection,
and the load required to maintain this deflection
important for the yield in high strength classes and is measured. The bending stiffness EI can be
for classes close together. In Figure 3.10, which determined according to
is based on the same assumptions on the timber
characteristics as those used in Figure 3.9, the F-/3
El =
yield for the C24/C30/C40 class combination is 48-5
presented. There is an almost linear relationship where F is the applied force, / the span length and
between the coefficient of determination and the 8 the deflection. The flatwise MOE can be obtained
yield in the C40 class. by dividing the bending stiffness by the moment of
inertia /. Figure 3.12 presents MOE distributions
3.5 MACHINE GRADING along three different pieces of timber.
PRINCIPLES As was emphasised earlier, the stiffness, EI
and MOE contain information not only about the
3.5.1 Flatwise Bending clear wood properties, but also about knots, slope
The most widely used machine grading principle of grain, etc. Furthermore, the grading machine
is to measure the flatwise bending stiffness. In contributes with shear deformations, indentations

Press
roller

Timber-*:

Reference Reference
Loadcell roller
roller

Figure 3.11 Typical bending type machine


Grading of Timber 35

Figure 3.12 Flatwise MOE distribution along different pieces of 40 x 145 mm spruce timber. Data from Johansson
et al. (1998). In the two bottom pieces minima corresponding to knot clusters are clearly visible. The top piece with
high MOE has no or only very small knots

in the timber at the load and support rollers, as The scanner gave a measure of the clear wood
well as deformations in the machine itself. This properties as well as the size and location of
means that MOEs can be machine-specific and also knots. Both a one-detector and a three-detector
thickness-specific. scanner were used to estimate bending strength.
Timber is graded in sawn or planed condition. The one-detector system gave an R2 value of 0.65
If the timber is planed it is either to its final and the three-detector system a value of 0.73.
dimension or just to obtain a uniform thickness for Bending strength was also estimated by means of
the grading operation. In sawn condition, thickness flatwise bending stiffness, and gave an R2 value of
variations can be considerable and can cause only 0.53.
considerable measurement errors. A deviation of
5% from a nominal thickness will affect the
flatwise MOE by a factor of 1.16. 3.5.3 Modulus of Elasticity Determined
Vibrations in the timber during passage through from Resonant Vibrations
the machine can cause considerable measurement
The possibility to determine the MOE of timber by
errors, which increase with the throughput
using dynamic testing was already being discussed
speed. Moreover, the bending principle has the
in the early 1930s (Hoffmeyer, 1995). In recent
disadvantage of not allowing assessment of the
timber ends. years, the method has lead to practical applications
thanks to the strong development of measurement
techniques associated with dynamic testing and the
3.5.2 Measurement of Density
use of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT).
by Means of Radiation Both longitudinal and bending modes can be
Techniques used. The resonance frequency of a longitudinal
With x-ray or gamma rays, the density of the vibration in a beam can be described by the
material can be determined. By using an array following expression:
of senors, it is possible to determine the density
distribution both across and along the timber.
/A-n = YA-n (Hz)
Knots have a higher density than the surrounding
material, and therefore a measure of the size,
location and possibly even the shape of knots where the constant YA-H depends upon the support
can be obtained (Bostrb'm, 1999). The accuracy is conditions, n is the mode number, p is the density
strongly related to the number of sensors. and L the length of the beam. If both ends of
Schajer (2001) used a multiple-detector density the beam are free (i.e. the beam is floating) and
x-ray scanner on 2 x 4 southern yellow pine. the resonance frequency of the first axial mode is
36 Timber Engineering

measured, then the MOE can be expressed by


EA = 4 . p - L2 - f2A-1
The 'dynamic' bending MOE can be determined
in a corresponding way (Hoffmeyer, 1995).
For defect-free wood the 'dynamic' MOE
correlates well with the true value. (Wormuth,
1993) obtained an R2 value of 0.85 between
dynamic and static tensile MOE for 10 x 10 x
200 mm Norway spruce specimens. Also, for
timber containing defects such as knots the
correlation is fairly good. Larsson (1997) tested
38 x 89, 38 x 140 and 38 x 184 mm Norway
spruce, and obtained R2 values between 0.68 and
0.91. He also studied the relationship between
dynamic MOE and edgewise bending strength,
and found R2 values ranging from 0.39 to Figure 3.13 Illustration of the tracheid effect. The
0.61. Sauter (1992) studied 60 x 120 mm Douglas timber surface is illuminated by two line lasers. The
fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and spread of light is less in the dense knot material
obtained a coefficient of determination of 0.71
for dynamic flatwise MOE versus edgewise
bending strength. the less spread of light. This enables a rough
One disadvantage of using the measurement of estimate of the wood density at the surface, and
resonant vibrations to predict the strength and since knots normally have a higher density than
stiffness properties of timber seems to be that the surrounding wood, they will be easier to detect
the method only delivers a weighted mean MOE, using the tracheid effect (see Figure 3.13). There
whereas the so-called bending machines are in are some systems in use or being developed where
principle capable of detecting the minimum MOE cameras are integrated parts of the strength grading
along a piece of timber. On the other hand, system (Bostrom, 1999).
tests in a laboratory environment indicate that the
dynamic MOE predicts the strength as well as or 3.5.5 Other Measurement Principles
even better than the bending machines (Hoffmeyer,
1995). Other principles worth mentioning are:

Measurements of longitudinal stress wave speed.


3.5.4 Optical Detection of Knots A pulse can be generated using ultrasonic sound
and Other Defects or by the impact from a hammer at the timber
Several camera systems for the optical detection end. For a slender rod the stress wave speed
of timber characteristics have been developed for can be expressed as Crod = *JE/p according to
appearance grading. The most common camera Clough et al. (1975). Sandoz (1989) obtained an
type is the CCD (Charged Coupled Device). R2 value of 0.50 between stress wave velocity
Pictures from the cameras are processed in image and bending strength of spruce.
analysis programs which extract defects and other The microwave technique for the detection
characteristics appearing on the timber surface. A of knots has been applied in timber grading
further development is the use of the so-called (Finnograder; see Section 3.6.1). A new system
tracheid effect (Astrand, 1996), i.e. the spread of has been developed in Australia (Leicster
light in the wood surface. The denser the material, et al., 1994).
Grading of Timber 37

3.5.6 Combined Measurements the disadvantage that the timber ends cannot
be assessed in bending. In this case, the prime
As was indicated in Section 3.3.5, combining the purpose is to check that the ends do not differ
measurements of two or several characteristics significantly from the middle parts in terms of
leads to better prediction accuracy. There are, defects and density.
however, only a few applications. One is a
combination of x-ray and flatwise bending.
Another is cameras for the detection of knots and 3.6 GRADING MACHINES
other defects in combination with flatwise bending. ON THE MARKET
Bostrom (1998) studied the latter combination, in
which the previously mentioned tracheid effect 3.6.1 Presentation of Machine Types
is used. By adding edge knot data obtained by Grading machines have been used in North Amer-
camera and image processing to the flatwise MOE, ica, UK, Australia, New Zealand and Scan-
he improved the strength prediction accuracy dinavia since the 1960s. In Germany grading
considerably, with an R2-value from 0.59 to 0.65 machines were not used until the early 1990s. The
for Norway spruce and for Maritime pine (Pinus most important grading machines are presented in
pinaster. Sol.) from 0.49 to 0.56. Table 3.7. They were all developed for use in pro-
Cameras or x-ray can also be used in duction lines, and in all except for the Dynagrade
connection with flatwise MOE just to overcome system, the timber is fed lengthwise through the

Table 3.7 Existing grading machines worldwide. (Based on information from Hoffmeyer (1995) and Stenman (2000))
Name Number of Measurement principle Grading speed
machines
world wide
Computermatic/ Micromatic 137 Flatwise bending. Measurement of deflection. < 105 m/min
Span 914 mm. Constant load. Shape arm to
measure bow.
CookBolinder/ Tecmach 66 Flatwise bending. Measurement of load. Span <200 m/min
900 mm. Constant deflection. Bow is
considered by either running the timber
through twice after turning 180 degrees or
using two machines, one after the other.
EuroGrecomat 6 Flatwise bending. Measurement of load and <120 m/min
(Mainly Germany) deflection. Span either 700 or 900 depending
on timber thickness. X-ray for determination of
density and detection of knots.
Raute Timgrader 19 Flatwise bending. Measurement of load. Span <135 m/min
(Mainly Finland) 510 mm. Constant deflection. Timber forced to
s-shape.
CLT and 7200LS 59 Flatwise bending. Measurement of load. Constant <600 m/min
(mainly North America) deflection. Timber forced to s-shape.
Dart - Flatwise bending. Measurement of deflection. <250 m/min
(Australia-New Zealand) Constant load. Shape arm for measurement
of bow.
Ersson ESG-240 8 Flatwise bending. Measurement of load. Constant <200 m/min
deflection. Bow measured by laser sensors.
Newness XLG 25 X-ray with 11 detectors across. <600 m/min
GradeMaster 403 5 Measurement of resonant longitudinal vibrations <20 pieces/min
and mass. Scanning on all four sides.
Dynagrade 30 Measurement of resonant longitudinal vibrations. <100 pieces/min
Vibrations induced by steel ball on a lever
arm. Response picked up by microphone.
38 Timber Engineering

Figure 3.14 Dynagrade grading machine in a trimming line with a length measuring device to the far left and
measurement of resonant vibrations and computer to the left

machine. Dynagrade is normally placed in the trim- of Norway spruce, 45 x 195 mm (121 pieces),
ming line and the timber is transported transversely 70x 170 mm (124 pieces) and 45 x 120 mm (170
(see Figure 3.14). pieces), were passed through the machines. In the
Other machines or equipment worth mentioning, summary in Table 3.8, the machines are compared
according to Hoffmeyer (1995) and Bostrom on the basis of the coefficient of determination, R2,
(1999), are: which in this case includes both the uncertainty
in relationship between the grading characteristics
TRU Timber Grader (125 machines in South (strength vs. grading parameter) and the machine's
Africa). measurement error. The 45 x 195 mm timber
Finnograder (a machine developed in Finland appears to give better grading accuracy than the
at the beginning of the 1980s. A microwave other dimensions. The fact, however, is that the
technique is used to detect knots and slope 45 x 195 mm material had a much larger variation
of grain and y-rays determine the density. No in strength and stiffness properties than the other
machines in operation). dimensions, and this affects the R2 value. This
Sylvatest (equipment based on ultrasonic pulse underlines the importance of using the same
measurement). material when comparing machines.
Metriguard E-computer (measures the fre- Betzold (1999) studied CookBolinder, Comput-
quency response). ermatic, Ersson ESG240 and Dynagrade. The same
400 pieces of 45 x 145 mm Norway spruce were
passed through all four machines. The test mate-
3.6.2 Accuracy of the Machines rial had been divided into four equal samples, with
Only a few investigations exist where machines 100 pieces in each, which had been dried in dif-
have been compared on equal terms, i.e. using the ferent ways.
same timber and the same grading speed. Bostrom As can be seen in Table 3.9, Dynagrade
(1994) studied CookBolinder, Computermatic, predicted strength with roughly the same accuracy
Finnograder and Sylvatest. Three dimensions as the other machines, despite the fact that it was
Grading of Timber 39

Table 3.8 Comparison of grading accuracy of different grading machines (Bostrom, 1994). The coefficient of
determination R2 is used as a measure of the accuracy
Grading machine Grading Grading accuracy (R2)
type speed Machine flat wise MOE vs.
Machine flat wise MOE vs.
edgewise bending strength edgewise MOE
45 x 120 70 x 170 45 x 195 45 x 120 70 x 170 45 x 195
CookBolinder 50 m/min 0.51 0.48 0.73 0.71 0.71 0.87
Computermatic 50 m/min 0.41 0.60 0.62 0.57 0.84 0.68
Finnograder 150 m/min 0.34 0.38 0.55
Sylvatest 0.34 0.33 0.62

Table 3.9 Comparison of grading accuracy of different grading machines (Betzold, 1999). The coefficient of
determination R2 is used as a measure of the accuracy
Grading machine Grading Grading accuracy (R2)
type st
Machine flatwise MOE vs. Machine flatwise MOE vs.
edgewise bending strength edgewise MOE
Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4
CookBolinders 40 m/min 0.65 0.56 0.46 0.54 0.76 0.80 0.69 0.80
Computermatic 40 m/min 0.56 0.47 0.43 0.51 0.70 0.66 0.63 0.75
Ersson ESG240 100 m/min 0.61 0.57 0.54 0.53 0.76 0.70 0.76 0.80
Dynagrade 100 pieces/min 0.56 0.40 0.49 0.53 0.54 0.34 0.48 0.42

Table 3.10 Comparison of four grading machines with respect to accuracy and yield. The coefficient of determination
R2 is used as a measure of accuracy. The grades are special ones for glued laminated timber laminations, and the
class designation refers to the characteristic tensile strength
Grading machine type R2 Yield (%) for combinations of grades
Speed Machine MOE vs.
23/15 18 26/14.5 22/11
tensile strength
High Low High Low High Low
Computermatic 40 m/min 0.44 47 53 99 27 73 67 33
CookBolinder 40 m/min 0.50 53 46 98 31 69 68 32
Dynagrade 40 pieces/min 0.47 52 47 98 37 63 65 35
Ersson ESG 240 80 m/min 0.41 52 48 100 15 85 66 34

run at normal production speed and the others to the accuracy of the machine, but also to how
at a lower speed. In the case of CookBolinder the settings for each grade or grade combination
and Computermatic, the speed was much lower. have been derived. Johansson et al. therefore
Dynagrade is more or less insensitive to grading calculated settings using the same principle, EN
speed, whereas the bending type machines tend to 519 (Anon, 1995a), for all four machines. A total
induce vibrations in the timber which can severely of around 1200 pieces of Norway spruce, mainly
reduce the grading accuracy. The vibrations 40 x 145 mm, were used. Four machine types
increase with speed. were studied.
Johansson et al, (1998) also included the yield It appears that the yields obtained in the
in the comparison (see Table 3.10). The yield is machines are fairly similar except for grade 26.
of decisive importance as it affects the economy In this grade the lowest yield is obtained by the
of grading. The yield is of course strongly related machines with the lowest grading accuracy.
40 Timber Engineering

3.7 OPERATION AND CONTROL Output control is mainly used in North America,
OF GRADING MACHINES and in this system a limited number of graded
pieces are proof-loaded to check that the quality
Machines can be operated in either machine or of the timber is within desirable limits. In
output control systems (Anon, 1995a). Machine output control systems the demand on the grading
control means that the quality of the graded machine is less strict.
timber is controlled only by setting the machine In the output control systems initial settings are
and continuously checking the performance. This established using much less testing than in machine
requires an assessment of each machine type control systems. Instead, the settings are checked
based on a very extensive experimental study regularly by means of a proof-loading procedure
of the machine type, including testing of large and adjusted if necessary.
quantities of timber to obtain setting values One output control system is described in
for each species, strength class, dimension, etc. EN 519, and the standards that will supersede it.
Machine control systems dominate in Europe. Here it is required that 10 specimens from each
Derivation of settings values plays a very central strength class are sampled per working shift. The
role in this system. So far, at least three different pieces are tested in edgewise bending, and a proof-
procedures have been used in Europe. A new load corresponding to 96% of the characteristic
approach was introduced by Rouger (1997), in strength for the class in question. The MOE is
which the machine's performance is compared also controlled. Cusum charts are used to control
with that of a perfect machine capable of grading the process. If the process is out of control,
each piece of timber to its optimum grade. In adjustments of the settings may be necessary.
the comparison a cost analysis is used where
weighting factors are applied to pieces that are 3.8 PROPERTIES AND YIELD OF
upgraded or downgraded. For pieces which are MACHINE STRESS GRADED
wrongly upgraded, the weighting factors have
an adverse effect on the acceptance of the
TIMBER IN RELATION TO
machine and its settings because the use of VISUALLY GRADED TIMBER
such pieces can be unsafe. For pieces wrongly Due to the higher grading accuracy, machine
downgraded the effect of the weighting factors strength grading gives a higher yield in relation
is less severe, because the penalty is the cost to what is obtained by visual grading. This is
of using larger cross-sections or more pieces demonstrated in Table 3.11 which presents results
of timber. from investigations where the same pieces of

Table 3.11 Comparison of visual and machine strength grading. Strength values and density are characteristic fifth
percentiles and MOE is a mean value. Visual grades S10 and S8 are according to ECE-rules (1982), and LT30 and
LT20 are grades in INSTA 142 (Anon, 1997)
Visual grading Machine strength grading
Visual Yield Strength MOE Density Machine Yield Strength MOE Density
grade (%) (N/mm2) (N/mm2) (kg/m3) grade (%) (N/mm2) (N/mm2) (kg/m3)
Johansson et al. (1992) - Grading of 58 x 120 mm planed Norway spruce - Strength and MOE determined in bending
S10 12 35.1 14650 T30M 50 35.1 14540
S8 63 28.5 12920 T24M 42 28.2 11460
Johansson et al. (1998) - Grading 46 to 52 mm thick Norway spruce - Strength and MOE determined in tension
LT30 34 21.8 13000 390 22 74 22.9 13400 397
LT20 41 16.6 11500 385 11 26 14.1 9900 355
Grading of Timber 41

timber have been graded both visually and by of heartwood, density and density variations to
machine. In the investigation by Johansson et al. predict the MOE of individual boards from the
(1992), the S10 (visual) and T30M (machine) logs. He managed to predict the MOE with
have the same strength, which is a coincidence, an R2 value of 0.48. Oja's model was further
and almost the same MOE. The yield in S10 is, developed to predict the strength of individual
however, only 12%, to be compared with the 50% boards (Bengtsson, 2001). Based on measurement
in T30M. In practice, grades corresponding to S8 of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris) logs, the bending
and T24M are the most common and looking at strength of individual boards cut from the logs was
S8 and T24M, the difference in yield is less, 75% predicted with an R2 of 0.55.
compared to 92%. Note that the MOE for T24M is Yet another approach is strength grading by
less than for S8, but both grades correspond to the means of surface scanning techniques. There are
European strength class C24 with a mean MOE of several systems for surface scanning on the market,
ll000 N/mm2. but these are exclusively used for appearance
grading. It is likely that these systems will
be further developed for grading with respect
3.9 FUTURE DEVELOPMENT to strength.
Important driving forces are the demands for better Proof loading was mentioned in connection with
grading yield in general, the ability to grade high output control systems as a means for checking
strength material and high grading speed. the machine settings. This technique is also used
Higher yield requires more advanced and accu- as a grading method in Australia (Leicester,
rate non-destructive methods and combinations of 2001), and has been developed further (Ziethe'n,
methods. None of the methods applied in machine 2001). One aspect to consider is to what extent
strength grading today is capable of correctly map- proof loading affects the pieces that survive (Lam
ping the variability of the timber, for instance the et al, 2001).
density and MOE variation from the pith outwards
and the size, shape, orientation and location of the
knots. As knots are the most important strength
reducing characteristics, it is a great challenge to
be able to better predict the strength reducing effect Anon (1982) ECE-rules. ECE recommended standards
for stress grading and finger jointing of structural
of knots. coniferous sawn timber. Timber Bulletin for Europe.
Another approach is to carry out grading earlier Volume XXXIV. Supplement 16. United Nations
in the production process. One way is to grade Commission for Europe, Geneva.
the logs to obtain an enrichment of logs that, Anon (1995a) EN 519. Structural timber - Grading -
after sawing, is likely to give higher yields of Requirements for machine strength graded timber and
grading machines.
structural timber. This is already done to some Anon (1995b) EN 338. Structural timber - Strength
extent by using visual criteria. Perstorper (1999) classes.
shows that measurement of resonant vibrations is Anon (1997) INSTA 142. Nordic visual strength grading
an option worth developing further. He measured rules.
Norway spruce logs with a length of 4-5 meters Bengtsson C. (2000) Stifftiess of spruce wood - In-
fluence of moisture conditions. Holi als Roh- und
and diameter of 320-390 mm. Afterwards, 45 x Werkstoff, 58, 344352.
145 mm boards were produced from the logs and Bengtsson C., Betzold D. (2000) Bending strength and
tested in bending. The coefficient of determination stiffness of Norway spruce timber - influence of high
for the relation between edgewise bending strength temperature drying. Proc. International Symposium
of individual boards and the MOE based on axial on Wood Machining. Properties of wood and wood
composites related to wood machining, Vienna,
vibrations was 0.47. Oja (1999) used an x-ray Austria.
Logscanner, and with data from it he created a Bengtsson C. (2001) Swedish National Testing and
model based on log diameter, taper, percentage Research Institute. Personal communication.
42 Timber Engineering

Betzhold D. (1999) Maschinelle Festigkeitssortierung. Structural Engineering. Lund Institute of Technology,


Einfluss der Hochtemperatur-trocknung auf die Lund.
elastomechanischen Eigenschaften des Snittholzes. Johansson C.-J. (1976) Tensile strength of glulam
Diplomarbeit, Fachhochschule Eberswalde. laminations. Chalmers University of Technology,
Bostrom L. (1994) Machine strength grading. Com- Steel and Timber Structures, Internal report no.
parison of four different grading systems. Swedish S76:18. (In Swedish.)
National Testing and Research Institute, SP REPORT Johansson C.-J., Brundin J. and Gruber R. (1992)
1994:49. Stress grading of Swedish and German timber. A
Bostrom L. (1998) Machine strength grading using comparison of machine stress grading and three
smart image sensors for defect detection. Proc. 5th visual grading systems. Swedish National Testing and
World Conference on Timber Engineering, Montreux, Research Institute, SP REPORT 1998:38.
Switzerland. Johansson C.-J., Bostrom L., Brauner L., Hoffmeyer P.,
Bostrom L. (1999) State-of-the art on machine strength Holmquist C. and Solli K.H. (1998) Laminations for
grading. Proc. 1st RILEM Symposium on Timber glued laminated timber - Establishment of strength
Engineering, Stockholm, Sweden. classes for visual strength grades and machine settings
Clough R. Penzien J. (1975) Dynamics of Structures. for glulam laminations of Nordic origin. Swedish
MacGraw-Hill, New York. National Testing and Research Institute, SP REPORT
Chrestin H., Bostrom L. (1997) The influence if timber 1998:38.
origin on machine strength grading yield. Proc. Kollmann P.P. and C6te Jr, W.A. (1968) Principle of
International IUFRO S 5.02 Timber Engineering Wood Science and Technology. Part I - Solid Wood.
Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Dahlbom O., Petersson H., Ormarsson S. (2000) Stiff- Kunesh R.H. and Johnsson J.W. (1972) Effect of single
ness and shape stability grading analysis of sawn knots on tensile strength of 2 by 8 inch Douglas fir
timber based on experimentally found growth char- dimension lumber. Forest Products Journal, 22(1),
acteristics. Proc. World Conference on Timber Engi- 32-36.
neering, Whistler Resort, British Columbia, Canada. Lackner R. and Foslie M. (1988) Gran fra Vestlandet -
Foslie M. (1971) Strength properties of Norway Spruce. Styrke och sortering. Norwegian Institute of Wood
technology, Report. 74. (In Norwegian.)
Part 3 - Strength properties of small defect free
Larsson D. (1997) Mechanical characterization of engi-
specimens. Report No 42. Norwegian Institute of neering materials by modal testing. Doctoral the-
Wood Technology. (In Norwegian.) sis, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg,
Glos P., Heimeshoff B. (1982) Moglichkeiten und Gren- Sweden.
zen der Festigkeitssortierung von Brettlamellen fur Lam F., Abayakoon S., Svensson S. and Gyamfi C.
den Holzleimbau. In: Ingenieurholzbau in Foschung (2001) Influence of proof loading on the reliability
und Praxis (Ehlbeck und Steck). Bruderverlag, Karl- of members. Proc. International Council for Building
sruhe. (In German.) Research Studies and Documentation, Working
Glos P. (1995) Strength grading. STEP lecture A6, Commission Wl8-Timber Structures, Meeting
Centrum Hout, The Netherlands. Thirty four, Venice, Italy.
Hoffmeyer P. (1984) Om konstruktionstraes styrke Leicester R.H. (1988) Rogue factors in proof grading.
och styrkesortering. I Skovteknologi. Et historiskt Proc. 1988 International Conference on Timber
og perspektivisk strejtog. Dansk Skovforening. (In Engineering, Seattle, USA.
Danish.) Leicster R.H., Seath C.A., Breitinger H.O. and
Hoffmeyer P. (1990) Failure of wood as influenced by Shakiba S.B. (1994) Development of a commercial
moisture and duration of load. Doctoral Thesis, State microwave stresser, CSIRO, Division of Building and
University of New York, College of Environmental Engineering. Melbourne, Australia.
Science and Forestry, Syracuse, New York. Madsen B. (1992) Structural Behaviour of Timber.
Hoffmeyer P. (1995) Styrkesortering ger mervarde. Timber Engineering Ltd.
Del 2 - Tillgaenglig teknik. Danmarks Tekniske Oja J. (1999) X-ray measurements of properties of saw
Universitet, Laboratoriet for Bygningsmaterialer, logs. Doctoral thesis, LuleS University of Technology,
Teknisk Rapport 335. Lulea, Sweden.
Hoffmeyer P., Brauner L., Bostrom L. and Solli K.H. Ormarsson S. (1999) Numerical analysis of the
(1999) Tensile strength of glulam laminations of moisture-related distortion in sawn timber. Doctoral
Nordic spruce. Proc. Pacific Timber Engineering thesis, Department of Structural Mechanics, Chalmers
Conference, Rotorua, New Zealand. University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Isaksson T. (1999) Modelling the variability of bending Orosz I. (1969) Modulus of elasticity and bending
strength in structural timber. Length and load strength ration as indicators of tensile strength of
configuration effects. Doctoral thesis, Division of lumber. Journal of Materials, 4(4), 842-864.
Grading of Timber 43

Persson K. (2000) Micro mechanical modelling of wood Schniewind A.P. and Lyon P.E. (1971) Tensile strength
and fibre properties. Doctoral thesis, Lund University, of redwood dimension lumber - II. Prediction of
Department of Mechanics and Materials. strength values. Forest Products Journal, 21(8),
Perstorper M. (1999). Dynamic testing of logs for pre- 1827.
diction of timber strength. Proc. Pacific Timber Engi- Steffen A., Johansson C.-J. and Wormuth E.-W. (1997)
neering Conference, Rotorua, New Zealand. Study of the relationship between flatwise and
Rouger F. (1997) A new statistical method for the edgewise moduli of elasticity of sawn timber as
establishment of machine settings. Proc. International a means to improve mechanical strength grading
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tation, Working Commission W18 - Timber Struc- 245253.
tures, Meeting Thirty, Vancouver, Canada. Stenman B. (2000) Swedish National Testing and
Sandoz J. (1989) Grading of construction timber Research Institute. Personal communication.
by ultrasound. Wood Science and Technology, 23, Wormuth E.-W. (1993) Untersuchung des Verhaltnisses
95108. von flachkant zu hochkant ermitteltem Elas-
Sauter U. (1992) Technologische Holzeigenschaften der tizita'tsmodul von Schnittholz zur Verbesserung der
Douglasie (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) maschinellen Festigkeitssortierung. Master's thesis,
als auspragung unterschiedlicher Wachstumsbedin- Department of Wood Technology, University of Ham-
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4350. Doctoral thesis, Linkoping University, Sweden.
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4

Structural Timber - Variability


and Statistical Modelling
Tord Isaksson

4.1 Objectives 45
4.2 Introduction 45
4.3 Properties of wood 46
4.4 Modelling of variability within and between members 48
4.5 Theories for describing size and load configuration effects 54
4.6 Size and load effects reported in the literature 59
4.7 Size and load configuration effects based on models of variability in
properties 60
4.8 Structural systems 64

4.1 OBJECTIVES 4.2 INTRODUCTION


This section includes a general review of research Structural timber displays considerable strength
on the topic of variability and statistical modelling variability between and within members, which
of structural timber. The reasons for the variability makes it difficult to evaluate its reliability and to
within pieces of timber are presented. Further, design timber elements and systems in a rational
different theories for describing the variability are way. Most of today's engineering design meth-
reviewed. The variability is the reason why timber ods for timber are based on elementary theory
has a length- and load-dependent load-bearing of structures assuming homogeneous material. In
capacity. Theories for describing these effects are reality, due to the presence of various defects in
reviewed. the wood, the variation in strength along a timber
46 Timber Engineering

beam results in a strength which is dependent on weak zones correspond to knots or groups of knots,
the length of the element and the type of loading, which are distributed along the length at random.
i.e. the moment distribution of the beam. These The length of a timber beam affects the apparent
effects are only to a limited extent accounted for strength, since there is a higher probability of
in today's codes. Apart from length and type of having a weaker section within a longer beam than
loading, the strength is also dependent on climate in a shorter one. This has been shown in many
conditions and the duration of load. These effects investigations, e.g. see reviews in Madsen (1992)
are not included in the discussion here. and Barrett and Fewell (1990).
One way of describing the variability phenomena Furthermore, the apparent strength of a timber
and its effects on, for example, the strength of a beam will also depend upon the nature of the
timber beam is proposed in a model introduced by moment distribution along the beam. For instance,
Riberholt et al. (1979). It is assumed that timber a beam with a point load at mid-span can be
is composed of localised weak zones connected by expected to have an apparent strength that is higher
segments of clear wood, and that failure is primarily than a beam of the same length loaded with a
initiated in these weak zones (see Figure 4.1). The constant bending moment along the entire length.
This has also been confirmed experimentally by
several investigations (e.g. Madsen, 1992).
Timber beam with knots Figure 4.2 shows an example of how the length
and type of loading influence the load carrying
capacity of a beam. The strength given in some
Hypothetical variation of bending strength codes represents more or less the strength of the
weakest section. This corresponds to a constant
bending moment along the beam.
Figure 4.3 shows a trussed rafter. The upper
chord is an example of a member, which is over-
designed using the principles in today's code. The
Idealized variation of Clear wood
bending strength ^ strength peaks of the varying moment distribution have

T
TTTT
^ Weak zone strength
u a low probability of coinciding with the lowest
strength of the member.

4.3 PROPERTIES OF WOOD


Figure 4.1 Modelling of lengthwise variation of bend-
ing strength in timber beams according to Riberholt Timber, regardless of species and origin, consists
et al. (1979) of defects distributed throughout more or less

Figure 4.2 Example of a lengthwise variation in bending strength and maximum bending moment due to loading
for different lengths of a beam
Structural Timber 47

a darker part, i.e. the earlywood evolved during


spring and early summer and the latewood evolved
during summer. During the first 1020 years of the
tree's life, the wood is characterised as juvenile
wood (e.g. see Dinwoodie, 2000), with a lower
strength and stiffness. The growth rings near to
the pith are called 'heartwood' and the outer rings
'sapwood'. The heartwood is characterised by the
absence of living cells, while the sapwood is where
liquid transport takes place. These two types of
wood have no significant effect on strength.
The strength is strongly dependent on the occur-
Figure 43 The upper chord in the trussed rafter is rence of natural defects such as knots, compression
a practical example of where the probability is low wood and grain deviation. A knot is a branch
that the maximum bending moment will coincide with that is embedded in the main stem of a tree, and
the weakest section. This means that the load carrying
capacity is not fully utilised it is undoubtedly the most common and influen-
tial defect. As long as the branch is growing the
knot is known as 'tight'. When the branch dies
defect-free wood. The structure and properties of the knot is called an 'encased knot'. For soft-
timber are the results of millions of years of woods, the branches occur as whorls at more or
evolution aimed at providing the most efficient less regular intervals producing knot clusters (see
system to optimise growth, and to support the Figures 4.4-4,6). The sawing pattern and loca-
crown under occurring loads, such as wind and tion in the log influences how the knots will
snow. In most cases, man's use of timber does not affect the strength of a wood member. The reduc-
coincide with the natural conditions it is 'designed' tion in strength due to knots is due to the devi-
for. Unlike other structural materials, such as steel ation in grain angle that occurs around knots
and concrete, timber cannot be produced to a (see Figure 4.7). The main reason for the strength
particular specification. Instead, timber has to be reducing effect of a knot is that it produces tension
divided into groups with a certain desired range perpendicular to the grain, which is the weakest
of properties. The end use of the material decides direction in wood.
which properties are most important. For example, Compression wood is a result of the tree's
appearance may be important for use in furniture, reaction to external forces. Softwood produces
while strength is important for use in structures
(studs, joists, roof trusses).
Due to the structure of trees, the material prop-
erties are significantly different in the longitudi-
nal (stem) direction and transversal (cross) direc-
tion (see Figure 4.8). That is, timber is a highly
anisotropic material. Some macroscopic charac-
teristics valid for softwood are discussed below.
The microstructure and ultrastructure are not con-
sidered. This is, however, not to say they are
unimportant to the behaviour of timber.
In the transversal direction the growth rings are
an influential parameter for strength. Large annual Figure 4.4 Norway Spruce trees, around 25-30 years
growth rings mean a low density and thus a lower old. The branches are dead up to about halfway up
strength. A growth ring consists of a lighter and the trunk
48 Timber Engineering

Longitudinal direction
External Cross section

Pith side

Tangential
direction
Annual
rings

Radial
direction
Figure 4.5 Norway Spruce trees, aged around 50-60
years. The lower dead branches have fallen off

Figure 4.8 Definition of some geometrical parameters

the stiffness is low. The failure in beams with


compression wood is often more brittle.
Grain deviation is defined as the angle between
the grain and the longitudinal direction of the
wooden element. Grain deviation can be due to
spiral grain, pronounced tapering of the stem,
crook and sawing of the log. Again, as with knots,
grain deviation leads to tension perpendicular to
the grain, and thus a reduction in strength.
Wood is a hygroscopic material and there is
a continuous exchange of moisture with the sur-
roundings. The moisture content influences both
strength and stiffness parameters. Generally, the
higher the moisture content, the lower the strength
Figure 4.6 Norway Spruce trees, aged about 80 years, and stiffness, at least below the fibre saturation
ready for harvesting. Note the regularity at which the point.
branches occur
4.4 MODELLING OF VARIABILITY
WITHIN AND BETWEEN
MEMBERS
Most of the work that has been done in the
field of modelling the within-member variability
Figure 4.7 Slope of grain at a knot of timber properties has been on tension parallel
to the grain. This work started in the mid-1980s
compression wood in areas of high compression. with publications by Kline, Woeste and Bendtsen
These areas are darker than normal due to a (1986), Showalter, Woeste and Bendtsen (1987)
higher latewood proportion in the growth ring. and Taylor and Bender (1989). These studies were
Although compression wood has a higher density, focused on the tension mode, probably because it
Structural Timber 49

is a decisive parameter in the design of the lower different segments, i.e. it indicates whether there
chord in timber trusses, and because it is easier to is a stronger dependency between closely located
test. An important benefit of having a model of the segments than between segments far apart, but still
within member variation of various properties is within the same beam. The Lag-k serial correlation
that it dramatically reduces the amount of testing is the correlation between an observation from a
necessary to determine, for example, length and segment i and an observation from segment i + k.
load configuration factors. Furthermore, regarding If k = 2, Lag-k means the correlation between
the design of systems, i.e. taking into account the strengths of segments 1 and 3 and segments 2 and
favourable behaviour of members when placed in 4, and so on. For a data set x1, x 2 , . . . , xn the Lag-
a system, the model can be quite useful. k serial correlation rk is given by Equation (4.1).
The following sections present some of the x is the mean of all *,.
research that has been done on within-member n-k
variability. The modulus of elasticity in bending
t - x)(xi+k - x)
is an essential parameter because it correlates well
with both tension and bending strength. It should (4.1)
be noted that studies of within-member variation
of the modulus of elasticity were done as early as
the 1960s. This parameter is of course easier to
measure as the test is non-destructive. Kline et al. found that the serial correlation decrea-
There are several references on the variation of sed with increasing k. The lengthwise variation in
the Modulus Of Elasticity (MOE) within members MOE was modelled by a second order Markov
from the mid-1960s to the early 1980s. Examples model according to Equation (4.2):
are Corder (1965), Kass (1975), Suddarth and
(4.2)
Woeste (1977) and Foschi and Barrett (1980). With
increasing computer capacity, modelling of vari where Xt are the MOE-values, fa are multiple
ability became more accessible and easy to exe- regression coefficients and e is a random error.
cute. Kline et al. (1986) probably took the initial Necessary measures are taken to eliminate bias in
step of modelling and simulating within-member the generated MOE values.
properties using a stochastic model. They were Showalter et al. (1987) focused on the fact that
looking for a better representation of timber stiff- tensile strength is dependent on the size of the
ness than just an average stiffness for the whole member. They developed a model of the length-
piece of timber, i.e. including the lengthwise vari- wise variation in tensile strength to be able to, for
ation. Their MOE measurements were performed example, analyse the strength of the lower chord in
as illustrated in Figure 4.9. The beams were 4.9 m trusses. Tension tests were performed on members
long and the flatwise MOE was determined in four such as that shown in Figure 4.9. They were only
760 mm segments. able to test sections 1 and 4, as sections 2 and 3
Before continuing to discuss their findings, the were held in clamping devices. The results showed
term Lag-k serial correlation needs an introduc- a significant length-dependent tensile strength for
tion. This is a measure of the statistical depen- the species they tested, Southern Pine. Their model
dency between, as in this case, the MOEs from consists of one Markov process generating cor-
related MOE values and one process generating
Load correlated tension strength values. The MOE and
tension strengths are correlated. The Lag-3 serial
correlation was found by the tests, and the Lag-1
1 B IBS A 4
and Lag-2 serial correlations were estimated from
Figure 4.9 Four 760 mm segments, 1 -4, tested for the Lag-3 serial correlation. They found the Lag-k
flatwise MOE (Kline et al, 1986) correlation to decrease with increasing k, i.e. two
50 Timber Engineering

sections next to each other showed a better cor- This must be removed before the parameters of
relation than sections located further away. The the model can be estimated, after which the trend
model showed satisfactory agreement with the ten- can be added again. This technique, together with
sion tests on beams of different lengths. Kriging analysis of the compressive strength along
Lam and Varoglu (199la) carried out an exper- a member, proved to be successful, and they con-
imental study on the variation of tensile strength cluded that these two techniques could be applied
along the length of timber. The Spruce-Pine-Fir to models of within-member bending and ten-
lumber members were tested over a length of sion strength.
610 mm enabling four to six sections to be tested The lengthwise variability of bending stiffness
along a beam with a total length of 6.1 m. The of timber beams was investigated by Czmoch
results showed a decreasing correlation between in 1991. In his tests, the beams were loaded
sections the further apart they were. Sections sep- in five steps and the correlation functions (Lag-
arated by more than 1.83 m could be considered k serial correlations) were determined for each
to be statistically independent. Lam and Varoglu load level. He used two models, one explaining
(1991b) followed up this work with an article a random stiffness around a global mean value
on the development of the model. The mini- calculated for the whole set of beams, and the
mum tensile strength was represented by a three- other using a random variable for the mean of
parameter Weibull distribution, and the mean of an individual beam together with another random
tensile strengths, which is correlated to the min- process representing the local fluctuations within
imum strength, was considered to be normally a beam. The variance of local fluctuations within
distributed and expressed as a function of the min- a member was found to be greater than the
imum tensile strength. Further, the tensile strength variance of the individual means for all but the
along the length of a member is assumed to be log- first load level. The correlation between sections
normally distributed. The Monte Carlo simulation was found to decrease relatively quickly as the
technique was then used to generate the tensile distance between the sections increased.
strength profile of a desired number of beams. The Taylor and Bender (1991) continued refinement
decreasing Lag-k correlation, or the autocorrela- of the model of within-member variation of tensile
tion as Lam and Varoglu call it, was still not taken strength and modulus of elasticity in bending. The
into account. This was done by introducing a mov-
purpose was to obtain a model capable of relia-
ing average process. The tensile strength is given
bility analysis of glue-laminated beams where the
by Equation (4.3). Using this model, they found
tensile strength and modulus of elasticity are gov-
good agreement with their experimental results:
erning parameters in the design. By using Monte
Carlo simulations, the strength and stiffness of glu-
lam beams could be predicted. The experimental
(4.3)
tests were performed according to the procedures
where used by Kline et al. (1986) and Showalter et al.
(1987). That is, they determined the bending stiff-
T(Xi) is the tensile strength of section *, ness in four sections of the beam and tested two
IJL is the mean of the tensile strengths of the sections in tension. The Lag-1, 2 and 3
within a member serial correlations were determined for the modu
t is the moving average process lus of elasticity while only the Lag-3 serial corre-
at are weighting factors. lation could be determined for the tensile strength.
Lam and Barrett (1991) presented a technique The other Lag-k serial correlations were estimated.
to remove trends from the within-member vari- To be able to take into account the dependency
ation of compressive strength. Experimental data between tensile strength and modulus of elas-
showed a clear trend in the variation of com- ticity in the model, the Lag-k cross-correlation
pressive strength along the length of a member. was determined, i.e. the correlation between the
Structural Timber 51

tensile strength of one section and the modulus of (1991) used the model proposed by Riberholt
elasticity of a section k sections away. et al. (1979). What they found was a significant
The tensile strengths and the modulus of elastic- lack of important experimental information on
ity were fitted to the appropriate statistical distri- which to base and verify a model. The following
bution. Since the strength and stiffness of different assumptions were made:
sections are assumed to have the same kind of dis-
tribution, only one distribution was used for each Timber is composed of short weak zones con-
property. Furthermore, the correlations that were nected by sections of clear wood.
discussed above were determined directly from The weak zones correspond to knots or groups
test results where possible, or estimated using a of knots and are randomly distributed.
Markov process. Failure occurs only in the middle of the weak
The research hitherto reviewed on the variability zones.
of properties within timber members has been on The strength of the weak zones is randomly
tensile strength and stiffness. However, in 1979 distributed.
Riberholt and Madsen introduced a model for
the lengthwise variation of bending strength. The The model should enable studies of a number of
strength along a beam (here called clear wood important issues in the design of timber members
strength) is assumed to be constant, except where and systems, such as:
defects occur (see Figure 4.1).
The clear wood strength and the weak zone effect of length and load configuration on the
strengths are described by stochastic variables, load carrying capacity,
while a Poisson process represents the occurrence influence of test procedures in determining the
of weak sections. The parameter in the Poisson characteristic bending strength,
process is estimated from direct measurements of use of reliability theory in design.
the distance between defects. At that time they did
not have any results from direct measurement of The following data were identified as necessary
the strength of weak sections. Instead, two methods input to the model:
were used to predict the strength of weak sections.
Method 1 was based on the assumption that the Distribution function of the distance to the first
strengths of the weak sections are independent. weak zone.
Using results from tests on beams in their weakest Distribution function of the distance between
section, as prescribed in the Eurocode, it is possible weak zones.
to estimate a distribution representing the strength Correlation function for distances between weak
of weak sections. Method 2 employed data from zones.
machine stress grading of timber together with a Distribution function of the strength of weak
regression relation between the output from the zones.
machine and bending strength. They found no Correlation function for strengths of weak zones.
reason to reject the theory of a constant Lag-
k serial correlation, i.e. the dependency between Very limited information was found in the lit-
the strength of two sections is independent of the erature, so they performed a sensitivity analysis
distance between them. A correlation coefficient using the Riberholt model. Reasonable assump-
between 0.50 and 0.67 was found to be reasonable. tions could be made for most of the input. The
In 1991 the first step was taken towards using a results showed quite high length and load con-
model of the variation in bending strength within figuration effects. The effect of the test standard
members in a study of the effect of length and for determining the characteristic strength was also
load configuration on the load-carrying capacity significant. The need for experimental tests of the
of a beam. Czmoch, Thelandersson and Larsen variability within members was pointed out.
52 Timber Engineering

Leicester et al. (1991) presented a discrete co- It was found that the variability in bend-
relationship with Weibull theory to model the ing strength within and between members could
variability in bending strength between and within be modelled according to Equation (4.4). This
members. The classical Weibull theory does not is based on the observation that the correlation
take into account the correlations in strength within coefficient between weak sections is independent
members and between members cut from the of the distance between the sections within the
same piece of timber. Leicester introduced the same member. A model based on logarithmic val-
correlation within members to the Weibull model, ues is used. The model can be visualised as in
and gave expressions for the strength in clear wood Figure 4.11.
and at defects.
In Isaksson (1999) a statistical model of the In(f ij ) = u + (4.4)
variability in bending strength within and between
pieces of timber is presented. The model is based where
on the ideas of Riberholt et al. (1979), i.e. timber is
composed of localised weak sections connected by fij is the strength of beam i in section j
segments of clear wood (see Figure 4.1). The input u is the logarithm mean of all weak sections
to the model is based on an experimental investi- Ti is the difference between the logarithm
gation. In about 130 timber beams (length around mean of weak sections within one member
5 meters), the bending strength was determined in i and u
5-6 weak sections. The test set-up is shown in Sij is the difference between weak section j in
Figure 4.10. All knots appearing on the surface of member i and the value u + ri. The mean
the beam were recorded. The knot data is used to equals zero and the standard deviation is
determine various knot measures enabling to iden-
tify weak sections.
The random variables of the model are: The standard deviations are related according to
Equation (4.5).
distance between weak sections,
length of weak sections, (4.5)
bending strength of weak sections, and
bending strength between weak sections. where
A weak section is primarily identified by knot is the standard deviation between members
measures, and the distance between weak sections is the standard deviation within a member
and the width of a weak section are based on knot is the standard deviation of the whole
measurements. sample of beams and weak sections.

[mm]
Weak section
to be tested

Figure 4.10 Test arrangement for testing the bending strength in several sections within a member (Isaksson, 1999)
Structural Timber 53

Longitudinal direction of the beam

Figure 4.11 Statistical model of strength in weak sections (Isaksson, 1999)

The correlation coefficient becomes a specific area, i.e. the growth conditions were as
identical as possible to provide as homogeneous
(4.6) a sample as possible. Weak sections were tested
ar + cr- by cutting them out (knot clusters), finger jointing
them to pieces of higher strength and testing
In addition to the experimental data for Norway them according to the normal procedure (see
Spruce, some data for Radiata Pine was found Figure 4.12). Out of the 197 tests of weak section
in the literature (Leicester et al., 1996). Radiata strengths, 42% of the failures occurred at the
Pine shows a higher variability in strength than finger joints, 1% in the stronger timber outside
Norway Spruce. the weak section, 24% were of mixed type, and
Table 4.1 summarises the input to the statistical only 34% failed in the weak sections. Due to
model. A sensitivity study of the different param- the many failures outside the weak sections, the
eters of the model was performed. The distance evaluation of the test results had to be refined
between weak sections is represented by a Gamma using statistical tools to include the failures in
distribution and the width of a weak section is the joints.
set to be 150 mm. The strength of the clear wood They used a so-called 'hierarchical model' with
between weak sections was given the strength of two levels to represent the variation in bending
the strongest of the weak sections. strength between and within members. The Lag-k
A similar study on the lengthwise variation correlation was found to be constant, i.e. an equi-
of bending strength was started in Sweden at correlation. The bending strength was modelled
Tratek (Swedish Institute for Wood Technology using the same principles as in Isaksson (1999),
Research). Kallsner and Ditlevsen (1994, 1997) e.g. Equation (4.4).
performed an experimental study on 26 beams, Kallsner et al. (1997) assigned numbers to the
cross-section 45 by 120 mm2. The logs came from above parameters as follows:

Table 4.1 Summary of input to the model of variability in bending strength


Parameter Model
Norway Spruce Radiata Pine
Distance [mm] Gamma (2.5445, 194.12) Exponential (1, 1300)
Width [mm] 150 150
Weak section strength [MPa] LogN(4.01977, 0.247136) LogN(3.75443, 0.38523)
Coeff. of corr. between weak 0.565 0.55
section strengths
Strong section strength greatest weak section strength greatest weak section strength
54 Timber Engineering

Timber beam with knots The wood in a beam originates from the same
distance from the pith, and thus has a uniform
density.
The wood will come from a similar height up
the tree, and therefore branches (knots) will have
similar characteristics.

He collected experimental results from various


6h 6h 6h
studies, most of them referred to earlier in this
section. The correlation coefficient was determined
Figure 4.12 Selection and testing of weak sections and the corresponding 95% confidence interval.
(Kallsner et al., 1994)
The overall mean of the coefficient was 0.58, and
out of 15 data sets, one mean fell outside the con-
Al = 49.77 MPa fidence interval, which is what one would expect.
ai = 7.03 MPa No evidence was found against the hypothesis that
fj = 6.33 MPa timber, independent of species, has the same cor-
r = 0.55 relation coefficient and that it does not decrease
with separation distance.
Using the model together with the above num-
bers, the influence on the load-carrying capac-
ity of the number of weak sections in a beam 4.5 THEORIES FOR DESCRIBING
was studied. As could be expected, the longer
SIZE AND LOAD
the beam, the lower the strength. However, the
decrease in load-carrying capacity predicted by CONFIGURATION EFFECTS
the model was not as high as that found by test-
ing of longer beams. They present two possi- 4.5.1 Size Effects According to the
ble reasons for this. First, the testing of single Weibull Theory
weak sections does not include the possibility of
The most widely adopted way of handling size
neighbouring weak sections interacting. That is,
and load configuration effects is to use the so-
cracks could not propagate from one section to
called weakest link theory. This theory says that
another. This is possible when testing longer beams
"when subjected to tension, a chain is as strong
with several weak sections. Secondly, testing of
as its weakest link", and was introduced by Pierce
longer beams means that more elastic energy is
(1926), Tucker (1927) and Weibull (1939). They
stored and released at failure. The testing of longer
studied brittle materials. To explain this theory let
beams revealed 515% lower load-carrying capac-
us consider a material with a reference volume
ity compared with the prediction of the statisti-
subjected to tension. The probability Pf that this
cal model.
volume will fail when subjected to a given load s
Williamson (1994) carried out a study on the
is given by Equation (4.7):
correlation coefficient between strengths of timber
elements of a single beam. He found several Pf = P(R <s) = F(s) (4.7)
reasons for a dependency between sections within
a beam: where F is the statistical probability distribution
of the strength of the material. If the strength
Sawing variations tend to apply to an entire fits the Weibull distribution it is written as
beam. shown in Equation (4.8). Since the calculations
Pith in a beam tends to occur all the way along. are performed using stresses, the notation s is
Structural Timber 55

changed to o:

P(R < cr) = F(or) = 1 exp ( -


\ \ " /
(4.8)
This is a three-parameter Weibull distribution with
scale parameter a, shape parameter k and location
parameter b. A nice feature of the Weibull distri-
bution is that the minimum of statistically indepen-
dent and identically distributed Weibull variables
is also Weibull distributed. That is, for a series of O2 b
N reference volumes the probability of failure for V2 o1 b
the system can be written as Equation (4.9).
02
(4.11)
Pf = P(Ri < a for any i = 1, . . . , N)
= 1 P(o < Ri for all i = 1, . . . , N) If b is zero we have the two-parameter Weibull
distribution, and Equation (4.11) is reduced to
Equation (4.12):

02
N (4.12)
= 1 - [~[(1 - P(Rt < a)) V2
(4.9)
i=1 This is the equation that explains the size effect
according to the weakest link theory for the pure
Introducing Equation (4.8) into Equation (4.9) tension mode. For the case of bending, the equation
gives Equation (4.10). must be modified to take into account the stress
variation due to the type of loading. This will be
discussed in more detail in Section 4.5.2 on load
configuration effects.
For timber the volume is typically a product of
the cross-sectional area, height (H) multiplied by
width (W), and the length (L), i.e. the volume V
equals HWL. Equation (4.12) can then be rewritten
according to Equation (4.13):

(4.13)
w2
= 1 exp I (4.10) where kH, kw and kL are the shape factors related
to each dimension. If the tension strength of timber
would be Weibull distributed, then these shape
The number of reference volumes N is directly factors would be the same and independent of
connected to the total volume V, that is, N can which dimension was used for the evaluation. This
be replaced by V in Equation (4.10). When com- is not the case for structural timber. The main
paring two volumes V1 and V2, and keeping the reason for this is that the variation in strength does
probability of failure Pf constant, we get the fol- not result in independent identically distributed
lowing relation between the two 'load capacities' Weibull variables. Furthermore, the variation in
a1 and 02, Equation (4.11). strength is different in the three directions.
56 Timber Engineering
The width of members of structural timber a(x, y, z), the total probability of failure follows
is often kept constant, i.e. the width effect is Equation (4.17):
generally not of interest. Equation (4.13) is then
reduced to Equation (4.14):
Pf = 1 exp
.y.zcV
(4.14) (4.17)
where
Since strength tests of structural timber are per-
0 if o (x, y, z) < b
formed at a constant span-to-depth ratio (in Euro-
a(x,y,z) b if o (x, y, z) > b
code the ratio is set to 18), it is possible to substi-
tute one of the parameters in Equation (4.14) and The integrand in Equation (4.17) is often referred
rewrite it as Equation (4.15). to as the failure intensity A.(x, y, z), defined by
kH kL

H2 H2 (4.18)

= TT. = T7.1 (4-15) Let us consider a beam with dimensions according


H2 H~2j to Figure 4.13. According to the Weibull theory,
kHL is a factor taking into account both length the load-carrying capacity will be dependent on
and height effects, while kH only accounts for the type of loading, i.e. the stressed volume. The load-
height effect. The exponent kHL is for example carrying capacity of a beam subjected to a constant
given as 0.2 in the Eurocode 5 (see Equation 4.16): bending moment and a point load at mid-span will
be compared below. The location parameter b is
* f(150/h) 0.20.2 (4.16) set to zero.
1.3 For the beam with constant moment the stress
where h is the depth of the beam in mm. is only dependent on the y-variable, i.e. the height
of the beam, Equation (4.19):
4.5.2 Load Configuration Effects a(x, y, z) = <r max ,i 0<y<h (4.19)
According to the Weibull Theory n
If the volume V as was defined in the previous where <rmax1 is the maximum stress in the cross-
section, is submitted to a varying stress distribution section. The subscript 1 denotes constant moment

M M
C' 0
2h
M

Figure 4.13 Two loading conditions, a given span and cross-section


Structural Timber 57

loading. From Equation (4.17), the probability of if the beam were subjected to a constant maximum
failure then becomes stress along its length. The beam with a point load
has an equivalent volume under constant stress
, y, z) k 2 Lwh kVref
= 1 exp I dV equal to Tor
m
The ratio between
(k + 1)2' " (k + 1)'
the stress volumes for the two load cases shown in
Ir
= 1 exp ( *^*) (4.20) Figure 4.13, -+ ^-, is called the fullness factor X,
k+lJ
i.e. the fullness of the stress distribution compared
Let us follow the same procedure for a beam with the constant bending mode.
subjected to a point load at mid-span. The stress In Figure 4.14, seven different types of load-
is now dependent on both x and y and is given by ing conditions of a beam are illustrated. These
Equation (4.21): cover most of the possible variations in the bending
a(x, y, z) = crmax,2
y moment. Table 4.2 summarises the load configura-
L/2h tion effect based on the Weibull theory by giving
0 <x < L / 2 ; 0 < y <h the fullness parameter A (Colling, 1986; Johnson,
1953). That is, the relation between two differ-
L x y ent loading conditions is given by Equation (4.24),
cr(x, y, z) = amax,2 -
where the subscripts refer to the load cases as given
L/2<x < L ; 0 < y <h (4.21) in Figure 4.14:

where ermax,2 is the maximum stress in the beam CT;


(4.24)
and 2 denotes the point load case. The probability
of failure is then given by Equation (4.22).
Also given in the table is the load configuration
factor using two different reference loadings for

M
3>M0
Lwh
= 1 exp
a

(4.22)
The intention is to maintain a constant probability
of failure, independent of the type of loading, i.e.
Pf1 = Pf2. From Equations (4.20) and (4.22)

>2\i/*
_ /<7max.2 k2Lwh
(k + 1) ~ V / (k + 1)2

For the case of a constant bending moment, the


kLwh
term - can be referred to as the reference
(k + 1) Figure 4.14 Illustration of seven different types of
stress volume Vref, i.e. the corresponding volume load
58 Timber Engineering

Table 4.2 Fullness parameter A. for the seven load cases given in Figure 4.14. The two left columns
show the load configuration factor for k = 0.2
Load Case (LC) according to Fullness parameter Load configuration
Figure 4.14 A factors (k = 0.2)
No 1 No 2
as base as base
0.850
(3k
1.176 1
3(k + 1)
3 2
(k + 0.345k - 0.021k + 0.0013)
1.221 1.038
k2(k + 1)
1.431 1.217

1.431 1.217

+ 1.635 1.390
3 2
for k = 0.2 A5 = 0.58 1.724 1.466
8
for k = 0.125 A = 0.67

k = 0.2. The only parameter which must be known on a given beam configuration for a given relia-
is the shape parameter k. This is what makes the bility index is determined. This is now the refer-
Weibull theory so attractive to use. The relation ence load. For other length and load configurations,
between the different loading conditions is derived the maximum possible load is also determined for
mathematically. the same reliability index. The ratio between the
expected value of the actions is a measure of how
much the load can be increased or decreased com-
4.5.3 Size and Load Configuration pared with the reference beam. The expected value
Effects According to Reliability of the action is, in other words, scaled up or down
Methods relative to the reference action to preserve the reli-
ability index. The principles of using reliability
In this section the effect of length and load methods are presented in Chapter 11. See also, for
configuration on the load carrying capacity of a example, Thoft-Christensen et al. (1982).
beam is analysed using a reliability method. In The problem of using this method, and the prob-
most building design codes, e.g. the Eurocode, able reason for it not being used more frequently,
indicative target reliability indices in the ultimate is that it requires a great deal of experimental test
limit state are given. Eurocode 1 prescribes, with results for different lengths and load configura-
a return period of one year, that the probability of tions. In Isaksson (1999) a statistical model of a
failure must be less than 106, which corresponds beam with knowledge of the variation in bending
to a reliability index of 4.7. strength between and within beams is presented.
Based on these target reliability indices, it is This makes it possible to simulate a beam of any
possible to evaluate the length and load config- length, to apply any kind of load to it and to repeat
uration effects using level II probabilistic methods this many times. For each length and load config-
(see Chapter 11). A reference length and load con- uration, it is possible to determine the mean and
figuration is selected. The maximum possible load variance of the load carrying capacity.
Structural Timber 59

4.6 SIZE AND LOAD EFFECTS Contrary to the bending mode where the stresses
REPORTED IN THE often vary along the length of a member, a member
in tension is usually loaded by a force that is con-
LITERATURE stant along the length. Thus failure will occur in the
weakest section. The longer the member, the more
The topic of size and load configuration effect for likely to have a larger defect, and consequently a
structural timber is quite frequently occurring in lower strength. While bending results in a variable
the literature. Mostly it has been various forms of stress over the volume, the tension mode results in
fitting to the Weibull distribution. In the 1960s, a high stress over the whole volume. This explains
Bohannan (1966) was probably the first to apply why the tension strength is generally lower than the
the Weibull theory to wood, in this case clear bending strength. Table 4.4 shows some references
defect-free wood laminations. Later the theory for the shape parameter in tension. The bottom
was applied for structural timber. The basis for chord of a truss is an example where the tension
determining material properties of timber is the stresses may vary along the length of the chord.
bending test. The grading of structural timber The strength of the flange of a wooden I-beam is
is based on the bending strength and therefore also mainly governed by the tension strength.
most experimental results are on bending tests. Finally, the compression mode is similar to the
Table 4.3 shows the shape parameter k of the tension mode, since in most cases members have a
Weibull distribution (see Section 4.5.1) for a few constant stress along the length. There is, however,
investigations on the size effect in the bending a difference in the failure mode. If buckling is pre-
mode. Since the bending moment in most practical vented the fibres will wrinkle under the compression
cases varies along the length of the member, it is stress. This will of course result in a ductile failure
not just the probability of having a major defect compared to the brittle tension failure. As a conse-
within the span, but also the probability of this quence of the more ductile behaviour, the size effect
defect being highly stressed. Failure in bending will be less pronounced. There are few compression
can be divided into two types, namely tension and tests reported in the literature. In Madsen (1992),
compression failures (see Figure 4.15). Sometimes the length effect is given as 0.10.
a third category is used, mixed failure. The Weibull The width effect is generally negligible, since
theory would show the best agreement for brittle most structural timber has the same width. For the
tension failures. bending mode the effect on strength of changing

Table 4.3 Length effect in the bending mode. Test results from different references
Reference Material
(shape factor Weibull distr.)
mean fifth percentile
a
Barrett and Fewell (1990) S-P-F, H-F 0.17 0.17
Ehlbeck and Colling (1990)b - 0.15 -
Madsen (1992)c S-P-F, H-Fa 0.18 0.23
Rouger and Fewell (1994)d Spruce, Fir 0.21 -
Kallsner et al. (1994, 1997) Norway Spruce 0.10 -
Isaksson (1999)
- simply supported Norway Spruce 0.11 0.07
-fixedsupport Norway Spruce 0.07 0.03
- simply supported Radiata Pinee 0.15 0.13
-fixedsupport Radiata Pinee 0.08 0.06
a
S-P-F: spruce-pine-fir, H-F: Hemlock-fir bMaterial and at what fractile the evaluation was made, is
unknown cMean value of several investigations dProbably evaluated at the mean eBased on Leicester
et al. (1996)
60 Timber Engineering

Figure 4.15 Failure types in the bending mode. The upper picture and diagram showing a brittle tension failure. The
lower showing a ductile compression failure (Isaksson, 1999)

Table 4.4 Length effect in the tension mode. Test results from different references
Reference Material
(shape factor Weibull distr.)
mean fifth percentile
a
Barrett and Fewell (1990) S-P-F, H-F 0.17 0.17
Madsen (1992) S-P-F, H-F a 0.14 0.19
a
S-P-F: spruce-pine-fir, H-F: Hemlock-fir

depth is very small compared to the effect of and Radiata Pine. Only the bending mode is
changing the length. For the tension mode, how- considered. See Isaksson (1999) for a more
ever, the depth effect is more pronounced. Madsen thorough presentation.
(1992) indicates a depth effect of the same order Two different ways of evaluating the effects
as the length effect in the tension mode. are used, direct comparison of mean strengths and
preserving the reliability index.

4.7 SIZE AND LOAD


CONFIGURATION EFFECTS 4.7.1 Length Effect
BASED ON MODELS OF Direct Comparison of Strengths - Weibull
VARIABILITY IN PROPERTIES Theory
This section will combine the theories for Using the theories in Section 4.5.1, the length
describing size and load configuration effects (see effect can be evaluated on the samples of simulated
Section 4.5), and the models of the variability beams. Figure 4.16 shows the length effect for
of material properties within and between pieces seven different Load Configurations (LC) defined
of timber (see Section 4.4). The simulated 'test' in Figure 4.14. The results obtained from pure
results used to quantify length load configuration Weibull theory with the shape factor equal to
effects is in this case a sample of 10000 0.1 and 0.2 are also shown for comparison. The
beams for each species, i.e. Norway Spruce material is Norway Spruce. As can be seen,
Structural Timber 61

5 0.96

0.94

0.92
1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500
Length (mm)
Figure 4.16 Ratio between mean strength of a beam with length L and mean strength of a reference beam with
length Lref (2500 mm), Norway Spruce (Table 4.1). Also shown is the length effect according to the Weibull theory
using k = 0.1 and 0.2

0.86
1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500
Length (mm)

Figure 4.17 Ratio between mean strength of a beam with length L and mean strength of a reference beam
length Lref (2500 mm), Radiata Pine (Table 4.1). Also shown is the length effect according to the Weibull theory
using k = 0.1 and 0.2

the effect is less pronounced for beams with supported beams, the results are close to using a
fixed supports, i.e. the more uniform the bending shape factor of 0.15, and for fixed supports 0.10.
moment is the smaller the length effect. The results The results from the simulations show that it is
for simply supported beams are close to Weibull difficult to represent the behaviour for timber using
theory with the shape parameter equal to 0.1, while Weibull theory with one single shape factor.
the beams with fixed supports shows even smaller
effects. Figure 4.17 shows the results for Radiata Preserving the Reliability Index
Pine, which is a material with higher variability. The samples of different lengths with differ-
Consequently, the effect is stronger. For simply ent loading conditions were also evaluated using
62 Timber Engineering

Comp. of means
Weib k=0.1
N 40

1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500


Length [mm]

Figure 4.18 The correction of strength due to length for the reference load configuration (third point loading).
N (normal), G (Gumbel) and LN (log-normal) refer to the distribution of the action. COV of the action is 40%

Weib k=0.1
Weib k=0.2
1500
2000
Q is-, 2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
o --0-- -5500

3 4 5
Load configuration (LC) number

Figure 4.19 Ratio between mean strength of Load Configuration (LC) i and the mean strength of the reference load
configuration (LC 2, see Figure 4.14), Norway Spruce. Also shown is the load configuration effect according to the
Weibull theory using k = 0.1 and k = 0.2

reliability methods. The results were found not to 2.5 m long and loaded at the third points. The
be sensitive to the selected level of safety ft. Three comparison was carried out at constant reliability
different assumptions were made concerning the index, ft. A higher coefficient of variation for the
statistical distribution of the action: normal, log- action (COVS) resulted in a very small increase in
normal or extreme (Gumbel). The resistance was effect. The three assumptions on the distribution
always described by a log-normal distribution. The of the action gave more or less the same length
coefficients of variation of the action were set to effect. Generally, the length effect is less pro-
both 25% and 40%. The load-carrying capacities nounced and almost negligible compared with the
of different lengths and load configurations were Weibull results. Figure 4.18 shows the correction
compared with the capacity of a reference beam, of strength for the different assumptions described
Structural Timber 63

above. ks is the ratio between the mean strength For beams with fixed supports, the Weibull the-
of the reference beam and the mean strength of ory overestimates the effect due to the fact that
a beam with a different length and/or load con- the shape factor k changes with load configu-
figuration. The results are valid for the Norway ration, i.e. evaluating the shape factor on test
Spruce material. results using different load configurations will pro-
duce different values, k decreases with increasing
4.7.2 Load Configuration Effect load configuration number. The reliability meth-
Direct Comparison of Strengths - Weibull ods show small effects. It is important to note
Theory that the effects shown for load are purely sta-
Using the theories in Section 4.5.2, the load con- tistical, and no redistribution of stresses above
figuration effect can be evaluated on the samples of the proportional limit is included. For the inde-
simulated beams. Figure 4.19 shows the load effect terminate beams, for load configurations 5-7, a
for seven different Load Configurations (LC). The higher strength can be expected (approximately
material is Norway Spruce. As can be seen, the 10% according to Ostlund (1971).
effect is most pronounced for load configuration 4
(LC 4), which is the simply supported beam with
a single point load at mid-span. While the results 4.7.3 Length and Load Configuration
show less effect for beams with fixed supports, the Effects in Code Format
Weibull theory using k equal to 0.1 or 0.2 shows
increasing effect. The shape parameter for simply The code format for deriving the design strength
supported beams is close to 0.1, while it is less for can generally be given as in Equation (4.15):
beams with fixed supports. Figure 4.20 shows the
results for Radiata Pine. The effect is stronger. For
simply supported beams the shape factor is close
fdl = (4.25)
to 0.15, and for fixed supports 0.10.
where
Preserving the Reliability Index is a modification factor taking into
The effect of load configuration is shown in account the effect on the strength of
Figure 4.21 for the reference length of 2.5 m. duration of load and moisture content.

1.5
Weib k=0.1
1.4 Weib k=0.2
1500
2000
1.3 2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
1.1 -- E3- - - 5500
O~
1.0

0.9

2 3 4 5 6 7
Load Configuration (LC) number
Figure 4.20 Ratio between mean strength of Load Configuration (LC) i and the mean strength of the reference load
configuration (LC 2, see Figure 4.14), Radiata Pine. Also shown is the load configuration effect according to the
Weibull theory using k = 0.1 and k = 0.2
64 Timber Engineering

Comp. of means
Weib k=0.1
A- - - N 40
G 40
LN 40

2 3 4 5 6 7
Load Configuration (LC)number

Figure 4.21 The correction of strength due to load configuration for the reference length (2.5 m). N (normal),
G (Gumbel) and LN (Lognormal) refer to the distribution of the action. COV of the action is 40%

fk is the characteristic strength, and The modified equation for the design strength is
ym is a partial safety factor for given by Equation (4.17):
material property.
fd2 = a (4.27)
The characteristic strength is determined accord-
ing to a test standard under a specific load con-
figuration and length. Let us now consider the Figure 4.22 shows the ratio between the design
possibility of including a factor a, which is a func- strength using a according to the above, and the
tion of the length L and load configuration . This design strength as given in the Swedish code
function is selected to minimise the variability in (BKR99) using a = 1. As can be seen, the design
strength. Isaksson (1999) found the following func- strength using this function increases for most
tion: lengths and load configurations. The only excep-
tion is the constant bending moment.
a = 1.4 0.45 0.03L (4.26)

(L in mm). is given in Table 4.5. 4.8 STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS


So far, the discussion has been on how the
Table 4.5 Load configuration coefficient, f, for the variability of material properties within members
different loading conditions studied affects the load carrying capacity of timber. Single
Load Configuration (LC) members can of course be assembled in a structural
(see Figure 4.14) system. Analysing such systems is outside the
1 1
scope of this section. Two examples of systems
2 0.667 are shown in Figure 4.23, a floor system and a
3 0.667 roof truss. These two represents a parallel and
4 0.5 serial system, respectively. For a truss the failure
5 0.5 is likely to occur when the weakest member fails,
6 0.444 while failure of a beam in the floor structure not
7 0.385
necessarily means failure of the whole system.
Structural Timber 65

2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5


Length [mm]

Figure 4.22 The ratio between f2 and f1 as a function of length and load configuration (Norway Spruce)

Anon (1981) Instruktion for sortering och markning av


T-virke. (Instructions for grading and marking of T-
timber) (in Swedish). T-virkesforeingen. Stockholm,
Sweden.
Barrett J.D. and Fewell A.R. (1990) Size factors for
the bending and tension strength of structural timber.
CIB/W18A - Timber structures. Paper 23-10-3, Lis-
bon, Portugal.
Bohannan B. (1966) Effect of size on bending strength of
wood members. United States Forest Service Research
paper FPL 56.
Colling F. (1986) EinfluB des Volumens und der Span-
nungsverteilung auf die Festigkeit eines Rechteck-
tragers. Holt als Roh- und Werkstoff, 44, 179183.
Corder S.E. (1965) Localised deflection related to bend-
ing strength of lumber. Proc. Second Symposium on
Nondestructive Testing of Wood, Ed. W.L. Galligan,
Figure 4.23 Two examples of structural systems. The
truss system is taken from Chapter 19 Washington State university, Pullman, WA.
Czmoch I. (1991) Lengthwise variability of bending
stiffness of timber beams. Int. Timber Eng. Conf., 2,
Load sharing (i.e. weaker beams are less loaded 2.158-2.165, London, UK.
than stronger ones) results in a higher load carrying Czmoch I. Thelandersson S. and Larsen H.J. (1991)
capacity of the system - a system effect. A roof Effect of within member variability on bending
built up by several trusses can also be regarded as strength of structural timber. CIB/W18A - Timber
a parallel system. structures. Paper 24-6-3, Oxford, UK.
Dinwoodie J.M. (2000) Timber: 1st Nature and Behav-
iour, 2nd Ed. E&FN Spon, London, UK.
REFERENCES Ehlbeck J. and Colling F. (1990) Bending strength of
glulam beams. A design proposal. CIB/W18A Tim-
Anon (1982) Sortering av sagat virke av furu och gran. ber structures. Paper 23-12-1, Lisbon, Portugal.
'Grona boken'. (Instructions for grading of sawn Eurocode 1 (1994) Basis of design and actions on struc-
timber products of pine and spruce) (in Swedish). AB tures. Part 1: Basis of design. European Committee
Svensk Travarutidning. Stockholm, Sweden. for Standardization, Bruxelles, Belgium.
66 Timber Engineering

Eurocode 5 (1993) Design of timber structures - Part W18A Timber structures. Paper 29-6-2, Bordeaux,
1-1: General rules and rules for buildings. European France.
Committee for Standardization, Bruxelles, Belgium. Madsen B. (1992) Structural behaviour of timber. Tim-
Foschi R.O. (2002) Reliability of Structures with tim- ber engineering Ltd, Vancouver Canada.
ber and wood based products. In: Timber Engineer- Nielsen (2002) Trusses and joints with punched metal
ing, Ed. Thelandersson, S. and Larsen, M.J., Wiley, plate fasteners. In: Timber Engineering, Ed. The-
Chichester. landersson, S. and Larsen, H.J., Wiley, Chichester.
Foschi R.O. and Barrett J.D. (1980) Glue-laminated Pierce F.T. (1926) Tension tests for cotton yarn.
beam strength: A model. ASCE J. Struct. Div. J. Textile Institute, T155-T368.
106(ST8). Riberholt H. and Madsen P.H. (1979) Strength of tim-
Isaksson T. (1999) Modelling the variability of bending ber structures, measured variation of the cross
strength in structural timber - Length and load con- sectional strength of structural lumber. Report
figuration effects. Report TVBK-1015, Department of R 114, Struct. Research Lab., Technical University of
Structural engineering, Lund University, Sweden. Denmark.
Johnson A.I. (1953) Strength, safety and economical Rouger F. and Fewell T. (1994) Size effects in timber:
dimensions of structures. Bulletin no 12, Division of Novelty never ends. CIB/W18A - Timber structures,
building statics and structural eng., Royal Institute of Paper 27-6-2, Sydney, Australia.
Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Showalter K.L. Woeste F.E. and Bendtsen B.A. (1987)
Kline D.E. Woeste F.E. and Bendtsen B.A. (1986) Effect of length on tensile strength in structural lum-
Stochastic model for modulus of elasticity of lumber. ber. Forest Prod. Lab., Research paper FPL-RP-482,
Wood and Fiber Science, 18(2), 228-238. Madison, WI.
Kass A.J. (1975) Middle ordinate method measures Suddarth S.K. and Woetse F.E. (1977) Influences of
stiffness variation within pieces of lumber. Forest variability in loads and modulus of elasticity on wood
Prod. J., 25(3), 3341. column strength. Wood Science, 10(2), 62-67.
Kallsner B. and Ditlevsen O. (1994) Lengthwise bend- Taylor S.E. and Bender D.A. (1989) A method for sim-
ing strength variation of structural timber. IUFRO, ulating multiple correlated lumber properties. Forest
Sydney, Australia. Products J., 39(7/8), 7174.
Kallsner B. Ditlevsen O. and Salmela K. (1997) Exper- Taylor S.E. and Bender D.A. (1991) Stochastic model
imental verification of a weak zone model for tim- for localized tensile strength and modulus of elas-
ber in bending. IUFRO S5.02 Timber engineering, ticity in timber. Wood and Fiber Science, 23(4),
pp. 389-404, Copenhagen, Denmark. 501-519.
Lam F. and Barrett J.D. (1991) Modelling compression Thoft-Christensen P. and Baker M.J. (1982) Structural
strength spatial variation properties of lumber using Reliability Theory and its Applications. Springer-
trend removal and kriging analyses. Intern. Timber Verlag, Berlin.
Eng. Conf., 2, 2.1352.150, London, UK. Tucker J. (1927) A study of compressive strength dis-
Lam F. and Varoglu E. (199la) Variation of tensile persion of material with applications. J. Franklin
strength along the length of lumber. Part 1. Experi- Institute, 204, 751781.
mental. Wood Science and Technology, 25, 351360. Weibull W. (1939) A statistical Theory of Strength of
Lam F. and Varoglu E. (1991b) Variation of tensile Materials. Ing. Vet. Akad. Proc. 151, Stockholm.
strength along the length of lumber. Part 2. Model Williamson J. (1994) Statistical dependence of timber
development and verification. Wood Science and Tech- strength. IUFRO Timber engineering, Sydney, Aus-
nology, 25, 449458. tralia.
Leicester R. and Breitinger H.O. (1991) A discrete co- Ostlund L. (1971) Momentutjamning i kontinuerliga
relationship with Weibull. Intern. Timber Eng. Conf., balkar (Redistribution of bending moment in continu-
2, 2.151-2.157, London, UK. ous timber beams) (in Swedish). Nordisk Symposium
Leicester R.H. Breitinger H.O. and Fordham H.F. (1996) om Traekonstruktioner, June 1970. Statens Bygge-
Equivalence of in-grade testing standards. CIB/ forskningsinstitut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
5

Mechanical Performance and Modelling


of Glulam
Erik Serrano

5.1 Background and introduction 67


5.2 Mechanical performance of glulam 68
5.3 Modelling of glulam 71
5.4 Summary and concluding remark 77

5.1 BACKGROUND AND a century, glulam has been used as a material


INTRODUCTION with enhanced performance as compared with solid
wood. Among the most often cited advantages of
5.1.1 History using glulam are:

Glued-laminated timber, or glulam, is basically Improved strength and stiffness properties.


what one obtains by stacking a number of boards Freedom in the choice of geometrical shapes.
or laminations on top of each other and gluing Possibility to match the lamination qualities in
them together, so that they form a beam cross- relation to expected stress levels.
section of the shape desired. Glued timber con-
Improved accuracy of dimensions and stability
structions have been used for centuries, but the
of shape during exposure to moisture.
breakthrough of glulam can be said to occur when
Otto Hetzer (18461911) obtained his patent on Early examples of glulam structures still in use are
glued timber constructions in 1906, the so-called found at the railway stations in (Malmo, 1922) and
Hetzer-binder. This means that for approximately (Stockholm, 1925), Sweden.
68 Timber Engineering

5.1.2 Glulam Production production process. The quality controls include


In principle, any wood species can be used for bending or tensile tests of finger-joints, and
glulam production, as long as a suitable adhesive delamination tests or shear tests of the glue line.
is used. In practice, however, the use of softwoods Such quality control methods are important parts
predominates since the use of hardwoods is often of the glulam production involving both internal
associated with difficulties in gluing. Planks, or control performed by the producer and external
laminations, of approximately 40-50 mm in thick- control performed by an independent third party.
ness and 1.5-5.0 m in length are commonly used.
Thinner laminations (20-30 mm) may be required 5.1.3 Aim
for curved beams. The laminations are dried to Going beyond the simplest possible beam theory
uniform moisture content (typically 1215%) and approach to predict the strength properties of
strength graded. The strength grading makes it pos- glulam, two additional methods are possible:
sible to match the lamination quality to the expec-
ted stress levels in bending members, such that 1. Testing of a number of glulam members, using
high quality laminations are placed in the outer a sample size sufficiently large to determine the
parts of the cross-section and lower quality lamina- properties on a statistical basis.
tions in the inner zones. To form a continuous lami- 2. Using a model, verified by testing, linking the
nation with high strength, finger-joints are used for properties of the glulam to the properties of the
the lengthwise splicing. The continuous lamination individual laminations.
is then cut into the lengths required. The friction
between the fingers in the joint makes it possible to Taking into account the many parameters influenc-
perform the cutting directly after the jointing pro- ing the properties of glulam (e.g. timber species
cess. After the laminations have cured, the curing and grade, lamination thickness, the properties of
time depending on the adhesive type used, the lam- finger-joints, member depth) and the number of
inations are planed to remove the unevenness at the specimens needed, the former method is clearly
finger-joints. Following this, the laminations are too expensive as a general method. A model which
glued together to form the desired cross-section. makes it possible to estimate the properties of glu-
The glulam is kept under pressure during curing. lam from those of the laminations is therefore de-
After curing the complete beam is usually planed sirable. In addition, a rational model adds to the
to achieve a smooth and clean surface. For glulam understanding of glulam behaviour. This chapter
manufacturing, the most frequently used adhesives represents an effort to introduce the reader to the
are Phenol-Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (PRF) and field of such mechanical modelling of glulam.
Melamine Urea Formaldehyde (MUF) adhesives.
High frequency techniques (microwaves) can be
used to speed up the process. 5.2 MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE
Theoretically, glulam can be produced in almost OF GLULAM
any size. For practical reasons related to transporta-
tion and factory layouts, the maximum length is 5.2.1 General Remarks
commonly approximately 16-20 m. Another lim- In this section some general remarks on the per-
iting factor is the open time, the so-called pot life, formance of glulam are discussed, the performance
of the adhesive. Glulam comes in various shapes, mainly relating to the bending strength. Many
straight prismatic beams and columns being the experimental studies have been carried out to
most common, but curved or tapered beams are investigate the mechanical performance of glulam.
also in general use. In an early German study from 1924, quoted by
Glulam is a highly engineered product, which, (Colling, 1990), it was concluded that the Hetzer-
due to the industrialised production method, allows binder beam was not stronger than the solid beams
for quality controls to be performed in the tested, but that the variability in strength was
Mechanical Performance and Modelling of Glulam 69

smaller. This conclusion has remained. The lesser is the most commonly investigated in the literature.
variability in strength is often explained in terms of For certain types of notched beams, beams with
smearing-out-effects, i.e. the cutting of solid wood a hole or curved beams, failure may very well be
into smaller pieces leads to low-strength defects caused by tension perpendicular to the grain. How-
being more uniformly distributed, and each defect ever, this failure mode is not dealt with here.
being of less importance than compared with the
case of solid wood. 5.2.3 Laminating Effect
Studying the performance of glulam often invol-
ves the comparison of glulam performance with A typical feature of glulam is that the bending stre-
that of solid wood, and here two approaches are ngth of a beam is higher than the tensile strength of
possible: its laminations. The ratio of the lamination tensile
strength to the beam bending strength is termed the
1. To compare the bending strength of glulam laminating effect, often expressed by a laminating
beams with the bending strength of solid timber factor, k lam , defined according to:
beams.
2. To compare the bending strength of glulam . (5-1)
beams with the bending or tensile strength of f,
laminations. Here, fm is the bending strength of the beam
The first approach is not relevant since glulam is evaluated using ordinary beam theory, and ft is
used, not instead of large solid beams, but because the tensile strength of the outer tension lamination.
large solid beams are not available on the market. The laminating factor as expressed in Equa-
The second approach is the one most frequently tion (5.1) is a formal definition, linked to the assum-
used, and the bending strength of glulam beams ption that the load-bearing capacity of a glulam
is often compared with the tensile strength of beam is essentially governed by the tensile strength
laminations, which are matched to those used in of its outer laminations. Furthermore, it is assumed
the beams. If the bending strength of a glulam that the stiffness and the strength of the laminations
beam is mainly influenced by the strength of the are positively correlated, i.e. a weak zone is also a
laminations on the tensile side, such an approach zone with low stiffness. The laminating effect has
is indeed appropriate. The bending strength of a been explained by Foschi and Barrett (1980), Larsen
glulam beam is correlated with the tensile strength (1982) and Colling and Falk (1995):
of its laminations, but of course not identical.
1. A single lamination tested in pure tension by
applying a centric tensile force, may bend
5.2.2 Failure Modes laterally due to knots and unsymmetrically
A key issue to understand and model the perfor- placed anomalies. This is due to the stiffness
mance of glulam is to understand the different not being constant across the cross-section of
failure modes that occur. Apart from instability the lamination. If the same lamination was
failures, normally the failure modes that can occur contained in a glulam beam exposed to bending,
are: bending, tension failure parallel to grain, shear the rest of the beam would prevent such lateral
failure and failure due to high tensile stresses per- bending. This is referred to as an 'effect of test
pendicular to grain. Since wood under compression procedure'.
has a large yield capacity, the bending strength of 2. In a glulam beam, the defects are smeared out
a glulam beam is often determined by the tensile resulting in a more homogeneous material than
strength of the outer lamination. The failure often solid wood. The probability of a defect having
originates at a knot or a finger-joint. In this chapter, a serious influence on the strength of the beam
emphasis is placed on the description of failure in is less than it is in a single lamination. This is
bending tension parallel to the laminations, which referred to as a 'dispersion effect'.
70 Timber Engineering

3. A lamination that contains knots or other zones


of low stiffness will be reinforced by adjacent
laminations when it is contained in a glulam
beam: the stiff and strong laminations take up
a larger part of the tensile stresses. This is
sometimes referred to as a 'reinforcing effect',
although the term 'stress redistribution effect'
is perhaps more adequate.
The dispersion effect may be questioned, however. Figure 5.1 Using a glulam beam with laminated, out-
Typical lamination thicknesses are in the range ermost lamination, takes advantage of the laminating
of 20-50 mm and strength-reducing defects, such effect
as knots, are of the same order of magnitude in
size, or smaller, at least not larger. The dispersion oriented as depicted in Figure 5.1, each finger-
effect can, however, be expected to contribute to joint has a lesser influence on the strength, since
the lesser variability in products like Laminated each sub-lamination only covers a part of the beam
Veneer Lumber (LVL) or OSB, where the wood is width.
cut into thinner pieces. In the case of Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL),
The above three explanations are related to the further advantage of the laminating effect has
beam being built up of laminations. In addition been taken by using extremely thin laminations
to this, klam = 1.0 can be caused by a nonlinear (3-5 mm).
stress-strain performance of the material, or due to
different strength in compression and in tension.
An effort to quantify the different contributions 5.2.4 Size Effect
to the laminating effect has been presented by Falk
and Colling (1995). Experimental data showing It is a well-established fact that strength can
laminating effects are found in the works of Larsen depend upon the absolute size of a structure, at
(1982) and Falk et al. (1992). Larsen found that for least for structures showing brittle failures. This
different beam compositions the laminating factor can be explained by a weakest link concept such
varied from 1.061.68. The investigation of Falk as the Weibull theory (Weibull, 1939), which states
et al. yielded laminating factors in the range of that the strength of a structure depends solely
1.35-1.65. upon the strength of its weakest link. Since the
If the laminating effect is explained in terms probability of encountering a severe defect is
of differences in stiffness for different laminations greater in a larger volume than in a smaller one, the
(cf. item (3) above), it is of importance to investi- strength decreases with increasing size. The size
gate the stiffness of finger-jointed laminations. The effect can be expressed in terms either of mean
stiffness of finger-joints is high, and often compa- values or of characteristic values of strength, and
rable to the clear-wood stiffness of the lamination the results are different.
(Colling, 1990). This would indicate that a lam- The Weibull theory is appropriate to use for
inating effect according to item (3) above is not materials exhibiting brittle failures such as wood
present in the finger-joint zone of a glulam beam under tension. The failure in bending is different
lamination. than failure in pure tension, since bending involves
To take advantage of the laminating effect, both tension and compression, and the compressive
several studies on the use of laminations that failure is extremely ductile. The size effect or size
in turn are laminated have been performed. The factor, kvol, is often expressed as:
use of such sub-lamination technique, however,
implies that a larger number of finger-joints are
= TT ' ^< (5.2)
introduced. If, however, the sub-laminations are
Mechanical Performance and Modelling of Glulam 71
where V is the current volume and V0 is the 1990). Of the 1767 beams examined, there were
reference volume for which the material strength 277 for which the region of maximum bending
was determined. Several investigations of the size moment had finger-joints in the outer tension lam-
effect have been carried out over the years for ination. Of the 277 beams, there were 220 (79%)
determining the dependence of the strength of that failed in the finger-joints. According to tests
glulam on volume. Typical values of n are in the performed by (Johansson, 1990), the finger-joints
range of 0.1 to 0.4. were of lesser influence: of the 32 beams tested
The size effect is often expressed in terms with a finger-joint in the outer tension lamination
of a depth or a length factor, since beams that in the region of maximum bending moment, only
are tested according to some standard procedure 10 (31%) failed due to the finger-joint. A reason-
tend to have a predefined depth to length ratio, able estimation of the influence of finger-joints on
typically L/h = 18. The width of the beam is the bending strength of glulam is that in about
usually not expected to have any influence. The 40-60% of the cases where finger-joints are placed
volume effect as expressed in Equation (5.2) can in the region of maximum bending moment, the
then be expressed in terms either of beam length finger-joint is also the main cause of beam failure.
or of beam depth.
5.2.7 Load Sharing Between
5.2.5 Stress Distribution Effect Laminations
Another reason why the beam bending strength
An important issue in mechanical performance of
may be larger than the tensile strength of the
glulam is the load sharing between laminations.
laminations is the effect of stress distribution. It is
Load sharing is related to the reinforcing effect
a well-established fact that for materials exhibiting
mentioned above, and is of utmost importance if a
brittle failure, according to Weibull theory, the
realistic glulam model is to be derived. The term
strength in bending is higher than in pure tension.
'load sharing' can also refer to the situation when
A simple way to explain this is by comparing the
a lamination, finger-joint or other weak section has
case of pure, uniform tension of a lamination with
failed. The release of strain energy can either cause
the case of pure bending of a beam. We assume
a catastrophic failure of the entire beam, or only
that the strength of the material is stochastic, i.e.
a minor drop in load if neighbouring laminations
it varies spatially, and that the lamination and the
are able to take up the released stresses. For the
beam fails when a single point is stressed to a
case of an outer lamination of a glulam beam
level corresponding to the strength at that point.
failing, the load-bearing capacity of the entire
For the uniform tensile stress case, we obtain
beam is normally completely lost. To delaminate
an average tensile strength, which we denote ft.
in a stable way, the lamination thickness of the
For the case of bending, the stress distribution is
outer lamination should be small, in the range of
non-uniform, and it is not likely that the beam
10 mm or less (Serrano and Larsen, 1999).
fails when the edge stress equals ft, since all
interior points are less stressed. Since the stress
distribution influences the probability of failure,
not only the geometry (e.g. beam depth) and
5.3 MODELLING OF GLULAM
loading conditions (tension vs. bending) but also 5.3.1 General Remarks
the load configuration (e.g. three-point bending vs.
four-point bending) has an impact. Having pointed out the most important features
in the mechanical performance of glulam, the
following sections deal with aspects of mechanical
5.2.6 Importance of Finger-joints modelling of glulam behaviour. In such modelling
A summary of a large number (1767) of bending the more important features to take into account
tests of glulam beams can be found in (Colling, include: the variability of material properties such
72 Timber Engineering

as strength and stiffness, influence of finger-joints combined with a linear elastic material behaviour
and the interlaminar bond lines. Furthermore, de- and a single point maximum stress failure criterion.
pending on the modelling techniques used, special This means that for pure bending the outermost
criteria for load sharing between laminations and lamination is the one that fails first if no account
global failure criteria must also be included. is taken of the stiffness differences between the
laminations. Transformed section methods, which
5.3.2 Special Modelling Techniques can be used to account for stiffness differences,
The vast majority of theoretical glulam models for allow for failures in other than the outermost
the determination of mechanical performance are lamination.
based on stochastic analysis using Monte Carlo The main drawback of a deterministic model
simulations, i.e. a series of simulations is per- is that no information regarding the distribution
formed, and in each run the material parameters of, for instance, beam bending strength can be
are taken from statistical distributions. This tech- obtained. A way to obtain such information is
nique simulates the variability experienced when to use the classic theory of Weibull (1939) for
performing experiments. the rupture of brittle materials. At least for the
Many of the glulam models are based on the case of failure due to axial tensile stresses in a
use of finite element programmes, and often plane beam, the behaviour is indeed brittle. By using
stress analysis is performed. Some of the proposed Weibull theory, it is possible to explain such phe-
models use so-called 'transformed section meth- nomena as the laminating effect, the size (vol-
ods', based on beam theory. For the transformed ume) effect and the influence of the stress dis-
section methods, typical beam theory assumptions tribution, for example the increase of bending
(linear axial strain distribution) are made, and the strength relative to the tensile strength of a brittle
response of the beam is then determined by inves- material.
tigating a number of sections along the beam. An early empirical model developed and used for
The constitutive models used in most of the glu- glulam, is the so-called Ik/Ig-method, which uses a
lam beam models can be said to be fairly simple. reduction in the moment of inertia due to knots as a
Most of the effort has been put on the description way of taking the strength-reducing effects of knots
of the variability of the basic material parame- into account. Ik and Ig are the moment of inertia
ters such as strength and stiffness. However, often of the knots at a cross-section, and the moment
these parameters have been determined in one- of inertia of the beam cross-section, respectively.
dimensional tests, and typically only the strength This model was developed in the late 1940s, and
and stiffness parallel to grain is known. It is a has been used mainly in the US and Canada. The
challenging task to perform all the necessary tests method assigns the same strength reducing effect
to obtain all the material data needed even for for knots, whether they are placed in the tensile zone
the simplest possible constitutive model of, for or in the compressive zone, which is unrealistic.
example, the behaviour of clear wood. In some of The Ik/Ig -method does not allow the distribution
the models described here, analyses that go beyond of beam strength to be calculated.
the simplest possible linear elastic material behavi-
our have been included. 5.3.4 Glulam Models for Computer
Analysis
5.3.3 Glulam Models for Hand
Several theoretical and more or less complex
Calculation models for predicting the load-bearing capacity
The simplest possible glulam beam model is of glulam beams in bending have been proposed.
the one used most often in engineering applica- Here a short summary and overview of some of
tions. It involves the use of deterministic, conven- the most well known models is given. The models
tional beam theory (Bernoulli-Euler), and is often described represent slightly different approaches
Mechanical Performance and Modelling of Glulam 73

in terms of mechanical modelling, but are all used to evaluate the model prediction capabilities.
based on the same principle: divide the beam into Figure 5.2 shows the results from the calibration
zones which each is assigned material properties, and evaluation of the model in terms of bending
including their variability. These models all rely strength.
on computer simulations. The main drawbacks of the model of Foschi
and Barrett are the assumption of linear elastic
Model of Foschi and Barrett behaviour of the wood in both tension and com-
pression, and the fact that the influence of finger-
In 1980 Foschi and Barrett presented a model
joints is neglected. Another serious simplification
for the simulation of the strength of a glulam
made is the assumption of a weakest link failure,
beam (Foschi and Barrett, 1980). Their model uses
so that no progressive failures can be evaluated.
Monte-Carlo simulations to predict the strength
and the distribution of the strength. A glulam
beam is subdivided into cells, each 150 mm long The Karlsruhe Model
and having the depth and width of a lamination.
Each cell is assigned properties in terms of In the mid-1980s, the so-called Karlsruhe model
density, Knot-Area-Ratio (KAR-value), modulus (Ehlbeck et al., 1985ac, Colling, 1990) was devel-
of elasticity and strength, according to probability oped. The Karlsruhe model uses a subdivision of
density functions. Using a finite element program a glulam beam into cells, similar to that used by
the beam response is calculated, and the strength Foschi and Barrett, each cell being assigned ran-
of the beam is determined. Among the most dom material properties. The Karlsruhe calculation
important assumptions and simplifications made in model is based on two computer programs, one that
the model are: simulates glulam beam lay-up, and one that per-
forms finite element calculations.
1. The material is linear elastic in both tension and The beam lay-up simulation program assigns
compression. values to each cell along a continuous lamination.
2. No account of the periodicity of knots and The lamination is assumed to consist of two 'mate-
density is taken. rials': wood and finger-joints. First, the position of
3. A brittle weakest link failure criterion is used. each finger-joint is determined by sampling from
4. The strength and stiffness properties are based statistical distributions determined by measuring the
on test results from tests on specimens larger distance between finger-joints in glulam beams. The
than the cell size. density is assumed to be constant within a lamina-
5. No account is taken of the influence of finger- tion, but is allowed to vary between laminations.
joints. The KAR-values and the density value are then
used to calculate the stiffness (modulus of elastic-
The strength and stiffness parameters used for each ity) using regression equations. For each lamination,
cell in the glulam beam were calculated from test i.e. for all the cells between two finger-joints, a sin-
results from tests on long laminations which were gle basic KAR-value is assigned. This KAR-value
free to bend laterally. Since this lateral movement is then used within the lamination to assign each
is restrained when a lamination is contained in a cell a specific KAR-value by multiplying the char-
beam, the strength assigned to each cell was cor- acteristic lamination-KAR-value by a factor, taken
rected. The correction factor was calculated using from statistical distributions, its aim being to simu-
finite element simulations of a lamination with an late the influence of multiple knots within a limited
edge knot. The simulation results were then cali- zone (= the length of the cell) of the lamination.
brated to test results in order to obtain correction Following the assigning of KAR-values, each lam-
factors for other knot positions. One type of glu- ination in the beam is assigned a modulus of elas-
lam beam lay-up was used to calibrate the glulam ticity in the cells of that lamination. The procedure
model, and seven other beam lay-ups were then is shown in Figure 5.3. For a given lamination, i,
74 Timber Engineering

8000

7000
24f E

: 6000
B +D
to
5000
20f

4000

3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000


Simulation mean, psi

Figure 5.2 Tested versus simulated bending strength of glulam (Foschi and Barrett, 1980)

and a given KAR-value, the modulus of elasticity is The continuous lamination also contains finger-
calculated from: joints, which are modelled in the same way as
described above, but by assigning 'finger-joint
(5.3) properties' instead of 'wood properties' to the cell
that contains a finger-joint. The Karlsruhe model
where Ei, is the modulus according to the regres- includes some obvious improvements as compared
sion equation for lamination i. Each such equation with the original model of Foschi and Barrett:
gives an expression for the modulus of elasticity 1. The influence of finger-joints. Although the
as a function of density and KAR-value. AB is finger-joints were not modelled in detail, at least
defined in Figure 5.3, and is a measure of the dif- experimental surveys to obtain material data for
ference from the average regression equation. AB the finger-joints were performed.
is assumed to be normally distributed. Xi, is a mea-
2. Nonlinear behaviour in compression. The wood
sure of distance from the average regression line to
was assumed to behave nonlinear in compres-
the regression line of the current lamination, and sion, using a simple plasticity model.
is also assumed to be normally distributed. As an
example, the variability for a variable X1 is shown 3. Progressive failures. The Karlsruhe model
in Figure 5.3 as SR,B,1. allows for progressive failure to be taken into
This procedure is capable of simulating the account. The beam response is calculated in an
correlation between KAR-values found within a iterative manner: elements that have failed in
single lamination. Also, the procedure used means tension are removed and the beam response is
re-calculated.
that even if two cells are assigned the same KAR-
value, their respective modulus of elasticity need One of the drawbacks of the Karlsruhe model
not be the same. is that the numerical modelling is relatively
Mechanical Performance and Modelling of Glulam 75

KAR-value

Figure 5.3 Derivation of modulus of elasticity for various laminations (Colling, 1990)

simple in terms of element mesh. Each finite


element has the same size as the region of for
which the basic material properties have been
determined (150 mm length and a depth equal
to the lamination thickness). Although material
data is available only with this resolution, the
finite element discretisation could be made much
finer.
Another drawback is related to the failure cri-
Figure 5.4 If an element fails close to (grey region)
terion of the beam. The progressive failure of a previously failed element (black) the beam fails
a beam is not monitored until a maximum load (Colling, 1990)
is reached. Instead, four different failure criteria
are used. These criteria are based on 'experience
in that region, although the model does not
gained during the calibration of the model to beam
include the shear strength of the wood as a
bending tests':
parameter.
1. If the stress redistribution due to the removal of 3. If a finger-joint fails in tension the beam fails.
a failed element leads to the failure of another This is motivated by the fact that finger-joints
element, the beam is assumed to fail. This induce a failure across the complete lamination
simulates a brittle failure in tension. width, and not only a part of it as is the case
2. If an element fails in tension within a predefined for knots.
region (see Figure 5.4) of a previously failed 4. If none of the above criteria have been fulfilled,
element, the beam is assumed to collapse. This the beam is assumed to fail when the fifth
simulates a failure due to the high shear stresses element fails in tension.
76 Timber Engineering

Note that all of the above criteria relate to


the failure of an element in 'tension', and are
therefore one-dimensional criteria. Furthermore,
since the stresses are evaluated at the centroid of
the elements, the criteria use the average (one-
dimensional) tensile stress in the laminations.

PROLAM Model
Figure 5.5 Displacement discontinuity after interlam-
The calculation model, PROLAM, was developed inar failure
in the mid-1980s and early 1990s (Bender et al.,
1985, Hernandez et al., 1992). This model uses a
transformed section method in combination with Serrano et al.
beam theory to predict the load-bearing capacity A refined way to model the important finger-
of a number of sections along the beam. The joint failure in glulam beams is given in Serrano
beam capacity is then estimated as the capacity et al. (2000). This model is more detailed than
of the weakest cross-section. Progressive failure those used in the above-described models, in
of finger-joints and laminations are allowed, so the sense that it makes it possible to take into
that a single failed finger-joint or lamination not account the variability across the lamination depth,
necessarily leads to global failure of the beam. and also has the possibility of simulating a
progressive failure and crack propagation within
the lamination. In principle, it is possible to use the
Model of Renaudin
same type of detailed modelling approach for the
The glulam beam model described in Renaudin failure of the wood and for the bond line between
(1997) is in some respects similar to the Karlsruhe the laminations. The aim of the study was to
calculation model. Instead of using standard finite establish a better fundamental understanding of the
elements, beam theory assumptions of plane cross- failure mechanisms of finger-joints in glulam by:
sections remaining plane are used together with
two types of one-dimensional elements: 'wood' setting up a detailed model of a finger-joint,
elements assumed to account for the influence of using an approach based on Non-Linear Fracture
knots and finger-joints; and interlaminar elements Mechanics (NLFM), assuming that the material
assumed to account for the mechanical behaviour parameters are stochastic; and
of the interlaminar bond line. Failure of a wood to use the finger-joint model in finite element
element leads to the redistribution of stresses simulations, and investigate the behaviour of the
according to explicit rules, which were set up finger-joint and laminated beams in terms of
using finite element simulations of the stress (a) size effect, (b) depth effect, (c) laminating
distribution close to a crack. After failure of an effect, and (d) effect of finger-joint ductility.
interlaminar element, the beam theory assumption
is relaxed so that a displacement discontinuity To isolate the effect of the modelling approach
is allowed across the interface (see Figure 5.5). used for the finger-joint, the wood outside the
The main improvements in the model of Renaudin finger-joint region was regarded as a homoge-
are the failure criterion and the modelling of the neous material with deterministic properties. Con-
interlaminar bond line. The work of Renaudin also sequently, it was not possible, nor the aim of
includes a comprehensive experimental study on the study, to validate the glulam beam analyses
timber, with special emphasis on the stochastic with independent test data. However, the mod-
nature of the basic material properties such as elling approach can be included into existing glu-
density, stiffness and strength. lam beam models such as those discussed above,
Mechanical Performance and Modelling of Glulam 77

which indeed use sophisticated modelling of the 5.4 SUMMARY AND CONCLUDING
wood variability. REMARK
A finger-joint was modelled with a number of
parallel nonlinear spring elements of initial zero In the following a summary of the key issues in
length. Due to the zero initial length, the elongation the modelling of glulam performance, and thus
of such a spring is associated with crack formation, also key issues for the mechanical performance of
glulam, are given. These important issues relate to
and represents the local additional deformation due
the modelling of localised wood properties, to the
to the presence of the finger-joint. Each spring is
choice of failure criteria and to the modelling of
assumed to represent the response of a finger-joint
finger-joints.
area defined by the lamination width times the
distance between neighbouring nodes in the height
direction of the lamination. The modelling is thus 5.4.1 Localised Material Properties
closely related to a so-called fictitious crack model, of Wood
a fracture mechanics model for describing the
gradual localised damage of a material. The finger- To predict the strength distribution of glulam,
joint spring characteristics are chosen in line with the distribution of the input parameters such
results from tests and from detailed FE-modelling as stiffness and strength are needed. Here
of finger-jointed laminations. The detailed FE- 'distribution' refers to the statistical distribution
modelling included the complex geometry of a (mean value and variability), as well as to the
complete finger-jointed lamination, with the fingers spatial variation and correlation. The key issues
visible on the wide face. regarding localised material properties are the
One of the results obtained concerns the laminat- lengthwise, within-member, variability and the
ing effect. As expected, the beam bending strength correlation of strength and stiffness as well as
was predicted to be higher than the tensile strength the possible correlation between members. The
of the lamination. In this case, the strength increase variability in material properties mainly relate to
is mainly due to the fact that the outer lamination the presence of knots.
is exposed to a non-uniform stress distribution, and
that when evaluating the strength of the beam, the 5.4.2 Finger-Joints
nominal stress at the outer edge is used as a ref-
erence. However, due to the stochastic nature of In experimental studies, it has been shown that
the strength distribution, the actual failure posi- the finger-joints are important for the strength of
tion is not necessarily the outer tensile edge. So, glulam. Numerical studies also have shown that
instead of interpreting the results as a 'strength there is a large potential for increasing the strength
increase' of the lamination, it is perhaps more nat- of finger-joints by increasing their ductility. To
ural to assume that the position of failure in the fully understand the behaviour of a glulam beam,
finger-joint changes if the beam depth is changed. one must also understand the behaviour of its
The strength increase can then be expressed as an finger-joints, and it is therefore crucial that a
equivalent position of failure in the outer lamina- model, which can account for the flexibility and
ductility of a finger-joint, is used.
tion. As mentioned previously, a common assump-
tion made in previous models is that the mid-depth
is the characteristic point of failure initiation, inde-
5.4.3 Failure Criteria
pendent of beam depth and lamination thickness.
Another important result from the study (Serrano Although a locally brittle response, or failure crite-
et al., 2000) is that the finger-joint ductility is of rion, of the material in tension is assumed in some
great importance for the beam strength. To evaluate of the above models, the assumption of redistribu-
the influence of the ductility on the beam strength, tion of stresses after failure introduces a consider-
clearly a perfectly brittle model cannot be used. able amount of ductility in the model at a global
78 Timber Engineering

level. The properties of the outer laminations, espe- REFERENCES


cially the strength of the finger joints, are very
important for the modelling of glulam (Colling, Bender D.A., Woeste F.E., Schaffer E.L. and Marx C.M.
1990). Using as a failure criterion the fact that (1985) Reliability Formulation for the Strength and
Fire Endurance of Glued-laminated Beams. Research
the mid-depth stress in the outer lamination cor- paper FPL460, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison,
responds to the tensile strength of the lamination, WI, USA.
defined as the average stress at failure in a uniax- Colling F. (1990) Tragfahigkeit von Biegetragem aus
ial tension test, is far too primitive. Nevertheless Brettschichtholz in Abhangigkeit von den festigkeit-
this is the failure criterion used in previously pro- srelevanten EinfluBgroBen. Doctoral thesis, University
of Karlsruhe, Germany.
posed models. Instead a failure criterion, which Ehlbeck J., Colling F. and Gorlacher R. (1985a) EinfluB
includes the response of the complete lamination keilgezinkter Lamellen auf die Biegefestigkeit von
depth, and permits a progressive failure through Brettschichtholztragern. Teil 1. Holz als Roh- und
the lamination, is thought to be more appropriate. Werkstoff, 43, 333337.
Using such a failure criterion, the study by Serrano Ehlbeck J., Colling F. and Gorlacher R. (1985b) EinfluB
keilgezinkter Lamellen auf die Biegefestigkeit von
et al. (2000) shows that the mid-depth stress cri- Brettschichtholztragern. Teil 2. Holz als Roh- und
terion is obtained only as a special case for large Werkstoff, 43, 369373.
beam depths. The use of the mid-depth stress in a Ehlbeck J., Colling F. and Gorlacher R. (1985c) EinfluB
failure criterion is one of the reasons why the theo- keilgezinkter Lamellen auf die Biegefestigkeit von
retical models are not used in practice to determine Brettschichtholztragern. Teil 3. Holz als Roh- und
Werkstoff, 43, 439442.
the properties of glulam. Instead, semi-empirical Falk R.H. and Colling F. (1995) Laminating effects in
models (e.g. that proposed in Schickhofer (1996)) glued-laminated timber beams. J. Structural Engi-
are used. They are, however, only valid within a neering, 121(12), 18571863.
small parameter range. The use of a more sophis- Falk R.H., Solli K.H. and Aasheim E. (1992) The
ticated constitutive model for the finger-joints as performance of glued laminated beams manufactured
from machine stress graded Norwegian spruce. Rep.
the one employed in Serrano et al. (2000) means no. 77, Norwegian Institute of Wood Technology,
that no special failure criterion for the lamination Oslo, Norway.
or beam is needed. Foschi R.O. and Barrett J.D. (1980) Glued-laminated
beam strength: a model. J. Structural Division,
106(ST8), 17351754.
5.4.4 Concluding Remark Hernandez R., Bender D.A., Richburg B.A. and Kline
K.S. (1992) Probabilistic modeling of glued-
on Adhesive Bond Lines laminated timber beams. Wood and Fiber Science,
A timber engineering structural element, like a glu- 24(3), 294306.
Johansson C.J. (1990) Strength and stiffness of glulam
lam beam, has a typical dimension in the range with laminations of machine stress graded timber. SP
of 0.110 m. At this scale it may seem irrele- RAPPORT 1990:22. Swedish National Testing and
vant to account for effects that relate to the adhe- Research Institute, Boras, Sweden (in Swedish).
sive bond lines present, since these represent a Larsen H.J. (1982) Strength of glued laminated beams.
very small geometrical part of the structure (typ- Part 5. Report no. 8201, Institute of Building Tech-
nology and Structural Engineering, Aalboig Univer-
ically 10-4-10-3 m in thickness). With the use sity, Aalborg, Denmark.
of extremely brittle adhesives, like those com- Renaudin P. (1997) Approche probabiliste du comporte-
monly used today, it is indeed possible that the ment mecanique du bois de structure, prise en compte
mechanical performance of the bond line is not de la variabilite biologique. Doctoral thesis, LMT,
very different from that of the wood. However, if ENS Cachan, Paris, France.
Schickhofer G. (19%) Development of efficient glued
adhesive bonds with properties markedly different laminated timber. Proc. CIB-W18, Meeting 29, Bor-
from those of the wood are to be used, a detailed deaux, France International Council for Building
modelling of the adhesive bond lines is of great Research Studies and Documentation, University of
importance. Karlsruhe, Germany, pp. 12.1.112.1.17.
Mechanical Performance and Modelling of Glulam 79

Serrano E., Gustafsson P.J. and Larsen HJ. (2000) Mod- Serrano E. and Larsen H.J. (1999) Numerical investiga-
elling of finger-joint failure in glued-laminated tim- tions of the laminating effect in laminated beams. J.
her beams. In: Adhesive joints in timber engineering. Structural Engineering, 125(7), 740745.
Modelling and testing of fracture properties. Report Weibull W. (1939) A statistical theory of the strength of
TVSM-1012, Division of Structural Mechanics, Lund materials. Nr. 151, Proc. Royal Swedish Institute for
University, Sweden. (Also submitted for publication, Engineering Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
ASCE J. Structural Engineering.)
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6

Engineered Wood Products for Structural


Purposes
Frank Lam

Helmut G.L. Prion

6.1 Introduction 81
6.2 Glued-laminated timber 85
6.3 Parallel strand lumber 88
6.4 Laminated strand lumber 91
6.5 Laminated veneer lumber 93
6.6 Wood I-joists 95
6.7 Thick oriented strand board 97
6.8 Summary 100

6.1 INTRODUCTION of high quality solid sawn timber products. The


production of these renewable timber products ser-
6.1.1 Background ved the society by the provision of building and
In the recent past, forest product industries from structural materials for shelters and employment
many parts of the world relied on the abundant sup- opportunities for strong workforces,
ply of high quality fibres from old growth timber to Sustenance of forest resources is critical to main-
successfully and profitably produce large volumes taining and improving the economic development
82 Timber Engineering

for many forest product producing countries. because of reduced access to old growth timber
With the increase in world population and the supply. Another solution to the changing timber
improvement in general living standards, there is supply is by improving the efficiency of wood fibre
an associated increase in demand for structural utilisation from the forest to the final product. This
wood products. For example, in 1998 the con- includes the development of new technologies to
sumed wood and fibre products in the United improve the harvesting and production process to
States reached an all-time high level, requir- reduce material losses. Also, from the utilisation
ing approximately 0.505 billion m3 of round- perspective, the development of new technologies
wood production. The current demand for wood and new products that can lead to the commercial
worldwide (approximately 3.5 billion m3) has dou- use of smaller diameter, lower quality logs and
bled in the last 30 years. Despite efforts to improve previously underutilised species and residues is a
sustainable forest management worldwide, the gap positive approach to address the changing timber
between the demand and supply continues to supply and demand situation.
increase drastically so that the resource and its The combined effects of changing timber re-
available use are both stressed. For example, source and increased demand on high quality fibre
by 2050 the projected future consumption of for structural wood products have led to the devel-
wood will increase to 5.2 billion m3. This imbal- opment of new products that can better use the
anced supply and demand situation has particularly available timber resource. In fact, it can be argued
stressed the forestry supply in many developing that the continual competitiveness of the forest pro-
countries with emerging economies, where many ducts industry will depend upon the development
of the traditional wood species are not managed in of new value added products using non-traditional
a sustainable manner. resources and underutilised species.
As the demand for commercial use of the forests
increases, there is a strong need to balance other 6.1.2 Scope
demands on the forest. The recognition of the Engineered wood products (EWP), by definition,
forests as ecosystems and their impact on the consist of a broad class of structural wood prod-
environmental quality of the world is particularly ucts that are commonly used as structural materials
important. The forest is part of an ecosystem in construction. These products differ from dimen-
that protects the watershed, allows nutrients to sion lumber or solid sawn timber that is obtained
be recycled from the tree to the soil, provides a by sawing the logs or cants into individual single
storage for carbon, regenerates oxygen, influences solid members. Instead, engineered wood prod-
global climate and provides shelters and food ucts are made from veneers, strands or flakes that
sources for animals. The forests also serve as have either been peeled, chipped or sliced. These
parks and recreational areas, and provide spiritual flakes, strands or sheets of veneer are arranged or
inspiration for many people. The competing use formed for structural purposes and then bonded
of the forest, as a source of commercial fibre together with adhesives under heat and pressure
versus the societal needs for recreation and a to make panels or timber-like or shaped struc-
healthy environment, has led to continued debates. tural products.
In some parts of North America, these concerns Under this definition, examples of engineered
on environmental and sustainability issues have wood products that utilise flakes or veneers to
led to restrictions of the availability of old growth form panels include plywood and Oriented Strand
fibre supply. Board (OSB). Other composite panel products that
One solution to the changing timber resource is may have limited structural applications include
by reforestation and forest plantation. Currently, particleboard, hardboard and medium density
we are growing more wood than we are cutting. fibreboard. In terms of timber- or lumber-like
However, the supply of high quality wood fibre composite wood products, structural composite
suitable for engineered structural uses are limited lumber is a generic term used to describe a
EWPs for Structural Purposes 83

family of Engineered Wood Products that combine Since the late 1970s, research and development
wood veneer or strands with exterior structural on structural composite lumber products such as
adhesives to form timber-like structural members. parallel strand lumber, laminated strand lumber,
In structural composite lumber, the wood veneer laminated veneer lumber and thick oriented strand
or strands are typically aligned. In most cases, board have led to their successful introduction into
the grain angle of the strands or veneers are the construction industry. Together with glued-
principally oriented along the length of the laminated beams and I-joists, EWPs have been
member. In some cases, members can also be substituted for traditional solid sawn timber com-
made with orthogonally arranged layers of flakes. ponents as beams, headers, columns and chord
By the nature of their manufacturing process, members. Moreover, structural composite lumber
large defects such as knots and other strength products are starting to be used in applications typ-
reducing characteristics are either eliminated or ically dominated by steel or concrete (i.e. long span
dispersed throughout the cross-section to produce a commercial roof truss and shell structures). In the
more homogeneous product. Structural composite future, with the reduced availability of large size
lumber products that utilise wood veneer sheets solid sawn timber due to environmental concerns,
are referred to as laminated veneer lumber while EWPs will play an even more important role as
those utilising wood veneer strands are referred engineered structural materials.
to as parallel 'strand lumber'. Finally, structural One of the key features of EWPs is the recon-
composite lumber products that utilise flakes are stitution manufacturing process of forming a larger
referred to as 'laminated strand lumber' and member from smaller pieces. This process tends to
'Oriented Strand Lumber' (OSL). The production disperse natural macro defects in the wood, result-
of OSL is an extension of the OSB manufacturing ing in more consistent and uniform mechanical
technology for thick oriented strand board. and physical properties compared to those of solid
Engineered wood products in the broad sense also sawn timber. Increase in uniformity can lead to
include products that are made by bonding individ- more efficient utilisation of the fibre resource, as
ual solid sawn pieces into larger structural mem- illustrated by the following simple example.
bers. Some examples include finger-jointed lumber, Suppose a normally distributed axial load with a
glued-laminated timber, wood I-joists, laminated mean of 13 kN and a standard deviation of 2.6 kN
solid panels and structural insulated panels. is imposed onto 38 x 89 mm members that have
Engineered wood products can be used in a a normally distributed resistance. From the theory
wide range of structural applications, including of structural reliability, when both the load effects
residential, agricultural and commercial structures, (U) and the resistance (R) are normally distributed
to form essential components in floors, walls and and uncorrelated, the probability of failure, Pf, can
roofs. These products can also increase the struc- be estimated through the calculation of a so-called
tural efficiency of wood frame construction when reliability or 'HasoferLind' safety index, , as:
used alone or in combination with solid sawn
timber by improving building performance and ~R-U
reducing cost. Figure 6.1 shows the progression
+
of development and commercial introduction of
some engineered wood products for building appli- Pf = <f>(-
cations in the last century.
Traditionally, wood-based composite panels such U and Us.d. are the_ mean and standard devia-
as plywood and OSB are used as sheathing for walls, tion of load effect, R and Rs.d. are the mean and
floors and formwork, where composite action and standard deviation of resistance, and 4>(.) denotes
load sharing behaviour are developed within the standardised normal probability distribution func-
structural system to allow the panel and framing tion (Thoft-Christensen and Baker, 1982). More
members to effectively carry the applied loads. detailed treatment on the subject of reliability of
84 Timber Engineering

Lumber type
Laminated
strand lumber

Laminated
veneer lumber
Parallel strand
lumber
Glued- Wood l-joist
laminated
timber

1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

Panels

Han u Thick oriented

ariented strand
tx ard
Waferboarc
Particle board

Plywood

1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

Figure 6.1 The progression of development and commercial introduction of engineered wood products for building
applications in the last century

Table 6.1 Comparisons of performance of members with different variability


Case Mean Coefficient of Standard ft Pf
resistance variation of deviation of
(MPa) resistance (%) resistance
(MPa)
1 35 35 12.25 2.540 %0.0055
2 35 20 7.00 4.484 %0.000005
3 35 10 3.50 8.711 %0

wood structures can be found in Foschi et al. different coefficients of variation, as shown in
(1989) and in Chapter 11. Table 6.1. In these cases, the strength variability is
Now, consider three cases of member resistance in the expected range for visually graded timber
with identical mean resistance R of 35 MPa, but (35%), machine stress rated lumber (20%) and
EWPs for Structural Purposes 85

structural composite lumber (10%), respectively. It also provides guidelines for checking the
The performance of the members can be compared effectiveness of properties assignment and quality
in terms of and Pf based on reliability assessments. assurance programs of structural composite lum-
Improvements in performance via the reduc- ber. These include monitoring and re-evaluating
tion of variability of the resistance can clearly be the structural capacities of structural composite
observed in the example. In reality, producers of lumber, and minimum requirements for establish-
EWPs would take advantage of the reduction in ment of quality control, assurance and audit. In
variability of the mechanical properties of EWPs North America, the acceptance of the evaluation of
by the assignment of higher characteristic strengths proprietary products is available from the building
for these products, while aiming to maintain the officials such as Canadian Construction Materials
reliability in relation with other products. Table 6.2 Centre (CCMC), the International Conference of
shows the comparison of the bending strengths Building Officials (ICBO), and the National Eval-
of 286 mm deep solid sawn visually stress rated uation Service Inc. (NES). In Europe and Japan
and machine stress rated dimension lumber, par- similar approvals can be obtained from the respec-
allel strand lumber and laminated veneer lumber. tive building officials.
Although the mean strengths of these products are In general, the structural performance of EWPs
only slightly different, the more uniform prod- is governed by the properties of the wood species,
ucts such as parallel strand lumber and laminated the manufacturing strategy and methods, the quality
veneer lumber have significantly higher fifth per- control processes, and the final application (Forest
centile strength properties compared to machine Products Laboratory, 1999, Canadian Wood Coun-
stress rated lumber, which in turn has higher fifth cil, 1991, Bledsoe, 1990, Bledsoe and Craig, 1990).
percentile strength properties compared to visually This chapter will discuss the manufacturing pro-
stress rated lumber. cesses, structural properties, physical attributes and
As manufactured products, tight quality control common applications of some of the major modern
is needed to ensure consistency of the product's EWPs, including glued-laminated timber, parallel
physical and mechanical quality. For example, strand lumber, laminated strand lumber, laminated
Bledsoe (1990) presented a paper on testing and veneer lumber and thick oriented strand board.
evaluation of structural composite timber prod-
ucts, and Bledsoe and Craig (1990) summarised 6.2 GLUED-LAMINATED TIMBER
their work on quality assurance of parallel strand
lumber. A standard for the evaluation of struc- Glued-laminated timber, commonly referred to
tural composite lumber is available in American as glulam, is a structural timber product made
Standards of Testing and Material ASTM D5456. of elements glued together from smaller pieces
This standard outlines procedures for establishing of wood. In Europe, North America and Japan,
design properties of structural composite lumber. glued-laminated timber is used in a wide variety

Table 6.2 Comparisons of the bending strengths of 286 mm deep members


Material Grade Species Fifth-percentile
bending strength
(MPa)
Visual stress rated Select Douglas fir 20
Structural
No. 2 Douglas fir 13
Machine stress rated 2400f-2.0E Douglas fir 35
1650f-1.5E Douglas fir 24
Parallel strand lumber 2900f, 2.0E Douglas fir 42
Laminated veneer lumber 2600f, 1.9E Douglas fir 38
86 Timber Engineering

of applications, ranging from headers or support- in either straight or curved form, with the grain of
ing beams in residential framing to major struc- all the laminations essentially parallel to the axis
tural elements in non-residential buildings as gird- of the member. This laminating technique allows
ers, columns and truss members. Many studies high strength lumber of limited size to be man-
on the performance of glulam members are avail- ufactured into larger structural members. Further-
able. Foschi and Barrett (1980), Falk and Colling more, higher grade lamstock can be used in high
(1995), Serrano and Larsen (1999) as well as Chap- stress zones, thereby maximising the strength-to-
ter 5 provide useful reviews on the subject. cost ratio.
Figure 6.2 shows some examples of structural As a non-proprietary product, glued-laminated
applications of glued-laminated timber. As glued- timber is manufactured according to production
laminated timber can be produced to almost any standards at certified plants. These standards gov-
desired shape and size, ranging from long straight ern the process of qualification/certification of the
beams to complex curved-arch configurations, plants, as well as the day-to-day production pro-
it offers the builder/architect many opportuni- cedures of grading the lumber, end joining the
ties to express their artistic concepts in a build- lamstock, gluing procedures, finishing techniques
ing while satisfying the strength requirements. and quality control process.
Finally, with the warm and pleasing appear- In Canada, for example, glued-laminated timber
ance of glued-laminated timber, it is often pur- manufacturers are required to be qualified under
posely left exposed in the building as an archi- Canadian Standards Association Standard 0177,
tectural feature. which provides guidelines for equipment, manufac-
In glued laminated timber manufacturing, typ- turing and record keeping procedures. In addition,
ically a special grade of timber, the laminating the manufacturing of Canadian glued-laminated
stock (lamstock), is end jointed using finger joint- timber is in accordance to the requirements of Cana-
ing or scarf jointing techniques to form the lami- dian Standards Association Standard 0122, Struc-
nates. These are then arranged in layers or lami- tural Glued-Laminated Timber. Under these manu-
nations, and glued together to form the structural facturing procedures, representative glue bond and
member. Glued-laminated timber can be produced end joint samples are tested for strength adequacy.

Figure 6.2 Structural applications of glued-laminated timber


EWPs for Structural Purposes 87

The fabricated glued-laminated timber members Glued-laminated timber can be manufactured


are also required to have a comprehensive quality with many available species. The most common
assurance record on the lumber grading, glue bond species for glued-laminated timber production
and end-joint test results. Also, information on the include Douglas fir, larch, spruce, pine, south-
laminating conditions including glue spread rate, ern pine, yellow poplar, radiata pine and Nor-
assembly time, curing conditions and curing time way spruce. Figure 6.3 shows a schematic view
are recorded. Independent certification agencies per- of the manufacturing sequence of glued-laminated
form scheduled mandatory audits to ensure that timber. During fabrication, the lamstock is dried
in-plant procedures meet the requirements of the to a moisture content range of 7-15%. The sur-
manufacturing standard. faces of the lamstock are then machine finished
In the US, glued-laminated timber is manufac- (not sanded) to a uniformly smooth surface with
tured in accordance to the requirements of the a thickness tolerance of 0.4 mm within a piece
American Institute of Timber Construction AITC or within a lamination composed of more than
103 Standard for Structural Glued-Laminated Tim- one piece. These steps are required to allow the
ber (ANSI/AITC A190.1). In Japan and Europe, quality of the glue-line to be met. The lamstock
glued-laminated timber is manufactured in accor- is then visually graded and subjected to a non-
dance to the requirements of JAS 111 and destructive bending stiffness test to estimate its
EN 386 and 1194, respectively. Typically, the modulus of elasticity. Based on the visual grade
glued-laminated timber producers can make avail- and stiffness assessments, the placement of the
able a certificate of product conformance upon piece within a glued-laminated timber will be
request by their customers. determined. Typically, higher stiffness and better

Manufacture of Lamstock receiving


glulam and storage

Initial assembly
(dry laminating) Grading and
stiffness testing

Trimming preparation
for finger joining
Finger joining
profiler -x

Glue application

Final assembly,
clamping and curing
Trimming, sanding
and finishing

Figure 6.3 Manufacture of glued-laminated timber. (Source: Picture obtained from Wood Reference Handbook,
Canadian Wood Council, 1991.)
88 Timber Engineering

quality pieces will be used as the outer laminates After completion of the curing process, the
in the construction of beam members to maximise product is finished with surface planing, .patching,
its efficiency. and end-trimming. Some facilities also provide
The assessed materials are then end-trimmed and special drilling and notching for connections, and
profiled for end-jointing into full length laminates special sanding and staining for finish. The final
required for a beam lay-up. Typically, finger- glued-laminated timber product receives a coat of
jointing or scarf-jointing techniques are used. A protective sealer before shipping, and is wrapped
plane sloping scarf where the tapered surfaces of for protection during shipping and erection.
the laminations are glued together can develop The manufacturing process of glued-laminated
85-90% of the tensile strength of the controlled timber allows members of a wide variety of shapes
specimens. Finger jointing is less wasteful, but and sizes to be produced. Standard sizes have
requires detailed control of quality of the profiling also been developed for glued-laminated timber to
of the fingers and gluing process. In a finger allow optimum utilisation of the timber that are
joint, it is desirable to have a combination of multiples of the dimensions of the lamstock used
for the production of glued-laminated timber. The
thin tip, flat slope, and narrow pitch for high
standard sizes offer designers economy and fast
strength. The longer fingers will yield higher
delivery that is suitable for a wide range of typical
joint strength, although shorter fingers offer more
applications. In many European countries, glulam
savings. The endjoint profile can be achieved
manufacture is highly automated for standard sizes
with the scarf or fingers formed by cuts per-
and lengths, resulting in a high strength wood prod-
pendicular to either the wide or narrow faces of ucts at competitive prices. Non-standard dimen-
the board. Phenol-Resorcinol and melamine-based sions may also be specially ordered and produced
resins are examples of adhesives used in glued- by the manufacturer.
laminated timber production. Typically, the glued Based on the above attributes, glued-laminated
endjoints are cured with heat to produce full-length timber products can be specified according to the
laminates. Radio-frequency based techniques are stress grades available from individual suppliers.
commonly used to heat up the end-joints and to Usually, an appearance grade should also be spec-
speed up the curing process. ified to match the intended use of the product.
The laminates are then arranged in layers as a
preliminary lay-up in terms of the grade and stiff-
ness of the laminates and in accordance with the 6.3 PARALLEL STRAND LUMBER
product requirements. When members wider than
Parallel Strand Lumber (PSL) was invented and
the available lamstock are required, lamination
developed in Canada by MacMillan Bloedel Lim-
may consist of multiple boards side by side with ited. Since its introduction and launch as a com-
the edge joints staggered in the member. Adhe- mercial proprietary product in 1986 under the trade
sives are then applied to the individual lami- name Parallam PSL, the product has steadily
nates and reassembled under pressure using clamps gained an important market share in timber con
(>0.7 MPa) to create either straight beams or struction in North America. As a result of changes
members with complicated curvatures. The assem- in company ownership, Parallam PSL is now pro-
bly under pressure is then placed in position for duced by Trus Joist A Weyerhaeuser Business.
curing. The condition of the curing including the In the original product concept in the 1970s, par-
curing time, temperature and relative humidity in allel strand lumber was intended to utilise forest
the curing location, temperature of the glue-line wastes such as branches and trimmings to form
and other pertinent controls that adhere to the glue a structural composite lumber product to eventu-
manufacturer's specifications. Sometimes heaters ally replace larger dimension solid sawn timbers.
are also installed in the curing location to keep the After many iterations and more than a decade
temperature at the desired level. of research and development, the final product
EWPs for Structural Purposes 89

concept utilised veneer strands by bonding them peeled from logs or obtained from veneer mills.
together with a phenolic based adhesive under heat The veneers are dried to target moisture content
and pressure to form parallel strand lumber as a and then clipped into strands of approximately
high strength structural composite lumber prod- 19 mm in width. The maximum length of these
uct. Currently, parallel strand lumber products are strands is obviously 2.4 m. However, at this stage
manufactured in facilities in both Canada and the it is still possible to have short flakes or strands
United States (Barnes, 1988a, Churchland, 1988). in the line resulting from the clipping process.
Relatively few journal publications are available Since clipped strands from veneer sheets are used,
on the mechanical properties of parallel strand it is not necessary to use only sheets that are pre-
lumber, whereas computer modelling of this type cisely 1.2 x 2.4 m in size. Imperfect veneer sheets
of strand-based product has been studied by several obtained from the start of peeling of a log that
research groups (Clouston and Lam, 2001, Triche are generally not suitable for plywood manufac-
and Hunt, 1993, Wang and Lam, 1998a). turing or laminated veneer lumber production can
A general schematic of the manufacturing pro- also be used in parallel strand lumber. This use of
cess of parallel strand lumber is shown in Fig- undesirable veneer allows parallel strand lumber
ure 6.4. In Canada Douglas fir veneers and in the to increase the conversion efficiency of a log to a
United States southern pine and yellow poplar structural member.
veneers are primarily utilised in the produc- A defect removal process is introduced next to
tion of parallel strand lumber. Typically sheets remove the short and/or weak fibres. The strands
of 3.2 mm x 1.2 m x 2.4 m veneer are directly are transported lengthwise on a conveyer belt

Dryer Clipper

Veneer lathe

Finished
product

Parallam" is a registered trademark and Trus joist, is a trademark of Trus Joist, A Weyerhaeuser Business, Boise, Idaho

Figure 6.4 Manufacture of parallel strand lumber. (Source: Picture obtained from Trus Joist A Weyerhaeuser
Business Media Kit.)
90 Timber Engineering

system towards the next production step. Within to allow the operators to monitor and carefully
the strand transportation line, a gap is introduced control the amount of fibres to be included in the
in the conveyer belt system. Individual strands formation of the loose billet.
have to be able to bridge this gap to be moved The loose billet is then fed continuously into a
to the next production phase, and short strands belt press. Under confinement, the billet is heated
will drop into a waste collection bin below the to the curing temperature of the adhesive using
conveyers. Furthermore, strands that are too weak microwave energy. Finally, a finished continuous
to bridge the gap may also break off and drop billet of 280 mm x up to 482 mm in cross-section
to the waste collection line. This simple defect is produced. Because of the continuous press pro-
removal system effectively eliminates short fibres cess, the billet length is limited only by transporta-
and/or weak fibres that are undesirable in terms tion constraints, typically 20 m. The finished billet
of some of the product strength attributes. The is then cross cut to desired lengths, rip sawn to pro-
target is to include strands longer than 305 mm duce rough dimensions or custom sizes, and sanded
in the product. down to finished dimensions. It is also possible to
The next step is coating the strands with phenol- produce larger dimension members by edge glu-
formaldehyde resins with either a roll spreader or ing techniques commonly used in the production
dipping the strands in an adhesive bin. Dipping of glued-laminated beams. Individual beam weigh-
the strand will completely coat it with adhesive, ing is also performed as a final step to control the
but the excess adhesive needs to be eliminated shipped density.
via an air blowing system. The strands are then The available stock member sizes for paral-
further transported to an assembly station where lel strand lumber are comparable with established
a continuous loose billet of resinated strands is wood framing material sizes. Flexibility of custom
formed. From the transportation and strand depo- sizing is also possible through the manufactur-
sition system, the strands tend to align themselves ing process.
along the length of the billet. Throughout the strand Parallel strand lumber is produced at a moisture
transportation process, mass flow systems are used content range of 8-12%. This manufacturing

Figure 6.5 Applications of parallel strand lumber. (Sources: Pictures obtained from Parallam PSL Headers, Beams
and Columns, Trus Joist MacMillan, 1998. Abbotsford Recreation CentreEngineered wood brings a new standard to
ice arenas, Canadian Wood Council.)
EWPs for Structural Purposes 91

process for parallel strand lumber results in both a specific gravity of 0.5. Standard bolted connection
strong and consistent material that is less prone to design values are provided in the adopted code for
shrinking, warping, cupping, bowing or splitting Douglas fir with specific gravity of 0.5. Fire tests
resulting from seasoning stresses. In residential on parallel strand lumber demonstrated that it is
construction, parallel strand lumber is well suited appropriate for use in all applications for which
for use as beams or columns in post and beam solid sawn timbers are suited.
construction, and as beams, headers and lintels in
wood frame construction. In heavy timber com-
mercial building, parallel strand lumber is also well 6.4 LAMINATED STRAND LUMBER
suited for use as intermediate and large members. Laminated Strand Lumber (LSL) is a proprietary
Examples of applications of parallel strand lum- product invented and developed in Canada by
ber are shown in Figure 6.5. Finally, the voids in MacMillan Bloedel Limited. It was introduced and
the cross-section of parallel strand lumber allow commercially launched in the early 1990s under
the member to accept preservative treatment with the trade name TimberStrand LSL. As a result
a very high degree of penetration depth. Therefore, of changes in company ownership, TimberStrand
when chemical protection against decay is needed, LSL is now produced by Trus Joist A Weyer-
treated parallel strand lumber can be considered. haeuser Business.
The allowable mechanical properties of 2.0E Par- Laminated strand lumber aims to replace some
allam PSL are shown in Table 6.3. larger dimension solid sawn timber products using
Nail withdrawal and lateral resistance connec- underutilised commercial species (Barnes, 1988b).
tion properties of Parallam PSL are deemed to be The final product concept utilises strands from
equivalent to that of Douglas fir sawn timber with fast growing hardwood species such as aspen-
poplar by bonding them together with Isocyanate
Table 63 Allowable mechanical properties of 2.0E as diphenylmethane di-isocyanate (MDI) adhesive
Parallam PSL (standard term loading and for dry ser- under heat and pressure to form the laminated
vice conditions) (Adapted from Trus Joist A Weyer- strand lumber. Currently, laminated strand lumber
haeuser Business Commercial Products Design Manual)
products are manufactured in facilities in the
Shear modulus of G = 860 MPa United States. A new facility in Kenora, Canada
elasticity was planned for start up by the end of 2002.
Modulus of elasticity E = 13790 MPa
A general schematic of the manufacturing pro-
Bending Strength for Fb = 20.0 MPaa
305 mm depth cess of laminated strand lumber is shown in
Compression Fc = 5.17 MPab Figure 6.6. Medium length strands made with
perpendicular to grain aspen-poplar strands are utilised in the production
parallel to wide face of laminated strand lumber. These wood elements
of strands have a thickness range of 0.91.3 mm. The strand
Compression parallel to Fey = 20.0 MPa
grain width ranges from 13-25 mm, and strand length
Horizontal shear Fn = 2.00 MPa is up to 300 mm.
perpendicular to wide Fresh cut logs are soaked in hot water ponds to
face of strands soften the wood prior to debarking and stranding to
a
For depth d other than 305 mm apply a size factor of reduce the amount of generated fines and slivers.
(305/d)0.111. After conditioning, the logs are debarked and fed
b
Do not adjust for load duration effect. into a stranding machine to obtain the desired
Note: The allowable design values are for use with the US
National Design Standards. Approved specified strengths for strands. The strands are screened to remove fines
use in Limit State Design Codes for a number of other countries and unwanted particles.
are also available from the product manufacturer. Allowable A cylindrical dryer is then used to dry the
properties and grades of the products are subject to change;
therefore, the readers should refer to the manufacturer's litera- strands to a moisture content range of 3-7%.
ture for the full range of grades and latest values. It is desired to minimise breakage and maintain
92 Timber Engineering

Strander
Green bins

Log pond

Forming
heads

Figure 6.6 Manufacture of laminated strand lumber. (Sources: Picture obtained from Trus Joist A Weyerhaeuser
Business Media Kit.)

uniform moisture distribution of the strands during dimensions or custom sizes, and sanded down to
drying. After drying the strands are resinated in finished dimensions.
a blender with MDI resins and wax. Resin con- Member sizes for laminated strand lumber
tent is proprietary information for the product. A are comparable with established wood framing
careful monitoring process is in place to regulate material sizes. Flexibility of custom sizing is
the relative weights of the strands and the resin. also possible through the manufacturing pro-
A former/orienter machine is used to arrange and cess. TimberStrand members are available up to
deposit the strands into a loose mat with the strands 140 mm in thickness; 1.2 m in width, and 14.6 m
primarily oriented parallel to the long axis of the in length.
mat. The footprint of the loose mat is approxi- Laminated strand lumber is produced at a mois-
mately 2.4 m wide x 10.7 m or 14.6 m long. The ture content range of 6-8%. The manufacturing
weight of the loose mat is also monitored to check process for laminated strand lumber results in both
for uniformity of distribution of the strands. a strong and consistent material that is less prone
The loose mats are then pressed under heat and to shrinking, warping, cupping, bowing or splitting
pressure for the curing of the adhesives to form resulting from seasoning stresses. In residential
solid panels. A steam injection pressing process wood frame construction, laminated strand lum-
is utilised to enhance the heating of the core ber is well suited for use as headers, lintels, studs,
material such that relatively thick members can and rimboard. Examples of applications of lami-
be formed with a uniform density profile through nated strand lumber are shown in Figure 6.7. The
the thickness of the member. The steam injection allowable mechanical properties of 1.3E and 1.5E
process also shortens the required press time by Timber Strand LSL are shown in Table 6.4.
enhancing the heating of the core, which leads Nail withdrawal and lateral resistance connec-
to cost savings from reduced press time. Non- tion properties of TimberStrand LSL are deemed
destructive testing devices are used to scan the to be equivalent to that of Douglas fir sawn tim-
panels for defects such as blows. The finished ber with specific gravity of 0.5. Standard bolted
panels are cross-cut and rip-sawn to produce rough connection design values are provided in the
EWPs for Structural Purposes 93

Figure 6.7 Applications of laminated strand lumber. (Sources: Pictures obtained from TimberStrand LSL Headers
and Columns, Trus Joist MacMillan (now Trus joist, A Weyerhaeuser Business), 1998.}

Table 6.4 Allowable mechanical properties of 1.3E and 1.5E TimberStrand LSL
(standard term loading and for dry service conditions) (adapted from Trus Joist A
Weyerhaeuser Business Commercial Products Design Manual)
1.3E TimberStrand 1.5E TimberStrand
Shear modulus of elasticity G = 560 MPa G = 646 MPa
Modulus of elasticity E = 8960 MPa E = 10345 MPa
Bending Strength for 305 mm Fb = 11.7 MPaa Fb =: 15.5 MPa
a

depth
b
Compression perpendicular to FCJ. = 4.69 MPab FC = 5.34 MPa
grain parallel to wide face of
strands
Compression parallel to grain FCH = 9.6 MPa F
C\\ --= 13.4 MPa
Horizontal shear perpendicular Fv = 2.76 MPa Fv == 2.76 MPa
to wide face of strands
a
For depth d other than 305 mm apply a size factor of (305/d)0.092.
b
Do not adjust for load duration effect.
Note: the allowable design values are for use with the US National Design Standards. Approved
specified strengths for use in Limit State Design Codes for a number of other countries are also
available from the product manufacturer. Allowable properties and grades of the products are
subject to change; therefore, the readers should refer to the manufacturer's literature for the full
range of grades and latest values

adopted code for Douglas fir with specific gravity airplane propellers during World War II. Since
of 0.5. Fire test information on laminated strand the mid-1970s, laminated veneer lumber has been
lumber demonstrates that TimberStrand LSL has used as a structural composite lumber product as
a comparable char rate and flame spread class as beams, headers, flange stock for wood I-joists,
solid sawn timber. and scaffolding planks to take advantage of its
attributes including high strength, dimension sta-
bility and uniformity.
6.5 LAMINATED VENEER LUMBER
In most laminated veneer lumber products, the
Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) is made by glu- grain orientation of each veneer layer is aligned
ing layers of wood veneer sheets together using an parallel to the long direction of the member.
exterior type adhesive to form a structural com- This provides the member with strong directional
posite lumber product. It was first used to make strength properties along the member length. In
94 Timber Engineering

some special laminated veneer products, a few can be removed by a clipping device. Visual
sheets of veneer can also be introduced into the grading of the veneers is then performed. Some
lay-up in the direction perpendicular to the long manufacturers also use non-destructive testing
direction of the member to enhance the strength devices, such as ultrasound systems and density
properties orthogonal to the member length. This verification equipment with a visual override to
special arrangement is intended to particularly grade the veneers.
improve connection properties of the members The graded veneer sheets are then cut to the
(Cha and Pearson, 1994). Similar to other engi- desired width as required for the billet. Typically,
neered wood products, the reconstitution process phenol-formaldehyde resins are applied on the
of laminated veneer lumber creates a structural veneer. The resinated veneer sheets are then built
element of higher reliability and lower variability up either by hand or by an automatic lay-up
through defect removal and dispersal. system in the assembly line to the desired number
A general schematic of the manufacturing pro- of layers and pattern in form of a long loose
cess of laminated veneer lumber is shown in billet. The veneer sheets are typically end-jointed
Figure 6.8. Typically, in North America, the pro- with lap or butt joints. High quality/grade of
duction of LVL uses species or combinations of veneers are usually placed at the outer faces of a
species such as Douglas fir, larch, southern pine, member during manufacturing. This is especially
yellow poplar, western hemlock, lodgepole pine important if the member is used on the flat as
and spruce. In some products, mix species can be is the case of scaffolding planks where higher
introduced in the member lay-up. The initial pro- quality material on the member faces improves the
duction step of laminated veneer lumber is similar strength efficiency of the member, and provides a
to that of plywood, where logs are rotary peeled better wearing surface.
on a lathe to yield 2.6 m wide veneer sheets. The After forming, the billet is fed continuously
veneer, which is between 2.5 mm and 4.8 mm through a series of roller presses that provide heat
thick, is cut into sheets 686 mm or 1372 mm in and pressure to cure the adhesive and consolidate
width and 2565 mm in length. the billet. Billets of up to 25 m in length (limited
After the veneers are dried to target mois- by handling and transportation issues) can be
ture content, major strength reduction defects made, which are then cross cut and rip-sawn

Dryer

Veneer

Shipping

Figure 6.8 Manufacture of laminated veneer lumber. (Source: Picture obtained from Trus Joist A Weyerhaeuser
Business Media Kit.)
EWPs for Structural Purposes 95

Figure 6.9 Applications of laminated veneer lumber. (Sources: Pictures obtained from 1.9E Microllam LVL Headers
and Beams, Trus Joist MacMillan (now Trus joist, A Weyerhaeuser Business), 1998.)

Table 6.5 Allowable mechanical properties of Other uses include scaffold planks and flanges of
typical LVL products (Standard term loading and wood I-joists. Figure 6.9 shows some examples of
for dry service conditions) (adapted from Trus structural applications of LVL.
Joist A Weyerhaeuser Business Commercial
Products Design Manual) A list of allowable mechanical properties of
typical laminated veneer lumber products is given
Shear modulus of G = 820 MPa in Table 6.5. Other grades of laminated veneer
elasticity
Modulus of elasticity E = 13100 MPa lumber are available via veneer selection process
Bending Strength for Fh = 17.9 MPaa during manufacturing. The properties of other
305 mm depth laminated veneer lumber products can be obtained
Compression Fc = 5.17 MPab from individual product manufacturers.
perpendicular to grain Nail withdrawal and lateral resistance connec-
parallel to wide face
of strands tion properties of Microllam LVL are deemed to
Compression parallel to FCH = 12.3 MPa be equivalent to that of Douglas fir sawn timber
grain with specific gravity of 0.5. Standard bolted con-
Horizontal shear Fv = 1.97 MPa nection design values are provided in the adopted
perpendicular to wide code for Douglas fir with specific gravity of 0.5.
face of strands
Fire test information on LVL demonstrates that it
a
For depth d other than 305 mm apply a size factor of has a comparable char rate and flame spread class
(305/d)0.J36. as solid sawn timber.
b
Do not adjust for load duration effect.
Note: The allowable design values are for use with the US
National Design Standards. Approved specified strengths
for use in Limit State Design Codes for a number of other 6.6 WOOD I-JOISTS
countries are also available from product manufacturers.
Allowable properties and grades of the products are The wood I-joist is primarily a bending member
subject to change; therefore, the readers should refer to
the manufacturer's literature for the full range of grades with an I cross-section. It is made by gluing
and latest values flanges to a web to form an engineered wood
product. Typically, the flanges are made with either
into the desired length and width, as required by solid sawn timber (either visually stress graded
the customer. or machine stress rated lumber), laminated veneer
Laminated veneer lumber is available in thick- lumber or laminated strand lumber. The web of a
nesses of 19.1-89 mm, depths of 63.51219 mm wood I-joist is typically made with either oriented
and lengths of up to 25 m. The product is used strand board or plywood panels. The wood I-joist
primarily as beams and headers in structural fram- was successfully introduced in the construction
ing for residential and commercial construction. market in the 1970s as an alternative to larger
96 Timber Engineering

dimension solid sawn timber, to be used as joists length flange stock, either solid sawn timber or
and beams in both residential and commercial laminated veneer lumber, will be end jointed using
buildings. Compared to solid sawn timber, wood finger-joining techniques to form a longer member
I-joists have the advantages of more efficient needed for the flange. A central groove will be
structural shape, higher strength to weight ratio, routed into the flange member to house the web
better dimensional stability, and lower variability material. The shape and size of this groove may
of mechanical properties. Being a factory made differ between products. The key is to make the
prefabricated wood product, wood I-joists can also groove such that sufficient contact area between
be supplied with predrilled holes for electrical the web and the flange is available to transfer
services, mechanical ductwork and plumbing as the longitudinal shear stresses via the adhesive
required in a building. A review of the research when the member is under load without unduly
related to the strength properties of Wood I-joists weakening the flange itself.
is available from Forest Products Society (1990) The web stock with approximate moisture con-
and Foschi and Yao (1993).
tent of 510% is obtained from OSB or plywood
One of the critical elements in wood I-joists is
mills. The web is cut into the size required for the
the flange to web joint and the joints between
depth of the wood I-joist. Sometimes the ends of
adjacent panels in the web. There are different
the web members are profiled for the web-to-web
variations of the flange to web connection. Often
connection. Often, butt connection between adja-
individual manufacturers have proprietary flange to
cent web members is used. The edge of the web
web joints protected by patents. In the web, adja-
cent panels are typically joined together using scarf member will be profiled according to the details of
jointing, or tongue and groove jointing techniques. the flange-to-web connection so that it can effec-
Phenol-resorcinol or phenol-formaldehyde resins tively mate with the flange. Again, these profiles
are usually used for the web-to-web and web-to- are designed to increase the contact area required
flange joints. Long length wood I-joists can also be for the transfer of the longitudinal shear stresses
manufactured by finger-jointing shorter members via the adhesive between the flange and the web.
together to form the flanges. Example applications Phenolic resin is typically used for the web-to-
of wood I-joists are shown in Figure 6.10. web and web-to-flange joints. Other resins such as
Manufacturing of wood I-joists may vary bet- polymeric MDI can also be used. Presses are used
ween different producers. Figure 6.11 shows a to create good contact between the members. The
schematic of the generic production process of members are then cut to specific lengths and cured
wood I-joists. Flange stock with a moisture content either in an oven or curing space at temperatures of
range of 818% is obtained from mills. Shorter 21-65C. Final product inspection is performed,

Figure 6.10 Applications of wood I-joists. (Sources: Pictures obtained from TJI /Pro 150TS Joists Featuring
the Silent Floor System for Residential Applications, Trus Joist MacMillan (now Trus joist, A Weyerhaeuser
Business), 1998.)
EWPs for Structural Purposes 97

Performance plus* web

Microllam* LVL

Ripping,
finger joining
& groovi

Web
material

Assembly
of flanges
to web
Performance plus* and Silent Floor* are registered trademarks of Trus Joist and Trus Joist, is a trademark of
Trus Joist. A Weyerhaeuser Business, Boise, Idaho

Figure 6.11 Manufacture of wood I-Joist. (Source: Picture obtained from Trus Joist A Weyerhaeuser Business
Media Kit.)

and the product is wrapped for weather protection 1970s. It aims to replace plywood as a panel
during shipment. product by using underutilised commercial species.
Procedures for establishing strength values and The product uses flakes from fast growing hard-
monitoring the structural capacities of prefabri- wood species such as aspen-poplar by bonding them
cated wood I-joists are outlined in ASTM Standard together with phenol-formaldehyde and/or Iso-
D5055. Following these procedures and meeting cyanate as diphenylmethane di-isocyanate (MDI)
the acceptance criteria of individual agencies, man- adhesives under heat and pressure to form the struc-
ufacturers of wood I-joists can obtain product eval- tural panel members.
uations on their wood I-joist products. On-going A substantial amount of literature based on
in-house quality control programs and independent empirical studies exists on wood composite panel
third party quality audits conducted by an accred- products (Kelly, 1977). Many researchers studied
ited certifying agency on a regular basis are also the influence of the pressing conditions in wood-
necessary to ensure product quality. based panel production on panel properties (Such-
Fire performance information of assemblies with sland, 1967, Geimer et/., 1985, Wolcott et al,
prefabricated wood I-joists is available from the 1990, Barnes 2000a, b). Other work also focused
manufacturers. Such information is also avail- on the flakeboard mat consolidation occurring dur-
able in listings books of the accredited certifying ing the pressing process (Lang et al., 1996, Lenth
agencies such as the Underwriters' Laboratories et al., 1996, Oudjehane et al., 1998a, b), as well
of Canada (ULC), Intertek Testing Services in as panel physical and mechanical properties as
Canada or Underwriters' Laboratories Inc. (ULI) influenced by its structure (Dai and Steiner, 1994,
in the US. Garcia et al., 2001, Lu and Lam, 1999, 2001a, b,
Lu et al., 1998, Oudjehane and Lam, 1998, Wang
6.7 THICK ORIENTED STRAND and Lam, 1998b, 1999, Xu, 2000, Xu and Suchs-
land, 1997).
BOARD
Typically, Oriented Strand Boards are made in
Oriented Strand Board (OSB) is a product com- three orthogonal layers. The flakes in the face
mercially introduced in North America in the early layers have a larger percentage of flakes that are
98 Timber Engineering

aligned parallel to the long axis of the panel, of the flakes and the resin. Typically, a 2-2.75%
whereas, the core layer is either aligned perpen- ratio of resin by weight is used in the production of
dicular to the long axis of the panel or completely OSB. Hot wax of approximately 1.5% by weight is
randomly deposited. The core to face ratio is typ- also added to improve water resistance and reduce
ically in the range of 60:40 to 40:60. Short length thickness swelling.
flakes, made with aspen, yellow poplar, or south- So-called former or orienter machines are used
ern pine, are utilised in the production of OSB. The to arrange and deposit the flakes into a loose
wood elements have a thickness, width and length mat. For a three-layer system, both a core former
of approximately 0.8 mm, 13 mm and 100 mm, and a face former are needed. In the process
respectively. In some facilities, depending on the of mat forming, the flakes are deposited through
availability of the log supply, sometimes a mixture alignment devices and then fall freely from a set
of aspen-poplar logs with small fir and pine logs height onto the mat. The lower the drop, the higher
is also used in the production of OSB. the percentage of orientation of the flakes, although
Fresh cut logs are soaked in hot water ponds a certain amount of randomness still prevails in the
to soften the wood prior to debarking and flak- placement of the flakes. For the multiple opening
ing/stranding to reduce the amount of generated press facilities, the foot print of the loose mat can
fines and slivers. After conditioning, the logs are be up to 3.6 m x 7.4 m.
debarked and fed into a stranding machine to The loose mats are pressed under heat and
obtain the desired flakes, after which the flakes pressure for the curing of the adhesives to produce
are screened to remove fines and unwanted parti- a solid panel. The press platens are heated and
cles. In some facilities, the fines can be recovered, the face layers of the loose mat heats up via
resinated, and reintroduced into the core layer for the conduction of heat. As the temperature and
the panel product. A certain amount of fines has the pressure increases, the moisture in the flakes turns
benefit of filling the voids between larger flakes, into steam, which migrates towards the core of
and thus reduce the density variation in a panel. the panel, and therefore increases the temperature
A cylindrical dryer is used to dry the flakes to a of the core. The heat and pressure polymerize
moisture content range of 3-7%. This is desired to the resin and binds the flakes together. Since
minimise breakage and maintain uniform moisture the process of heat and mass (steam) transfer is
distribution of the flakes during drying. After dry- non-uniform through the thickness of the panel,
ing, the flakes are resinated in blenders. Typically, the consolidation and densification of the oriented
modern facilities will have a blender with pheno- strand board is typically also non-uniform through
lic resins to resinate the flakes for the face layers its thickness. The face and core layers may have
of the product and a blender with MDI resins to densities of 130% and 70% of the average density
resinate the flakes used in the core of the prod- of the product, respectively. After the product
uct. The advantage of MDI resins is the reduced comes out of the press, it is heat stacked for
press time for curing and thus significant cost sav- 24 hours to allow full curing of the adhesives.
ings. The disadvantage of MDI resins is that it can The finished panels are then cross cut and rip
adhere to steel, and therefore requires careful appli- sawn to produce rough dimensions or custom
cation and chemical release agents. In some mills it sizes, and sanded down to finished dimensions.
is also possible to produce all-MDI panel products. Figure 6.12 shows a schematic of the generic
In these cases, the MDI bonded panels are made in production process of OSB.
mills with continuous roller presses, whereas mills The quality of the product is influenced by the
with the multi-daylight opening presses typically process control of the production. Careful and con-
use the combined phenolic/MDI system. Resin for- tinuous monitoring of the processing variables is
mulation and content are proprietary information needed to maintain the product quality and proper-
for individual producers. A careful monitoring pro- ties. The most important processing factors are: log
cess is in place to regulate the relative weights sorting by species, size, and moisture content; flake
EWPs for Structural Purposes 99

Manufacture of
OSB/
waferboard
Debarking
- Thawing pond

Wafer cutters

Dryer

Blender for application


of resin glue

Formed panels on
moving belt

Press

Edge trimming
and grading

Bundling and shipping

Figure 6.12 Manufacture of oriented strand board. (Source: Picture obtained from Wood Reference Handbook,
Canadian Wood Council, 1991.)

size, quality, thickness, and post drying moisture capacity of the member to transfer vertical loads
content; the consistency of blending flakes, resin without crushing or buckling is important. Rim-
and wax; the flake forming and orientation pro- boards are also required to transfer lateral loads
cesses including the uniformity of flake deposition imposed by earthquakes or high winds. Standard
in the loose mat; the press temperature, pres- tests are available for these evaluations. In the short
sures, closing speed, thickness control and pressure span header applications, the shear strength of the
release control; quality of panel faces and edges; member will be important. In general, the shear
panel dimensions and the appearance of the fin- strength to bending strength ratio of a product such
ished panel. as thick Oriented Strand Board/rimboard tends to
Based on these manufacturing technologies, be higher than conventional solid sawn products;
thick (31.75 mm) OSBs can also be made eco- therefore, the product may be suitable for use in
nomically. These members can be further man- short span headers applications. The OSBs are pro-
ufactured into a deep lumber type products that duced at moisture content of approximately 5%.
is suitable for use in some structural applications. It's manufacturing process results in a product with
Examples of application of thick OSB include rim- relatively consistent properties. Figure 6.13 shows
board that forms the perimeter of a floor and an example of application of rimboard.
short span headers. In the rimboard applications, As a manufactured product, tight quality control
long and deep members can be made where the is needed to ensure consistency of the product's
100 Timber Engineering

Figure 6.13 Applications of rimboard. (Source: Pictures obtained from Ainsworth Lumber Ltd.)

physical and mechanical quality. The individual Research and development efforts are needed
mills must establish in-house quality control pro- to fully understand the interacting relationship
grams for the requirements specified in the appli- between the raw material, the manufacturing
cable standard. Physical testing of the products is and processing variables, the engineering and
needed to verify production conformance. Inde- physical properties of the product, and the end-use
pendent quality assurance organisations are also applications. Research on the application of EWPs
involved to certify and monitor manufacturing per- with respect to their connection details in heavy
formance and mill quality control programs. timber construction is another important topic. The
performance and behaviour of EWP systems under
both ultimate and serviceability conditions must be
6.8 SUMMARY studied to expand their applications.
In North America, engineered wood products are
relative new structural members that have been
successfully introduced in the construction indus- REFERENCES
try. With the anticipated increase in the future Barnes D. (1988a) Parallama new wood product; in-
demand of structural wood products and changes in vention and development to the pilot plant scale
accessibility and quality of the timber resource, the stage. Proceedings Marcus Wallenberg Foundation
development and application of engineered wood Symposium, Soderhamn, Sweden, pp. 5-24.
products will continue to increase in the future. Barnes D. (1988b) Waferboard lumber. US Patent No.
4,751,131.
These products will need to utilize non-traditional Barnes D. (2000a) An integrated model of the effect
resources, and at the same time possess improved of processing parameters on the strength properties
physical and mechanical properties, compared to of oriented strand wood products. Forest Products
traditional structural products. Journal, 50(11/12), 3342.
Increased market opportunities have already led Barnes D. (2000b) A model of the effect of strand length
and strand thickness on the strength properties of
to the research and development of even newer oriented wood composites. Forest Products Journal,
EWPs using plant-based fibre resources such as 51(2), 3646.
bamboo and straw (Rowell and Young, 1997, Bledsoe J.M. (1990) Testing and evaluation of a struc-
Youngquist et al., 1994). Hybrid structures that tural composite timber product. Proceedings Interna-
are made by combining wood with plastic or by tional Timber Engineering Conference, Tokyo, Japan,
1, 203206.
reinforcing wood members with high performance Bledsoe J.M. and Craig B.A. (1990) Quality assurance
fibres such as glass, carbon and Kevlar fibres for Parallam PSL. Proceedings International Timber
are also being developed and introduced into the Engineering Conference, Tokyo, Japan, 3, 895897.
market (Youngquist, 1995). Details relating to the Canadian Wood Council (1991) Wood Reference Hand-
processing/cost/application issues have yet to be book: A guide to the architectural use of wood
in building construction. Ottawa, Canada, Canadian
fully worked out for these new products to gain Wood Council.
full acceptance and a firm market place in the Cha J.K. and Pearson R.G. (1994) Stress analysis and
construction industry. prediction in 3-Layer laminated veneer lumber:
EWPs for Structural Purposes 101
response to crack and grain angle. Wood and Fiber Lu C. and Lam F. (1999) Study on the X-ray calibration
Science, 26(1), 97106. and overlap measurements in robot-formed flakeboard
Churchland M.T. (1988) Parallam-Commercial process mats. Journal of Wood Science and Technology, 33(2),
development. Proceedings of the Marcus Wallen- 85-95.
berg Foundation Symposium, Soderhamn, Sweden, Lu C. and Lam F. (2001a) Random field representation
pp. 25-42. of horizontal density distribution in partially oriented
Clouston P.L. and Lam F. (2001) Computational mod- flakeboard mat. Journal of Wood and Fiber Science,
eling of strand-based wood composites. Journal of 33(7), 437-449.
Structural Mechanics, 127(8), 844851. Lu C. and Lam F. (2001b) Relationship between thick-
Dai C. and Steiner P.R. (1994) Spatial structure of wood ness swelling and mat structure in robot-formed
composites in relation to processing and performance flakeboard mats. Holz als Roh und Werkstoff, 59(3),
characteristics. Wood Science and Technology, 28, 201-210.
135-146. Oudjehane A., and Lam F. (1998) On the density profile
Falk R.H. and Colling F. (1995) Laminating effects in within random and oriented wood based composite
glued-laminated timber beams. Journal of Structural panels: Horizontal Distribution. Composites Part B.
Engineering, 121(12), 1857-1863. Engineering Journal, 29(6), 687-694.
Forest Products Laboratory (1999) Wood hand- Oudjehane A., Lam F. and Avramidis S. (1998a) A con-
book - Wood as an engineering material. Gen. Tech- tinuum model of the interaction between manufactur-
nical Report FPL-GTR-113, Madison, WI: U.S. ing variables and consolidation of wood composite
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest mats. Wood Science and Technology, 32, 381391.
Products Laboratory. Oudjehane A., Lam F. and Avramidis S. (1998b) Form-
Forest Products Society (1990) Wood I-Joists. Wood ing and pressing processes of random and oriented
Design Focus. Forest Product Society Madison, WI, wood composite mats. Composites Part B Engineer-
USA, 1990: 1. ing Journal, 29(3), 211-215.
Foschi R.O. and Barrett J.D. (1980) Glued-laminated Rowell R.M. and Young R.A. (1997) Paper and Com-
beam strength: A model. Journal of Structural posites from Agro-based Resources. CRC Lewis Pub-
Division, 106(8), 17351754. lishers, Boca Raton, FL.
Foschi R.O., Folz B.R. and Yao F.Z. (1989) Reliability- Serrano E. and Larsen H.J. (1999) Numerical investi-
based design of wood structures. Structural Research gations of the laminating effect in laminated beams.
Series Report No. 34, Department of Civil Engi- Journal of Structural Engineering, 125(7), 740-745.
neering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Suchsland O. (1967) Behavior of a particleboard mat
Canada. during the press cycle. Forest Products Journal, 17(2),
Foschi R.O. (2002) Reliability of structures with timber 51-57.
and wood-based products. In: Advanced Topics in Thoft-Christensen P. and Baker M.J. (1982) Structural
Timber Engineering, Wiley, London, UK. Reliability Theory and its Applications. Springer-Ver-
Garcia P. Avramidis S. and Lam F. (2001) Internal lag. New York, NY.
temperature and pressure responses to flake alignment Triche M.H. and Hunt M.O. (1993) Modeling of paral-
during hot-pressing. Holz als Roh und Werkstoff, lel-aligned wood strand composites. Forest Products
59(4), 272-275. Journal, 43(11/12), 33-44.
Geimer R.L., Mahoney R.J. and Meyer R.W. (1985) Wang Y.T. and Lam F. (1998a) Computational mod-
Influence of processing-induced damage on strength eling of material failure for parallel-aligned strand
of flakes and flakeboards. Research Paper FPL-463, based wood composites. Computational Material Sci-
U.S. FPL, Madison, WI. ence, 11, 157-165.
Kelly M. (1977) Critical review of the relationship bet- Wang K. and Lam F. (1998b) Robot based research on a
ween processing parameters and physical properties three-layer oriented flakeboard. Journal of Wood and
of particleboard. General Technical Report FPL-10, Fiber Science, 30(4), 339-347.
U.S. FPL, Madison, WI. Wang K. and Lam F. (1999) Quadratic RSM models
Lang E.M. and Wolcott M.P. (1996) A model for visco- of processing parameters for a three-layer oriented
elastic consolidation of wood-strand mats. Part II. flakeboard. Journal of Wood and Fiber Science. 31(2),
Wood and Fiber Science, 28(3), 369-379. 173-186.
Lenth C.A. and Kamke F. (1996) Investigations of Wolcott M.P. Kamke F.A. and Dillard D.A. (1990)
flakeboard mat consolidation. Part II. Wood and Fiber Fundamentals of flakeboard manufacture: viscoelastic
Science, 28(3), 309-319. behavior of the wood component. Wood and Fiber
Lu C., Steiner P.R. and Lam F. (1998) Simulation study Science, 22(4), 345-361.
of wood-flake composite mat structures. Forest Prod- Xu W. (2000) Influence of percent alignment and
ucts Journal, 48(5), 89-93. shelling ratio on modulus of elasticity of oriented
102 Timber Engineering

strandboard: a model investigation. Forest Products for building materials and panels. General Technical
Journal, 50(10), 4347. Report FPL-GTR-80. Madison, WI: U.S. Department
Xu W. and Suchsland O. (1997) Linear expansion of of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Labo-
wood composites: A model. Wood and Fiber Science, ratory.
29(3), 272-281. Youngquist J.A. (1995) Unlikely partners? The marriage
Youngquist J.A. English B.E. and Scharmer R.C. (1994) of wood and nonwood materials. Forest Products
Literature review on use of non-wood plants fibers Journal, 45(10), 2530.
7

Fracture Perpendicular
to Grain - Structural Applications
Per Johan Gustafsson

7.1 Introduction 103


7.2 Scope and limits 104
7.3 Examples of perpendicular to grain fracture 104
7.4 Material performance and properties 106
7.5 Methods for strength analysis 118
7.6 Measures for strength improvement 128

7.1 INTRODUCTION damage have occurred due to fracture perpendic-


ular to grain. It is probable that more cases of
Wood has drastically different strength properties structural damage have occurred due to tension
across the grain than it has parallel to the grain. perpendicular to grain than due to tension paral-
Across the grain wood is weak, both with respect lel to grain, although the prime modes of struc-
to a homogenous tensile state of stress and with tural loading are bending, tension and compression
respect to crack propagation. The tensile strength along the structural member.
is only a few % of that parallel to grain, and there A reason for this can be lack of knowledge.
is a difference in resistance to crack propagation Comparatively little material testing and research
of a similar magnitude. has been carried out and available methods for
In structural design efforts are therefore made engineering strength analysis are comparatively
to avoid tension perpendicular to grain and shear. crude. A complication is that several non-trivial
It is, however, not possible to completely avoid factors are significantly affecting both the perpen-
such stresses and several cases of timber structural dicular to grain strength and the perpendicular to
104 Timber Engineering

grain stress, making load-carrying predictions diffi- 7.3 EXAMPLES OF


cult and uncertain. In addition, in practical design PERPENDICULAR TO GRAIN
it is not possible to distinguish the fibre orienta-
FRACTURE
tion from the orientation of the structural member.
Commonly, it is tacitly assumed that these orien- Some cases and causes of perpendicular to grain
tations coincide, which in some cases is far from fracture are illustrated in Figure 7.1.
true and adds to uncertainties and scatter.
The geometrical shaping of the structural mem-
ber can imply tension perpendicular to the grain
when the structure is loaded. This tensile stress
7.2 SCOPE AND LIMITS
may be fairly uniformly distributed and com-
This chapter deals with material strength properties prise a large volume of material (Figure 7.la),
and calculation methods for analysis of fracture more local (Figure 7.1b) or concentrated to a
perpendicular to grain. Causes and some examples small region where the stress theoretically is sin-
of fracture are also surveyed. gular, approaching an infinite value even at low
In codes of timber design, consideration to risk external loading (Figure 7.1c).
of perpendicular to grain tensile fracture is com- Mechanical and adhesive joints commonly give
monly made by empirically found figures for the rise to tension across grain in the local vicinity
load-bearing capacity of the structural element or of the joint. One example (Figure 7.1d) is the
joint, or by empirical rules of thumb, such as rules risk of cleavage of the wood in the vicinity
for minimum edge distance in joints. In contem- of a steel rod glued in parallel to grain. In
porary timber engineering research, there is, how- other examples (Figures 7.1e, 7.1f and 7.1g),
ever, a strive for development of more general and there is direct loading across grain from the
rational methods of strength analysis, i.e. methods connector to the wood. Also, loading along
following foundations of sciences such as strength grain (Figure 7.1h) is known to produce tensile
of materials and continuum, structural and fracture stress and risk for tensile fracture across the
mechanics. Although the purely empirically found grain. In nail joints (Figure 7.1i), fracture may
rules are of great importance in timber design, develop even at zero external load due to
here the discussion will focus on the more rational the wedge action of the nails if the edge
methods. distance or the distance between the nails is too
The discussion will, moreover, focus on strength small. In adhesive joints (Figure 7. 1j), tension
parameters and strength models that are used perpendicular to grain may develop as a result
together with linear elastic orthotropic or trans- of the geometry of the joint.
versely isotropic models for the stress versus strain Eigenstresses of various kinds may result in
performance of the material outside the fracture fracture perpendicular to grain. One family of
process region. Characterisation of the fracture eigenstresses is due to structural redundancy,
region can be made according to some conven- which in combination with imposed deforma-
tional stress-based failure criterion, or according tions, e.g. due to displacement of supports or
to classic or generalised linear elastic fracture moisture variation induced stresses or strains in
mechanics, or according to nonlinear fracture zone the material, may give large structural stress-
modelling. Time-dependent effects such as creep ing at zero external load. According to one
fracture and the corresponding strength reduction philosophy of design, timber structures should
at long duration of load, as well as the eigenstresses therefore be designed to be statically determi-
and possible fracture due to transient moisture con- nate. Growth stress is a kind of eigenstresses in
ditions, are important issues in relation to fracture the living stem. Along grain these stresses may
perpendicular to grain, but only briefly dealt with be of significant magnitude and for some hard-
in this chapter. woods they may result in fracture as suggested
Fracture Perpendicular to Grain 105

(a) (b) (c)

(d) (e)

(g) (h)

(i) (k) (I)

(m) (n) (O)

(P) (q)

Figure 7.1 Various types and causes of fracture perpendicular to grain


106 Timber Engineering

in Figure 7.1k, when the log is sawn and the


stresses released. Change of the moisture content
to a lower level may give eigenstress and frac-
ture as indicated in Figures 7.1m and 7. 1n due
to the different shrinkage in the tangential and
the radial directions. The non-uniform moisture
Crack
content in a structural member during change
of the moisture level can give eigenstresses
in terms of high perpendicular to grain com-
pressive and tensile stresses (Figures 7.1k, 7.11),
and thereby very much effect the load carry-
ing capacity of the member or produce cracking
already at zero external load.
(a)
The non-homogenous character of wood and
defects such as knots and abnormal anatomy
may give tension perpendicular to grain, stress
concentrations and strength reduction. As an
example, Figure 7.1o) shows how the growth
ring induced variation of the orthotropic material
Crack
orientation may result in tensile fracture when
a piece of glulam is loaded in compression
perpendicular to grain. Figure 7.1p illustrates
how grain deviation around a knot in the lover
edge of a beam may yield perpendicular to grain
tensile fracture, and as a result, reduction of the
(b)
bending strength of the beam.
As a special and troublesome example of per- Figure 7.2 Perpendicular to grain fracture: (a) through
pendicular to grain fracture, Figure 7.1q shows cell walls, (b) along cell walls
how a cleavage crack develops during cutting
of the stem into pieces when the tree is being and Ashby, 1987). Crack propagation along the
harvested by use of a forest machine. cells walls (Figure 7.2b) is, according to Uhmeier
In traditional carpentry joints, not illustrated in (1995), favoured by:
Figure 7.1, there are commonly high local shear
stresses that may yield perpendicular to grain Crack propagation in the radial direction (Fig-
fracture and govern the strength of the joint ure 7.2b); see also Figure 7.5.
(Ehlbeck and Kromer, 1995). Thick cell walls (see Figure 7.5).
High temperature and chemical treatment.
7.4 MATERIAL PERFORMANCE Fracture along the cell walls is at room temperature
AND PROPERTIES mainly in the primary cell wall layer or in the S1
7.4.1 Micro-Scale Fracture cell wall layer (Bodig and Jane, 1982). These two
cell wall layers are the two thin outer layers that
Performance in Clear Wood cover the thick S2 layer. When the temperature is
At the fibre scale the perpendicular to grain increased to 150C, the fracture path is gradually
tensile fracture may develop through the cell walls shifted towards the middle lamella, which predom-
or along cell walls, as shown in Figure 7.2 (Gibson inantly is made up of lignin.
Fracture Perpendicular to Grain 107

typical perpendicular-to-late-wood fracture surface


pattern may develop even at radial tensile load (see
Figure 7.5) (Stefansson, 1995).

7.4.2 Timber versus Clear Wood


The natural structural variations and possible de-
fects in the stem of a tree can make a big difference
between the perpendicular to grain properties of a
small clear wood specimen and the properties per-
pendicular to the lengthwise direction of boards
and other timber structural elements. Natural vari-
Figure 7.3 Fracture localisation at growth ring scale
ations include heterogeneities due to varying prop-
for a small clear specimen erties from pith to bark (varying density, stiffness,
strength and shrinkage), the circular shape of the
growth rings making the direction of the material
At the growth ring scale (Figure 7.3), the most axes vary, spiral grain and the two kinds of knots
commonly observed failure modes are for small from dead and living branches, respectively. In
clear specimens affected by the orientation of timber the eigenstresses due to drying or growth
the growth rings with respect to the direction can be large, while in small clear wood specimens
of the tensile load: Tension failure in the early they can be expected to be smaller because of the
wood (Figure 7.3a), shear failure in the early stress release during cutting. Compression wood
wood (Figure 7.3b), and tangential tensile fail- is a common and natural structural abnormality,
ure (Figure 7.3c), can be identified (Bodig and and shakes and pitch pockets are common defects.
Jane, 1982). Shakes are separations of wood tissue and pitch
In larger pieces of wood with varying growth pockets are separations filled with resin.
ring angle or when the crack plane orientation is The heterogeneities give nonuniform stress dis-
governed by an initial crack, the fracture plane tribution under load and when the timber is dried
may develop at an angle to the orientation of the heterogeneity give eigenstresses and perhaps
the growth rings. In Figure 7.4 is shown how the cracking. Knots and grain orientation deviations
fracture plane may develop in a glulam lamellae have in general a positive influence on the perpen-
when loaded perpendicular to grain. When the dicular to timber element strength, since the per-
fracture plane versus growth ring is inclined there pendicular to grain direction in general is the weak-
is a wavy pattern, as shown in Figure 7.4b. This est direction. Shakes and pitch pockets may be

(a) (b)

Figure 7.4 (a) Possible tensile fracture in a glulam board, (b) fracture surface pattern, grey areas indicating late wood
108 Timber Engineering

Figure 7.5 Tensile fracture in Spruce (Picea abies) loaded in the radial direction

hidden, giving a surprising and perhaps dangerous models. Models for wood and timber at the engi-
reduction of the perpendicular to timber strength. neering structure level of size assumes that clear
The failure initiation in clear wood specimens wood, as well as timber are continuous and sta-
when subjected to bending is the formation of tistically homogeneous materials, and the strength
wrinkles in the compression zone. Commercial parameters involved with analysis fracture perpen-
timber most often has a bending failure initiation dicular to grain relate to two kinds of properties:
created by tension perpendicular to grain stresses failure stress and fracture toughness. The former
(Madsen, 1992). Such stresses develop where the property is decisive in cases of simultaneous high
fibres have been disturbed in the vicinity of a knot stressing of a large volume of material, in which
and localised slope of grain has been created, for case start of development of a fracture zone imme-
instance as shown in Figure 7.1p. diately leads to global failure. The fracture tough-
In timber engineering strength design, timber is ness is decisive in the case of a local stress concen-
commonly regarded as a homogeneous or statisti- tration, which, for instance, can be found in front of
cally homogeneous material. This basis will also a sharp notch or crack. In general, both properties
be adopted below. affect fracture and load-bearing capacity.
In transversely isotropic models, the properties
7.4.3 Material Parameters in the tangential and radial directions are assumed
The strength parameters used for material char- to be equal. This assumption is used in timber engi-
acterisation are in general different for different neering. When testing small clear wood specimens,
Fracture Perpendicular to Grain 109

the tangential and radial directions are, on the con- Gf is needed in the case of transversely isotropic
trary, commonly distinguished. The stiffness prop- material properties. If consideration of different
erties of a linear elastic orthotropic material is fully properties for the tangential, radial and intermedi-
defined by nine independent parameters, and the ate fracture plane orientations must be made, more
transversely isotropic material by six parameters, parameters are needed. While Gc and Gf have a
which in the case of 2D analysis is reduced to single value for a given mode of loading and ori-
four or two in-plane parameters, depending upon entation of the fracture plane, Kc in general has
the orientation of the plane. different, but not independent, values for different
A state of stress is in the general case defined directions of the crack propagation.
by six stress components, and a general stress fail- The parameter Gf can be experimentally deter-
ure criterion for orthotropic materials may include mined from the energy dissipation during a stable
several independent material parameters. In the bending or tensile fracture test of a specimen with or
present context, the most important stress is the without an initial crack. The parameters Gc and Kc
perpendicular to grain normal stress and the corre- can be determined from the load-bearing capacity
sponding tensile strength parameter, here denoted of some specimen with a deep crack or sharp notch.
ft,90. Other stress components, in particular shear, The above-mentioned material properties (fail-
may in some situations be large, and then affect ure stress and fracture toughness) relate to the
the perpendicular to grain failure. resistance to fracture. Other material parameters
The fracture toughness characterisation requires, may affect the magnitude and distribution of the
to start with, knowledge or assumptions about the stress at given external load. This has reference
stiffness properties of wood. Knowing the stiffness, in particular to the shrinkage and swelling proper-
the fracture toughness for tensile fracture of any ties of the material, (Jonsson and Svensson, 2000)
given orientation is within linear elastic fracture giving stress and perhaps cracking even at zero
mechanics defined either by a critical value of the external load.
stress intensity factor, Kc, or by the corresponding
critical value of the energy release rate, Gc, or 7.4.4 Tensile Strength
by the corresponding energy dissipation during the
development of the fracture surface, Gf. Within Table 7.1 shows a compilation of values from lit-
linear elastic fracture mechanics Gc = Gf, and erature of tensile, compressive and shear strengths
with the use of the elasticity parameters, Kc can of various species. The shear strength at rolling
also be related to Gc. shear is of the same order as the perpendicu-
For orthotropic materials there are, for all pos- lar to grain tensile strength. The compilation is
sible orientations of a crack plane, three possible from Gotz et al. (1978) and Larsen and Riberholt
states of loading of the crack: tensile loading, often (1983). The most commonly found literature val-
called mode 1 or the opening mode, in-plane shear ues are given together with the range of values.
and transverse shear. Here the discussion focuses The relative difference between the species and
on crack planes with the normal vector perpendic- modes of loading are, due to the influence of spec-
ular to grain and to the tensile loading mode. With imen volume on strength, of greater interest than
these limitations, only one parameter for Gc or the absolute strength values.

Table 7.1 Tensile, compressive and shear strengths of various species


Species ft, 90 MPa ft,0 MPa fu MPa fc,90 MPa fc,0 MPa
Spruce 3 (14) 90 (20-250) 7 (412) 6 (210) 30 (4580)
Scots pine 4 (24) 100 (35-200) 10 (615) 4 (814) 30 (5090)
Larch 2 100 9 (410) 8 35 (5580)
Beech 7 140 (60180) 11 (619) 9 40 (60100)
Oak 4 (210) 90 (50180) 11 (613) 8 (11-19) 40 (5590)
no Timber Engineering

Table 7.2 Strengthft,90,MPa, of Scots pine at various The duration of load effect on tensile strength
load directions and MC has been tested for large specimens made up of
Radial 45 Tangential Mean several boards glued together, forming a specimen
5.3 4.1
similar to a short part of a glulam beam (Madsen,
8% MC 5.3 4.9
10% MC 5.0 5.3 4.2 4.8 1992). Tests were made for both defect-free
14% MC 4.5 4.5 4.0 4.3 and commercial material. The time to failures
Mean 4.9 5.0 4.1 4.7 investigated being from 1 minute to 70 days, the
failure stress was reduced by about 15% for the
defect-free material, and about 7% for commercial
Test results showing the influence on tensile material for each 10-fold increase of time to
strength of the orientation of the growth rings failure. Within each group there was, however, no
are presented in Bostrom (1992) (Table 7.2). difference in the duration of load effect between
Tests were made at three moisture content levels the weak and strong specimens. More information
corresponding to 33% RH, 59% RH and 75% about the duration of load effect can be found in
RH. The material tested was Scots pine (Pinus other chapters of this book, and in Morlier and
silvestris), with a mean dry density of 463 kg/m3. Ranta-Maunus (1998), Aicher, Dill-Langer and
The test results were obtained for very small Ranta-Maunus (1998), Gustafsson, Hoffmeyer and
prismatic specimens with b*h*l = 20*12*3 mm3 Valentin (1998) and Svensson, Thelandersson and
glued in between two steel plates and loaded in Larsen (1999).
the 1-direction so that the cross-section area was A very comprehensive experimental work on the
b*h = 20*12 mm2. The total number of tests was tangential tensile strength and stiffness of Scots pine
83, and the time to peak stress 1-3 minutes. The (Pinus silvestris), Spruce (Picea excelsa) and Birch
mean value of the coefficient of variation for the (Betula verrucosa) at various densities, MCs and
test series was 20.1%. The strength in the radial temperatures is presented in Siimes (1967). Several
direction was found to be about 20% higher than thousand tests were made with specimens of size
in the tangential direction. This difference is much
b*h*l = 10*40*50 mm3, where 1 = 50 mm is the
less than the difference in elastic stiffness, where
effective length of the specimen. Tests results in
the radial direction roughly is about twice as stiff
terms of average values from some of the test series
as the tangential direction, which in turn roughly
are compiled in Figure 7.6. It is evident that the
is about twice as stiff as the intermediate 45-
density affects ft,90, but not as much as it affects
direction. Testing at 8% and 10% MC gave about
10% higher strength than at 14% MC. The higher the elastic modulus,Et,90.For the same density,
strength of Scots pine indicated in Table 7.2 than birch has a much higher strength than the softwoods,
in Table 7.1 can be explained by the very small but the stiffness is somewhat less. In relation to the
size of the specimens represented in Table 7.2. effect of MC, green wood was also tested. The test
For specimens of almost exactly the same small results for green wood are in the figure represented
size as tested by Bostrom (1992), test results on as wood with a MC of 28%, intended to reflect
the tangential tensile strength of Spruce (Picea the fibre moisture saturation point beyond which
abies) at various strain rates are presented in mechanical properties commonly are not much affe-
Holmberg (1998). The stroke rates was varied from cted by further increased moisture content. For birch
0.001 mm/s to 10 mm/s, corresponding strain rates the strength is about 60% less at 28% MC than at
from 0.03330%/s, and time to peak stress from 4% MC, while for the softwoods the corresponding
about 50 s to about 0.005 s. The results suggest reduction is about 40%. Increase of the temperature
about a 12% increase of the tensile strength for above 40 C has a significant influence on the
each 10-fold increase of the strain rate. Further strength. The stiffness is significantly reduced, by
test results on the rate effect are presented in about 20%, already by an increase in temperature
Olejniczak and Gustafsson (1994). from 2040 C. The effect of increased temperature
Fracture Perpendicular to Grain 111

9 I i ir i r 700
ft,90 t,90
MPa 8 12% MC. 20C Birch MPa 12%MC, 20C
600
7
500
6
400
5
4 300
Pine Spruce
3
200
Spruce
2
100
1
I I I I i
350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
Density, kg/m3
Density, kg/m3

ft,90 Et,90 800 l I I


MPa 9 X Birch, 620 kg/m3 MPa 700 X Birch, 620 kg/m3
O Pine, 490 kg/m3 O Pine, 490 kg/m3
8
+ Spruce, 450 kg/m3 600 + Spruce, 450 kg/m3
7
6 20C 500 20C -
5 400
4 300
3
2 200
1 100
0 0
10 15 20 25 30 10 15 20 25 30
MC, % MC, %

700
MPa X Birch, 620 kg/m3 MPa X Birch, 620 kg/m3
OPine, 490 kg/m3 600
O Pine, 490 kg/m3
+ Spruce, 450 kg/m3 + Spruce, 450 kg/m3
500
12% MC -
12% MC
400

300

200

100

0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Temperature,C Temperature, C

Figure 7.6 Tensile strength and elastic tensile stiffness in the tangential direction of birch, pine and spruce of various
densities and at various moisture content and temperature. Stated density is valid at 12% MC. Green wood is indicated
by 28% MC. (From test results of Siimes, 1967)
112 Umber Engineering

may for real structures be reduced by a simultaneous MC was about 12%. The tests were made as
decrease of the MC. short-term ramp load tests after conditioning in
The perpendicular to grain tensile strength is a constant climate. Reference G-88 is Gustafsson
strongly size -dependent. This is shown in Table 7.3 (1988), LR-83 is Larsen and Riberholt (1983) and
and Figure 7.7, where test results obtained for ADR-98 is Aicher, Dill-Langer and Ranta-Maunus
spruce are compiled. The results for glulam were (1998). The results for the small solid specimens
obtained by tensile loading of specimens with the were obtained for growth ring orientations fairly
kind of geometry shown in Figure 7.1o and by close to tension in the tangential direction.
four-point bending of curved beams (Figure 7.1a). The higher tensile strengths recorded for curved
The length measure, 1, given for the curved beams beams than for prismatic specimens of the same
is the length between the two loads, i.e. the length volume is because only a small part of the
of the part of the beam exposed to constant bending volume in the curved beams is exposed to high
moment. The density is given in kg/m3 and the stress.

Table 73 Perpendicular to grain tensile strength of spruce for specimens of various volume
Specimen: Specimen: Volume, dm3 Strength, MPa Reference
geom., mat., dens. b*h*l, mm3 Mean (5%-fract.)
Prismatic, solid, 467 15*16*20 0.005 4.0 (2.7) G-88
Prismatic, glulam, - - 0.027 2.4 LR-83
Prismatic, glulam, - - 0.28 1.8 LR-83
Prismatic, glulam, - - 2.5 1.0 LR-83
Prismatic, glulam, - - 26 0.63 LR-83
Prismatic, glulam, 530 90*275*400 10 0.89 (0.74) ADR-98
Prismatic, glulam, 493 140*405*528 30 0.67 (0.55) ADR-98
Curv. beam, glul., 470 90*400*1000 36 1.21 (0.95) ADR-98
Curv. beam, glul., 496 90*600*2000 108 0.85 (0.72) ADR-98
Curv. beam, glul., 503 90*600*4000 216 0.71 (0.59) ADR-98
Curv. beam, glul., 493 140*600*4000 336 0.61 (0.46) ADR-98

I I
0.6 x Solid, prismatic
* Glulam A, prismatic
0.5 + Glulam B, prismatic
-o Glulam B, curved beam
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
-0.1
-0.2

-3 2 1 0 1
, V0= 1.0 dm3

Figure 7.7 Tensile strength versus volume of specimen


Fracture Perpendicular to Grain 113

The logarithmic linear relation shown in Fig- of volume on strength. Typically, from a Swedish
ure 7.7 is glulam design manual,
-0.2 0.2
(7.2)
(7.1) (V/Vref)
0.2

where f0 = 1.0 MPa and V0 = 1.0 dm3. Since V where V is the volume of the structural element,
is proportional to the length scale raised to 3, Equa- Vref = 10 dm3 and kshape = 1.4 for curved beams
tion (7.1) suggests that ft,90 is proportional to a of constant height.
length measure of the structural element raised to It is interesting that code values for the
-0.6. perpendicular to grain tensile strength, unlike the
The influence of volume is commonly explained bending strength and other mechanical properties,
by the weakest link theory of Weibull. In a large are often assigned a constant or only slightly
volume of a material there are more weak points, varying value with respect to the grading or
and the weakest point, in Weibull theory assumed strength class of the timber or glulam. In the
to be decisive, is probably weaker the more weak Swedish BKR-94, ft,90,k is constant (0.5 MPa),
points there are. Another explanation to the volume although the corresponding values for the bending
effect is the heterogeneous stiffness. The approx- strength varies from 1238 MPa, and the tensile
imately 2-4 times higher stiffness in the radial strength in the parallel to grain direction varies
direction in the middle of a board than in the slop- from 827 MPa for the various strength classes
ing growth ring direction at the edge of a board defined in the code. In the European EN
implies a region in middle where the stress may be 338 ft,9Q,k is from 0.30.4 MPa for conifers
much higher than the nominal mean stress adopted and poplar, with characteristic density values
in the evaluation of the tensile strength test results. from 290-420 kg/m3, and from 0.60.9 MPa
This effect is small for narrow boards and strong for deciduous species with characteristic density
for wide boards. values from 530900 kg/m3. The corresponding
A third explanation to the volume effect is that relative variation of the characteristic bending
defects such as drying cracks tend to be larger strength is for the conifers and poplar much
in large specimens. According to linear fracture greater, from 1440 MPa, and for the deciduous
mechanics, if the depth of a crack is proportional species from 3070 MPa.
to the size of the specimen, then a doubling of the A high strength class corresponds to high
length scale i.e. an 8-folded increase of the volume density, few and small knots, and/or high bending
of the specimen produces a tensile strength reduc- stiffness and high bending strength. There is,
tion by the factor (1/2)1/2, i.e. a 30% reduction. apart from known positive influence of density
A typical 5%-fractile characteristic value, f t , 9 0 , k , and knots, no evidence available for correlation
for wood and glulam given in codes of timber between high strength class and high perpendicular
design practice is 0.50 MPa (from the Swedish to timber tensile strength. In tests of notched
code BKR-94). The characteristic value is in codes beams (Figure 7.1c), it was on the contrary found
reduced to a design strength value by a factor yn that the load-bearing capacity was significantly
for structural safety level, a factor ym for material higher for the beams having a knot in the vicinity
uncertainties, and a factor Kr that depends upon of the notch, both with respect the mean value
climatic conditions and the duration of the loads. In and the 5%-fractile value (Larsen and Riberholt,
the special case of tension perpendicular to grain, 1972). Positive influence of density on tangential
there may be additional reduction factors. As an clear wood strength is indicated in Figure 7.6.
example, for curved glulam beams there may be Defects like pitch pockets that may reduce the
an additional reduction factor krad that reflects the perpendicular to grain tensile strength may not
influence of the built-in eigenstresses due to the be visible from the outside, nor be revealed
curving of the beam during the manufacturing, and by influence on bending stiffness or bending
a reduction factor K vol hat reflects the influence strength.
114 Timber Engineering

7.4.5 Fracture Energy from Bending


Tests Frame of
testing machine
The fracture toughness of a material is governed
by its stiffness and fracture energy. The fracture
energy is the energy dissipated in the fracture
process region during the development of one unit
area of a fractured cross-section or crack. The
fracture energy can be determined directly from
recorded work of fracture, giving the parameter
that is denoted here as Gf. Within the framework
of linear elastic fracture mechanics, fracture Stable
property characterisation can alternatively be made
Unstable
from the failure load of some test specimen with
a pre-fabricated sharp crack. From the failure
load, it is possible to evaluate the critical energy
release rate, Gc, and as an alternative, the critical
value of the crack tip stress intensity factor, Kc. 8 5, mm
Linear elastic fracture mechanics is valid for large
specimens where the depth of the prefabricated Figure 7.8 Specimen for fracture energy test (a) and
crack is large as compared to the size of the examples of test recordings (b)
fracture process region.
There is a Nordic standard for the determination
of Gf of wood by testing notched beam specimens this evaluation is that energy is dissipated only in
in three point bending, as shown in Figure 7.8a. the fracture zone. This is a reasonable assumption
The specimen is made up of three pieces of wood for small specimens. For large specimens, having
that are glued together. At testing according to a large volume of material to ligament area ratio,
the standard, the length a is a = d = 60 mm, the Gf can be overestimated due to plastic straining
depth of the notch is 0.6d and the width of the of material outside the fracture section.
During development of the test method, vari-
specimen can be chosen according to the purpose
of the test, e.g. 45 mm. The notch may be sawn, ous woods were tested for their fracture energy
and to reduce scatter in the test results, should be at a dozen laboratories throughout the world.
Wood density was found to significantly effect Gf
finished with a sharp razorblade cut. Unless the
testing equipment is very weak, it is possible to (Figure 7.9a showing the results from test series
with Nordic redwood (Scots pine) and Figure 7.9b
record the entire load, P, versus stroke, S, curve
showing the results for all species tested (Larsen
as shown in Figure 7.8b, without the occurrence of
and Gustafsson, 1990, 1991)). Other parameters
any instability. Gf is obtained as
varied were crack propagation direction, fracture
r&o surface orientation and MC.
Gf = W/A, W = mgS0+ / PdS (7.3) For a given orientation of the fracture surface,
Jo there should be no influence of the crack prop-
where A is the cross-section area of the ligament, agation direction, and neither was any significant
mg the weight of the specimen and 60 the deflec- influence on Gf found in the tests. The load capac-
tion when the specimen finally falls down by its ity, on the other hand, is strongly affected as a
own weight. The integral is the work carried out result of different stiffnesses in different directions.
by the machine and obtained as the area under the Taking all species tested as one group, no deci-
curve. mg0 is the work of the dead weight, half sive fracture surface orientation dependence could
of it made before 8 = 0. A basic assumption in be concluded. According to a small set of tests
Fracture Perpendicular to Grain 115

Fracture energy, Nm/m2 Fracture energy, Nm/m2


1200
Data 1 +2 + 3 + 41 +43 + 61 +8 + 11
Data 71+72: USA i
1100

1000

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200
G = 162 + 1.07 *dens
100

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Density pw,w Density pmx kg/m3
(a) (b)

Figure 7.9 Gf vs. density at about 12% MC for (a) Nordic redwood, and (b) all test results

specifically devoted to an orientation investigation, 7.4.6 Stress versus Deformation


the fracture energy is higher for a surface with its Performance of Wood During
normal vector in the tangential direction than for a
surface with radial normal direction. The fracture
Fracture
toughness (i.e. the crack growth or cleavage resis- By testing a small specimen, it is possible to
tance), which is also affected by the orthotropic record the gradual damage and fracture of wood
stiffness of the material, is for cleavage along in terms of stress versus deformation across a
grain in general greater for tension in the radial fracture zone, including the descending branch
direction than for tension in the tangential direc- of the curve. Figure 7.10 shows such specimens
tion (Valentin et al., 1991). The force needed for used for testing the fracture performance in tension
cleavage creating a fracture surface in the tangen- and shear (Gustafsson, 1992). The specimens were
tial plane is, for softwoods, 10-30% higher than glued to steel parts and loaded in a testing machine
for the radial plane; see the material property sur- with a stiff load cell. If using too large a specimen
vey in Dinwoodie (1981). or a flexible machine, the amount of elastic energy
Tests of Gf at various MC between 10% and becomes large, giving instability with a rapid
20% did not indicate any evident influence of the and brittle failure just after peak load. The test
MC. For wet wood, the Gf is known to be less than recordings shown in Figure 7.10 were obtained for
for dry wood: Helmersson (1978) found for Scots Scots pine.
pine, Gf = 330 J/m2 at both 9% and 14% MC, but After peak load there is unloading of the mate-
was 180 J/m2 at 90% MC for wood that originally rial outside the fracture zone, and the deformation
was dry and then kept in water for a week. of this material decreases as the stress decreases,
116 Timber Engineering

a, MPa r, MPa

15 mm 10
20 mm

Approximate mean curve, Approximate mean curve,


5 tests 6 tests

0.3 S, mm

Figure 7.10 Specimen and test recordings for (a) tension and (b) shear

as indicated by the broken lines in Figure 7.10. Figure 7.11 shows stress versus deformation
The total deformation, or elongation, is made up curves for perpendicular to grain tensile fracture
of deformation of the material outside the frac- in Scots pine (Bostrom, 1992). RL-orientation
ture region and the deformation within the fracture denotes tension in the radial direction. From the
region. This means that the fracture deformation at curves the fracture energy, Gf can be obtained
any given stress can be obtained as the difference from the area under the curves, as indicated in
between the total deformation and the deforma- the figure. Using a biaxial testing machine, tests
tion indicated by the broken line. By this it is have been made for pure and simultaneous tension
possible to characterise the fracture properties of and shear. Figure 7.12, taken from Wernersson
the material by a curve that shows stress versus (1994), shows the tensile and shear stresses versus
fracture zone deformation as the material is being time, recorded during testing of a Spruce specimen
damaged and the stress decreasing from peak to for an equal rate of deformation in the normal
zero. This curve can be used as a basis for both and shear directions. The normal deformation and
linear and nonlinear fracture mechanics analysis. normal to fracture surface directions coincide with
The described material test and evaluation method the tangential direction of the wood. It can be noted
is fundamental in the 'fictitious crack model' of that peak tensile and shear stresses do not occur
Hillerborg et al. (1976). at the same time. If the test had been made at

MPa a, MPa a, MPa

5- RL-orientation 45-orientation 5- TL-orientation


59%RH=>t7=10% 59%RH=u=10% 59%RH=>u=10%
4 - GF = 445 N/m, s.d. = 115 N/m GF = 515 N/m, s.d. = 125 N/m 4 - G = 500 N/m, s.d. = 75 N/m
F

3- ft = 5.0 MPa, s.d. = 1.2 MPa ft = 5.3 MPa, s.d. = 1.4 MPa 3- = 4.2 MPa, s.d. =0.7 MPa
iNOS = 17 NOS= 6
2- 2-
1- 1-

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 w, mm 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 w, mm 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 w, mm

Figure 7.11 Fracture performance of wood in tension perpendicular to grain for various orientations
Fracture Perpendicular to Grain 117

t, s
100 ^ 200 300 400 500

Figure 7.12 Tensile and shear stress vs. time recorded at a mixed mode test

*- Sn, mm *- Ss, mm
0.5 0.5

Figure 7.13 Mean curves for (a) tensile stress vs. normal deformation, and (b) shear stress vs. shear deformation
obtained for four different mixed mode displacement ratios

force control, as opposite to stroke or deformation Table 7.4 Mixed mode fracture properties (Werners-
control, brittle failure of the specimen would have son, 1994)
occurred at the instant of peak tensile stress. Mixed mode a r Gfa Gfr Gf.tot
Figure 7.13 shows the results of similar mixed angle MPa MPa J/m2 J/m2 J/m2
mode tests in terms of tensile stress versus nor- 0 4.8 0.9 475 0 475
mal deformation, and shear stress versus shear 45 3.3 8.1 146 481 627
deformation for four values of the mixed mode 51 2.7 9.4 75 552 627
90 0.2 10.9 0 1120 1120
ratio, indicated by the inclination of the stroke dis-
placement vector. The mixed mode ratio within
the fracture zone may be somewhat different, and normal stroke displacement, some non-zero shear
vary during the course of fracture. The peak ten- stress was recorded at some instance during the
sile and shear stresses, and the normal, shear course of fracture. The standard deviation was
and total fracture energies for the various mixed about 0.5 MPa in recorded peak stresses, and about
modes, are shown in Table 7.4. Even for pure 70 J/m2 in recorded energies. The recorded peak
118 Timber Engineering

tensile and shear stresses agree reasonably well theory, partly made in some contemporary codes
with the simple criterion: of practice, at least tacitly.

( f t , 9 0 ) 2 + (r/fv)2 = 1.0 (7.4) Consideration of the non-zero fracture energy


of wood, making it possible to analyse the
Additional test results on the stress versus defor- strength of structural elements and details of
mation properties of a fracture zone can be stress concentrations at joints and due to cracks
found in Bostrom (1992), Wernersson (1994) and notches, etc.
(adhesive joints), Olejniczak and Gustafsson
(1994) (specimen geometry, growth ring orien- Consideration of moisture-induced stresses and
tation, rate), Holmberg (1998) (rate), Serrano other eigenstresses as loads rather than by reduc-
(2000) (adhesive joints) and Stefansson (2001) tion of design strength values of the material.
(mixed mode).
In the ideal case, the assumptions of statisti-
cally homogenous and transversely isotropic prop-
7.5 METHODS FOR STRENGTH erties should also be abandoned. This may, how-
ANALYSIS ever, be almost impossible to realise generally in
practice.
7.5.1 An Overview of Models In Table 7.5 models are organised with respect
to assumptions on the material properties: deter-
The conventional model in timber engineering
for rational strength analysis is linear elastic ministic (homogeneous) versus stochastic (het-
stress analysis together with a stress-based failure erogeneous) strength, and zero versus non-zero
criterion, assuming timber to be a continuous, fracture toughness. The models mentioned will be
homogeneous, transversely isotropic and brittle discussed below, throughout with the assumption
material with deterministic properties. Looking at of a linear elastic and time-independent stress-
the examples of perpendicular to grain failure strain performance of the material. The assumption
shown in Figure 7.1, it is obvious that rational of linear elasticity can be reasonable for the pre-
analysis by the conventional model cannot be peak stress performance of wood when subjected
used or expected to give poor results in most to short-term tensile stress.
of the examples. The only example where
the conventional analysis - although modified to
include the volume effect - is known to be used Table 7.5 Models for timber engineering strength
analysis
for perpendicular to grain strength design is the
curved glulam beam (Figure 7.1a). According to Deterministic Stochastic
Madsen (1992), there is no tension perpendicular (homogeneous) (heterogeneous)
to grain strength property stated for timber, only Brittle (Gf = 0) Conventional Weibull
for glulam, in the American codes. This reflects the stress analysis weakest link
lack of good rational methods in design practice theory
with respect to risk for perpendicular to grain With fracture Linear fracture Probabilistic
fracture. ductility mechanics fracture
Steps towards more accurate and rational (Gf = 0) mechanics
strength design modelling in relation to fracture Generalised
perpendicular to grain may include: lin. fracture
mechanics
Consideration of the volume effect and the Nonlinear
fracture
stochastic nature of the material properties. Such mechanics
consideration is already, by use of Weibull
Fracture Perpendicular to Grain 119

7.5.2 Example of Contemporary 7.5.3 Conventional Stress Analysis


Design According to a Code Failure Criteria
of Practice The failure criterion for a general state of stress,
An example of strength design according to a con- a, may be written as
temporary code, Eurocode 5, is given as an intro-
duction before discussing the calculation methods F(<r,vl/) = 0 (7.6)
indicated in Table 7.5. The example is taken from
Ehlbeck and Gorlacher (1995), and relates to the where ^ is a set of material parameters. Assuming
kind of joints shown in Figure 7.14, 7.1e and 7. If. an ideal brittle performance, as is commonly
For these joints, the design condition with respect made in conventional timber engineering strength
to risk for perpendicular grain to tensile fracture is analysis, the structural element or detail under
consideration is assumed to break as soon as the
vd< (7.5) state of stress in some point fulfils the criterion.
Making no distinction between the radial and
where f v , d is the design shear strength of the wood, tangential directions and considering a state of
be and t are as indicated in Figure 7.14, and Vd is plane stress, a commonly adopted criterion appears
the design shear force representing the maximum to be one of Norris criteria (Norris, 1962):
of V1d and V2,d. It is required that be > 0.5 h.
This design procedure substitutes the design for + (cr0//o)2 + 1.0 (7.7)
the concentrated tensile stress perpendicular to
in which five material parameters are involved:
grain at the base of the joint with a more or
the tensile or compressive strengths f0 and f90
less fictitious shear strength design of the cross-
and the shear strength fv. Often, the first term
section tbe with respect to the shear stress at the
is small and therefore ignored, for tensile stress,
distance be/2 from the edge. Important factors such
giving Equation (7.7).
as the perpendicular to grain tensile strength and
A state of stress of particular interest is uniaxial
fracture toughness of the wood are not taken into
tension, aa, at an angle a to the grain, giving the
account. The basis for the design procedure can
stress components
be difficult to understand, but it has the advantage
of being simple. If be < 0.5 h, then some more (790 = 0a(l cos2a)/2
detailed calculation is required, but the method of
calculation is not provided by the code. 1 or0 = a a (l+cos2a)/2
r = (da/2)sin2a
(7.8)

Figure 7.14 A joint


120 Timber Engineering

A failure criterion for this uniaxial state of stress is and Cote (1968), and they were obtained for Bass-
a formula commonly called Hankinson's equation: wood (Tilia americana). Similar influence of grain
angle is found for other species and also for
(7.9) loading in bending and compression. For Scots
ft,90cosn a + f t , 0 sinn a pine, Table 7.1 and Ullman (1997) suggest paral-
lel/perpendicular strength ratios in the order of 20
where the exponent n according to Kollmann and
for tension, 15 for bending and 8 for compression.
Cote (1968) gives satisfactory agreement with test
For the general 3D state of stress, Norris (1950)
results for values from 1.5-2.0. Even at combined
proposed a criterion with separate considerations
states of stress, it can in some cases be sufficient
to possible failure for the three principal planes of
to consider the stress components separately, for
the orthotropic material:
plane stress giving the failure criteria

(7.10)

so that the different failure modes of tensile (7.11)


fracture perpendicular to grain, shear fracture and
tensile fracture in the grain direction are considered ( 2 /f 2 ) 2 + (T32/fv32)2
separately. The material parameters f90 and f0 may (r3/f3)(r2/f2) = 1.0
have different values for tension and compression.
Criteria (7.7), (7.9) with n = 2, and (7.10) where 1, 2 and 3 represent the stresses and cor-
are for the uniaxial tensile state of stress of responding strength parameters for the tangential,
Equation (7.8) compared in Figure 7.15. In this radial and longitudinal directions. Equation (7.11)
comparison, ft,90 = 4.5 MPa, ft,0 = 89 MPa and represents for plane stress, an alternative or exten-
fv = 12 MPa. The test results are from Kollmann sion to the Norris criterion of Equation (7.7).

i i

Tensile failure, a0 = ft,0 = 89 MPa

Shear failure, r = fv = 12 Mpa


Hankinson

o Tests of basswood

Tensile failure, a = f. - 4.5 MPa

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Figure 7.15 Uniaxial tensile failure stress versus load to grain angle
Fracture Perpendicular to Grain 121

7.5.4 Weibull Weakest Link Theory (see Gustafsson, 1985). The coefficient y = 1.0
if the state of stress is homogeneous throughout
If the probability of failure of a link number / in the element, and y < 1.0 in all other cases. A
a chain with n links is Si, then the probability heterogeneous stress distribution with high stress
that no link in the chain will break is P = (1 only in a small local region gives a small value of
S 1 )(lS 2 )(1S3)... (1 - sn). Accordingly, the y and a high maximum stress at failure, i.e. a high
probability of failure of the chain is 1 P. Using
90, failure.
the Weibull distribution for the characterisation of Equation (7.14) can be compared with Equa-
the strength of a link (or the strength of a unit tion (7.1) and Figure 7.7. The apparently higher
volume of a material), tensile strength ft, 90 of the material in the curved
S = 1e(r/f)m (7.12) beams (see Figure 7.7), than in the prismatic spec-
imens corresponds within Weibull theory to a
where S is the probability of failure, a is the stress smaller y for the geometry and stress distribution
in the link and / and m are material parameters, of a curved beam. The influence of volume and
the probability of failure of a chain made up of stress distribution on the probability of fracture has
V/dV links (or the probability of failure of a lead to definition in analogy with Equation (7.14)
material volume made of V/dV unit volumes) is, of an 'effective Weibull stress', so that the load-
by multiplication, found to be ing level of different structural elements can be
compared (Ranta-Maunus, 1998).
S=1 where / = / (Of (7.13) In the present context, ft,90, a and 090 are tacitly
Jv assumed to represent the perpendicular to grain
From Equation (7.13), it is possible to calculate tensile stress, but may equally well be interpreted
the median and mean strengths of the volume as representing some other stress component or an
of material under consideration. This volume can, effective stress as defined by some failure criterion,
for instance, be a test specimen in homogeneous e.g. some of those in Section 7.5.3.
tension or a structural element in which the stress The above two-parameter Weibull distribution
distribution is heterogeneous. Indicating the mean has some nice features. It produces an extreme
strength of the tensile test specimen of volume V0 value distribution (Equation (7.13)) of the same
by ft,90, and representing the magnitude of the load kind as the distribution itself (Equation (7.12)),
acting on the structural element by the magnitude and the cov for the strength of the link (the
of the stress 090 in the most stressed point, the unit material volume) is the same as the cov of
mean failure value of <90 becomes the element, independently of its size and shape.
The distribution yields no strength values below
failure = ft,90 (V/ V 0 ) I / m y I / m , zero, and the shape is for large m fairly similar
to that of the Gauss distribution. There is also
where y - \ (a/a^dV/V (7.14) a three-parameter Weibull distribution, the third
Jv parameter shifting the location of the curve so
The parameter m is governed by the magnitude of that there will be no strength value below some
the scatter in the strength of the material, m has a arbitrary value greater than zero.
one-to-one relation to the coefficient of variation, The Weibull weakest link modelling was pro-
as well as to the volume effect in strength, m = 5 posed by Weibull (1939a, b). For application of
corresponds to 22.9% cov in strength and to a the theory, the stresses a in actual volume has
13% reduction in 90, failure for a doubling of the to be calculated and then integrated according
volume, and m = 10 corresponds to 12.0% cov to Equation (7.14). The calculation can in some
and to a 7% reduction in doubling cases be made by beam theory, while numerical
of the volume. For other values of m and for calculations by the finite element method and
more details in the derivation of Equation (7.14) numerical integration may be needed in other
122 Timber Engineering
cases. The volume and shape factors proposed in fracture process region. In wood the size of the
Eurocode 5 for use in strength design of curved, fracture process region is roughly from a few
tapered and pitched cambered glulam beams are millimeters for crack propagation in the radial-
based on Weibull theory considerations (Ehlbeck tangential plane to several centimeters for shear
and Kurth, 1995). fracture along grain.
An objection to general application of the weak- LEFM can be formulated as an analysis of the
est link theory is that the performance of wood and magnitude of the stress intensity at the tip of the
wooden structural elements is not ideally brittle, i.e. crack or as analysis of the energy balance during
a structural element is not in general acting as if all crack propagation. Here only the latter formulation
points in the volume of the element were links in a will be dealt with. The energy balance during an
chain. Wood, just as all other solid materials, has on extension of the cracked area by dA is
the contrary fracture toughness greater than zero.
The conventional stress criteria discussed in Gf = W dT/dA d <f>/dA (7.15)
Section 7.5.3 are known to break down when there
is a crack or sharp notch producing a point where where Gf is the dissipation of energy during the
the stress approaches an infinitely large value crack propagation, W is the work by external
already at very small external load. Weibull theory loads during the crack propagation dA, T is the
is found to break down in a similar way in the kinetic energy and <f> is the elastic strain energy
presence of a stress singularity (Gustafsson and (Hellan, 1985). For quasi-static conditions and
Enquist, 1988). For m < 4, Weibull theory predicts loading only by a single load, Equation (7.15)
that the tip of a crack will not fracture, no matter gives, for a structural element with the compliance
the magnitude of the load; for m = 4 no prediction C = 1/K = 8/P,
is obtained, and for m > 4 the crack is found to
Gf = (l/2)(P 2 f /b)(dC(a)/da) (7.16)
have zero strength.
where da is the extension of the length, a, of the
7.5.5 Linear Elastic Fracture crack, and where b = dA/da is the width of the
Mechanics fracture area. Pf is the magnitude of load that
Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) can be is just about sufficient to start a propagation of
used for calculating the load that gives propagation the crack. The crack propagation becomes unstable
of a pre-existing crack or sharp notch, having and rapid at prescribed load, P, if Pf decreases as
'infinite' stress at the tip of the crack or notch. a is increased, and vice versa.
Basic assumptions are that the material is linear To illustrate the energy balance analysis fur-
elastic and of infinite strength in terms of stress. ther, the double cantilever specimen shown in
LEFM gives results that are in good agreement Figure 7.16 can be analysed from the energy
with reality if the length of the initial crack potential point of view. The energy potential of
or notch is large as compared to the size of the system, U, is the sum of the strain energy

Figure 7.16 A double cantilever specimen


Fracture Perpendicular to Grain 123

in the body, PS/2, and the potential of the load, that (failure is not affected at all by the perpendicular
PS, giving to grain tensile strength of the wood, ft,90.
U = -PS/2 (7.17) The key information needed for application to
other structural elements is the compliance, C,
Making the decrease in U equal to the fracture as a function of the crack length, a. For some
energy Gf times the fracture area bda geometries it is fairly simple to calculate C, for
instance by use of beam theory, while numerical
-dU = Gfbda (7.18)
computation by use of the finite element method
it is by use of Equation (7.17) found that may be used in other cases.
For an end-crack, as shown on the right-hand
P = (7.19) side support of the beam in Figure 7.17, it is by
LEFM and calculation of C by beam theory found
which is the same result as in Equation (7.16). For that the beam shear force at the root of notch at
application to the particular example of Figure 7.16, failure is
the compliance C must be calculated. Elementary
beam theory gives an approximation of C: Vf = bahjEoGf/hf J0.6(EQ/G)(a - a2)

C = S/P = 2a 3 /(3E 0 I) (7.20)


+j8 v /6(l/a-or 2 )] (7.23)
where E0 is the longitudinal modulus of elasticity
and the moment of inertia, /, is b(h/2)3/l2. Thus, where G is the shear stiffness of the wood
for the double cantilever beam, by Equation (7.19): (Gustafsson, 1988). The same result is obtained
for all the different kinds of notches shown in
Pf = (7.21) Figure 7.17. The beam depth measures h and ah
then indicate the measures at the notch considered,
This result is general with respect to the influence and ft represents the bending moment at the notch,
of stiffness, E, and fracture energy, Gf. i.e. B is in the general case replaced by M/(Vh),
By normalising Pf with respect to the size of where M is the bending moment.
the element, i.e. by expressing the failure load by Equation (7.23) has, for the kind of end-notch
stress at failure: shown on the left-hand support, been compared
with all the test results found in the literature,
failure = Pf /(bh)= J E0G f / h(h/d)/V96 for beams of structural sizes showing a good
(7.22) agreement between LEFM theory and the test
a general and important result is also found with results. For small beams or specimens, it is found
respect to the influence of the absolute size: the that the condition of a small fracture process zone
stress at failure is not constant but inversely pro- as compared to the depth of the notch is not
portional to the square root of the absolute length fulfilled, giving failure load predictions somewhat
scale of the structural element. It can also be noted higher than found experimentally.

JtL

Figure 7.17 Notches of various kind


124 Timber Engineering

0.2

10 100 1000 h, mm
Figure 7.18 Influence of beam size on the strength of end-notched beams

In Figure 7.18 is a comparison made between 1994), Gustafsson and Serrano (2000) and Serrano
the LEFM theory and tests with respect to the (2000), and in references given in these reports.
influence of absolute size on strength. The eight
test series relate to end-notched beams of vari- 7.5.6 Generalised Linear Elastic
ous shape and they are from seven independent Fracture Mechanics
experimental investigations (Gustafsson, 1991). In
earlier timber engineering design codes, based on Basic limitations for application of the LEFM are
conventional failure stress calculation, there was that
no consideration of any size effect caused by the The size of the fracture process region at the
presence of a crack or notch. This size effect is in tip of the crack must be small as compared
more general terms caused by the fracture process to the length of the crack, or else the strength
region having an absolute size that is governed by predictions become poor.
the properties of the material, not by the size of
There must be a pre-existing sharp crack or
the structure. The effect of the size of the fracture notch in the specimen or structural element, giv-
process region becomes evident when there is a ing a square root singularity in the stress, mean-
stress gradient in the high stress region, this gradi- ing that the linear elastic stress is proportional
ent being especially large in the vicinity of the tip to r 1/2 in the vicinity of the crack tip, r being
of a notch or crack. the distance to the crack tip.
Examples on research on applications of LEFM
to the analysis of mechanical joints can be found in To overcome the first limitation, various modifi-
Jorrisen (1998), Yasumura and Daudeville (1999), cations or additions to the basic LEFM analysis
Larsen and Gustafsson (2000) and van der Put and have been proposed. A simple and widespread
Leijten (2000). For wood adhesive joints, LEFM modification is to assign the crack a somewhat
applications can be found in state-of-the-art-reports increased length, so that the crack tip computation-
by Valentin et al. (1991), Wernersson (1992, ally becomes located close to the centre of gravity
Fracture Perpendicular to Grain 125

of the stresses acting across the fracture region. where stiffness parameter EI is the short for
The length of the fracture zone at essentially ten-
sile stress fracture crack propagation along the
grain is, according to a set of nonlinear frac- E1 =- VJ.H-
ture calculations by the FEM, roughly about 0.25
Gf (E 0 G) 1 / 2 /(f t , 9 0 ) 2 , where the length for soft- (7.25)
woods is commonly in the order of 1015 mm, E is the stiffness of the wood perpendicular to the
and as a rough estimation it has been proposed that fracture plane, and E11 is the stiffness of the wood
the addition to the length of the crack or notch may in the direction of the fracture propagation. G
been taken as 0.2 Gf(E0G)1/2/(ft,90)2 (Gustafs- and v11 indicate shear stiffness and Poisons ratio,
son, 1985, 1988). This addition to the crack length respectively. The specimen is assumed to be in a
becomes significant when making strength predic- state of plane stress, and the width of the area is
tions for small specimens with a short crack. accordingly equal to the width of the specimen. A
A further complication when the initial crack similar, but lengthier expression can be derived for
is short is that it may become unstable before mixed mode loading (Gustafsson, Petersson and
the fracture zone is completely developed to its Stefansson, 1996). There is, however, a significant
full size, i.e. the specimen or structural element influence on the length x of the shear stress
may break before the fracture energy of the mate- component only when arctan(a/r) is less than
rial is fully activated. This can be considered in about 20. The length x1 is for softwood typically
an approximate way by so-called R-curve char- in the order of 20 mm for fracture propagation
acterisation of the material properties, the R- along grain, and 4 mm for fracture propagation in
curve showing how the crack propagation resis- the radial direction.
tance increases as the length of the fracture zone In the other proposal, the initial crack method,
increases. R-curve analysis has been applied to the strength analysis is made by LEFM, assuming
steel and concrete. the existence of an initial and additional crack
The second of the above two limitations of of a certain length where fracture may develop.
LEFM application is of a more fundamental char- If there is already a crack in the element, the
acter. However, generalisations, still within linear additional crack adds to the length of the initial
elastic theory, have been proposed. One proposal is real crack. The length of the extra crack is derived
a method sometimes called the mean stress method, from the condition that the predicted strength of
and the other proposal that will be discussed here an element without any stress singularity coincides
is sometimes called the initial crack method. with the prediction obtained by a conventional
In the mean stress method, stress and strength stress-based failure criterion, which in the case of
analysis is made in an almost conventional way. pure tension perpendicular to grain is 90=ft,90.
But in the stress criterion used, for instance By this condition, the length of the additional crack
Equations (7.3) or (7.7), the stresses #90 and r (and is, for pure mode I loading, found to be
DO) are not taken as the stresses in a point, but as
the mean stresses for an area of a certain size. a, = x,/2 (7.26)
In this way, there will be no 'infinite' stress. The
size of the area can be derived from the condition where xj is given according to Equation (7.24).
that the strength prediction obtained for specimens With parameters typical for softwood, a1 is
with a very long sharp crack coincides with the typically about 10 mm for fracture propagation
prediction of LEFM. For mode I fracture (i.e. for along the grain and 2 mm for fracture propagation
pure tensile stress across a potential fracture sur- in the radial direction. The length for fracture along
face), the length of the area is found to be the grain can be compared with the above rough
estimate, 0.2 G f ( E 0 G ) l / 2 / ( f t . 9 0 ) 2 , of the crack
E}Gf
2 __ length increase to improve the results of LEFM
Xf = (7.24)
* ft90 analysis when the crack is short as compared to
126 Umber Engineering

the length of the fracture zone. Equation (7.26) is presented in Masuda (1988). Using this theory, the
also valid at mixed mode loading, i.e. a = x/2. means stress is calculated for a volume of the mate-
Further information on the above two meth- rial, the thickness and length of the volume being
ods and examples of applied strength analysis can estimated from the dimensions of wood fibres.
be found in Landelius (1989), where the mean
stress method is dealt with for mode I loading, in 7.5.7 An Example of Nonlinear
Morris, Gustafsson and Serrano (1995), where the and Quasi-nonlinear
methods are applied to the strength analysis of I- Fracture Analysis
shaped lightweight beams with a circular hole, and
Glued joints, as shown in Figure 7.19, were tested
in Gustafsson, Petersson and Stefansson (1996), by Glos and Horstman (1989) to find design crite-
where applications are made to timber and glu- ria for glued truss heal joints, shown as a detail
lam beams of two sizes and with different kinds of in Figure 7.2 Ib. One of the glues tested was a
holes and notches. It seems that the methods give resorcinol-phenol adhesive. This glue is strong and
reasonable results. The prime limitation is that the brittle, so that strength properties of the wood
relevant dimensions of the structural element anal- (Picea abies) most probably were decisive. In a
ysed should be large as compared with the lengths theoretical study of the joint (Gustafsson and Ser-
a and x. As compared with nonlinear fracture rano, 1998), nonlinear fracture mechanics plane
mechanics analysis, one may in general expect the stress analysis by the FEM and a quasi-nonlinear
mean stress method to overestimate the load capac- fracture mechanics method were conducted. In
ity, and the initial crack method to underestimate the nonlinear analysis, fracture zone properties
the load capacity if the lengths a and x are not suf- according to Figure 7.20 were assumed (the same
ficiently small so that the results obtained become for all or), together with linear elastic trans-
more or less approximate. A similar but differ- versely isotropic stiffness properties typical for
ent method, called the finite small area theory, is Spruce: E0 = 11 000 MPa, E90 = 300 MPa, G0 =

20
50 L , 80
i- y
1 f 11
i

f-5
*i 1
150

Figure 7.19 A glued joint (Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes. Reproduced with publisher's autho-
rization. All rights reserved)

(MPa) (MPa)

Tt= 3.85 MPa <r,= 2.23 MPa


G f =800J/m 2

(mm) 0.4 Sn(mm)

Figure 7.20 Fracture zone properties at pure shear and at pure tension (Presses polytechniques et universitaires
romandes. Reproduced with publisher's authorization. All rights reserved)
Fracture Perpendicular to Grain 127

160

30 45 60
Fibre orientation angle, a 100 200 400
Glued length, L (mm)
Figure 7.21 (a) Joint strength versus a. The joint length is 200 mm; (b) normalised joint strength versus joint length.
Angle a = 0 (Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes. Reproduced with publisher's authorization. All rights
reserved)

was predicted when the loaded ends of the outer


6 0 0 MPa, G 9 0 = 6 0 MPa, v0,90 = 0 . 3 timber parts were free ato move
n in d the0 direction
. 0 per-0 8 2 .
erties for pure tension and pure shear. For mixed pendicular to the load. In that case, failure was for
mode conditions, the model used is of the type the short joints initiated by perpendicular to grain
a = a(Sn, Ss) tensile fracture at the right-hand end of the joint.
(7.26) Figure 7.21b illustrates a general feature of
T = r(8n,8s)
the size effect in strength. For large structures
with a mixed mode interaction corresponding with a notch there is a strong size effect equal
to Equation (7.3) (Wernersson, 1994). The quasi- to that predicted by LEFM, and corresponding
nonlinear analytical analysis was carried out ana- to a constant slope equal to 0.5 in a log-log
lytically as a shear lag analysis, where the three diagram, but as the size is made smaller the size
timber parts are modelled as elastic bars and the effect gradually decreases, approaching constant
fracture zone as a shear lag layer defined by a lin-
strength for very small structural elements. For
ear relation between shear stress and shear defor-
the joint studied it appears that LEFM would
mation. The strength of this linear elastic layer was
3.85 MPa, and its stiffness was assigned a value so give reasonable strength predictions down to joint
that the work for bringing the layer to peak stress lengths of about 200 mm. The normalised shear
and fracture became 800 J/m2 (cf. Figure 7.20). strength shown in Figure 7.21b is the mean shear
The effect of the grain angle a enters the analyses, stress at failure divided by the shear strength of
both the analytical analysis and the FEM analysis, the material, 3.85 MPa.
only through its influence on the stiffness of the For joint lengths greater than about 200 mm, i.e.
middle timber part. when LEFM is valid, there is very little influence
Figures 7.2la and b show the theoretical results of the strength of the material on the failure load
compared with the test results for different lengths of the joint, Pf. Instead, Pf is governed by the
of the joint and for different grain angles, respec- toughness of the material, i.e. the stiffness and
tively. The FE-analyses were made for two differ- the fracture energy. For very short joints it is the
ent boundary conditions. A reduced joint strength opposite situation: Pf is governed by the tensile
128 Timber Engineering

Shear capacity the calculation of


l/m
1
^ dV (7.27)
'ref

where ago is the mean perpendicular to grain ten-


Clear wood failure criterion
sile stress for each parallel to grain area of size
Fracture mechanics failure bx I , where the length x/ is given as accord-
criterion
ing to Equation (7.24). In numerical calculation
and discretisation by the FEM, 090 may as an
Inherent crack length
approximation be taken as the stress in the centre
3o Crack length a of a finite element of length xI along the grain. The
integration is then a summation over the elements
Figure 7.22 Shear strength of an end-cracked beam in the volume. The coefficient <p is an effective
(Reproduced by permission of RILEM) stress. Equal effective stress <p in the structural ele-
ment as in a tensile test specimen indicates equal
and shear strength of the material, and almost not failure probability.
affected at all by its fracture toughness.

7.5.8 Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics 7.6 MEASURES FOR STRENGTH


IMPROVEMENT
Probabilistic fracture mechanics refers in this con-
text to rational calculation models, where the The perpendicular to grain strength can be
stochastic nature of the material in a timber struc- improved by reinforcement. Curved glulam beams
tural element, as well as the non-zero fracture and glulam beams with holes or end-notches can
toughness of the material is taken into account (see be reinforced by gluing in rods or threaded bolts
Table 7.5). In Foschi, Folz and Yao (1989), a com- perpendicular to the beam (Johansson, 1995). Use
bination of LEFM and stochastics is applied to of a screw placed without glue in a hole drilled
the shear force strength design of timber beams. through the beam and tightened by a nut should,
End-cracks (see Figure 7.22) may develop during in general, be avoided. Creep and shrinkage entail
drying, and these cracks are assumed to govern the loss of action of the screw.
beam shear strength. The length of the end cracks is Good reinforcement can also be achieved by glu-
defined as a stochastic variable according to empir- ing, or by gluing and nailing, plywood to the sides
ical observations. For cracks deeper than a certain of the beam. Effective reinforcement can, more-
length, a0, LEFM is assumed to be valid, and gives over, be achieved by gluing glass fibre to the wood
the beam shear strength in terms of the length of by means of a polyester matrix (Dahlblom et a/.,
the crack and the fracture toughness of the material. 1993, Larsen, Gustafsson and Traberg, 1994). The
In this way, a reliability strength design method is glass fibres can be in the form of a mat with ran-
achieved, in which both a fracture mechanics size domly orientated short fibres or as woven material,
effect and a scatter size effect can be included. where most of the fibres may be oriented in a sin-
In Gustafsson and Serrano (1999), another com- gle direction. The glass fibre-polyester reinforce-
bination of fracture mechanics and probabilis- ment has the advantage of being almost invisible
tic theory was very briefly outlined. Generalised because of transparency and small thickness. Rein-
LEFM based on the mean stress concept was com- forcement by glued-in rods and by plywood is used
bined with Weibull analysis. For the special case in engineering practice, while glass fibre reinforce-
of plane stress and consideration in the fracture ment still is in a stage of development. Reinforce-
criterion only to the perpendicular to grain tensile ment can be used also locally in the vicinity of a
stress component, the sketched proposal involves bolt (Figure 7.1e), and if using glass fibres, at a
Fracture Perpendicular to Grain 129

nailed joint (Figure 7.1i), to reduce edge and nail Gustafsson P.J. (1988) A study of strength of notched
distances, and also increase the load capacity of beams. Paper CIB-W18A/21-10-1, Proc. of C1B-
the individual nail. Reinforcements glued to the W18A Meeting 21, Vancouver Island, Canada, p. 25.
Gustafsson PJ. (1991) Eurocode 5 draft design criterion
sides of the glulam or timber have the advantage for notched beams. Proc. of 1991 International Timber
of preventing or slowing down moisture changes Engineering Conference, London, UK, Vol. 1, 6674.
in the wood, and thus reduce the development of Gustafsson P.J. (1992) Some test methods for fracture
moisture-induced stresses. mechanics properties of wood and wood adhesive
joints. Proc. of RILEM TC Workshop on Determina-
tion of Fracture Mechanics Properties of Wood, Bor-
deaux, France, p. 14.
Gustafsson P.J., Hoffmeyer P. and Valentin G. (1998)
DOL behaviour of end-notched beams. Holz als Roh-
Aicher S., Dill-Langer G. and Ranta-Maunus A. (1998) und Werkstoff, 56, 307317.
Duration of load effect in tension perpendicular to Gustafsson P.J. and Serrano E. (1998) Glued truss joints
grain of glulam in different climates. Holz als Roh- analysed by fracture mechanics. Proc. 5th World Conf.
und Werkstoff, 56, 295-305. on Timber Engineering, 1, Lausanne, Switzerland,
Bodig J. and Jayne B. (1982) Mechanics of Wood and pp. 257-264.
Wood Composites. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Bostrom L. (1992) Method for Determination of the Gustafsson P.J. and Serrano E. (1999) Fracture mechan-
Softening Behaviour of Wood and the Applicability ics in timber engineering - some methods and appli-
of a Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics Model. Doctoral cations. Proc. 1st RILEM Symposium on Timber Engi-
thesis, Report TVBM-1012, Div of Building Materi- neering, Stockholm, Sweden, pp. 141150.
als, Lund University, Sweden. Gustafsson P.J. and Serrano E. (2000) Predicting the
Dahlblom O., Enquist E., Gustafsson P.J., Knudson R., pull-out strength of glued-in rods. Proc. 6th World
Larsen H.J., Ormarsson S. and Traberg S. (1993) Conference on Timber Engineering, B.C., Canada,
Fibre reinforcement of glulam Summary report and pp. 7.4.4.1-7.4.4.8.
report 1 -7. Division of Structural Mechanics, Lund Gotz K.H., Horr D., Mohler K. and Natterer J. (1978)
University, Sweden. Holzbau Atlas. Inst fur Internationelle Architektur-
Dinwoodie J.M. (1981) Timber, Its Nature and Beha- Dokumentation,Munchen.
viour. Van Nostrand Reinhold, London. Hellan K. (1985) Introduction to Fracture Mechanics.
Ehlbeck J. and Gorlacher R. (1995) Tension perpendicu- McGraw-Hill, New York.
lar to grain in joints. Lecture C2, Timber Engineering Helmersson H. (1978) Materialbrott for olika byggnads-
STEP 1, Centrum Hout, The Netherlands. material. Examensarbete, Avd. for Byggnadsmaterial,
Ehlbeck J. and Kurth J. (1995) Tapered, curved and Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
pitched cambered beams. Lecture B8, Timber Engi- Hillerborg A., Modeer M. and Petersson P.-E. (1976)
neering STEP 1, Centrum Hout, The Netherlands. Analysis of crack formation and crack growth in con-
Ehlbeck J. and Kromer M. (1995) Carpentry joints. crete by means of fracture mechanics and finite ele-
Lecture C12, Timber Engineering STEP 1, Centrum ments. Cement and Concrete Research, 6, 773-782.
Hout, The Netherlands. Holmberg S. (1998) A numerical and experimental
Foschi R.O., Folz B.R. and Yao F.Z. (1989) Reliability- study of initial defibration of wood. Doctoral thesis,
Based Design of Wood Structures. Structural Research Report TVSM-1010, Division of Structural Mechan-
Series, Report No. 34, Department of Civil Engineer- ics, Lund University, Sweden.
ing, University of British Columbia, Canada. Kollmann F. and Cote W. (1968) Principles of Wood
Gibson L. and Ashby M. (1987) Cellular Solids. Perga- Science and Technology - 1 Solid Wood. Springer-
mon Press, Oxford. Verlag, Berlin.
Glos P. and Horstman H. (1989) Strength of glued Jonsson J. and Svensson S. (2000) Internal stresses in
lap timber joints. Paper CIB-W18A/22-7-8, Proc. of cross-grain direction of wood induced by climate
CIB-W18A Meeting 22, East Berlin, pp. 117. variations. Paper CIB-W18A/33-12-1, Proc. of CIS -
Gustafsson P.J. (1985) Fracture mechanics studies of W18A Meeting 33, Delft, The Netherlands.
non-yielding materials like concrete. Doctoral thesis, Johansson C.J. (1995) Glued-in bolts. Lecture C14,
Report TVBM-1007, Division of Building Materials, Timber Engineering STEP 1, Centrum Hout, The
Lund University, Sweden. Netherlands.
Gustafsson P.J. and Enquist B. (1988) Trabalks hallfas- Jorissen A. (1998) Double shear timber connections
thet vid ratvinklig urtagning. Report TVSM-7042 with dowel type fasteners. Doctoral thesis, Civil Engi-
(Bilaga C), Division of Structural Mechanics, Lund neering Department of Delft University of Technol-
University. ogy, The Netherlands.
130 Timber Engineering

Larsen H.J. and Gustafsson P.J.H. (1990) The fracture Ranta-Maunus A. (1998) The effect of weather changes
energy of wood in tension perpendicular to the and surface coating on the load bearing capacity of
grain - results from a joint testing project. Paper curved glulam structures. Proc. 5th World Conf on
CIB-W18A/23-19-2, Proc. of CIB-W18A Meeting 23, Timber Engineering, Montreux, 1, 541-548.
Lisbon, Portugal. Serrano E. (2000) Adhesive Joints in Timber Engineer-
Larsen H.J. and Gustafsson P.J.H. (1991) The fracture ing - Modelling and Testing of Fracture Properties.
energy of wood in tension perpendicular to the Doctoral thesis, Report-TVSM-1012, Division of
grain. Paper CIB-W18A/24191, Proc. of CIB-W18A Structural Mechanics, Lund University, Sweden.
Meeting 24, Oxford, UK. Siimes F.E. (1967) The Effect of Specific Gravity,
Larsen H.J., Gustafsson P.J. and Traberg S. (1994) Glass Moisture Content, Temperature and Heating Tune on
fibre reinforcement perpendicular to grain. Proc. the Tension and Compression Strength and Elasticity
Pacific Timber Engineering Conf., Surfers Paradise, Properties Perpendicular to the Grain of Finnish
Australia. Pine, Spruce and Birch Wood and the Significance
Larsen HJ. and Gustafsson P.J. (2000) Timber joints of these Factors on the Checking of Timber at
loaded perpendicular to the grain - Long-term Kiln Drying. Julkaisu 84 Publication, VTT-The
strength; theory and experiments. Proc. of NATO Technical Research Centre of Finland.
Advanced Research Workshop: 'The Paramount Role Svensson S., Thelandersson S. and Larsen H.J. (1999)
of Joints into the Reliable Response of Structures. Reliability of timber structures under long term loads.
From the rigid and Pinned Joints to the Notion of Materials and Structures, 32, 755-760.
Semi-rigidity', Ouranoupolis, Greece. Stefansson F. (1995) Mechanical Properties of Wood at
Larsen H.J. and Riberholt H. (1983) Traekon- Microstructural Level. Masters thesis, Report TVSM-
struktioner - Beregning. SBI Anvisning 135, SBI, 5057, Division of Structural Mechanics, Lund Uni-
Denmark. versity, Sweden.
Larsen HJ. and Riberholt H. (1972) Forsog med Uklas- Stefansson F. (2001) Fracture analysis of orthotropic
sificeret Konstruktionsttrae. Rapport nr R31, Avd. beams - linear and nonlinear methods. Licentiate
for Baerende Konstruktioner, Danmarks Tekniske thesis, Report TVSM-3029, Division of Structural
Hqjskole, Denmark. Mechanics, Lund University, Sweden.
van der Put T. and Leijten A. (2000) Fracture of beams Uhmeier A. (1995) Some Aspects on Solid and fluid
Mechanics of Wood in Relation to Mechanical Pulp-
loaded by joints perpendicular to the grain. Paper ing. Report 1995:12, Division of Paper Technology,
CIB-W18A/3377, Proc. of CIB-W18A Meeting 33, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
Delft, The Netherlands. Ullman E. et al. (1997) Materiallara. Karlebo, Liber AB,
Madsen B. (1992) Structural Behaviour of Timber. Tim- Sweden.
ber Engineering Ltd, North Vancouver, Canada. Valentin G., Bostrom L., Gustafsson PJ., Ranta-
Masuda M. (1988) Theoretical consideration on fracture Maunus A. and Gowda S. (1991) Application of Frac-
criteria of wood - proposal of finite small area theory. ture Mechanics to Timber Structures - RILEM State-
Proc. Int. Conf. on Timber Engineering, Seattle, WA, of-the-art Report, Research Note 1262, VTT - The
2, 584-595. Technical Research Centre of Finland.
MorlierP. and Ranta-Maunus A. (1998) DOL effect Weibull W. (1939) A statistical theory of the strength
of different sized timber beams. Holz als Roh- und of materials. Proceedings no 151, Ingenjorsvetenskap-
Werkstoff, 56, 279284. sakademien, Sweden.
Morris V., Gustafsson PJ. and Serrano E. (1995) The Weibull W. (1939) The phenomenon of rupture in solids.
shear strength of light-weight beams with and without Proceedings no 153, Ingenjorsvetenskapsakademien,
a hole. Proc. of COST 508 Wood Mechanics Workshop Sweden.
on Mechanical Properties of Panel Products, Watford, Wernersson H. (1992) Wood adhesive bonds - fracture
UK, pp. 198-214. softening properties in shear and in tension. Report
Norris C.B. (1950) Strength of orthotropic materials TVSM-3012, Division of Structural Mechanics, Lund
subjected to combined stresses. Report No 1016, University, Sweden.
Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI. Wernersson H. (1994) Fracture Characterization of Wood
Norris C.B. (1962) Strength of orthotropic materials Adhesive Joints. Doctoral thesis, Report TVSM-1006,
subjected to combined stresses. Report No 1816, Division of Structural Mechanics, Lund University,
Forest Products Laboratory. Sweden.
Olejniczak P. and Gustafsson PJ. (1994) Rate effect Yasumura M. and Daudeville L. (1999) Design and
in tangential tension fracture softening performance. analysis of bolted timber joints under lateral force per-
Proc. of COST 508 Wood Mechanics Workshop on Ser- pendicular to grain. Paper CIB-W18/3273. Proc. of
vice Life Assessment of Wooden Structures, Finland, Meeting 32 of CIB Working Commission W18 - Tim-
pp. 137-148. ber Structures.
8

Strength Under Long-term Loading


Preben Hoffmeyer

8.1 Introduction 131


8.2 Background 132
8.3 Assessment of the short-term strength of a DOL specimen 139
8.4 The influence of loading mode 141
8.5 The influence of moisture 141
8.6 The influence of size 143
8.7 The influence of pulsating load 144
8.8 Modelling time to failure 145
8.9 DOL behaviour of engineered wood products 149

8.1 INTRODUCTION The scientific treatment of DOL effects has


been going on for more than 200 years. However,
Wood and wood products experience a signifi- the start of the present era of duration of
cant loss of strength and stiffness when loaded load research took place around 1970, when
over a period of time. The effect of ten years Professor Borg Madsen (Department of Civil
load duration may amount to a strength loss of Engineering, University of British Columbia,
approximately 40% for solid wood and approxi- Canada) pioneered DOL research work on timber
mately 80% for some wood-based panel products. rather than on small clear specimens. Much effort
This phenomenon of creep-rupture - often called has since been devoted to DOL research, and much
the Duration Of Load (DOL) effect - has therefore new knowledge has been gained. Even so, the
been the subject of particular interest for everyone understanding and modelling of the duration of
in the timber engineering community concerned load behaviour of wood and wood products is still
with safe and efficient engineering design. far from complete.
132 Timber Engineering

The study of DOL behaviour of wood and beams subjected to bending. Other loading modes
wood products introduces the scientist to a vari- are treated in a subsequent chapter. We do not
ety of challenging research problems: by the mere attempt to give an account of all previous stud-
nature of the phenomenon, experiments involve ies, but rather to concentrate on some of the
long periods of time. The experimental data are most important works. This background chapter is
confined to simple load histories - often a con- based largely on the state-of-the-art presentation
stant load or a ramp load - while the in-service by Barrett (1996).
conditions involve much more complex load his- The first recorded observation that wood under
tories. DOL experiments are performed by assess- load experiences a loss of strength was made
ing the time to failure of a specimen loaded to a by the French naval architect Georges Louis Le
defined percentage of the short-term strength, and Clerc, Compte de Buffon (1740). He observed the
yet the assessment of the short-term strength is behaviour of structural oak beams under sustained
out of reach because a specimen cannot be bro- bending load, and concluded:1
ken twice. The anisotropy of wood introduces a
variety of failure modes depending on the load-
ainfidansclesb&tiinaitsquidoiventdiirerloag-teinps, ilne
ing mode; each failure mode may have its own fiut donner au bob tout au plus que la moitie de b charge
DOL behaviour. Moisture variations may sig- qui.peutlefaireroniprc. &il n'y aque dans des caspreflaots
nificantly reduce time to failure. This so-called & dans des conftructions qui ne doiventpas dura, comme
'mechanosorptive' behaviour consequently adds a lorfqu'il faut faire un Pout pour poffer une Arme, ou on
Echaffaud pour fecourir ou affaiuir une Vilic, qu'on pent
size effect to the complexity of DOL behaviour, bazarder de donner au bois ks deux tiers de (a charge.
because large dimension beams experience less Man. 1740. . Nnn
moisture variations than small dimension beams.
As a result of such complexities, duration of load Buffon's observation that the maximum long-
behaviour is still a very active and relevant area of term load for structural timber in bending should
research. In addition, the practical implications of not exceed 50% of the short-term strength then
new research results may be of direct and signif- fell into oblivion. It would take almost 250 years
icant importance to the competitiveness of timber before his observation was confirmed.
structures.
This chapter contains a brief summary of the
state-of-the-art of DOL research. Attention is 8.2.1 Small Clear Specimens
focused on the most important parameters influ- After Buffon (1740) and until Madsen (1973),
encing DOL behaviour. The most frequently used almost all load duration experiments were car-
DOL models are presented. The chapter will not ried out using small, clear straight-grained wood
deal with the probabilistic analysis involved in specimens. From the late 1800s until the mid-
assessing the duration of load factors (kmod) to be 1900s, studies carried out in the United States pro-
included in timber design codes. For the treatment vided similar estimates of the long-term strength
of DOL effects in connections, reference is made of wood. It was cautioned that long-term failure
to this chapter. may occur even at the 60% stress level, and at the
same time suggested that long-term loading does
not affect short-term strength and elasticity pro-
8.2 BACKGROUND vided that the load is kept below the proportional
This chapter gives a historical perspective of 1
... thus, in building structures, which are supposed to last a
DOL research. The presentation takes the reader long time, the timber should not be subjected to more than half
from the early research mainly on the behaviour of the load which causes it to break, and only in the most urgent
of small clear specimens, to today's full-scale cases, and in constructions not supposed to last, like building a
bridge to let an army cross, or a scaffolding structure to defend
tests, including large glulam beams. The chap- or attack a city, can one risk to subject the timber to two thirds
ter focuses attention on the DOL behaviour of its strength.
Strength Under Long-term Loading 133

limit. The proportional limit in bending was taken Liska (1950), as well as impact tests by Elmen-
to be 9/16ths of the short-term bending strength. dorf (1916). Wood's results were to become not
This value of 9/16ths (56%) formed the basis for only the basis for the assignment of DOL factors
DOL adjustments in the US timber design code, in the US timber design code, but even the refer-
and also served as a guideline for most European ence for all later DOL research results. The master
timber codes. The hypothesis that the proportional curve relating all three types of experiments is now
limit is a threshold level of stress below which commonly known as 'The Madison Curve'. This
no failure will ever occur was questioned by many empirical curve (Figure 8.1) describing the time
researchers, but the existence of a threshold level is to failure as a function of the stress ratio (stress
still today open to question. Friedley et al. (1995) in ratio to the ultimate short-term strength) was
provide an in-depth treatment of the history of chosen to fit three pre-selected points, correspond-
DOL research. ing to:
Among the numerous early investigations, the Impact loading: stress ratio is 150% at a time-
work at FPL, Madison stands out. Wood (1947, to-failure of 0.015 seconds.
1951) published his results on 25 x 25 x 410 mm Short-term ramp loading: stress ratio is 100% at
beams subjected to a constant three-point load in a time-to-failure of 7.5 minutes.
bending. He also included short-term ramp load Long-term loading: stress ratio is 69% at a time
test results from Markwardt and Liska (1948) and to failure of 3750 hours.

IOU
!
A-"- Point from o Points used in computing
170 elmer dorf data the equition of the c urve
1
160 \
150
\,>o EEmpiric;al hyp>erbolic curv e
V Equcition Vr
108.4 -ID .3 _
140 X 0.04635

130 \\ [_
V

r\>
120

co -a 110
.E! s
1rend <Df data in
100 r apid Iclading
(S)
\
90 \S V

80
s*
70
Trejndof data iri /
iong-tim<3 load ng ^^<
Rn
^ >x9
- 3 - 2 - 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Duration of stress to failure (seconds-log) (X) ^7 8

Figure 8.1 DOL behaviour of clear wood. Hyperbolic curve fitted to three different series of data (Wood, 1951),
here after Madsen (1992) (Reproduced by permission of Timber Engineering Ltd.)
134 Timber Engineering
The hyperbolic Madison Curve has the equation: to be
= 91.571og10tf (8.3)
SL = 18.3 + 108.4t (8.1)
where tf = time to failure in hours.
where SL = actual stress level over predicted The equation predicts failure after 10 years at a
short-term strength, and tf = time to failure constant load, corresponding to 58% of the short-
in seconds. term strength (Figure 8.3). Pearson's 'composite
The equation predicts failure after 10 years at a curve' is thus slightly steeper than Wood's straight
constant load, corresponding to 62% of the short- line relationship (Equation (8.2)).
term strength. The use of the Madison Curve (Equation (8.1))
Analysis of Wood's constant stress level data as a reference curve may be questioned. Wood's
shows the following relationship to fit the results hyperbolic curve is not representative of his dead
better than Equation (8.1): load data (Equation (8.2)). The upward bend in a
log(time) depiction is the result of mixing two dif-
SL = 90.4 6.3 Iog10 tf (8.2) ferent test procedures, ramp load and dead load,
and particularly of trying to fit the curve through
where tf = time to failure in hours. data for impact loading. Thus, data for ultra fast
The equation predicts failure after 10 years at a ramp loading wags the tail of the curve for dead
constant load, corresponding to 59% of the short- load behaviour at the longer times relevant for
term strength (Figure 8.2). DOL design. The broader foundation of Pearson's
Subsequent studies tended to reinforce the composite curve (Equation (8.3)) should form the
philosophy underpinning Wood's work. Pearson proper reference, rather than the hyperbolic Madi-
(1972) reviewed duration of load papers from eight son Curve.
investigations, and found good agreement in spite
of differences of species, dimensions and moisture
8.2.2 Structural Lumber
content (Figure 8.3). The best exponential relation-
ship to fit the results below SL = 100% was shown The pioneering North American work on DOL of
structural lumber is reviewed in Barrett (1996).
This section is largely based on Barrett's paper.
100 The use of strength data from small clear spec-
imen testing for the prediction of the behaviour
of structural lumber had already been abandoned
in some European countries by the early 1960s. In
North America, the movement 'from clear wood to
so - lumber' was pioneered by Madsen, who introduced
the 'in-grade-testing' philosophy.
In 1970 Madsen initiated a series of studies
to assess the long-term behaviour of structural
lumber representative of commercial production.
In his early studies, Madsen challenged the clear
wood philosophy, introduced new sampling and
matching techniques, new testing and loading
procedures and new data analysis methods.
10 10 1 10 102 103 104 105 Madsen's new techniques were to have a pro-
Duration of toad (HR)
found impact in the design of all future DOL
Figure 8.2 Constant stress level data with Equation research programs. First, the test material was
(8.1) (dashed line) and Equation (8.2) (solid line) (Wood, selected to be representative of a range of com-
1951), here after Gerhards (1977) mercial production. Secondly, matched groups of
Strength Under Long-term Loading 135

Test values

= 91.57log10T

10-6 10-5 10-410-310-210-1 1 10 102 103 104 105


Duration of maximum load (HR)

Figure 83 DOL behaviour of clear wood in bending. Eight different investigations including a variety of dimensions,
species and moisture levels (Pearson, 1972) here after Madsen (1992) (Reproduced by permission of Timber
Engineering Ltd.)

specimens replaced the traditional matched speci- predicted from the Madison Curve for both dry
men technique adopted in earlier small clear test and wet material (Figure 8.5).
programs. Groups of specimens were matched The step-wise ramp loading results raised obvi-
on the basis of visual and/or non-destructively ous questions: Would constant load tests result in
measured properties, and subsequently subjected a different DOL response? Would species have an
to different loading regimes. The behaviour was influence? Madsen and Barrett (1976) addressed
evaluated at selected percentiles of the resulting some of these issues in a large study of Douglas-
time-to-failure (or stress) distributions. Thirdly, fir subjected to constant bending loads. Matched
a step-wise ramp-load procedure was adopted, groups of specimens were subjected to constant
where loads were gradually increased until failure loads at selected percentiles of the short-term
occurred (Figure 8.4). Finally, he reported his data strength. The results confirmed the findings from
on an absolute load level vs. rate of loading basis. the step-wise ramp load tests, suggesting that DOL
Based on this methodology, Madsen (1973) effects in lumber are less severe than predicted
reported results from step-wise ramp loading of from the Madison Curve for load durations up to
western hemlock lumber. These results suggested almost one year (Figure 8.6). The results were sup-
that the DOL effect varied with material quality. ported from results of another early Canadian study
Low quality (i.e. low strength) material seemed to of DOL effects in western hemlock (Foschi and
exhibit less DOL effect than high quality material Barrett, 1982).
of the same sample. For low quality material, The results of the early DOL research on struc-
the DOL effect was significantly smaller than tural lumber initiated by Borg Madsen stimulated
136 Timber Engineering

20

15

0.01 10 100 1000 10000 100000


Time-minutes

Figure 8.4 Stepwise ramp-loading tests. A constant load increment is applied at constant time intervals. In real
time these curves would be stepped, equidistant straight lines. With this loading regime all the specimens will fail
and contribute to the information of the DOL behaviour (Madsen, 1992) (Reproduced by permission of Timber
Engineering Ltd.)

100000
34.4 3.4 0.34 0.034 0.0034 0.0003
Rates of loading (MPa/min.)

Figure 8.5 Wet and dry bending tests with #2 Grade material subjected to a stepwise ramp loading. The behaviour
is very similar for the wet and dry tests, except for the very strong material where dry specimens are stronger than
wet specimens (Madsen, 1992) (Reproduced by permission of Timber Engineering Ltd.)
Strength Under Long-term Loading 137

120
[ i mil i i i 1 1 1 ii 1 1 1 i I ill 1 > I 1 Mil i i i i11u i i 1 1 uu 1 1 t 1 1 1 IMI

110 Ramp loading trend Ii 16 - No failures in 7 Ohrs. 1070PSI

100 d
o
"CD 90
"*"*-
.s-wvj*.
'-^ ' *
^^v ^t*i
JyTva . *.
a


c
H<- ** * * .:*
Popul ation 1 Popul.ation II
-. **. ^V V * * -
CO

I 80

70
p SI
1C 70
14 10
0110
*3110
P SI
-2000
* 3 000
"3 800
*4 600
Madison ^~^x^_
i>,.^.;
^H
x->-_
^*%T

%~~~^~~~.
60

50 J iJ I 111 1 ! 1 1 I HI i I i t i in . 1 t 1 1 1 HI tin mi t i 1 1 ii u i ( 1 1 1 1 IMI


0.01 0.10 1 10 100 1000 10000
hours
log time

Figure 8.6 Relation between stress level and time-to-failure for Douglas-fir (Madsen and Barrett, 1976)

interest in research on DOL effects, and in the and Figure 8.8 for logarithmic time and real
early 1980s DOL research programs were run- time, respectively (Sharp and Craig, 1996). The
ning in Canada, the US and Europe. The hope, real-time depiction is included so as not to forget
of course, was to be able to confirm that the DOL that DOL effects are particularly significant at
effect for structural lumber really was less than short- and medium-terms. For long-term behaviour
that identified in the various timber codes that the time scale does not influence load capacity very
were based on the findings of Wood (1951). The much. An error of 2-3 times the correct value in
1980s saw large coordinated DOL programs in the engineers' assessment of how long a time the
Canada and the US. This work had two centres: design load will last will only cause an error of a
Gerhards and co-workers at Forest Products Labo- few percentage points change in strength (Madsen,
ratory in Madison, WI, USA; and Karacabeyli and 1992).
co-workers at Forintek, BC, Canada. The results Figure 8.9 shows the average, minimum and
from this phase of DOL research tended to weaken maximum stress ratios for the same data with the
the conclusions of results from the 1970s, both Madison Curve superimposed on it. The lumber
with regard to the Madison Curve being conserva- average trend line is similar to the Madison Curve
tive and with respect to an effect of lumber quality for the time period of one hour to approximately
on the DOL effect. A detailed account of North one year, after which the lumber curve drops
American DOL studies from this period can be below the Madison Curve. An extrapolation of
found in Karacabeyli and Soltis (1991). DOL stud- results to ten years duration suggests a DOL
ies in Europe also seemed to be more in agreement factor in the range 0.4-0.6. Such a variation is
with the Madison Curve, and with no clear effect to be expected, since the results represent a large
of quality demonstrated (Fewell, 1986, Glos, 1986, range of species tested at different laboratories
Hoffmeyer, 1987, 1990). (different procedures) and under different climatic
Stress ratio plots for a majority of the North conditions; moisture variations alone can cause
American DOL studies are shown in Figure 8.7 such a variation (Figure 8.13).
138 Timber Engineering

1.40

0.00
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
Iog10 time to failure (hours)

Figure 8.7 Bending DOL response taken from a large number of North American programmes, (a) Western
Hemlock - No. 2&Btr, 38 x 140 mm; (b) White Spruce - Quality 1, 38 x 184 mm; Quality 2, 38 x 184 mm; Quality
3, 38 x 89 mm; (c) Douglas-Fir - Sel.Str., No. 2&Btr, 38 x 89 mm and 38 x 140 mm; (d) Southern pine - No.
2&Btr, 38 x 89 mm, high temp, dried, CCA treated (Sharp and Craig, 19%. Reproduced by permission of Vijaya
K.A. Gopu)

1.40

0.00
5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000
Time to failure (hours)

Figure 8.8 Bending DOL response taken from a large number of North American programmes. Species, grades and
sizes same as Figure 8.7 (Sharp and Craig, 1996. Reproduced by permission of Vijaya K.A. Gopu)

1.40T

Structural size lumber-average, min. and max.


0.00
2.0 3.0
Iog10 time to failure (hours)

Figure 8.9 Madison Curve compared to lumber average, minimum and maximum stress. Species, grades and sizes
same as Figure 8.7 (Sharp and Craig, 1996. Reproduced by permission of Vijaya K.A. Gopu)
Strength Under Long-term Loading 139

8.3 ASSESSMENT OF THE in a short-term strength test, while the other group
SHORT-TERM STRENGTH OF is long-term loaded to a specific percentile of
the short-term strength distribution. Depending
A DOL SPECIMEN
on the load level, some of the specimens Break
For the interpretation of results from DOL exper- On Loading (BOL). The time-to-failure of the
iments to be reliable, the assessment of the actual specimens surviving the uploading is monitored.
stress level of individual specimens must be reli- Specimens that are still unbroken at the time of
able. A specimen cannot be broken twice, and termination of the test are taken down to be tested
since the long-term strength is the target, the short- in a short-term strength test. Such a procedure
term strength must be assessed without breaking provides three sets of information:
the specimen. Several methods have been tried in
Short-term strength of specimens failing during
the past. One method is pair matching, which oper-
ates by sampling specimens in pairs cut next to uploading.
each other. One specimen is then tested in a short- Time-to-failure data for specimens failing under
term test while the other is long-term loaded. The constant load.
method works for specimens free from knots and Short-term strength of specimens surviving the
other anomalies, but still has to allow for substan- long-term test.
tial short-term strength differences between the two
specimens of a pair. A typical data set would be represented as shown
To be able to use pair matching for commercial in Figure 8.10. Triangles represent the short-term
size timber would make DOL research much strength distribution of 102 specimens. When the
easier. This was attempted by Nore"n (1986) by matched group is long-term loaded (e.g. to the
very carefully placing the saw cut not only through 5-percentile of the short-term strength), approx-
the pith of a piece of lumber, but even having imately five specimens out of 102 should break
it divide the critical knot into two equally sized on loading. Some of the remaining specimens will
halves. Despite all his efforts, it was not possible then fail under the constant long-term load, while
to find a means of pair matching lumber with others may survive the test. Let us assume a one-to-
sufficient accuracy. one correspondence between short-term and long-
Pair matching of lumber has been used with term strength. This means that the specimens will
some success for DOL studies of finger joints. This fail in order of increasing short-term strength. Once
is because two almost identical cross-sections may
be obtained from two different boards A and B
by cross cutting into two A/A surfaces and two
B/B surfaces, and subsequently assembling two
identical A/B surfaces by finger jointing. Even
such a technique results in substantial variation.
The predominant technique for estimating the
short-term strength of structural lumber for DOL
tests is based on the Equal Rank Assumption.
A detailed description of the technique can be
found in Madsen (1992). An adequate number 40 60 80 100
of specimens are ranked according to strength Normalized rank
by means of a non-destructive assessment, e.g.
based on machine grading or knot size measures. Figure 8.10 Predicting the short-term strength of con-
stant-load specimens using the Equal Rank Assump-
These specimens are sub-divided into two groups tion. 102 specimens are loaded to the 5-percentile of
of equal size and equal distribution of predicted the short-term strength; five BOL specimens should be
strength. One group - the control group - is tested expected
140 Timber Engineering

the cumulative percentile (or rank) of the long-


term data is known, the short-term strength may
be established from the short-term strength dis-
tribution of a matched control group. The stress
ratio applied to a constant load test specimen is
established as the ratio of the applied stress to the
estimated short-term strength.
The Equal Rank Assumption is an elegant way
of 'breaking a specimen twice'. However, the
resultant shape of the DOL curve does not nec-
essarily reflect the DOL behaviour of the single -2
specimens; it may only reflect the DOL behaviour
Iog10 (hours)
of the particular distribution.
As an example, consider the DOL behaviour to Figure 8.11 A quality dependency of DOL behaviour
be quality-dependent, and assume that the DOL will influence the shape of DOL curves that are based on
behaviour of specimen no. i follows the rela- the Equal Rank Assumption: (1) lower quality = longer
tionship SL = Ai + Bi Iog10(time). The quality time-to-failure; (2) lower quality => shorter time-to-
failure
dependency may take either of two forms: (1) low
quality material may exhibit longer times to failure,
e.g. due to relaxation of stress peaks around knots; the long-term tested population (e.g. Hanhijarvi
or (2) low quality material may exhibit shorter et a/., 1998).
times to failure, e.g. because failure around knots Such use of short-term strength inflicts the
is influenced by the tension perpendicular to grain problem of relating time under ramp load to time
mode, where the DOL effect is particularly signif- under dead-load. Failure in a short-term ramp
icant. The Equal Rank Assumption will produce load test is normally accomplished in a time,
different DOL curves in the two cases. This is illus- tshort.ramp of about five minutes. However, the
trated in a simplified example of five specimens of ultimate load, <rult,ramp in a ramp procedure has
different quality subjected to the same long-term only been experienced by the specimen for a very
load. Low quality material consequently experi- short time; the damage was also accumulated at
ences high stress levels, and vice versa. The DOL the lower stress levels, leading to the ultimate
behaviour of each of the specimens follows its load. To equal ramp load with dead load, it is
own straight-line relationship. However, the DOL necessary to consider dead load composed of a
behaviour of the group of five specimens based very short period (t & 0) of ramp loading up to
on the Equal Rank Assumption is described by a stress of ault.ramp, followed by a dead load at
a nonlinear curve: case (1) produces a curve with stress cTuit.ramp acting over a period of time, tshort.dead
a downward tendency, while case (2) produces a Shorter than tshort,ramp. The ratio tshort.dead/tshort.ramp
curve with an upward tendency (Figure 8.11). may be derived from the models presented in the
DOL curves based on the Equal Rank Assump- chapter on modelling.
tion may thus be sensitive not only to the actual The rate of loading in the short-term testing of
short-term strength distribution, but even to the the reference strength is important. The literature
way the long-term strength distribution may deve- reveals times to short-term failure in the range
lop as a result of quality, environmental fac- from 30 seconds to 10 minutes. Such a time differ-
tors, etc. Because of this, DOL results are some- ence corresponds to about 10% difference in SL!
times depicted solely on the basis of two points: The test standards normally define target time to
the (SL, log(time to failure)) in the short-term short-term failure as (300 120) seconds. Such
test of the reference population, and the (SL, a modest tolerance alone corresponds to about a
log(time to failure)) of the 'average' specimen in 2.5% variation in SL. In practice, this means that
Strength Under Long-term Loading 141

weak specimens are allocated a relatively higher Tension perpendicular to grain strength seems
short-term strength (shorter time to failure) than to be more sensitive to the duration of load than
stronger specimens (longer time to failure) bending strength. This is the case not only for
small clear specimens (Bach, 1975), but even for
specimens cut from glulam beams (McDowall,
8.4 THE INFLUENCE OF LOADING 1982, Madsen, 1972). Extrapolation of the results
indicates a DOL effects in the neighbourhood of
MODE 30-50% residual strength after 10 years load dura-
Wood is an anisotropic cellular material which tion. A significant DOL effect was also demon-
exhibits specific failure mechanisms for specific strated by Aicher et al. (1998) (Figure 8.14).
loading modes. Tension parallel to grain failure
of clear wood is brittle, and on the cellular level
8.5 THE INFLUENCE OF
caused by the rupture of the microfibrils of the cell
wall, while compression parallel to grain failure MOISTURE
is highly ductile, and on the cellular level caused The DOL effect is dependent on moisture con-
by the on-set of stability failure in the microfibrils tent, The higher the moisture content, the shorter
followed by the creation of macroscopically visible the time to failure. The DOL effect is also sus-
folding of the cells. Tension perpendicular to grain ceptible to variations in moisture. Such varia-
failure of clear wood is brittle, and on the cellular tions are known to significantly increase creep,
level caused by the tearing away of the compound and therefore should be expected to shorten the
middle lamella of cells or the mere rupture of time to creep-rupture. The classical illustration of
early wood cell walls. Compression perpendicular this so-called meehanosorptive effect is shown in
to grain failure, on the other hand, is highly Figure 8.12 for small clear, straight-grained spec-
ductile, and on the cellular level caused by the imens subjected to bending. Note how creep at
gradual collapse of the tubular structure, eventually constant high humidity settles at a relatively low
making cell lumens vanish. Such different failure level of deformation, while a variation of moisture
modes may well result in DOL effects that are between a low level and the high level makes the
also dependent on loading mode. The various specimen creep much more, eventually leading to
loading modes are known to result in different creep-rupture.
creep functions. This is an additional reason to Moisture content has a similar effect on DOL
expect that creep rupture - or time to failure - is for structural lumber (Hoffmeyer, 1987, 1990, Fri-
dependent on loading mode. dley et al., 1991). Figure 8.13 shows the results
DOL studies including loading modes other of a European DOL programme including 50 x
than bending are scarce. However, those available 100 mm Norway spruce subjected to four-point
surprisingly suggest that in general there is no bending. The programme was terminated in 2000
significant influence of loading mode for stresses at a time when the surviving specimens had been
parallel to grain. Karacabeyli and Soltis (1989) loaded for a period of more than 13 years. Three
report a slightly stronger DOL effect for the tension matched distributions (samples) of approximately
parallel to grain than for compression and bending 100 boards each were subjected to the fifth per-
parallel to grain. Glos et al. (1987) found the centile of the short-term strength of similarly
Madison Curve applicable also for DOL effects matched distributions (Hoffmeyer, 1990).
in glulam laminations subjected to tension and Sample I was kept at 11% moisture content,
bending. For shear parallel to grain, the behaviour sample II at 20% moisture content, and the mois-
seems to follow the same patterns as for bending ture content of sample III was made to vary
parallel to grain, while for rolling shear there seems between the low and high moisture content lev-
to be a more serious DOL effect (Norlin et al., els. In addition, a fourth sample (sample IV) of
1999). constant high moisture content was included and
142 Timber Engineering

30r

Drying cycle Specimen broken


25 Wetting cycle (93% relative humidity)

20
0
s
"o
& 15 3/8 maximum load /*
a.

c 10
o

Creep at 93% relative humidity 3/8 maximum load

10 15 20 25 30
Time days

Figure 8.12 The effect of cyclic variations in moisture content on relative creep of samples of beech loaded to
and 3/g of ultimate load (Hearmon et al., 1964; here after Dinwoodie, 2000) (Reproduced by permission of BRE)

110

100

X 11% MC
- 11 % MC-survived 13 years
A 20% MC
0 20% MC-survived 13 years
+ variable MC
Madison curve

40
0 2
Iog10 (hours)

Figure 8.13 Stress level (%) against logarithmic time to failure (hours) for 50 x 100 mm beams of Norway spruce
subjected to bending at MC = 10%, MC = 20% and MC varying between 10% and 20%
Strength Under Long-term Loading 143

loaded to the fifteenth percentile of the short-term exceptions. One example is the DOL behaviour
strength. The stress level was based on the short- of notched beams subjected to varying relative
term strength at a moisture content level corre- humidity. A notched beam subjected to bending
sponding to the long-term tests, i.e. 11% moisture fails as a result of a crack developing from the
content for sample I and 20% moisture content for root of the notch and running parallel to grain.
samples II-IV. The results show that the Madison The predominant limiting factor in such a failure
Curve is conservative for constant dry conditions mode is the tensile strength perpendicular to grain.
(11%) and slightly non-conservative for constant Because of the structural anisotropy, moisture trav-
moist conditions (20%). As soon as the moisture els much easier along the grain than across the
is made to vary, the mechanosorptive effect accel- grain. This means that moisture variations mani-
erates the creep, and thus shortens time to failure. fest themselves very rapidly through the end grain
A similar very significant mechanosorptive effect exposed at the root of the notch. An increasing
is reported for glulam specimens subjected to ten- moisture content therefore rapidly makes the wood
sion perpendicular to grain (Aicher et al., 1998) volume swell in the vicinity of the notch. As a
(Figure 8.14). result, compression stresses perpendicular to grain
The influence on strength of the combined action develop. Such compression stresses are superim-
of time and moisture is masked when expressing posed the tension stresses perpendicular to the
the stress ratio as a function of the short-term grain resulting from the load, and the crack tends
strength at the actual moisture content. To express to close. The opposite mechanism results from a
the combined action of time and moisture, it is decreasing relative humidity (Jensen et al., 1996,
necessary to base the short-term strength used Gustafsson et al., 1998). The result is a lower prob-
for calculating the stress ratio on the reference ability of failure during periods of increasing rel-
condition (65% RH, 20 C). This would make the ative humidity than during periods of decreasing
DOL curve for 20% MC (Figure 8.13) steeper, relative humidity.
because the short-term strength at the reference For certain loading modes such as tension and
condition (app. 12% MC) is higher than that bending along the grain, the influence of moisture
at 20% MC. is a function of timber quality (Hoffmeyer, 1978).
Although, as a rule, high moisture and mois- Low grade material may therefore act differently
ture fluctuations shorten time to failure, there are from high grade material also with respect to the
influence of moisture on DOL effects. In a recent
study Gerhards (2000) reported the results of
DOL experiments in an uncontrolled environment
and of 12-plus years of duration. Load levels
were low, and only the low quality specimens
had failed. Gerhards results show no effect of
moisture fluctuations on the duration of load. He
also concluded that after 12-plus years of load
duration, there were no signs of approaching a
threshold level of stress below which no damage
accumulates.
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000
Time to failure within load step (h)

Figure 8.14 Stress level vs. time to failure (hours) 8.6 THE INFLUENCE OF SIZE
for tension perpendicular to grain specimens tested in
cyclically varying climate. Specimens from samples
AIR 0lc and AIR 03c have volumes of 0.01 m3 and From the fact that the mechanosorptive effect is
0.03 m3, respectively (Aicher et al., 1998) (reproduced triggered by moisture variation, it follows that
by permission of Springer-Verlag) large cross-sectional members are less influenced
144 Timber Engineering

by such effects than small cross-sectional mem- in such cases, NOC is the decisive parameter. On
bers. This is because climate variations takes the contrary, at sufficiently low frequencies, it is
longer to manifest themselves as moisture changes possible to have failure after only a few oscilla-
in large dimension lumber. Such an influence of tions because the Time Under Load (TUL) is the
size was confirmed in a major EC research pro- decisive parameter.
gramme concluded in 1997 (see Figure 8.14). Ref- As an instructive first approximation, it may be
erence is made to Morlier et al. (1998), Hanhijarvi assumed that fatigue failure may be described by a
et al. (1998), Aicher et al. (1998) and Gustafsson failure surface in a coordinate system spanned by
et al. (1998) for further details. SL, NOC and TUL (Clorius, 2000). Such a failure
surface is shown in Figure 8.15. The plane spanned
by SL and NOC contains the Wohler diagram for
8.7 THE INFLUENCE OF 'unit frequency'; the curve is assumed to have
PULSATING LOAD a fatigue threshold for stresses below a certain
non-critical value. The plane spanned by SL and
Most materials exhibit fatigue behaviour, i.e. fail-
TUL contains a schematic of the Madison Curve,
ure due to repeated load oscillations below the
including a hypothetical threshold2 for stresses
static strength of the material. Normally, fatigue
below a certain non-critical value. The surface
is described by number of oscillations to failure
includes the following three regimes:
at a given stress level. Test results are depicted
in a Wohler diagram showing Number Of Cycles
(NOC) to failure as a function of stress level. Such I. In this regime the failure is dependent on
curves are normally taken to be independent of fre- both TUL and NOC, i.e. the fatigue resistance
quency. This approach may not be representative cannot alone be quantified by NOC, because
of the behaviour of wood under pulsating load. The NOC will decrease as the load cycle frequency
viscoelastic properties of wood make the differ- is lowered.
ence. At high frequencies the time to failure may
be so short that the viscoelastic properties do not 2
The existence of such a threshold has not been experimen-
have the necessary time to manifest themselves; tally verified.

Stress
level I.Regime(N and T)

II.Regime (N)

.Regime

O0/.

Figure 8.15 Combined fatigue and duration of load failure surface divided into three possible failure regimes
(Clorius, 2001)
Strength Under Long-term Loading 145

II. In this regime the surface lies below the TUL recent investigation (Clorius, 2001) including ten-
threshold, and the failure is solely dependent sion perpendicular to grain tests at frequencies
on HOC. from 10-2 Hz to 1 Hz, a regime II behaviour was
found at RH = 65%, while a regime I behaviour
III. In this regime the surface lies below both the
was found for RH = 85%.
TUL threshold, and the NOC threshold, and
A comprehensive review of experiments with
no failures are encountered.
wood subjected to pulsating loads is given in
Clorius (2001) and Kreuzinger et al. (1994).
Bach (1975) investigated the influence of fre-
quency. Compressive square wave shaped load
cycles were imposed on small clear specimens in 8.8 MOBELLING TIME TO
compression parallel to grain. Frequencies ranged FAILURE
from 10-1 Hz to 10-5 Hz. Bach suggested that
at frequencies from 10-1 Hz and lower, fatigue For the interpretation of experimental results, the
reduces to a pure duration of load phenomenon. development of a mathematical DOL model is
In a related experiment, Clorius et al. (2000) required. Conclusions from constant load tests
took small clear specimens to failure in compres- have to be linked to results from ramp load tests
sion parallel to grain at frequencies ranging from and stepwise ramp load tests. Results from high
10-2 Hz to 10 Hz. It was shown (Figure 8.16) that load experiments have to be extrapolated to the
while NOC to failure increases for increased fre- lower loads typical of design situations. The DOL
quency, TUL decreases. This holds for both of model should be capable of describing the results
the two moisture levels used in the experiment of a stochastic loading. Fatigue developing from
(RH = 65% and RH = 85%). Hence, the speci- repetitive loadings at varying frequencies should
mens fail as a result of a combined influence of be included in the model, and even the influence of
NOC and TUL (regime I in Figure 8.15). In a varying moisture conditions should be accounted

ga-
98-i + *
- 4- 0.01 Hz gs-^
9
95 -t 90-= 0
O 0.1 Hz I + m *
90 -f
1Hz *" * 80 +
1
80 -z 10 Hz |* 70
"I + t
70 -f $,+ 4- ^ *
jB 60 -5
60-5 *+ Hr ^ H 0
C
0)
50 "|
50-| *** + JJ + ^
40 -i Hh *
40-5 + CD
CL
30-= +
30^ * +
20 4 + * + 0.01 Hz
20 4
^ +
1Q j Hh ^ 0.1 Hz
10 * +
~= ;
5
~ 5 ~. 1 Hz
% +
* 10 Hz
i i i iuii| i i i iini| i i i iini| 1 1 IliiRj i iniil^ i lilllUj 1 1 1 1!IR| 1 IIIIU||

1E-2 1E-1 1E+0 1E+1 1E+1 1E+2 1E+3 1E+4 1E+5 1E+6
Time under load [h] Number of cycles

Figure 8.16 Log-normal probability ranking of failures at different frequencies for failure in compression parallel to
grain at SL = 80% and RH = 85% (Clorius, 2001)
146 Timber Engineering
for. A summary of DOL models for wood can be where a, b and X are empirical constants for a
found in Morlier et al. (1994). given population of wood, a0 is a threshold stress
Two approaches have proven particularly suc- below which no damage can occur, and as is short-
cessful in the development of time-to-failure mod- term strength.
elling: accumulation of damage; and fracture In this model, damage rate is dependent on the
mechanics of viscoelastic materials. degree of damage as expressed by the term \a (t ).
DOL models based on chemical kinetics have The model exhibits the peculiar nature of letting
also been proposed (Caulfield, 1985, van der Put, stresses infinitesimally higher than the threshold
1986), as have energy-based models (Bach, 1973, stress result in exponential growth to failure. This
Philpot et al., 1994). However, such models have was rectified in a new model (Foschi and Yao,
still not been fully developed to account for the 1986) by letting X be a function of stress level:
various aspects of DOL mechanisms.
da L.
= a[a(t) - a0]b + c[a(t) - a0}n (8.7)
8.8.1 Accumulation of Damage dt
In this approach, damage is seen as a state variable where c and n are empirical constants for a given
ranging from 0 at the beginning of load application population of wood.
to 1 at failure. The parameter a may be approximately obtained
The works of Gerhards (1977, 1979) and Ger- as a function of the other model constant as:
hards and Link (1987) use the concept that the rate
of damage accumulation is exponentially depen- (8.8)
dent on stress level:
da where k is the ramp loading rate of the ini-
(8.4) tial loading.
J The damage a0 done during this ramp loading
where da/dt is the rate of damage accumulation, can be approximately expressed as
o(t) represents applied load history, as is short-
term strength, and a and b are empirical constants a0 = [(aa - a0)/(as - a0) (8.9)
for a given wood population.
Equation (8.4) can be integrated for any stress The time-to-failure tf for the stress history of
history a(t), t > 0, to determine the accumulated Figure 8.17 is obtained from the integration of
damage a. The time at a = 1 is identical to time
to failure, tf.
For constant load conditions, and times much 4 Stress
larger than the initial ramp loading time, Equa-
tion (8.4) becomes
tf = exp[a b SL] (8.5)
where SL is the applied stress level. Failure
x
Thus, Gerhards' cumulative damage equation is
seen to be similar to the phenomenological two
parameter Equation (8.3) used by Pearson (1972).
Barrett and Foschi (1978a, b) introduced a
four parameter damage accumulation model which Time
expresses the rate of damage growth as

_ Figure 8.17 Experimental stress history


Strength Under Long-term Loading 147

Equation (8.7) as Viscoelastic fracture mechanics was introduced


to the area of wood by Nielsen (1979). A con-
I
tf = t0 + densed treatment of his Damaged cracked Vis-
coelastic Material (DVM) theory can be found in
Madsen (1992). Nielsen originally developed his
x In (8.10) DVM model for a linear Viscoelastic material by
a0 + (a/c)(aa -
introducing an elastic - Viscoelastic analogy, i.e.
This damage model has four independent parame- introducing a time-dependent modulus of elastic-
ters, (b,c,n, a0), to be estimated from experiments ity in the Dugdale crack model. Over the years,
as compared to the two parameters of Gerhards' the model has been further developed and refined
model. The two parameters a and a0 are assessed by Nielsen to even include modelling of the fre-
from Equations (8.8) and (8.9). This model is often quency dependent DOL behaviour under pulsating
termed the 'Canadian Model'. It has been used in load (Nielsen, 2000a, b).
the reliability-based Canadian timber design code. The time-dependency of the modulus of elastic-
The general appearance of the model is shown in ity is described by a power law expression, i.e.
Figure 8.18. creep is modelled by the normalised creep func-
tion C(t):
8.8.2 Fracture Mechanics of
C(t) = 1 + (8.11)
Viscoelastic Materials
Damage accumulation models may be seen entirely
as appropriate curve fitting tools. Such models where T and b are material parameters depend-
do not necessarily reflect any physical/mechanical ing, for example, on loading mode and moisture
mechanisms leading to failure. A different history.
approach is to try to model the mechanisms behind Nielsen's model for static load considers
the fact that, for most loading modes, wood fails crack development with time in three phases
as a result of crack growth. (Figure 8.19):

1.10

1.00

0.90

0 -80

1 0.70
o
55
0.60

0.50

0.40

0.30
-2.00 -1.00 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00
log T (hours)

Figure 8.18 The Canadian DOL model (Foschi and Yao, 1986), here after (Madsen, 1992) (Reproduced by permission
of Timber Engineering Ltd.)
148 Timber Engineering

strength to short-term strength as obtained in a 1 -5


minutes test. FL is the strength level defined as
the ratio aCrl^L between short-term strength as
defined above, and the intrinsic strength of the
(hypothetical) non-cracked material. FL may be
seen as a measure of the actual quality of the wood.
9 is a time variable, and
(8.14)
Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Equation (8.13) is seen to reflect an influence of
timber quality on time to failure. Timber of low
f=0 Time
quality (low FL) will have a longer time to failure
than high quality timber (high FL).
Figure 8.19 Illustration of how crack growth takes The parameters required to estimate time-to-
place by going through three phases (based on Johns
and Madsen (1982) and Madsen (1992)) failure from Equation (8.13) are the creep param-
eters b and r and the intrinsic strength of a non-
cracked material, aL. Although physical in nature,
Phase 1: the crack length stays constant, but due to none of these parameters are readily accessible to
creep the crack gradually opens to its critical measurements. The creep parameters are related
displacement. to the viscoelastic behaviour around the crack tip,
Phase 2: from time ts the crack opening displace- and thus depend upon very localised conditions
ment still stays at its critical value, while the of grain orientation and morphology. For these
crack now starts to grow longer. The short- creep conditions on the microscopic level to be
term strength will diminish. consistently reflected in macroscopic creep tests,
Phase 3: ultimate failure (carastrophic failure) the material has to exhibit balanced creep. Wood
occurs at time fcat when the crack has grown does not exhibit balanced creep. The strength of
to the critical length corresponding to the the (hypothetical) non-cracked material can only
applied long-term load. During Phase 3, ter- be assessed theoretically. This means that the
tiary creep may occur. materials parameters of Nielsen's model must be
obtained by calibration, as is the case for the dam-
Time to start of crack growth, ts, and time to
age accumulation models. However, the advantage
catastrophic failure, fcat, are expressed as of Nielsen's model over other models is that it
(SL - 2 - (8.12) offers a consistent theory based on a physical real-
ity (creep and crack growth), thereby giving more
and immediate clues with respect to the relative influ-
ence on DOL behaviour of loading mode, moisture
1 Srq
t
tgat r or -2 11
TTj^ijij 1J /fe _ history, density, species, etc.
(n FL SL)2 Figure 8.20 illustrates the quality of fit for Fos-
\/b chi's (Equation 8.7) and Nielsen's (Equation 8.13)
V
x 1 Hf)
uu \((8.13) models when used on some of the experimental
/i e data (11% MC) shown in Figure 8.13. Both mod-
where SL = the stress level defined as the els are producing acceptable fits. For very short
ratio cr/orcr between applied stress and short- times, Foschi's model seems to better describe the
term strength measured in a very fast ramp first steep part of the DOL curve, while for medium
test (actually under an infinite rate of loading). times to failure Nielsen's model produces the best
Nielsen's definition of stress level thus differs fit. For times longer than 20 months, both mod-
from the usual definition which relates long-term els produce accurate fits. A threshold level of 50%
Strength Under Long-term Loading 149

100

CO

60

50

Figure 8.20 DOL results from Figure 8.13 (11% MC) modelled by Foschi's and Nielsen's models

was used for the Foschi model. The three material parameters already defined in Nielsen (2000b), a
parameters of Nielsen's model to fit the experi- remarkable agreement with new test results was
mental values were FL = 0.3, b = 0.20 and i = demonstrated (Figure 8.21).
50 days. The bending creep parameters obtained
from the actual creep measurement were b 0.21
and T & 6.3 105 days. The fact that the theoreti- 8.9 DOL BEHAVIOUR OF
cal and experimental values of r (doubling time) ENGINEERED WOOD
are so different emphasises what was mentioned PRODUCTS
earlier regarding the experimental difficulties in
assessing the parameters independently from the The duration of load behaviour of high quality
DOL curve itself. plywood and engineered wood products such as
glulam and Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL),
All the models presented above work for vari-
Parallam Parallel Strand Lumber (PSL) is similar
able load histories, but none of the models is able
to that of solid wood (e.g. see Hanhijarvi et al.,
to include the frequency dependency of the load.
1998). However, for reconstituted wood products
However, the Nielsen model was recently devel-
such as Oriented Strand Board (OSB), particle
oped to also accommodate the frequency depen- board and fibre board, the situation is different.
dency (Nielsen, 2000a, b). Although it is beyond Because such materials are produced by first
the scope of this chapter to introduce the the- breaking down solid wood into strands, particles
ory, an example of its potential is included. In or fibres and subsequently gluing these together
a recent study of DOL in tension perpendicular to form wood-based panels, the DOL behaviour
to grain under pulsating loads (Clorius, 2001), the becomes a function of a variety of factors, such as:
theory was put to use. The time to failure equation
includes five material parameters that need calibra- size, geometry and orientation of the wood
tion on the basis of experiments. By using material elements,
150 Timber Engineering

1.0- 1.0-

0.8- 0.8 H

0.6- 0.6-
1 Hz 1 Hz
0.4- 0.4-
65% RH + 65% RH
0.2- 85% RH X 85% RH
0.2-
Tau = 0.08 Tau = 0.08
1
Tau = 0.32 Tau = 0.32
0.0 i 'T r 1*1 '\ r i i *i 0.0
-7-6-5-4 -3 -2 -1 0 2 3 4 -3-2-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
log10(TUL) log10(NOC)

Figure 8.21 Stress level against Time Under Load (TUL) and stress level against Number Of Cycles (NOC) for
wood subjected to tension perpendicular to grain failure at 1 Hz. Test results from Clonus (2001) and modelling by
the DVM theory. The five material parameters necessary for the model are taken directly from standard values as laid
down in Nielsen (2000b) (Clonus, 2001)

amount of glue and glue type, Table 8.1 Strength reduction factors to be used for
permanent load in dry conditions (ENV 199511)
hot press parameters.
Product DOL factor
Generally, panel products of reconstituted wood
Solid wood, glulam, LVL, plywood 0.6
have a poorer DOL behaviour compared to Particleboards (EN 3126 and 7) 0.4
solid wood. Panels made from large, oriented Particleboards (EN 3124 and 5) 0.3
strands (e.g. Laminated Strand Lumber (LSL), OSB (EN 300, grades 3 & 4) 0.4
OSB) exhibit better DOL performance than OSB (EN 300, grade 2) 0.3
small, randomly oriented particles or fibres Fibreboards (Hardboards, EN 622-2) 0.3
Fibreboards (Medium boards, EN 0.2
(e.g. particleboard, MDF). For reconstituted wood 622-3)
products with large, parallel oriented strands (e.g. MDF (EN 622-5) 0.2
Parallam Parallel Strand Lumber) the DOL
behaviour in the strand direction may approach that
of solid wood (Sharp and Craig, 1996). EN-standard provides the quality class system
Research results are scarce and contradictory that makes DOL factor assignments meaningful.
with respect to DOL behaviour of panel products. However, for many of the products there are insuf-
Often, between mill variation of a panel type is ficient research results to allow an acceptance
so large (e.g. see Laufenberg et al., 1999) that into the system. This scarcity of results there-
it does not make sense to assign a global DOL fore makes DOL research for panel products of
factor to a particular type of panel product. Instead, prime importance.
it is necessary to refer to a certain standardised Eurocode 5 (ENV 199511) contains informa-
quality class (or strength class) when allocating tion on DOL effects for panel products. Although
DOL factors. some of the numbers are not firmly rooted in
A quantification of the duration of load beha- research results, they still represent the best possi-
viour of panel products is presently being intro- ble 'educated guess'. The numbers form the basis
duced as part of the requirements for acceptance for Table 8.1, which shows the strength reduction
into the quality system defined by the Euro- factors to be used for permanent load in dry con-
pean harmonised standard for panel products. The ditions (service class 1).
Strength Under Long-term Loading 151

REFERENCES Fridley K.J., Tang R.C. and Soltis L.A. (1991) Environ-
mental effects on the load-duration behaviour of struc-
Aicher S., Dill-Langer G. and Ranta-Maunus A. (1998) tural lumber. Proc. International Timber Engineering
Duration of load effect in tension perpendicular to the Conference, London, UK, 4, 180-187.
Fridley K.J., Hunt M.O. and Senft J.F. (1995) Historical
grain of glulam in different climates. Holz als Roh-
perspective of duration-of-load concepts. For. Prod. J.
und Werkstoff, 56, 295305.
45(4), 72-74.
Bach L. (1973) ReinerWeisenberg's theory applied to
Gerhards C.C. (1977) Time-related effects of loads on
time-dependent fracture of wood subjected to various
strength of wood. Proc. Conference on Environmental
modes of mechanical loading. Wood Science, 5(3), Degradation of Engineering Materials, Blacksburg,
161-171. VA..
Bach L. (1975) Frequency-dependent fracture in wood Gerhards C.C. (1979) Time-related effects of loading on
under pulsating loading. Proc. FPRS-Annual Meeting, wood strength. A linear cumulative damage theory.
Portland, OR.. Wood Science, 11(3), 139-144.
Bach L. (1975) Failure perpendicular to the grain in Gerhards C.C. and Link C.L. (1987) A cumulative dam-
wood subjected to sustained bending loads + Letters age model to predict load duration characteristics of
to the editor. Wood Science, 7(4), 323-327 (8(2), lumber. Wood and Fiber Science, 19(2), 147-164.
85-87). Gerhards C.C. (2000) Bending Creep and Load Duration
Barrett J.D. and Foschi R.O. (1978a) Duration of load of Douglas-Fir 2 by 4s Under Constant Load for
and probability of failure in wood. Part I. Modelling up to 12-plus Years. Wood and Fiber Science, 32(4),
creep rupture. Canadian J. Civil Engineering, 5(4), 489-501.
505-514. Glos P. (1986) Creep and lifetime of timber loaded
Barrett J.D. and Foschi R.O. (1978b) Duration of load in tension and compression. Proc. CIB W/18/IUFRO
and probability of failure in wood. Part II. Constant, S5.02, Florence, Italy.
ramp and cyclic loadings. Canadian J. Civil Engineer- Glos P., HeimeshoffB. and Kelletshofer W. (1987)
ing, 5(4), 515-532. Load duration effect in tension and compression and
Barrett J.D. (1996) Duration of load. The past, present its implications for reliability of structures. Proc. CEC
and future. Proc. International COST 508 Wood Seminar on Wood Technology, Munich, Germany.
Mechanics Conference, Stuttgart, Germany. Gustafsson P.J., Hoffmeyer P. and Valentin G. (1998)
Buffon G.L. Le Clerc, Compte de (1740) Experiences DOL behaviour of end-notched beams. Holz als Roh-
sur la Force du Bois. Paris L'Academic Royale des und Werkstoff, 56, 307317.
Sciences. Histoire et Memoires, pp. 453467. Hanhijarvi A., Galimard P. and Hoffmeyer P. (1998).
Caulfield D.F. (1985) A chemical kinetics approach to Duration of load behaviour of different sized straight
the duration-of-load problem in wood. Wood and timber beams subjected to bending in variable climate.
Fiber Science, 17(4), 504-521. Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff, 56(5), 285-293.
Clonus C.O., Pedersen M.U., Hoffmeyer P. and Damk- Hearmon R.F.S. and Paton J.M. (1964) Moisture con-
ilde L. (2000) Compressive fatigue in wood. Wood tent changes and creep in wood. For. Prod. J. 14,
Science and Technology, 34, 2137. 357-359.
Clonus C.O. (2001) Fatigue in Wood - An Investiga- Hoffmeyer P. (1978) Moisture content-strength relation-
tion in Tension Perpendicular to Grain. PhD Thesis, ship for spruce lumber subjected to bending, compres-
Department of Structural Mechanics and Materials, sion and tension along the grain. Proc. IUFRO/S5.02
Technical University of Denmark. Timber Engineering meeting, Vancouver, BC.
Dinwoodie J.M. (2000) Timber, Its Nature and Beha- Hoffmeyer P. (1987) Duration of load effects for spruce
viour. E & FN Spon, London. timber with special reference to moisture influence.
Elmendorf A. (1916) Stresses in Impact. J. Franklin Proc. CEC Conference on Wood Technology, Munich,
Institute, 182(6). Germany.
Fewell A.R. (1986) Testing and analysis carried out Hoffmeyer P. (1990) Failure of Wood as Influenced by
as part of the Princes Risborough Laboratory's pro- Moisture and Duration of Load. Doctoral dissertation,
gramme to examine the duration of load effect on State University of New York, College of Environ-
timber. Proc. International Workshop on DOL in Lum- mental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY.
ber and Wood Products, Richmond, BC, Canada. Jensen S.K. and Hoffmeyer P. (1996) Mechanosorp-
Foschi R.O. and Barrett J.D. (1982) Load duration tive behaviour of notched beams in bending. Proc.
effects in Western hemlock lumber. ASCE J. Struc- International COST 508 Wood Mechanics Conference,
tural Engineering, 108(7), 14941510. Stuttgart, Germany.
Foschi R.O. and Yao Z.C. (1986) Another look at three Johns K. and Madsen B. (1982) Duration of load effects
duration of load models. Proc. I9th CIB/W18 Meeting, in lumber. Part I: Fracture mechanics approach. Can.
Florence, Italy. J. Civ. Eng. 9.
152 Timber Engineering

Karacabeyli E. and Soltis L.A. (1989) Meeting of Dura- Morlier P. and Ranta-Maunus A. (1998) DOL effect
tion of Load Research (Lumber) Program Review of different sized timber beams. Holz als Roh- und
Committee. Forintek Canada Corp., Vancouver, BC, Werkstoff, 56(5), 279284.
Canada (here after Barrett, 1996). Nielsen L.F. (1979) Crack failure of dead-, ramp- and
Karacabeyli E. and Soltis L. (1991) State-of-the-art combined loaded viscoelastic materials. Proc. 1st
report on duration of load research for lumber International Conference on Wood Fracture, Banff,
in North America. Proc. International Timber Alberta, Canada.
Engineering Conference, London, UK, 4, 141155. Nielsen L.F. (2000a) Lifetime and residual strength of
Kreuzinger H. and Mohr B. (1994) Holz und Holzver- wood subjected to static and variable load - Part I:
bindungen unter nicht vorwiegend ruhenden Ein- Introduction and analysis. Holz als Roh- und Werk-
wirkungen. Institut fur Tragwerksbau, Technische
Universitat Munchen. Nielsen L.F. (2000b) Lifetime and residual strength of
Laufenberg T.L., Palka L.C. and McNatt J.D. (1999) wood subjected to static and variable load - Part II:
Creep and Creep-Rupture Behaviour of Wood- Applications and design. Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff,
Based Structural Panels. Research Paper FPL-RP-574, 58, 141152.
USDA Forest Products Laboratory. Nore"n B. (1986) Results of pair-matching of wood for
LiskaJ.A. (1950) Effect of Rapid Loading on the long-term loading. International Workshop on Dura-
Compressive and Flexural Strength of Wood. Report tion of Load in Lumber and Wood Products, Forintek
No. 1767, U.S.Forest Products Laboratory. Canada Corporation, Special Publ. No. SP 27.
Madsen B. (1972) Duration of Load Tests for Wood in Norlin L.P., Norlin C.M. and Lam F. (1999) Shear
Tension Perpendicular to Grain. Structural Research behaviour of laminated Douglas fir veneer. Wood Sci-
Series, Report No. 7, UBC, Vancouver, BC. ence and Technology, 33, 199208.
Madsen B. (1973) Duration of load tests for dry lumber Pearson R.G. (1972) The effect of duration of load on
in bending. For. Prod. J. 23 (2), 2128. the bending strength of wood. Holzforschung, 26(4),
Madsen B. and Barrett J.D. (1976) Time-Strength Rela- 153-158.
tionship for Lumber. Structural Research Series, PhilpotTA., Fridley K.J. and Rosowsky D.V. (1994)
Report No. 13, UBC, Vancouver, BC. Energy-based failure criterion for wood. J. Materials
Madsen B. (1992) Structural Behaviour of Timber. Tim- in Civil Engineering, 6(4), 578-593.
ber Engineering Ltd., Vancouver, BC. van der Put T.A.C.M. (1989) Deformation and Dam-
Markwardt L.J. and Liska J.A. (1948) Speed of testing age Processes in Wood. Doctoral Dissertation, Delft
of wood. Factors in its control and its effect on University Press, Delft, The Netherlands.
strength. Proc. ASTM, 48, 11391159. Sharp D.J. and Craig B.A. (19%) Load duration effects
McDowall B.J. (1982) The Duration of Load Effect in structural composite lumber. Proc. International
in Tension Perpendicular to the Grain for Douglas Wood Engineering Conference, New Orleans, LA, 4,
Fir. Doctoral Dissertation, The University of British 113-119.
Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Wood L.W. (1947) Behavior of wood under continued
Morlier P., Valentin G. and Toratti T. (1994) Review of loading. Eng. News-Record, 139(24), 108111.
the theories on long-term strength and time to failure. Wood L.W. (1951) Relation of Strength of Wood to
Proc. COST 508 Workshop on Service Life Assessment Duration of Stress. U.S. Forest Products Laboratory,
of Wooden Structures, Espoo, Finland. Report No. (1916).
9

Effects of Climate and Climate Variations


on Strength
Alpo Ranta-Maunus

9.1 Introduction 153


9.2 Moisture content in wood caused by naturally varying climate 154
9.3 Strength at different equilibrium moisture contents and temperatures 156
9.4 Effect of moisture gradients on load carrying capacity 158
9.5 Calculation of moisture-induced stresses 160
9.6 Effect of moisture gradients on test results 164
9.7 Consideration of moisture gradients in structural design 165
9.8 Summary 166

9.1 INTRODUCTION cause moisture gradients in wood, which induce


stresses in a perpendicular to grain direction, and
Wood is a hygroscopic material which takes water may cause splitting of the wood. In addition, vary-
from surrounding air, and the moisture content of ing moisture has negative effects on the strength
wood tends to settle down to equilibrium with the and stiffness of timber under long-term loading;
air humidity. As a consequence, the moisture con- however, this is not the topic of this chapter.
tent of wood is different under different climatic This chapter first briefly describes the range of
conditions. This is of importance because mois- variation of the moisture content of wood under
ture content has a direct effect on the strength different climates and seasons. The next section is
of wood: normally the strength is low when the about the influence of moisture content level on
moisture content is high. However, not only is the the strength of timber, which is an area where a
level of moisture content important: fast changes large amount of research has been done, and it
154 Timber Engineering

will be covered only partly, to an extent which 8% average moisture


is thought to be relevant to the design of tim- content
ber structures. The rest of the chapter illustrates
cases where weather change and related transient
moisture content in the wood increase the risk of
failure, and should be considered as an extra load-
ing of the structure. This is a fairly new topic in
research, and has not yet been included in design
standards.
6% average
9.2 MOISTURE CONTENT moisture content
11% average
IN WOOD CAUSED moisture content
BY NATURALLY
VARYING CLIMATE Figure 9.1 Recommended moisture content of wood
for interior use in the USA (FPL Wood Handbook)
Long-term mean values of Equilibrium Moisture
Contents (EMC) of wood exposed to outdoor
air in different climates have been published in
wood handbooks for different locations in the
USA. In a northern climate the maximum is
during winter, and the minimum during summer.
In a continental climate in the North (Missoula,
Minnesota), the range is from 9.817.6%. In
southern areas the maximum is reached during
summer and the minimum during winter, as
in Los Angeles (EMC = 12-15%). In addition,
there are zones with fairly constant moisture
contents from dry desserts (below 10%) to humid 7/91 6/92 6/93 6/94 6/95
coastal areas (14-15% in New Orleans). In
heated or air conditioned rooms, the Relative 100
Humidity (RH) is normally lower than outdoors.
RH may be increased by moisture-producing
activities such as cooking, bathing or drying
laundry. American recommendations on moisture
contents to which wood should be dried when
used indoors are shown in Figure 9.1. In Nordic
climates the average moisture content of wood is
often 12% during summer and 6% during winter.
Accordingly, wood should be dried to this range,
and often 8% is recommended. -20
6/92 6/93 6/94 6/95 6/96
Conditions in heated and in sheltered, unheated
buildings in Nordic countries are characterised Figure 9.2 Changes in relative humidity and temper-
by Figures 9.2-9.4. Figure 9.2 shows the RH ature (daily mid-day values) in a heated room in Espoo
and temperature measurement in heated (above) (above) and in a sheltered environment in Kirkkonummi
and unheated (below) buildings in Finland. Both (below)
Effects of Climate and Climate Variations on Strength 155

20

18

16

3 4 5 6 7 8
Time [years]

Figure 9.3 Mean moisture content of three end-sealed, untreated 1622 mm thick boards in a sheltered environment
in an unheated room in southern Finland (Kirkkonummi). Time scale begins in June 1992

1996 1996.5 1997 1997.5 1998 1998.5 1999 1999.5 2000


Time, year

Figure 9.4 Mean moisture content in wood (glularn 90 x 100 x 600) versus time in a barn in Southern Sweden
(Asa) (Gustafsson et al., 1998)

buildings are massive: the heated building is moisture content have been made by weighting
the VTT underground research hall in base test pieces.
rock, which is ventilated but the RH is not Figure 9.3 shows the variation of the mean
regulated, and the unheated building is an old moisture content in thin timber in the Kirkkon-
granary made of stone. As part of long-term ummi building, and Figure 9.4 that of glulam in
loading experiments, measurements of the average a barn in Asa, Sweden. The latter measurements
156 Timber Engineering

g 90--- -
I 70-F
50
28 56 84 112 140 168
Timefd]

Figure 9.5 Calculated moisture history in cyclic tests in different depths from surface (0, 10, 20 and 45 mm) of
90 mm thick glulam (Figure 61, Gowda et al., 1998)

are made more often and regularly, once in every dimensions of the cross-section. Tension strength
two weeks, and give a more accurate picture of depends less upon moisture content, and this dep-
moisture variation, annual minimum and maximum endence is normally neglected.
values ranging from 1219% MC. Mechanical properties in high quality material
Moisture content in glulam in a transient situation are affected more by moisture than in low qual-
is illustrated in Figure 9.5, where calculated values ity material. Numerical models for the strength
of moisture contents in different depths are shown. and capacities of American and Canadian lumber
The RH cycle has a length of four weeks with a are given in handbooks (Barrett et al., 1994, FPL
maximum RH of 90% and a minimum of 55%. Wood Handbook, 1999). Moisture effects are often
expressed in a simplified way: change in property
9.3 STRENGTH AT DIFFERENT (%) caused per 1% point change of moisture con-
tent. Table 9.1 shows such results for clear wood
EQUILIBRIUM MOISTURE
(Hoffmeyer, 1995), round timber (Ranta-Maunus,
CONTENTS AND 1999) and values adopted in the CEN-standard EN
TEMPERATURES 384 to adjust fifth percentile values of sawn tim-
Changes in the moisture content of wood products ber. In the standard EN 384, no adjustment is used
cause shrinkage (or swelling), as well as changes in for bending and tension strengths. This reflects the
strength and elastic properties. Shrinkage reduces fact that the lowest fifth percentile of the mate-
member cross-sectional area, section modulus and rial is influenced little by moisture. More detailed
moment of inertia. illustration of the effect of moisture on different
The experimental results show that bending and fractiles of strength of European and American
compression strengths generally increase with dec- timber is shown in Figures 9.6-9.8.
reasing moisture content below the fibre saturation Even if dry wood has a higher strength than
point. For member capacities, a similar trend is wet wood, and the trend is obvious, there is a
observed in spite of the opposite effect of shrinking limit in moisture content below which wood does
Effects of Climate and Climate Variations on Strength 157

Table 9.1 Effect of moisture content change to mechanical properties of softwoods


(%/%) between 8% and 20% MC. Values of clear wood and round timber are average
effects, values of sawn timber are for characteristic values
Property Clear wood Round timber Sawn timber
(EN 384)
Compression strength (// and ) 5 5 3
Bending strength 4 1 0
Tension strength (If) 2.5 0
Tension strength ( ) 2
Shear strength 3
Impact bending strength (//) 0.5
Modulus of elasticity (//) 1.5 2

20 40 60 80 % 100 20 40 60 80 % 100 20 40 60 80% 100

Figure 9.6 Compression (fc), tension (ft) and bending (fm) strength vs. percentile of matched samples of spruce
(Picea abies) at moisture contents 12, 20 and over 28, according to Hoffmeyer (1995)

20 40 60 80 % 100 20 40 60 80 % 100 20 40 60 80 % 100

Figure 9.7 Bending (fm), tension (ft,) and compression (f c ) strength vs. percentile of matched samples of spruce
(Picea abies) at moisture contents 12, 20 and over 28, according to Hoffmeyer (1995). Reorganisation of results shown
in Figure 9.6
158 Timber Engineering

120 1.0
16
0.9
12
o
80 DC
O 0.8

5 40
8 * a 0.7 1650M.5E

2100M.8E
DC
O
12 16 20 24 0.5
12 24 36 48 60 72
Moisture content (%) Exposure time (months)

Figure 9.9 Permanent effect of exposure to 66 C


12 temperature to the bending strength of timber (FPL
Wood Handbook)

9.4 EFFECT OF MOISTURE


GRADIENTS ON LOAD
CARRYING CAPACITY
9.4.1 Experimental Results on
Capacity of Curved Beams
with Moisture Gradients
Moisture content (%)
Two programs have been carried out to determine
Figure 9.8 Effect of moisture content on tensile and the duration of load effect on the tension strength
compressive strength on different quality levels of perpendicular to grain in different sized curved
American lumber (FPL Wood Handbook) beams exposed to cyclically varying humidity. The
earlier project (VTT) was made between 1991
1993 (Ranta-Maunus et al., 1994). The later, more
comprehensive project (EU/AIR) was completed in
not get stronger when drying; on the contrary, 1997 (Aicher et al., 1998, Gowda et al., 1998). As
it may become weaker. This limit is not identi- part of the AIR-project, tensile tests with specimen
cal for all species and loading directions, but as volumes of 0.01 m3 and 0.03 m3 were made by
a rule of thumb wood has its maximum strength FMPA in Germany.
around 10% moisture content. If the low moisture In the experiments, with four weeks duration on
content is a result of long-term exposure to ele- one stress level, the ratio of failure load under
vated temperatures, this may be an additional rea- changing humidity to the short-term strength,
son for reduced strength. When the temperature is kDOL ranges from 0.45 to 0.66 for uncoated
above 60 C, the exposure degrades wood, and the specimens (Table 9.2), whereas the ratio in similar
strength is permanently reduced (Figure 9.9). Also, experiments at constant humidity is about 0.8, the
the strength of normal timber tested at elevated reference DOL-curve at constant humidity being
temperatures is reduced, depending upon tempera- given in Figure 9.10 (Ranta-Maunus, 2001). The
ture and moisture content. Structures are, however, difference is caused by the moisture gradients.
seldom at such high temperatures that the strength kDOL is determined for the average beam in test
and stiffness reduction needs to be considered. series with variable humidity. The results show that
Effects of Climate and Climate Variations on Strength 159

Table 9.2 Comparison of DOL factors obtained in cyclic humidity tests (Aicher et al., 1998)
VTT S2 VTT AIR S2 AIR S6 FMPA FMPA FMPA FMPA
painted S1&3 curved curved small small large large
curved curved beams beams tensile tensile tensile tensile
beams beams
Conditioning 70 70 75 75 65 65 65 65
RH (%)
RH cycle (%) 40<->85 40<->85 55<->90 55<->90 55<->90 natural 55<->90 natural
Width (mm) 90 90 90 140 90 90 140 140
Time to failure 13 20 28 17 18 2.6 19 25
(days)
kDOL 0.76 0.55 0.60 0.66 0.45 0.60 0.50 0.64

DOL of curved beams at constant RH cycles or duration of load. A combined moisture


adjusted to size: 140 x 600 x 4000
and structural analysis indicates that the stress dis-
tribution is essentially the same during successive
SL(t)=0.919-0.040lg10t moisture cycles, which supports the assumption
0.9
that it is enough to analyse the most severe mois-
ture change, not the whole history. Accordingly,
0.8 the effect of cyclic moisture history affecting struc-
Madison curve tures loaded by tension stresses perpendicular to
SL(t)=0.91 -0.063 Ig10t
0.7 - grain may be seen rather as an extra load than
part of the duration-of-load effect weakening the
0.6 - material under long-term loading. If this effect is
considered as a DOL-effect, and results obtained
0.5 during a few weeks loading are extrapolated on
10- 10- 10 101 102 103 104 a logarithmic time scale to several years' dura-
Time t (h)
tion, extremely low and unjustified strength values
Figure 9.10 Relative stress vs. time-to-failure graph of would be obtained.
curved beams at constant moisture content failing due Nearly all failures took place during the humid
to tension perpendicular to grain. The Madison curve is part of the moisture cycle, when the surface of the
given here for comparison beam was under compression stress, and internal
parts under increased tension stress.
the moisture cycles used will roughly double the
effect of load duration. Wider cross-sections are 9.4.2 Experiments with Notched Beams
less sensitive to moisture cycling than narrow ones. Experiments similar to those of curved beams,
An effective protection against changing moisture described in Section 9.4.1, have been made with
appears to be normal surface treatment with alkyl end-notched beams both in a cyclic laboratory
paint. It prevents the major part of the effect of and natural environments (Gustafsson et al., 1998).
moisture cycling with a cycle length of four weeks. The result is different from curved beams: the high-
Based on the first experiments, it was observed est load capacities are obtained during a season
that when curved beams loaded under constant when moisture content is increasing, and the low-
load experienced several similar moisture cycles, est when wood is drying or at equilibrium mois-
the beams surviving the first cycle did not fail dur- ture content.
ing the following moisture cycles. The conclusion Obviously, due to humidity variation, a mois-
is that the magnitude of moisture-induced stresses ture gradient is also created in the grain direction
is the primary reason for failure, not the number of in the notched area, causing compressive or tensile
160 Timber Engineering

stresses perpendicular to grain, depending upon the perpendicular to grain, and therefore moisture-
moisture transient. If the potential crack initiation induced stresses appear primarily in that direction.
area at the notch is compressed, a friction-like phe- Most directly moisture-induced stresses are caused
nomenon is observed: load capacity is increased, in the drying of wood: when green wood is dried,
but when the failure occurs, it is fast and brittle. many cracks are often created even without any
However, if the load level at failure is lower and external load. Stress development and cracking
the fracture development is slower, the crack is during drying has been analysed by several
initiated and kept open by a drying moisture tran- researchers, but will not be elaborated on here.
sient. When the notch is coated, the effect of mois- There are some basic differences to structural
ture transience is smaller, and the time to failure applications: the initial moisture content is above
in long-term experiments is longer. The moisture- fibre saturation point, and the drying temperature
related effects to strength were more pronounced is higher than in the normal environment of
in large (300 mm high) than in small (100 mm) structures. This makes creep phenomena still
beams. more important in the analysis of industrial wood
drying than in the analysis of structures. Also,
9.4.3 Connections the coupling of heat and mass transfer is more
Some failures have taken place in timber structures important in kiln drying: heat is transferred to
because shrinkage of a glulam cross-section has wood in order to dry it via circulated air, which
been prevented structurally in a connection area. is also transporting the humidity. Accordingly, the
It is quite obvious that a beam may crack when needs in analysis of structures are different from
it is fastened rigidly at two locations far from those in wood drying, and an excellent engineering
each other in a direction perpendicular to grain, procedure in wood drying may be inadequate for
and exposed to a moisture transient. Another structures, and vice versa.
reason for a failure of this type of structure is
that after moisture movement, load distribution
to connectors may change drastically. However,
9.5.1 Calculation Method
these important cases when the shrinkage of an Calculation of moisture-induced stresses in
entire cross-section creates stress resultants in a directions perpendicular to grain includes the
direction perpendicular to grain are not analysed calculation of moisture distributions in wood at
in this paper. different times, and the calculation of stresses
Also, moisture gradients in wood may reduce caused by restrained moisture deformations and
the capacity of connections, even if the moisture external loads. The numerical calculation can use
movement of the cross-section is not restricted and basic equations as follows.
moisture-induced stresses are self-balancing, as in Moisture transport inside wood in one dimension
case of curved beams. The author is, however, can be calculated using the diffusion equation with
unaware of published results in which the effect an effective diffusion coefficient Deff:
of moisture changes could be separated from the
pure mechanical load effect. 2- ( (9.1)
dt Jv dv

9.5 CALCULATION OF where u is moisture content. The equation states


MOISTURE-INDUCED that the rate of moisture change in volume V is
proportional to the gradient of moisture content,
STRESSES
integrated over the boundary of the volume V. The
The state of stress in wood is affected not only by effective diffusion coefficient can be determined as
external loading, but also by moisture variation, being dependent on moisture content u as
because free moisture movement is restricted.
Swelling and shrinkage are strongest in directions (9.2)
Effects of Climate and Climate Variations on Strength 161

The mass flux density at the boundary is calculated a curved beam, boundary conditions have been
using an analogy between heat and mass transfer, applied as follows:
given by the boundary-layer theory:
1. Condition of equilibrium of forces:
W
* \ 3M
v - Pv)~ (9.3)
Pl (9.5)

where kpaint is the resistance caused by surface where A is the area through the width of a
coating (where applicable), and Bl is the mass cross-section with unit length, M is the bending
transfer coefficient from liquid water. pv is the moment acting on the curved beam, R is the
vapour pressure, and pv the vapour pressure at mean radius of curvature, and h is the height of
the wood surface, which is characterised by the the beam.
sorption curve. The last correction term is the 2. As a condition of compatibility, total strain is
difference between vapour emission from wood assumed to be constant throughout the cross-
and liquid water surfaces, and is a function of the section.
moisture content of the wood surface. More details
on moisture transport can be found in the literature In the cross-section of glued laminated timber,
(e.g. Hukka, 1999). the different elastic properties in the radial and
The boundary condition can also be formulated tangential directions have to be taken into account.
in terms of moisture difference instead of vapour In 2D analysis this is done by considering the
pressure difference. The equations can be solved pith location of each lamella and local material
by numerical methods like the finite element, finite orientation accordingly. In 1D analysis this is done
difference or control volume methods. by using local effective E-values depending on pith
The calculation of stress is based on a constitu- location (Gowda et al, 1998).
tive model including shrinkage, elastic, viscoelas- Numerical methods to solve the equations are
tic and mechano-sorptive strain component: not discussed here. Instead, some published results
will be reported. Stresses perpendicular to grain
eve(a) (9.4) in the curved glulam beam shown in Figure 9.11
caused by external load (bending moment) and
It is essential to include mechano-sorptive effect varying humidity of air have been calculated,
in the equation. Otherwise, we obtain stresses that and an example of stress distribution at different
are far too high. We have modelled the viscoelastic times is shown in Figures 9.12 and 9.13. The great
behaviour using the generalised Kelvin material variability of stress in the width direction raises
model with seven Kelvin-units in series, and the a question about the cracking criterion: does the
elastic response is included within the viscoelastic failure take place when the critical value of stress
model. Time-moisture content equivalence and a is exceeded locally, or should a more developed
shift factor is used in modelling the dependency of criterion be adopted. At least in principle, the
creep rate on moisture content. Mechano-sorptive maximum stress can be anywhere in the cross-
creep is also modelled using four Kelvin units section, most likely in the middle of the beam or at
in series, whose deformation depends upon the the surface. Another complication is that strength is
absolute value of the moisture content change, but different in different orientations in the RT-plane.
not on time. As background reading on constitutive Accordingly, we should use a criterion which
modelling of wood, a paper by Hanhijarvi (2000) takes all these aspects into consideration, and is
is recommended. preferably based on fracture mechanics. We have
In the one-dimensional case when only the instead applied Weibull theory, which is normally
moisture gradient through thickness is considered, used for the analysis of different size effects and
and if additionally tension stress perpendicular to load configuration factors. Here it has been applied
grain is caused by a bending moment loading to analyse the severity of stress distribution within
162 Timber Engineering

1650 4000 1650

F/2

300 300

7300

Figure 9.11 Example of the analysed and tested curved glulam beam

a cross-section. The effective Weibull stress caused in Figure 9.13 for comparison with the 90 mm
by external mechanical loads and moisture effects wide beam in Figure 9.12. Obviously, the time
is calculated as needed for development of the maximum moisture-
1/k induced stresses depends upon the dimensions of
(iVref1r /JC
V
(9.6) the timber member.
The effect of moisture cycles is compared to
where at,90 means the tension stress perpendicular the effect of mechanical loading at equilibrium
to grain. Equivalent stress calculated by Equation moisture content by computing the value of
(9.6) gives the value of constant stress in the mechanical load (average stress) which causes
reference volume Vref, causing the same probability the same Weibull stress as a combination of
of failure as the actual stress distribution in the mechanical and moisture load. The results are
actual volume V. More details on the calculation given in Table 9.3. Test cycles and single humidity
are reported in other papers (Gowda et al., 1998, changes have been analysed. The moisture load
Aicher et al., 1998, Ranta-Maunus, 1998). corresponds to an extra load of 0.150.35 MPa
when acting simultaneously with a mechanical
load of 0.2 MPa, when the beam is not surface
9.5.2 Calculated Examples coated. A good surface coating (vapour barrier)
The method described above has been used to will decrease the moisture load from 0.15 MPa to
analyse the experiments made with curved beams 0.05 MPa. A single fast change from 65% RH
and tension specimens. Figure 9.12 shows that the to 90% RH seems to be more severe than the
stress in the middle of the beam is higher than at test cycles analysed. The conclusion is that fast
the surface, and the maximum is reached during the changes of climate from dry weather to wet season
wetting part of the moisture cycle. This is caused with a duration of a few weeks is most harmful for
by the cylindrical orthotropy of wood: the central structures loaded by tension stress perpendicular
part of the material carries most of the load because to grain.
wood is much stiffer in the radial direction than A comparison of calculated moisture loads and
in directions between R and T. In this case, the observed failure loads is made in a simple way.
effective Weibull stress is nearly the same as the The results in Table 9.3 (external load 0.5 MPa)
value of stress in the middle of the beam. The stress are compared to test results: the difference of
distribution at 126 days and 140 days is shown in failure load at constant and cyclic humidity
Figure 9.14. Stresses depend upon the width of the test. Results plotted in Figure 9.15 indicate that
beam: results for a 140 mm wide beam are shown calculated stresses are normally higher than
Effects of Climate and Climate Variations on Strength 163

50
168

Figure 9.12 Calculated vertical stresses in the middle and at the surface of a 90 mm wide beam simulating a test at
relative humidity cycling between 55% and 90%. Dots on the mean stress curve denote the times of failures of beams
in the test (Figure 58, Gowda et al., 1998)

56 84 112 140 168


Time [d]

Figure 9.13 Calculated vertical stresses in the middle and at the surface of a 140 mm wide beam simulating a test
at relative humidity cycling between 55% and 90%. Dots on the mean stress curve denote the times of failures of
beams in the test (Figure 62, Gowda et al., 1998)
164 Timber Engineering

15 20 25 30
0.5
Distance from surface [mm]

Figure 9.14 Calculated stress distribution for a half thickness of a 90 mm wide beam in test after a dry period
(126 days) and a wet period (140 days). The calculated Weibull stresses at the same times are 1.01 MPa and 2.17 MPa,
respectively (Gowda et al., 1998)

Table 9.3 Calculated equivalent (mean) stresses for combinations of moisture cycling and load (Ranta-
Maunus, 1998)
Thickness (mm) RH cycle Equivalent load for Combined effect for
external load 0.2 MPa external load 0.5 MPa
90 55%<->90%a 0.45 0.81
140 55%<->90%a 0.36 0.73
90 40%<->85%b 0.35 0.71
90 40%<->85%b painted 0.25 0.57
90 76%->90%c 0.40 0.73
90 65%->90%c 0.52 0.87
140 76%->90%c 0.41 0.75
140 65%->90%c 0.55 0.90
a
Test cycle in AIR experiments at FMPA and VTT.
b
Test cycle in earlier VTT study.
c
Single fast change from equilibrium, lasting for four weeks.

observed ones. This discrepancy may be partly specimens should be conditioned to test moisture
caused by differences between the real test content with special care. The moisture gradients
conditions and the simplified ones used in the have a considerable effect on the test results, which
analysis: the cycle used at FMPA was calculated may be too low or too high depending on the
as a single change from 65% to 90% RH. gradient. This is important both in short-term and
long-term testing. If a long-term test is made at
constant humidity, but the conditioning humidity is
9.6 EFFECT OF MOISTURE not exactly the same as during loading, a moisture
GRADIENTS ON TEST RESULTS gradient will be created. If the difference is 3%
in EMC, so that the test specimen is wetting
Stresses caused by moisture gradients are also very during the experiment, as much as 35% lower
important in test situations. When tested under strength values may be obtained. If the change is
tension in a direction perpendicular to grain, test in the drying direction, the result is too high a
Effects of Climate and Climate Variations on Strength 165

Moisture induced stress at failure

o 90 mm/RH55<->90%
a 140mm/RH55<->90
A 90 mm/RH40<->85
x painted RH40<->85
x 90 mm/RH65->90
o 140mm/RH65->90%

0.1 0.2 0.3


Experimental value of additional stress [MPa]

Figure 9.15 Comparison of calculated moisture stresses and experiments

CO

112

Figure 9.16 Calculated Weibull stresses in 140 mm wide test beams when pre-test conditioning moisture content is
the same as during the test or 3% EMC lower or higher (Figure 57, Gowda et al., 1998)

strength value. This is illustrated in Figure 9.16, 9.7 CONSIDERATION OF


where a long-term test under stepwise increasing MOISTURE GRADIENTS IN
load is analysed at constant humidity when the
STRUCTURAL DESIGN
conditioning moisture content is correct, and when
it is 3% higher or lower. The effective Weibull It is suggested that transient moisture conditions
stress is shown for these three cases, indicating should be considered as a load case instead of as
that the highest effective stress is nearly double a strength reducing factor in the design calculation
the lowest one. This is expected to increase the of timber structures when wood splitting is the
variability of test results obtained. failure mode.
166 Timber Engineering

The design equation for multiple loads is expres- A simple approach to considering moisture-
sed in design codes in principle as follows: induced loads would, based on the experimen-
tal and calculated results presented here, be to
j give values for moisture stresses in design code
+ YQ(Q1 + tyvQ2) < (9.7)
YM unless a more precise analysis is made. Rough
where OG is stress caused by permanent load, aQi is estimates for moisture-induced stresses perpendic-
stress caused by variable load Qi, y -factors are the ular to grain could be 0.25 MPa for uncoated
partial safety factors for loads and material, \]t is and 0.1 MPa for well coated beams. These values
the combination factor (less than 1) indicating that could be reduced by a factor ^ when combined
two different variable loads seldom have maximum with other stresses. In a similar way, moisture-
induced stresses should be added to mechanical
values at the same time, and / is strength, modified
to the appropriate service condition (load duration, stresses in the design of end-notched beams and
large mechanical connections.
moisture) by factor kmod. Loads Q1 and Q2, for
instance, can be snow and wind. When wood is
loaded in tension perpendicular to the grain, mois- 9.8 SUMMARY
ture gradients should also be considered as another
natural load. When doing so, two interesting ques- The strength of wood, especially compression
tions arise: strength, depends upon moisture content. Under
normal climatic conditions, moisture gradients in
1. Are the stresses additive, as assumed when wood enhance the risk of cracking, and can have
writing Equation (9.7). an effect on load carrying capacity. This is true
2. What should be the combination factor ty when when the failure mode is splitting of wood caused
combining moisture loads with snow and wind by tension stress perpendicular to grain, or shear
loads. stress, or a combination of them.
The effect of moisture gradients is not taken
The first question can be discussed by comparing into account in design calculations. Sometimes
the effective stress values obtained for different the effect of moisture gradients is considered as
mechanical loads in the case of a curved beam part of the duration of load effect, decreasing
(Table 9.3). The answer was 'no but yes', meaning the strength of wood. The problem with this
that the theoretically correct method is to analyse approach is that when test results obtained during
all effects simultaneously, but due to severe prob- a certain period of time are extrapolated to a
lems in doing so in structural design, the effects long load duration, extremely low strength values
have to be analysed separately. The error made are obtained. A more correct approach would be
when stress components are added can be tol- to consider stresses caused by transient moisture
erated, and overcome in the development of the conditions as loads, and to combine these moisture-
design method. induced stresses with mechanical stresses.
The combination factor question has not yet
been analysed. It seems likely that the humidity
changes are not most severe when snow load REFERENCES
has its maximum. It is, however, difficult to see Aicher S., Dill-Langer G. and Ranta-Maunus A. (1998)
any meteorological reason why maximum wind Duration of load effect in tension perpendicular to the
and humidity could not take place simultaneously. grain of glulam in different climates. Holz als Roh-
Accordingly, we can suggest that a combination und Werkstoff, 56, 295-305.
factor of wind and moisture loads is about the Barrett J.D. and Lau W. (1994) Canadian Lumber Prop-
erties. Canadian Wood Council, Ottawa.
same as the combination factor of wind and Forest Products Laboratory (1999) Wood Handbook
snow, whereas a combination factor for snow and Wood as an Engineering Material. Gen. Tech.
moisture might be lower. Rep. FPL-GTR-113, Madison, WI: US Department
Effects of Climate and Climate Variations on Strength 167

of Agriculture, Forest service, Forest products calculated from direct drying experiments. HolZfors-
laboratory. chung, 53, 534-540.
Gowda S., Kortesmaa M. and Ranta-Maunus A. (1998) Ranta-Maunus A. and Gowda S. (1994) Curved and
Duration of load effect on curved glulam beams. cambered glulam beams. Part 2. Long term load tests
Part 2. Long term load tests and analysis. VTT under cyclically varying humidity. VTT Publications
Publications 334, Espoo. 171, Espoo.
Gustafsson P.J., Hoffmeyer P. and Valentin G. (1998) Ranta-Maunus A. (1998) Duration of load effect in
DOL behaviour of end-notched beams. Holz als Roh- tension perpendicular to grain in curved glulam. CIB
W18 Meeting in Savonlinna, Paper 3191.
und Werkstoff, 56, 307317.
Ranta-Maunus A. (1999) Round small diameter timber
Hanhijarvi A. (2000) Advances in the knowledge of for construction. Final report of project FAIR CT 95
the influence of moisture changes on the long- 0091, VTT Publications 383, Espoo.
term mechanical performance of timber structures. Ranta-Maunus A. (2001) Moisture gradient as loading
Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions, of curved timber beams failing in tension perpendic-
33, 43-49. ular to grain. IABSE Conference Innovative Wooden
Hoffmeyer P. (1995) Wood as building material. STEP Structures and Bridges, Lahti, Finland, pp. 29-31.
Lecture A4, Centrum Hout, Holland. Thelandersson S. (1994) Variation of moisture content in
Hukka A. (1999) The effective diffusion coefficient timber structures. In: Creep in Timber Structures, Ed.
and mass transfer coefficient of Nordic softwoods as P. Morlier. RILEM Report 8, E&FN SPON, London.
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PART TWO

Design Aspects of Timber Structures


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10

Introduction: Safety and Serviceability


in Timber Engineering
Sven Thelandersson

10.1 Characteristic features in the design of timber structures 171


10.2 Reliability and limit state design 172
10.3 Safety-related design of timber structures 174
10.4 Design of timber structures for serviceability 174

10.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES Interaction with moisture.


IN THE DESIGN OF TIMBER Significant duration of load effects on strength.
STRUCTURES
Significant time-dependent deformations.
Timber is in many ways very different from other
structural materials, such as steel and concrete.
The most important material characteristics gov- For steel and reinforced concrete, design models
erning the structural behaviour of timber have been based on plasticity can be applied for many of
described in Part One of this book. The follow- the most frequent failure modes. In contrast, the
ing aspects are of special importance in design of most common failure modes in timber elements
timber structures: are brittle or semi-brittle, which means that the
ability to redistribute load effects in structural
Low weight in relation to strength.
timber systems is limited. It should be noted,
Significant variability and inhomogeneity. however, that mechanical timber connections with
Anisotrophy, i.e. properties depend upon direc- slender dowel type fasteners normally exhibits
tion. plastic behaviour.
172 Timber Engineering
Table 10.1 Strength and stiffness parameters for structural timber
Type Mode Orientation Notation
Strength Bending Parallel fm
Tension Parallel ft,
Compression Parallel fc
Longitudinal shear Parallel fv
Tension Perpendicular f1.90
Compression Perpendicular fc.90
Rolling shear Perpendicular fv.90
Stiffness Tension/compression/bending Parallel E
Longitudinal shear Parallel G
Tension/compression Perpendicular E90
Rolling shear Perpendicular G90

The anistropic behaviour of wood means that limit states are, for instance loads, strength and
design strength values have to be defined for dif- stiffness parameters, dimensions and geometrical
ferent material directions, and distinctions have to imperfections. Since these parameters are random
be made between tension and compression. More- variables, the outcome of a design in relation to
over, as described in Part One, the fact that timber a limit state is associated with uncertainty. The
is inhomogeneous with knots and other growth main issue is to find design methods ensuring
characteristics implies that strength in many cases that the relevant performance criteria are met with
has to be defined at an element level or cross- a certain desired level of confidence or reliabil-
section level, rather than at the material level. The ity. Another way to describe this is to say that
mechanical material response of structural steel the risk of non-performance should be sufficiently
can be characterised for engineering purposes by low. A more detailed description of reliability con-
a few parametersuniaxial yield strength fy, elas- cepts and analysis methods is given by Foschi in
tic modulus E and Poissons ratio v - whereas for Chapter 11.
structural timber, the corresponding characterisa- The question of reliability is especially com-
tion requires at least seven strength parameters plicated for timber because of the large natural
and four stiffness parameters (see Table 10.1). The variability of the material. A significant element
situation is similar for many other wood-based of uncertainty is also introduced through lack of
structural products. information about the actual physical variability.
The above circumstances requires special atten- The variability of strength between timber ele-
tion by engineers designing timber structures. This ments is significantly larger than for steel or
will be further elaborated below, where design for reinforced concrete members. The coefficient of
ultimate limit states as well as for serviceability variation is of the order of 20-40%, with higher
limit states will be discussed.
values for brittle type failure modes.
The variability of strength within timber mem-
10.2 RELIABILITY AND LIMIT bers is also significant, but there are only limited
statistical data to properly quantify this variability
STATE DESIGN for various wood species, as described by Isaksson
One of the objectives for structural design is to in Chapter 4. Since timber is treated as a homoge-
fulfil certain performance criteria related to safety neous material (assuming constant strength along
and serviceability. Such a performance criterion is the length) in everyday engineering design, the
usually formulated as a limit state, i.e. a mathemat- within-member variability implies that the strength
ical description of the limit between performance (when evaluated on the basis of standard engi-
and non-performance. Parameters used to describe neering methods) depends upon the dimension of
Safety and Serviceability in Timber Engineering 173

Figure 10.1 A timber roof truss is a system consisting of timber elements and joint elements. Locations with high
stresses generally do not coincide with weak sections in the timber

the member and the spatial distribution of inter- reflects the reduced probability that an element
nal forces. These influences are called size and or a cross-section with highest stress will occur
load configuration effects, respectively. The order in a very weak element or a cross-section with
of magnitude for these effects is such that the relia- very low strength. Figures 10.1 and 10.2 show two
bility of timber structures in the ultimate limit state examples where probabilistic system effects are
is significantly affected. relevant. System reliability is further discussed by
In engineering design of multiple member wood Foschi in Chapter 11.
structural systems, simple mechanical models are A special feature for timber is that strength is
often used to determine the load effects in each affected in a significant way by load duration, as
member. Quite often, the actual behaviour of the described by Hoffmeyer in Chapter 8. This means
system implies mechanical interaction between that a statistical correlation is introduced between
elements in the system, which is neglected in a strength and load effects. This will complicate
simple engineering analysis, but may be described the evaluation of safety for timber structures.
by more advanced models, or verified by test- Studies of reliability related to duration of load
ing. This may be called a structural system effect, have been performed by Foschi et al, (1989) and
which is often relevant for structural timber sys- Svensson et al. (1999). Duration of load factors
tems. Since the theory of plasticity cannot be &mo<i were calibrated to obtain a consistent level
applied in general for timber structures, structural of safety in terms of reliability. The performance
system effects for timber cannot be quantified by criteria for structures can be classified into two
simple engineering calculation methods. categories, safety and serviceability, corresponding
The safety coefficients used in engineering to the ultimate and serviceability limit states,
design are based on calibration for single elements. respectively. An overview of key issues regarding
This means that one single element in the sys-
tem, which is identified to be the most stressed
one by simple engineering analysis, determines
the reliability of the system as a whole. Consid-
ering the real behaviour of the system and the
fact that the properties of the elements in the sys-
tem are random, it is clear that this procedure
will not give a correct estimate of the reliability.
A more detailed reliability analysis at the system
level will often reveal that system performance
improves safety. This difference, which is most Figure 10.2 Timber floor with parallel joists. Loads
often, but not always, on the conservative side, may be transferred from weaker joists to strong and stiff
may be called the probabilistic system effect. It companions
174 Umber Engineering

design for safety and serviceability of timber F/Fn


structures will be given below.

10.3 SAFETY-RELATED DESIGN


OF TIMBER STRUCTURES
A major complication in the design of timber
structures is that a number of different failure
modes may occur. The low strength in directions
perpendicular to grain requires special attention,
6 8
and in many cases, specific design methods mm
are needed. For large-scale structures based on
Figure 10.4 Typical load-deformation relation for joint
glulam and other engineered wood products, with dowel type fasteners
special structural forms are used, such as curved
beams, frames and arches, as well as tapered,
pitched and cambered beams. Examples are given The structural engineer has to be aware of this,
in Figures 1.14-1.16 in Chapter 1. Secondary and the design of more advanced types of structural
stresses in directions perpendicular to grain will systems in timber can be quite demanding.
occur in this type of structure, and the risk of However, by careful design and detailing, it
failure in tension perpendicular to grain should is possible to achieve robust structural systems
always be checked. Design methods for this are based on timber. Ductility in structural systems
described by Larsen in Chapter 12. can be introduced by proper use of mechanical
As mentioned above, timber elements in connections, which if correctly designed have
themselves have limited ductility, which can make excellent ductility (see Figure 10.4).
timber structures less forgiving than, for instance, Ductility is especially important in the case
steel and reinforced concrete (see Figure 10.3). of earthquake loading. Timber structures actually
have a record of being highly efficient to resist
earthquake loading. One great advantage in this
Force context is the low weight of timber, and properly
designed timber frame systems are very attractive
alternatives for buildings in earthquake regions. A
very comprehensive description of the state-of-the-
art for design of timber structures under earthquake
loading is given by Karacabeyli and Popovski in
Chapter 15.

10.4 DESIGN OF TIMBER


STRUCTURES FOR
SERVICEABILITY
Design in serviceability limit states is very often
decisive for timber structures. Important factors
Deflection
here are low weight in relation to strength,
Figure 103 Typical load deformation relations for moisture-induced deformations in all types of
structural timber in bending, (a) weak board, (b) strong wood products, and significant creep deformations
board within a sample, (after Isaksson, 1999) under load.
with beams as primary structural elements. For of specific deformation limits is associated with
moderate spans, structural timber or lightweight I- considerable uncertainties.
beams are used, whereas for larger spans, glulam or The loads acting on timber structures during
other solid engineered wood products are relevant. its lifetime are, to a large degree, variable in
Limitation of beam deflections often determines time, which means that deflections will also be
the dimensions of such structures. Deflections variable in time. This raises the question of
of beams made of wood or wood-based materi- defining the load combinations to be used for
als depend upon short-term bending stiffness and calculation of deflections in different situations.
creep under long-term loads. Ambient climate con- Furthermore, prediction of creep is usually based
ditions are important for deflections, since both on test data under time-constant load, and the
stiffness and creep depends upon moisture content validity of creep predictions for time-varying loads
level. Moreover, the creep will increase signifi- may be questioned. The most common approach
cantly when the material is exposed to moisture to this problem is to calculate creep deflections
variations. Short-term stiffness properties are rela- for a time averaged value for the variable loads.
tively well-known for most wood-based materials, Various aspects on design for deformation control
whereas information about the creep response and are discussed further in Chapter 13.
the influence of moisture is incomplete, in partic- For lightweight timber floors the most critical
ular for wood-based panel products. Prediction of issues are acoustics and limitation of vibrations
deflections in timber structures and design prin- from footfall and other dynamic loads. Regarding
ciples for deformation control are described by acoustics, the question of impact sound insulation
Martensson in Chapter 13. is crucial, but this is outside the scope of this book.
One important aspect of design for serviceability Floor vibration is, however, an important aspect
is the choice of performance criteria. Deformation of timber engineering. For lightweight floors,
limits for structures may be motivated in terms inertia forces to resist dynamic loads are small.
of human perception, risk for damage or loss of Timber floors usually consist of joists spanning in

Figure 10.5 Effect of swelling deformations in a wooden floor due to lack of movement gaps at the edges
176 Timber Engineering

one direction sheathed with panel products (see surfaces, appropriate measures have to be taken
Figure 10.2). The bending stiffness is therefore, to allow moisture movements to occur without
as a rule, much higher in the main direction than causing damage and cracking. A drastic example
in the transverse direction, whereas the vibration is shown in Figure 10.5. In large structural timber
response depends upon the stiffnesses in both systems, moisture-induced movements may cause
directions. A common way to improve vibration serviceability problems in the form of excessive
performance is to increase the transversal bending settlements and horizontal movements. Vertical
stiffness by blocking or cross-bracing between the settlements in timber frame systems are further
joists. Apart from the properties of the floor itself, discussed in Chapter 13.
the vibration response depends upon the dynamic
loading, which may be induced by humans or
by mechanical equipment. The various aspects of REFERENCES
vibration of timber floors are described by Smith Foschi R.O., Folz B.R. and Yao F.Z. (1989) Reliability-
in Chapter 14. based design of wood structures. Structural Research
It is necessary to design floors so that vibrations Series, Report No. 34, Department of Civil Engi-
neering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver,
are kept within a certain limit, based on human Canada.
perception of motion, which in itself has a high Isaksson T. (1999) Modelling the variability of bend-
variability within the human population (see Chap- ing strength of timber. Length and load configura-
ter 14). tion effects. PhD dissertation. Report TVBK-1015,
Moisture-induced deformations in wood and Division of Structural Engineering, Lund University,
Lund, Sweden.
wood-based products must be controlled to Svensson S., Thelandersson S. and Larsen H.J. (1999)
avoid serviceability problems. When wood-based Reliability of timber structures under long term loads.
products are used in wall linings and floor Materials & Structures, 32, 755760.
11

Reliability of Structures with Timber


and Wood-Based Products
Ricardo 0. Foschi

11.1 Introduction: reliability and performance-based design 177


11.2 Statistical representation of variables and basic probability concepts 179
11.3 Methods for calculating the probability of non-performance 183
11.4 Case Example No. 1: bending failure of a glued-laminated beam 187
11.5 Case Example No. 2: performance-based design of a timber beam in
bending (normal and fire conditions) 190
11.6 Case Example No. 3: reliability evaluation of system behaviour 191
11.7 Case Example No. 4: connection design under earthquake excitation,
application of response surfaces 193
11.8 Case Example No. 5: evaluating an existing structure 196
11.9 Case Example No. 6: calibration of a codified design equation 196
11.10 Conclusions 198

11.1 INTRODUCTION: for the intended service life. Performance criteria


RELIABILITY AND are associated with the different design situa-
PFRFORM ANPF-BASFD tions, or limit states, which are usually consid-
DESIGN ered by the engineer in the design process: for
example, serviceability limits of tolerable defor-
The objective in the design of any structure is mations or vibrations, or bending or shear failure
to meet specified performance criteria, and to of a member, or sufficient residual strength after
do so with a desired confidence or reliability some exposure to fire, or connection failure due to
178 Timber Engineering

crack propagation. The problem, thus formulated, include all those quantities which are determinis-
is known as performance-based design. tic or known with sufficient certainty. For example,
The solution depends upon the quantification the depth of a beam will affect its bending capac-
of performance for each limit state, and this, in ity and it will form part of dc, while the span will
turn, requires the availability of calculation mod- affect the bending moment demand, and will form
els. For example, the consideration of floor vibra- part of dd. On the other hand, the bending strength
tions requires a realistic model for estimation of the will form part of xc, while the actual applied load
dynamic response of the floor to a specified exci- will be included in xd.
tation. In general, the structural behaviour repre- When the performance function is written in the
sented by a calculation model will involve several form shown in Equation (11.1), non-performance
variables, each with a different degree of uncer- will correspond to situations where the variables
tainty. Some of these variables may be known quite combine to make D > C, or G < 0. Thus, estimat-
accurately (for example, the span of a beam), while ing the probability of non-performance is equiva-
others may be quite uncertain, or random, such lent to estimating the probability of the event G <
as the loads due to wind or snow or earthquake 0. This will be the probability of failure P/, and
shaking. Given the uncertainty in the input, the cal- the reliability will be the complement 1.0 Pf.
culated performance output will also have a degree The calculation of reliability requires statisti-
of uncertainty and, therefore, there will always be cal information on the variability of the random
a chance that the actual performance will not meet variables. For example, the bending strength of a
the acceptance criterion. The structural design must laminated beam will vary from specimen to speci-
then be adjusted to satisfy the criteria with tolera- men, and this variability may be obtained through
ble probabilities of non-performance. These prob- testing and represented by corresponding statistics.
abilities may also be called 'target probabilities of In a more sophisticated capacity calculation model,
failure', although in general they may refer to limit the statistics for the beam may be derived from
states not involving actual failure or collapse. The those for individual laminations, and testing of
complement of the probability of non-performance laminations will then provide the required informa-
is the reliability of the structural design. It should tion. Some variables may have more influence than
be emphasised that the estimated reliability corre- others and, accordingly, they will require a more
sponds to the calculation model being used, and precise statistical description. Some demand vari-
that it is important, therefore, that the models rep- ables will depend upon available data, for example,
resent reality as close as possible. In any case, an for wind speeds, depth of snow packs, quantity
additional random variable associated with mod- of rain, historical earthquake intensities, or occu-
elling error should always be added. pancy loadings. The statistics for such demands
In general, the performance of an engineering may be common to all materials. On the other
system can be described by a performance or limit hand, all those variables associated with the capac-
state function G(x), the form of which is ity are dependent on the material. In this regard,
since wood tends to be generally more variable
(11.1) than steel, reliability theory should play a rela-
tively more important role in wood engineering.
G(x) is a function of the intervening random vari- Of course, there may be some variables for which
ables, and can always be written as the difference no data or very little information are available.
between two functions, a capacity C and a demand In this case, subjective estimates of the variabil-
D. The variables may be divided into two groups: ity may be introduced to study the importance of
one, (xc, dc), related to the capacity C, and a sec- such assumptions in the overall reliability of the
ond, (x d, dd), associated with the demand D. The design. Should a particular variable be found to be
vectors xc, xd include all those variables which are quite important but lacking detailed information,
random or uncertain, while the vectors dc and dd more effort should be spent in obtaining more data
Reliability of Structures 179

to avoid a corresponding penalty in the reliabil- to achieve a fairly uniform reliability but, in real-
ity estimate. ity, the level varies with geographical location in
Reliability, in the context of performance-based accordance to changes in the snow load statistics.
design, offers many advantages not adequately The process of code calibration would only pro-
addressed by more traditional, deterministic cal- duce a code with an applicability range depending
culation methods. The calculated reliability in a upon the choice of situations considered in the cal-
given limit state will decrease if the information ibration exercise. A more detailed description of
is sketchy or the variability is high. Conversely, a code calibration is shown in Foschi et al. (1990).
premium is received through better information on Performance-based design is then intimately
the material, better modelling, or better procedures linked to the calculation of structural reliability,
for quality control. In this sense, these probabilistic and to the recognition of uncertainties in the
methods facilitate innovation in applications and design process. The required mathematical tool is
provided by probability theory. For completeness,
manufacturing.
this chapter includes a brief review of basic
How do we implement, in practice, reliability
probability concepts and methods for reliability
calculations and performance-based design? One
estimation. The chapter then focuses on application
approach will be to study each specific design
examples to problems in timber engineering.
situation, and to obtain values for the determin-
istic parameters dc or dd in such a way that a
target reliability be achieved for the design life 11.2 STATISTICAL
for the structure. This would be a customised REPRESENTATION OF
design approach, perhaps required for important
VARIABLES AND BASIC
structures or for the development of prefabricated
assemblies with wood-based products. Another
PROBABILITY CONCEPTS
approach will be the development of a codified pro- Data for each of the intervening variables must
cedure, by means of which a prescriptive design be provided in the form of statistical information.
equation will be specified for each limit state. Basic background on statistics and probability con-
The codified approach could cover a large number cepts are very well discussed elsewhere (Benjamin
of simpler applications for which the customised and Cornell, 1970, Ang and Tang, 1984a). Here
approach may not be necessary. only a brief review is included.
The code design equation normally contains To guide the discussion, let us consider the
a sufficient number of 'design factors' to be specific case of bending strength of a timber
applied to nominal load demands or to nominal beam, of a given size and span. Suppose that N
capacities. These factors would have been chosen specimens are tested, maintaining constant certain
or calibrated in a manner such that, when using characteristics deemed to influence the bending
the code, the resulting design would have achieved strength: for example, load distribution, rate of
the desired target reliability. Of course, with just a loading, temperature and moisture content. In all
few factors, the target cannot be satisfied uniformly probability, the strengths / obtained from the N
for a large number of situations. As a result, the tests will all be different. In addition, suppose that
factors are calibrated by optimisation, minimising each test is also used to obtain the modulus of
the difference between the target reliabilities and elasticity E, Basic statistics to be obtained include
those achieved and over a large number of design the mean values and the standard deviations of
both / and E, plus the covariance between them:
conditions to which the code will apply.
One disadvantage of this optimised approach is Mean values :
that the reliability achieved varies across situa-
tions. For example, code prescriptions for design 7-- (11.2)
1
of houses in North America have been calibrated N
180 Timber Engineering

Standard Deviations 1.00

1=1
7 = N N N
(11.3)
Covariance f E :
N

10
Of-E = (11.4)
N Figure 11.1 Example of discrete data points fitted
with the associated parameters: with a Cumulative Distribution Function (2-parame-
ter Weibull)
Coefficients of variations :
be ranked in order to construct a function, called a
COVf = -= CO\ = -= (11.5) cumulative probability distribution, F(JC), defined
f E
as follows:
Linear correlation coefficient f E :
Of-E F(x0) = Prob(x < x0) (11.7)
Pf-E = (11.6)
that is, F(JCQ) represents the probability of encoun-
The standard deviation provides information on the tering values of x less than or equal to JCQ. This
dispersion of the variable about its mean, without function ranges between 0 and 1, as shown in
reference to the sign of the deviation, while the Figure 11.1, for data corresponding to bending
coefficient of variation expresses that dispersion as strength of a timber beam (in Mpa).
a fraction of the corresponding mean. Two random The discrete points obtained by constructing
variables are said to be independent if one can take F(x) from the ranked data can be fitted with a
any value within its range regardless of the value mathematical function, which is then used in the
taken by the other. Two independent variables reliability estimations. Another useful function is
have zero covariance and, correspondingly, zero the derivative f(x) of the cumulative F(x). The
correlation coefficient. Variables which have a function f(x) is called the probability density. Due
deterministic linear relationship between them are to the relationship between f(x) and F(x), the
perfectly linearly correlated, and the correlation probability F(x0) can also be written as
coefficient becomes -f 1 or 1, depending upon XQ
the slope of the linear relationship. In the bending F(x0) f(x)dx (11.8)
test it would probably be found that the variables / 00

/ and E are correlated, but not perfectly, and The cumulative distribution F(;c) can be represen-
the correlation coefficient would be of the order ted with a variety of mathematical functions. A
of 0.60-0.70. This means that a stronger beam detailed discussion of different probability distribu-
tends to be stiffer and, conversely, a weaker beam tions is presented by Benjamin and Cornell (1970),
tends to be more flexible. Because of a positive Ang and Tang (1984a), or Thoft-Christensen
correlation, it is unlikely to find combinations of (1982). Here we will consider only some of the
a strong beam (high /) with flexible properties most useful distributions in wood engineering.
(low E).
For reliability calculations, it is not sufficient to (a) Normal distribution (or Gaussian): this most
provide only basic statistics. The data must also famous distribution is best described by its
Reliability of Structures 181

density function f ( x ) : where three parameters are identified as fol-


lows: jto, the location (there are no x smaller
1 than jto); m, the scale and k, the shape. A par-
/(*) = e x p ( - ( j t - J )2/ 2/12-v
c r ) (11.9)
ticular case of the Weibull distribution involves
only two parameters for the special case of
It is symmetrical about its mean and it extends
jto = 0. These parameters can be related to
from oo to +00. For the special case of
the mean and the standard deviation of the
zero mean and standard deviation a = 1, the
distribution: for example, the greater the vari-
distribution becomes a Standard Normal, and
ability the smaller the shape parameter k. A
the cumulative distribution F(x) is noted with
Weibull distribution cannot be negative, thus
<3>(jt), with the corresponding f ( x ) becom-
having the good characteristics of a Lognor-
ing <p(jt). Although a Normal distribution can
mal. Furthermore, it can be proven that a
always be fitted to the data, it presents a fun-
Weibull distribution is an asymptotic represen-
damental problem when the variable x cannot
tation for the distribution corresponding to the
be negative (as in the case of bending strength
minimum value among a large number sam-
or modulus of elasticity). However, a Normal
ples of the variable Jt. This makes the Weibull a
can be used if the mean value is positive and
good choice to represent strengths, particularly
the coefficient of variation is small, resulting
for brittle materials where the capacity of an
in negligible chances of x taking negative val-
assembly of many components is determined
ues. The Normal distribution has some very
by the capacity of the weakest component in
interesting properties: any linear combination
the assembly. Thus, the behaviour of wood in
of Normals is itself a Normal, a property which
shear or in tension perpendicular to the grain
is not true for other distributions. Thus, a Nor-
can be represented well by Weibull distribu-
mal of mean m and standard deviation a can
tions. In general, it is found that a Weibull dis-
always be written as
tribution is a good choice to fit data for wood
x = m + crR (11.10) strength, even when the assumption of a fully
brittle material is not entirely justified (as in
where R is a Standard Normal variable. Since the case of bending strength). Equation (11.11)
there are algorithms which generate random can also be written in a different form,
numbers with a Standard Normal distribution,
Equation (11.10) can be used to generate ran- (11.12)
dom numbers with a general Normal distri-
Since F(jt) ranges from 0 to 1, Equation
bution.
(11.12) can be used to generate values of Jt,
(b) Lognormal distribution: in this case, the loga- obeying a Weibull distribution, by utilising a
rithm of the variable x is Normal. Therefore, random number generator which will generate
the variable x cannot be negative, and its range unbiased numbers between 0 and 1.
is from 0 to + oo. This characteristic makes the
(d) Extreme Type I or Gumbel distribution: the
Lognormal distribution a good one to use to
cumulative function F(x) is, in this case,
represent positive data like strengths or mod-
uli of elasticity. Another example of Lognor- F(JC) = exp(-exp(-fl[jc - b])) (11.13)
mal application is in the representation of the
variability in peak ground accelerations during where a and b are parameters of the distribu-
an earthquake. tion, also related to the mean and the standard
(c) Extreme Type HI or Weibull distribution: the deviation of Jt. Since it can be shown that this
cumulative function F(x) is, in this case, distribution is an asymptotic representation of
the maximum value among a large number of
F(x) = 1.0-exp{-[(jt-.xo)/m]*} (11.11) samples of x, it is a good distribution to use to
182 Timber Engineering

represent demand data for which one is inter- included in the new, desired interval. A basic
ested in the largest value within a certain time assumption in the relationship is that the value
window. For example, statistics for maximum of jc in one elemental window is indepen-
annual snow data in different Canadian loca- dent of the values in the others. Thus, if
tions are represented by Gumbel distributions. the elemental window is one year, the max-
Equation (11.13) can also be re-written as imum snow load in one year is assumed to
be independent of the maximum load in the
(11.14) following year. The result of the transforma-
tion in Equation (1 1.16) is a shift of the origi-
permitting the generation of values of Jt, obey- nal distribution, increasing the mean value and
ing a Gumbel distribution, when values of decreasing the variability. If the original dis-
F(x) are generated randomly between 0 and 1. tribution is Gumbel, from Equation (11.13),
e) Uniform distribution: in this distribution the raising it to the Nth-power will modify
variable x can take any value between two Equation (11.14) as follows:
limits, a and b, with equal probability. The
density function is then x =b
a a
1 (11.17)
f(x) = (11.15) (b) Modifications for Minimum: in some cases, we
b-a
may want to modify the original F(x) to con-
This distribution is useful when no other infor- sider the distribution of the minimum value
mation is available for a given variable except among N samples of x. This transformation
a subjective assumption about the variable is useful when analysing a brittle system, the
range. In some cases, the Uniform distribution strength of which is controlled by that of the
is used when one does not want to introduce weakest component. For example, a statically
biases: for example, the location of an earth- determined wood truss with toothed connec-
quake epicenter is assumed to be uniformly tion plates may be controlled by the strength of
distributed within a certain seismic zone when the weakest connection. It can be shown that,
a detailed map of faults is not available. if N components are present, all with the same
The cumulative distributions F(x} may need to distribution F(x), the distribution of minimum
be modified before they are used in reliability value among the N is given by
estimations. These modifications may include:
FN(x) = 1.0- (11.18)
(a) Modifications for Maximum', in some cases,
The result of this transformation is also a shift
we may need to modify the original F(jt)
of the original distribution, with a reduced
to consider the distribution for the maximum
mean and an increased variability. As a result,
value among N samples of x. For example,
the strength of the assembly of connectors
suppose that x is the annual maximum snow
will decrease with the number of connectors
load in a location. We may be interested in
(size effect).
the distribution FiooCr), where x is now the
maximum load that can be expected in a 100- (c) Modifications for Lower Bound: in some cases,
year time window. It can be shown that it may be necessary to modify the original
F(x) to consider that x cannot take values
= F(JC).100
IUU
or, in general, lower than x0, a lower bound. This transfor-
FN(x) = F(xY (11.16) mation may be required when, for example,
we want to introduce some measures of qual-
where N is the number of elemental win- ity control: of all laminations with modulus
dows (for which F(JC) is known) which are of elasticity E available for manufacturing a
Reliability of Structures 183

glued-laminated beam, we may want to use Since we can write, from Equation (11.21),
only those satisfying E > EQ, a selection pol- N
icy enforced by some quality control equip- (11.23)
ment. It can be shown that the modified cumu-
lative distribution F*(x) satisfies
and
F(X)
(11.19) t) = P(Ai\E)P(E) (11.24)
l.O-F(jco)
(d) Modifications for Upper Bound: similarly, in we conclude that
some cases it may be necessary to modify the
original F(x) to consider that x cannot take IW)= W^ (11.25)
values higher than JCQ, an upper bound. This
situation may occur when, for example, an
applied pressure to a structure may be released
through a valve should it exceed a certain which is Bayes' Theorem. This equation can be
threshold. It can be shown that the modified used to update a-priori probabilities for each of
cumulative distribution F*(x) satisfies the events A, given the information that the event
E has occurred. For the example of beam failure
F(x) because of probable different causes, Bayes' The-
F*(x) = (11.20) orem can be used to estimate the probability of
each cause given the information that the beam
Finally, let us consider the probability of two has indeed failed. A priori probabilities P(A,) can
events occurring simultaneously. This is called be subjective, for example, starting with all being
their joint probability, and can be expressed as equal to I/N, where N is the number of mutually
exclusive events A,. Later in this chapter, we shall
P(1,2) = P(1|2)P(2) or discuss an application of Bayes' Theorem in the
assessment of an existing structure.
(11.21)
where 1 and 2 identify the two events, P(l, 2) is 11.3 METHODS FOR
the joint probability and P(l|2) is the conditional CALCULATING THE
probability of 1 occurring when 2 has occurred. PROBABILITY OF
Conversely, P(2|l) is the conditional probability NON-PERFORMANCE
of 2 occurring when 1 has already occurred. If the
events 1 and 2 are independent of each other, then There are several methods to calculate the proba-
the conditional probability P(l|2) = P(l), since bility of failure or non-performance. A very good
the occurrence of 1 has nothing to do with the prior discussion of different approaches is presented by
occurrence of 2. For independent events, therefore, Ditlevsen et al. (1996), Melchers (1987), Mad-
sen (1986), Augusti et al. (1984) and Ang and
= P(1)P(2) (11.22) Tang (1984b). The most basic and straight for-
ward method is that of computer (Monte Carlo)
An interesting consequence of the definition of simulation, while perhaps the most efficient are
conditional probabilities is Bayes' Theorem. Let E approximate methods based on the calculation of
be an event that can occur simultaneously with a reliability index ft (FORM and SORM proce-
each of N mutually exclusive events called A,-. dures). There are also methods for more efficient
A practical example would be when E = failure simulation, given the names of Importance Sam
of a beam, AI = failure in bending, A 2 = failure pling or Adaptive Sampling Simulation. In addi-
in shear, A3 = failure due to crack extension, etc. tion, all methods can be implemented working
184 Timber Engineering

either with the real performance function G(x) or on selecting vectors x only from regions of impor-
with a fitted surface approximating G(JC). This fit- tance, within which the combinations more likely
ted surface is called the response surface for the to produce failure are located. These procedures
problem. All of these methods have been imple- are very effective and more detailed descriptions
mented in software now available in the market- can be found in the literature (Ditlevsen, 1996,
place. For completeness, we include here only a Schueller et al., 1989).
brief description of the methods.
113.2 First and Second Order
11.3.1 Monte Carlo Simulation Reliability Methods (FORM
Suppose that, using appropriate random number
andSORM)
generators, values of x are created according to, To provide an alternative to Monte Carlo simula-
for example, Equations (11.10), (11.12), (11.14) tion, very efficient approximate methods have been
or (11.17). Knowing jc permits the calculation developed under the names of FORM or SORM,
of the corresponding G(jt). If G(x) > 0, then for (respectively) First Order or Second Order
the performance criterion is met. On the other Reliability Methods. To understand the foundation
hand, if G(JC) < 0, the combination x leads to for FORM, let us consider a simple problem where
non-performance. If this calculation is repeated N
times, and Nf is the number of non-performance
G(jt) = Xl-X2 (11.27)
events, the probability of failure can be approxi- with the variables X being Normal and uncorre-
mated by the ratio lated. Note also that the performance function is
linear. If we express the variables X in terms of
/= N (11.26) their means, standard deviations and Standard Nor-
mals jc, following Equation (11.10), we can write
The result will be different if the process is
repeated for another sample of N selections. The G(JC) = X1 - X2 + Cf\X\ - (11.28)
variability in the results depends upon N, dimin-
Therefore, failure or non-performance will occur
ishing as N increases, and the estimate will con-
when G(x) < 0, or when
verge to the exact probability as N becomes large.
This is an advantage of the simulation procedure. (11.29)
However, if the system being analyzed has a low
probability of failure, for example, 10-6, it would Accordingly, Figure 11.2 shows the plane
be necessary to perform, on average, N = 106 (jci,jt2) with the corresponding region of failure
repetitions to expect to find one case of non-
performance. Since this is the number of times that G<0 G=0
the performance function G(x) would have to be
evaluated, the procedure could be quite time con-
suming, particularly when this evaluation requires
the running of a separate computer program to cal-
culate either the capacity or the demand.
In a standard Monte Carlo simulation, the vec-
tors x are chosen at random from their entire
domain. To improve the efficiency of the simula-
tion, techniques have been developed which permit
a probability estimation with a reduced number of
repetitions. These techniques, under the names of Figure 11.2 Failure surface and reliability index defi-
Importance Sampling or Adaptive Sampling, rely nition, G = X\ - X2
Reliability of Structures 185

G < 0, defined by Equation (11.29), and the Through proper variable transformations (Ditlev-
region of survival, G > 0. It is seen that the sen, 1981, 1996, Rackwitz, 1978, Der Kiureghian,
failure surface G = 0 is a straight line. A 1986, Melchers, 1987), the first two conditions
simpler characterisation of the failure region can can always be met. That is, non-Normal variables
be obtained by a rotation of the coordinate can be Normalised, and variables having a cor-
axes, from (X},X2) to (yi,y2), since then G < 0 relation structure can be uncorrelated. However,
corresponds to the linearity of the function G is related to the
essence of the problem and cannot be eliminated
Failure if > }>2 > (11.30) through transformations. Thus, in general, using
Equation (11.31) will provide only an approximate
It can be shown that, given that the variables answer, and the error would be dependent on how
x were assumed to be uncorrelated Standard nonlinear the performance function is in the neigh-
Normals, the variables y also result to be bourhood of P. Fortunately, for many problems
uncorrelated, Standard Normals. Therefore, the the error is quite acceptable for engineering appli-
probability of non-performance, according to cations. FORM has been modified, and with it,
Equation (11.30), is the probability of the event Equation (11.31), by assuming that the failure sur-
y>2 > ft- This can be obtained directly from the face is a quadratic function with curvatures equal
cumulative distribution function of a Standard to those of the real surface at point P. The resulting
Normal, method is called SORM, for Second Order Relia-
Pf = (-ft) (11.31) bility. In many instances, the results show a slight
Equation (11.31) implies that all that is required improvement over FORM, but it is easy to con-
to compute the probability of failure is to find struct examples where the answers would, in fact,
the distance ft between the origin O and the be more erroneous.
point P. This is the minimum distance between Equation (11.31) can also be used in general to
the origin (corresponding to the mean values of express the results either in terms of the reliability
X]_, ^2) and the failure surface G = 0. Finding this index ft or the associated probability of failure Pf
minimum distance is a geometric problem, easily if the latter has been obtained by simulation.
solved by optimisation algorithms. The distance ft It is also interesting to note that, for the simple
is called the reliability index, and the point P is case studied here, there is an equation for the
called the design point. Notice that the greater the reliability index. In fact, from Figure 11.2 and
reliability index, the farther the failure zone would considering the slope and intercept of the straight
be from the origin or mean point, implying lower failure surface G = 0, it can be concluded that
probabilities of failure. Also, it is easily seen that, Xl-X2
a
given the probability density of the variables v, (11.32)
the combinations of the variables more likely to
lead to failure are grouped around point P. Thus,
another name for P is the most likely failure point. which is the correct ft only for a two-variable prob-
These conclusions can be generalised to any lem, when the variables are Normal and uncorre-
other function G(x). However, the result of cal- lated. There is also an expression for the reliability
culating ft and then using Equation (11.31) will index if the two variables were lognormal with
be exact only if the following three conditions small variability,
are satisfied:
ft =
logXi-logX 2 (11.33)
All intervening variables are Normal.
+ V,2
All variables are uncorrelated.
The G(x) function is linear (otherwise Equation where V\ and are the corresponding coefficients
(11.30) would not hold). of variation.
186 Timber Engineering

of which provide sensitivity coefficients for ft in


terms of the variables.
The accuracy of FORM is influenced by the
nonlinearity of the performance function G(x).
The prediction from FORM can be improved by
using Importance Sampling simulation around the
design point P, the most likely failure point.
X2

11.33 Response Surfaces


The methods previously discussed depend on being
able to calculate the value of G(JC) for a vector x.
Sometimes these values need to be the output of
Figure 113 Iterative algorithm to find the reliability another computer program, for example, a dynamic
index ft (Hasofer and Lind, 1974) analysis or a finite element calculation. In these
cases, it may be inefficient to link directly the
For the general case of several, non-Normal or reliability index iteration with, for example, a
correlated variables, there are no explicit expres- nonlinear dynamic analysis. An alternative is to
sions for the reliability index. Instead, it has to construct a response surface for the capacity or the
be calculated by numerical means. The important demand, essentially evaluating G(JC) ahead of time,
point here is that the FORM procedure is quite fast at a sufficiently large number of combinations
and efficient, since it only requires the geometric x (Faravelli, 1989, Liu and Moses, 1994). The
calculation of ft. discrete points thus obtained can be used to fit a
Hasofer and Lind (1974) proposed a quasi- mathematical representation for the response, and
Newtonian iterative scheme which is commonly this representation is then used as a substitute for
used in computer packages. Consider Figure 11.3, the actual G(JC). The fitted response GF(X) is used
where the G function is plotted on the vertical axis for the reliability estimation to obtain a design
as a function of the components of the vector x. point P and a reliability index ft. The procedure
The failure surface G = 0 is then the intersection can be stopped at that point or a new response
of G with the horizontal plane, and the reliability surface may be constructed by sampling new
index will be the length between point O and P, vectors jc around the point P just obtained. The
located at a minimum distance from O. Starting new response surface is used to obtain an updated
from an initial vector jc*, the algorithm replaces P and ft, and the procedure can be continued
the real surface G with the tangent plane F at jc*. until convergence in ft has been achieved to a
This plane intercepts G = 0 with a straight line, desired tolerance.
and the algorithm finds point P*, at a minimum Different forms may be used for the fitted
distance between that intercept and the origin O. function GF(X). Bucher et al. (1997), for example,
Point P* is then used as the new x*, repeating the have considered polynomial expansions of the type
procedure until eventual convergence at P.
Convergence is dependent upon the adequacy GF(x) = (11.34)
of the initial choice jc*. However, when conver-
gence is achieved, it is reached in a few iterations,
accounting for the efficiency of the method. Com- with the 2N + 1 coefficients found by regression
puter packages implement special algorithms to of the discrete data. Other forms may be chosen
find an adequate initial vector. to represent better the influence of a variable.
One of the very useful results from FORM is For example, suppose that one of the variables
a unit vector in the direction OP, the components is the load Q and that the response variable is
Reliability of Structures 187

the deflection of a laminated plate. Other variables modes but they may be quite wide. A narrower
may be the moduli of elasticity of each lamination set of bounds has been developed by Ditlevsen
and their shear moduli. Obviously, if there is no (Madsen et al., 1986), but they require calcula-
load Q there must not be any deflection. In this tion of joint probabilities as well as the individual
case, it is perhaps better to propose ones. Usually, the Ditlevsen bounds are sufficiently
narrow as to allow using their average for the esti-
mate of PT. The joint probabilities depend upon
GF(x) = Q the correlation between modes if the correspond-
ing G functions share some variables: for example,
since bending and shear failure of a beam share
the variable for the applied load, the two modes
1=1 are correlated. That is, a high load can be pro-
(11.35)
duce simultaneous failure in bending and shear.
which satisfies the condition of zero response when Madsen et al. (1986) or Ditlevsen (1996) present
details on the estimation of joint probabilities and
correlations between failure modes.
Problems of multiple load combinations have
11.3.4 Multiple Modes of Failure and
also been studied, particularly the coincidence
Load Combination Problems problem of load sequences with different arrival
A system may fail in a number of modes and its statistics over time (Wen, 1990).
reliability could be substantially different from that
of the individual components (Thoft-Christensen
et al., 1986). For example, a beam may fail by 11.4 CASE EXAMPLE NO. 1:
bending or shear, or may not perform under a BENDING FAILURE OF A
serviceability requirement. Each mode can be anal- GLUED-LAMINATED BEAM
ysed separately, obtaining the individual reliability
To illustrate a reliability assessment problem, con-
indices and corresponding probabilities of failure.
sider the laminated beam shown in Figure 11.4. It
If the system is considered to be a series system,
is simply supported, with a span L, and carries a
when failure is deemed to have occurred when
distributed permanent load d and a concentrated,
at least one mode has failed, the total probabil-
live load Q at midspan. The laminations have
ity of failure should consider many possibilities:
different moduli of elasticity and different tensile
failure in each mode, failure in pairs, failure in
strength. Two failure modes will be considered: (1)
triplets, etc. The calculation of the total probabil-
failure of the bottom lamination; and (2) failure of
ity becomes quite involved, unless the system has
the second from the bottom lamination. Of course,
just two modes. In this case, the total probability
the two bottom laminations could fail together.
is given by
Figure 11.4 shows end joints (fingerjoints) within
P(2) - P(l,2) (11.36) the laminations. Although this would be the normal
practice, for this example fingerjoints are not con-
in which P(l) and P(2) are the probabilities for sidered. Their consideration would only increase
the individual modes, and P(l, 2) is the probabil- the number of random variables and the number
ity of both modes occurring simultaneously. In the of failure modes (including failure of the finger-
general case, however, it is possible to calculate joints themselves). The example considers N = 5
bounds for the total probability. For example, it laminations.
is easily shown that Pj- must be lower than the The analysis of stresses is carried out by assum-
sum of all the individual mode probabilities but ing that plane sections remain plane and at 90 to
greater than the largest individual. These bounds the deformed beam axis (that is, no shear defor-
depend only upon probabilities for the individual mations are taken into account). The theory of
188 Timber Engineering

\ \ \ \\ \ \ \ \ \\
I ^S
Lam#N

I
I I
H y/7/.
csxss
1 1 Lam#1
dm fmt
L

Figure 11.4 Laminated beam under a permanent distributed load and a concentrated live load

composite beams is then applied, requiring first Variables Definition


the calculation of the centre of gravity of the com-
posite section, and then the composite moment of X(l) = modulus of elasticity E of lamination 1
inertia. Thus, if z is the distance from a point in the (bottom)
cross-section to the bottom of the beam, the posi- X(2) = modulus of elasticity E for lamination 2
tion of the centre of gravity is first obtained from X(3) = modulus of elasticity E for lamination 3
X(4) = modulus of elasticity E for lamination 4
EzdA X(5) = modulus of elasticity E for lamination 5
(11.37) (top)

I, EdA

and the composite moment of inertia is then


X(6) = permanent load d
X(7) = concentrated live load Q
X(8) = strength of lamination 1, f\
calculated from X(9) = strength of lamination 2, /2

-I.
El = I E(z-zTdA

Finally, the stresses at a distance z from the


(11.38) The beam span is L = 6.0 m, its width is B =
0.20 m and the lamination thickness is / = 0.040 m.
Table 11.1 shows the corresponding statistical
bottom are information and the assumed probability distribu-
(IL39) tions. It is assumed that the modulus of elasticity
and the strength of a lamination are correlated. In
Two performance functions are then written: this case, X(l) is correlated with X(8), and X(2)
with X(9). As a quality control measure, a mini-
Mode 1: for failure of the bottom lamination: mum for the modulus X(l) may be enforced.
All computer packages require the defini-
tion of the performance functions, as per
(11.40) Equations (11.40) and (11.41), and the probabilis-
tic description of the intervening random variables.
Mode 2: for failure of the second, next to the As an example, the problem was run with the
bottom lamination: program RELAN developed at the University of
British Columbia.
(El) For a case in which no correlations and no
(11.41) lower bound for the E of the bottom lamination
Reliability of Structures 189

Table 11.1 Statistics and distribution for variables, Case Example 1


Variable Distribution Mean Std.
Number Type value Deviation
1 Lognormal 10 000 x 103 kN/m2 1500 x 103 kN/m2
2 Lognormal 10000 x 103 kN/m2 1500 x 103 kN/m2
3 Lognormal l0000x 103 kN/m2 1500 x 103 kN/m2
4 Lognormal 10 000 x 103 kN/m2 1500 x 103 kN/m2
5 Lognormal 10 000 x 103 kN/m2 1500 x 103 kN/m2
6 Normal 2.0 kN/m 0.10 kN/m
7 Extreme Type I 8.0 kN 2.0 kN
8 Weibull, 2-p 35.0 x 103 kN/m2 8.75 x 103 kN/m2
9 Weibull, 2-p 35.0 x 103 kN/m2 8.75 x 103 kN/m2
Correlations: /o^g = 0.70, ^2,9 = 0.70.
Minimum E, bottom lamination = 9000 x 103 kN/m2.

are considered, the output can be summarised Table 11.2 Results of reliability analysis for a glued-
as follows: laminated beam
Reliability Case 1 Case 2 Case 3
Mode 1: FORM ft = 2.061 Pf = 0.01964 Index ft

Most important variable = X(8) fa 2.061 2.256 2.133


$2 2.833 3.193 3.261
Second most important = X(7) ft series 2.016 2.235 2.120
Third most important = X(l) system
Importance Sampling (N = 1000) ft =
2.004 or Pf = 0.02252
when failure of the beam is deemed to have hap-
pened when the beam had failed in at least one
Mode 2: FORM ft2 = 2.833 Pf = 0.00231 of the two modes. The system reliability index
is lower than the lowest of the individual modes,
Most important variable = X(9)
reflecting the possibility of failure in the other, less
Second most important = X(7)
likely modes.
Third most important = X(2)
Table 11.2 shows a summary of results for three
Importance Sampling (N = 1000) ft = cases. In Case 1, no correlations are assumed
2.817 or Pf =0.00242 and no lower bounds are imposed. In Case 2, a
correlation coefficient 0.7 is assumed between E
Series System Reliability Bounds = 2.016- 2.016 and strength of the two bottom laminations. In
(Ditlevsen) Case 3, in addition to the correlations, a lower
bound is imposed on the modulus of elasticity for
This shows that, even for the highly nonlinear the bottom lamination.
performance functions of this problem, the results Case 2 shows that taking into account the corre-
from FORM are quite similar to those from the lation between modulus of elasticity and strength
Importance Sampling simulation around the design produces a higher reliability. Since this correlation
points P. The number of iterations for the calcula- does in fact occur in wood products, not consid-
tion of ft (Hasofer-Lind algorithm) was three. The ering it leads to a conservative conclusion. It is
importance of each variable is measured by the of interest to see the effect of a proposed quality
sensitivity coefficients corresponding to the com- control measure. Suppose that the modulus of elas-
ponents of a unit vector from O to P. The results ticity of the bottom lamination is enforced to be
also show the narrowness of the Ditlevsen bounds, >9000 MPa. When this lower bound is enforced.
190 Timber Engineering
Case 3, the reliability actually decreases for the The performance requirements under normal
bottom lamination but increases for the second circumstances are: (1) the beam must carry the
lamination, with an overall decrease for system loads without bending failure; and (2) it should
reliability in comparison to Case 2. This result can not deflect more than 1/180 of the span. In a fire,
be explained as follows: increasing the modulus the beam should not fail before 60 minutes. These
of elasticity of the bottom lamination attracts more are three performance criteria. In performance-
stress to it, while the correlation between strength based design, the reliability levels with which those
and E is not strong enough to guarantee a suffi- criteria are to be met must also be specified.
cient increase in strength to support the increase For the fire situation, it is necessary to know
in stress. As the second lamination is relieved of the rate at which the wood burns, decreasing the
stress, its reliability increases. Overall, it would dimensions of the beam by an amount e, as shown
appear that there is no point in implementing this in Figure 11.5. Of course, the relationship between
quality control measure, since it relies on a cor- e and time might be complicated, depending on
relation between strength and E which, at 0.70, the environmental conditions. For this example,
it is not sufficiently strong. Investigations of this however, it is sufficient to assume that the burning
kind are only feasible by the introduction of proba- rate is a constant or, so that after time T the amount
bilistic methods and reliability analysis. It can also burnt is e = aT.
be concluded that these methods provide a frame- The three performance functions are written
work for an optimisation of the resource and costs as follows:
of production.
1. Bending failure under normal conditions:
11.5 CASE EXAMPLE NO. 2: 1 /,
PERFORMANCE-BASED 8 (BH- 7l2)\
DESIGN OF A TIMBER BEAM (11.42)
IN BENDING (NORMAL AND 2. Deflection under normal conditions:
FIRE CONDITIONS)
To illustrate a problem of performance-based 2
180 384 E(BH3/\2)
design, consider the timber beam shown in Figure (11.43)
11.5, with cross-sectional dimensions B and H,
and a span L. It carries loads P and Q, both 3. Bending failure under fire conditions:
uniformly distributed but with different statistical (Q + P)L2 1
f
properties. P is a dead load, with low variability,
Q is a live load with higher variability. The bend- 8 ((B-2e)(H -
ing strength of the beam is / and the modulus of
elasticity is E.

P+Q

A .._ A H

Figure 11.5 Design of a timber beam (normal and fire conditions)


Reliability of Structures 191

Table 11.3 Statistics and distribution for variables, Case Example 2


Random variable Mean Std. Deviation Distribution
/, bending strength (kN/m2) 35000 5250 Lognormal
> (kN/m) 2.0 0.2 Normal
Q (kN/m) 8.0 2.0 Extreme Type I
a (burn rate, mm/minute) 0.5 0.125 Lognormal
E, modulus of elasticity (kN/m2) 12000 x 103 1800 x 103 Lognormal

Table 11.4 Optimum values, H and B, Case 2, two strategies


H(m) B(m) P\ Achieved ^2 Achieved ft Achieved Optimisation strategy
0.533 0.249 4.32 1.91 2.32 Unconstrained
0.536 0.257 4.47 2.09 2.50 Forcing /33 = 2.50
Target ft 4.00 2.00 2.50

Corresponding target reliability levels are: values of B and H, The results are shown in
Table 11.4 for a span L = 10 m.
fii = 4.0 for failure under normal circumstances The results show that it is not possible to
fa = 2.0 for deflection under normal circum- find values of H and B which will achieve
stances exactly the prescribed target reliabilities. Optimum
$3 = 2.5 for failure under fire conditions after values are obtained which minimize the difference
T = 60 minutes of exposure between the targets and the achieved reliabilities.
If performance under fire is deemed to be the
The problem is to find optimum values H and B
most important design criterion, and if $3 = 2.32 is
for the cross-section that will achieve the specified
considered low in relation to the target $3 = 2.5,
reliabilities or deviate a minimum from them. This
a constrained optimisation can be run to enforce
is achieved by minimising the function
^3 = 2.5. Accordingly, as shown in Table 11,4, the
NP reliabilities achieved for the first two performance
(H.45) criteria increase somewhat, with a small increase
in the optimum beam dimensions.
in which NP is the number of performance require-
ments or reliability constraints, @T are the corre- 11.6 CASE EXAMPLE NO. 3:
sponding target reliabilities and fr (B, H) are the RELIABILITY EVALUATION
achieved reliabilities with dimensions B and H .
This is then a reliability-based optimisation prob-
OF SYSTEM BEHAVIOUR
lem (Li, 1998, Foschi, 2001), and several com- Generally, one of the characteristics of wood
puter packages are also available to carry out products is their relatively high variability in
the calculations. The results presented here were comparison to, for example, steel. However, wood
obtained with a performance-based design pack- products are commonly used as part of redundant
age, IRELAN, developed at the University of systems, with multiple members or components. It
British Columbia. is important to consider this system behaviour so
The problem has five intervening random vari- as to not unduly penalise the performance of the
ables which are identified in Table 11.3. products (Foschi et al, 1990).
The dimensions B and H are also considered As an example, consider the timber floor struc-
random (Normal), with a very small coefficient ture of Figure 11.6 under a uniformly distributed
of variation. The design parameters are the mean load. Structurally, this is a plate stiffened with ribs
192 Timber Engineering

Plate cover

Connectors

Joists

Figure 11.6 Floor system under uniformly distributed load

would be as shown by curve II in Figure 11.7.


Thus, the 'system effect' produces a higher relia-
bility for the same span or, conversely, considera-
tion of the system stress would allow a longer span
at the same reliability. To obtain curve II it is nec-
essary to define what is meant by system failure,
and several options can be followed. For example,

1. After calculating the reliability of each joist


using the corresponding system stresses, the
reliability of the system could be taken as the
Span minimum of the individual joists' reliabilities;
2. The floor could be considered failed if at
Figure 11.7 Calculation of a system factor, component least one joist fails. This is a series system
vs. system reliability
assumption, and one of its consequences is a
size of floor effect (the reliability of the system
and with non-rigid connectors between the plate will decrease with the number of joists in it).
and the stiffeners (nails, screws or adhesive). If, 3. The progressive failure of the system can be
using a function G(x) as Equation (11.42), one studied by simulation, eliminating joists as they
analyses, for different spans, the bending failure of fail during the load increase.
a stiffener (joist) as a single, detached beam under
a contributory area load, one would obtain curve I It could be argued that, while Option 3 is the
of Figure 11.7. This curve shows the correspond- more realistic, Option 2 is the most practical from
ing variation in reliability index ft with span L. the point of view of the owner. However, because
However, if the demand in the performance of the floor size effect introduced by Option 2,
function for each joist is based on the bending a more realistic application of this Option should
stress calculated with a comprehensive (stiffened include the spatial variability of the applied loads,
plate) structural analysis, taking into account the particularly for floors covering large areas. The
load-sharing among joists and the cover plate, the same could be said for Option 3. For floors
corresponding relationship between ft and span of standard sizes for residential or small office
Reliability of Structures 193

construction, Option 1 is a simpler and not too structural analysis of the wall, and the capac-
conservative assumption over Option 2, resulting ity defined in terms of deformation or damage
in similar curves II. thresholds. In all cases, system factors would be
In a customised design, only curve II would be highly configuration-dependent, and the objectives
sought. In a code application, in which a simple of performance-based design would be more prop-
beam design equation would probably have been erly achieved by customised design.
prescribed, a factor accounting for the system
effect should be introduced. Such a factor should
11.7 CASE EXAMPLE NO. 4:
convert the span calculated with the simple beam
approach into the one that would be permitted
CONNECTION DESIGN
by the system at the same reliability. The data UNDER EARTHQUAKE
in Figure 11.7 would then allow the calculation EXCITATION, APPLICATION
of the system factor corresponding to the target OF RESPONSE SURFACES
reliability used in the code. Since for distributed
Consider now an earthquake engineering problem
loads the demands are proportional to the square
for the inverted pendulum shown in Figure 11.8.
of the span, a system factor would be obtained in
The timber column carries an overhanging mass
this case as the ratio of the squares of the spans
M and it is connected at its base by four dowels
corresponding, at the same reliability, to curves II
and two steel side plates fixed to the ground. This
and I, (Ln/Li)2. moves with an acceleration ac(t). The drift, or
The system effect could be altered by chang- horizontal displacement at the top of the column,
ing the configuration of the floor: different joist is A. A max corresponds to the maximum during
or connector spacing, different properties for the the earthquake. The column is assumed to be suf-
plate cover or the connectors, etc. Thus, the sys- ficiently rigid, such that most of the displacement
tem factor will vary substantially with the config- is due to the deformation of the connectors. Since
uration, and specific systems may be penalised if the cyclic response of the connectors is highly non-
a single system factor is used as a conservative linear, an appropriate nonlinear dynamic analysis
approximation for all constructions. Calculations must be used to calculate the time history A(0,
of floor system factors for the Canadian code show taking into account the hysteretic behaviour of the
a range from 1.4-2.0 (Foschi et al., 1990), with
1.4 adopted as a common denominator. One of the
advantages of using a customised, performance-
based design, is to avoid such penalties and to give
adequate treatment to possibly innovative, engi-
neered solutions.
A similar approach can be followed in the study
of any other system. For example, acceptance of a
floor may be controlled by serviceability vibration
2R
requirements, and this would require the avail-
ability of a dynamic floor analysis to quantify D,av
the demand and a proper definition of acceptable
performance. Another example would be the reli-
ability of a shear wall under lateral forces due
to earthquake or wind excitation, when the per- 7 7 7 7 7 /
formance is measured by the amount of dam-
age or deformations produced. The deformation
demand has to be calculated with a comprehensive Figure 11.8 Dowel connection, earthquake excitation
194 Timber Engineering

30.00-, A

20.00-

-40.00-

-50.00 -

Figure 11.9 Calculated displacement history A(r)

dowels. Figure 11.9 shows a typical result for the shape of G may show peaks and valleys in coin-
Landers, California, earthquake of 1992 (Joshua cidence with frequencies near resonant conditions,
Tree Station). making the FORM algorithm susceptible to slow
The nonlinear analysis used here incorporates, or difficult convergence. Even if convergence is
at each time step, the calculation of the hysteresis achieved, the nonlinearity of G may make the
loop for each of the dowels, taking into account approximation of failure probability, based on the
their own elasto-plastic response and the nonlinear reliability index, quite inaccurate. A response sur-
behaviour of the wood medium around them (Fos- face replacement for the actual G function may
chi, 2000). The performance criteria are associated be used, but it is difficult to find a simple surface
with different damage levels, and are expressed in which will represent with confidence all the non-
terms of the maximum horizontal drift Amax and linearities and oscillations in G, particularly over
limits H/K, with K being a constant and H the the entire domain of interest. On the other hand,
column height. For each limit state, the perfor- a different treatment of the response surface may
mance function G(x) can then be written as be used.
Five random variables were considered and their
G(JC) = H/K - Amax(jt) (11.46) statistics are shown in Table 11.5. One of the them
is the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) during
Amax is a function of the random variables asso- the event, and its cumulative distribution was con-
ciated with the problem. Some of these are linked sistent with a design value of 0.25 g (475 year-
to the structural properties and others to the uncer- return), a coefficient of variation COV = 0.6 and
tainty in the earthquake itself. a mean earthquake arrival rate v = 0.1 events/year.
Although the formulation of the problem is sim- The peak acceleration was expressed as a random
ple, the evaluation of G for each vector x is time- factor / times the peak of the historical record. The
consuming, and generally makes standard sim- mass M had a mean value of 800 kg, and a COV =
ulation procedures quite inefficient. Further, the 0.10. The dowel diameter D and the arrangement
Reliability of Structures 195

Table 11.5 Statistics and distributions for variables, Case Example 4


Variable Mean Standard Deviation Type
/, PGA factor1 0.357 0.214 Lognormal
Mass M (kN-sec2/mm) 0.0008 0.00008 Normal
Radius R (mm) 100.0 0.1 Normal
Dowel Yield Point OY (kN/mm2) 0.25 0.025 Lognormal
Dowel Diameter D (mm) 15.0 0.015 Normal
"factor applied to the PGA for the historical record of the Landers earthquake

radius R were deterministic, but considered ran- In general, the results for FORM from
dom with a very small coefficient of variation. The the fitted, approximate response surface from
yield point for the dowels, cry, was assumed to Equation (11.34) are not satisfactory, particularly
have a COV = 0.10. A database for Amax can be for the last three performance levels with higher
generated by dynamic analysis for several combi- exceedence probabilities. The results are improved
nations of the five variables, augmenting it with and more consistent when the Importance
zero responses at zero peak ground acceleration, Sampling simulation is performed around the
for all values of the remaining variables. design point from FORM.
The design parameters are the diameter D, the For performance-based design, the problem
radius R and the yield point cry. The reliabil- would be formulated as follows: obtain the opti-
ity corresponding to given values for these three mum vector {d} of design parameters,
parameters can be obtained in the following man-
ner (Foschi et al., 2001): (1) the database for Amax {d} = (R, D, aj} (11.47)
is used to first fit an approximate response surface
using Equation (11.34); (2) this response surface in which the components of {d} are the mean
is used with FORM to determine a design point
values of the variables R, D and cry, to meet the
P', (3) the probability of failure is obtained by
following three performance criteria with specified
Importance Sampling simulation around P, calcu-
reliabilities:
lating the values of G(x) by a local interpolation
of the database.
Thus, the database is obtained independently of
the reliability calculation, and it is then accessed by = ///100-A (11.48)
local interpolation or to train a neural network for
the estimation of G(x) at x not in the database.
The results are shown in Table 11.6 in terms of
GI is assumed to represent a collapse situation or
reliability indices ft, for several performance level
of excessive damage; 62 a serviceability condition
definitions.
or of controlled, repairable damage; and Gj, a
collapse situation corresponding to dowel forces
Table 11.6 Results, Example Case 4 F exceeding a maximum Fmax controlled by wood
Drift limit FORM FORM + Importance cracking. In this case, Fmax was assumed to be
Amajt Sampling 10 kN. Given these three criteria for performance,
H/30 2.55 2.67 three reliability levels were imposed: fi\ = 3.0
H/60 2.39 2.46 for GI, fa = 2.0 for G2, and ft = 3.0 for G3.
H/80 2.38 2.36 The reliabilities achieved at the optimum mean
H/100 1.50 2.03 parameters D = 13.2 mm, R = 117.5 mm, and
H/200 2.19 1.12
H/250 0.40 0.77 cry = 305 MPa, were ft = 3.01, ft = 1-98 and
ft = 3.00.
196 Timber Engineering

Table 11.7 Variable statistics and distributions, Case as follows:


Example 6 /oo

Variable Distribution Mean Coefficient of Pf= I P(f/R)f*(R)dR


Variation
Jo
or, from Equation (11.49),
Bending Lognormal 30.0 Mpa 0.20
Strength, R
Vertical Normal 5.0 kN 0.10 P(f/R)P(s/R)f(R)dR
Pf =
load, V
Horizontal
load, Q
Extreme
Type I
22.20 kN 0.18 /'
Jo
P(s/R)f(R)dR
(11.50)

where P ( f / R ) is the probability of failure under


the new load regime on the assumption that the
11.8 CASE EXAMPLE NO. 5: capacity is R. Equation (11.50) can be readily
EVALUATING AN EXISTING implemented by fixing several values of R within
the corresponding range and, for each one, cal-
STRUCTURE
culating the probability of prior survival and the
probability of future failure. The numerator of
An important application of probabilistic methods Equation (11.50) is the average of the product
is the assessment of existing structures for con- P ( f / R ) P ( s / R ) , while the denominator is the
tinuing use under a change in load regime. The average of the probabilities P(s/R).
difficulty here is that the actual capacity of the The density function for R can also be further
structure is not known (it would have to be tested upgraded taking into account information from
to failure to obtain it). What is known is the fact non-destructive testing or proof loading.
that the structure has survived for a certain time T
under a load regime p. This piece of information
can then be used, together with Bayes' Theorem, 11.9 CASE EXAMPLE NO. 6:
to assess the probable distribution of capacity. We CALIBRATION OF A
apply Equation (11.25) for the case when the dif- CODIFIED DESIGN EQUATION
ferent sets Af are different levels of capacity R.
What is known is the prior density function for Traditional timber engineering design procedures
R, /(/?), as it was used in the original design or have depended upon codified approaches. In these,
from standard laboratory tests of similar structures. design equations are provided by Codes and
Bayes' Theorem provides a tool to update this the engineer uses them to calculate required
density function on the basis of the information geometrical parameters like cross-section dimen-
that the structure survived the maximum loads that sions, allowable spans, etc. A design equation usu-
could have occurred during the prior period T: ally contains a number of design factors (some for
loads and some for capacities), applied to nomi-
P(s/R)f(R) nal or design values of the variables, as in the
/ /oo =r following example:
/ P(s/R)f(R)dR
Jo ctDDN +aQQN = RNS/y (11.51)
(11.49)
where /*(/?) is the updated density function given in which DN = effect of the nominal or design
that the structure has survived, and P(s/R) is the dead (or permanent) load D, UD = load factor for
probability that the structure would have survived dead loads, QN = effect of the nominal or design
the period T if the capacity were R. live load Q, aQ = load factor for live loads, y =
With the updated density function, the proba- resistance factor, RH = nominal or design resis-
bility of failure under the new load regime, for tance, and S = Geometric parameter (e.g. cross-
the next time window T\, would be calculated sectional modulus for bending).
Reliability of Structures 197

The nominal dead loads are normally chosen Q


equal to their mean values. Design live loads, on
the other hand, are chosen in correspondence with
a return period (e.g. 30-year snow, 475-year earth-
quake, etc.). The nominal resistance is normally
chosen equal to a lower percentile of the strength
distribution (e.g. for wood properties, normally the
fifth-percentile). The load and resistance factors
would normally be calibrated so that, when using
the code equation, the resulting parameter S will
ensure a desired target reliability. In each case,
the reliability achieved can be evaluated by the
direct procedures described earlier in this chapter.
Of course, the target cannot be achieved in all situ-
ations with just a few factors in the design equation
and, as a result, the factors must be calibrated by Figure 11.10 Wood pole for power transmission
optimisation, minimising the difference between
achieved and target reliabilities over a large num- Vertical load, VN = Mean value of V = 5.0 kN;
ber of calibration design conditions. Horizontal load, QN = 50-year return load (ann-
Although a code design procedure is simple and ual exceedence 1/50) = Q5Q = 20.39 kN
can be applied without resorting to software, a Bending strength, RN = fifth-percentile of R =
major disadvantage of the approach is that the 21.24MPa
actual reliability achieved could vary across situa-
To calibrate the factors, the parameter S obtained
tions. For example, code prescriptions for wood
from the design Equation (11.52) is introduced into
pole power transmission structures could have
the performance function G:
been calibrated using wind and icing conditions
for five different locations across North America G = RS-(Qh + Ve) (11.53)
and, for those calibration sites, the design equation
would result in reliabilities fairly close to the tar- In this manner, the function G now becomes a
get. There is no guarantee, however, that the reli- function of the load and resistance factors:
ability achieved for other sites would be close to 1
the desired level. The calibration would only pro- G = R/RN (Ve + Qh)
duce a code with an applicability range depend-
(11.54)
ing on the situations considered in the calibration The reliability associated with the probability of
exercise. G < 0 can now be calculated for different com-
As an illustration, let us consider a bending binations of the factors. This is done by the
design equation for a wood pole problem as shown direct methods described earlier in this chapter.
in Figure 11.10: Table 11.8 shows the achieved reliability for dif-
avVNe (11.52) ferent choices for the factors when the pole height
is h = 8 m and the eccentricity e = 0.8 m.
Q is an horizontal load produced by wind on iced For a target reliability index ^ = 3.0, Table 11.8
conductors, and V is a permanent vertical load shows that av = 1.20, OLQ = 1.60 and y = 1.1 can
from an attached transformer. R is the bending be used in the design equation to achieve quite
strength of the wood pole. closely the target for a design situation with the
The statistics for a calibration site are those from statistics of Table 11.7. However, if the statistics
Table 11.7. The nominal or design values are taken of the horizontal load Q are changed to those of a
to be: different site, not used in the previous calibration,
198 Timber Engineering

Table 11.8 Load and resistance factors, and achieved the techniques could also be used to calibrate codi-
reliability fied approaches to a target reliability, this objective
av <*Q X Reliability cannot be achieved for all design situations, given
achieved, ft the simplified nature of the code equations and the
1.20 1.50 1.10 2.783 few factors or degrees of freedom involved. The
1.25 1.55 1.10 2.891 aim of performance-based design can be achieved
1.20 1.60 1.10 2.989 through a customised approach, a task facilitated
1.25 1.65 1.10 3.090 by the availability of sophisticated structural and
1.25 1.70 1.10 3.184 reliability analysis software, coupled with ever
increasing computer power.
still having an Extreme I distribution but now with
a mean of 30 kN and a coefficient of variation of
0.30, the reliability index achieved with the same
REFERENCES
factors would now be ft = 2.232 (substantially Ang A.H.S and Tang W. (1984a) Probability Concepts
lower than the intended target of 3.0). in Engineering Planning and Design. Volume I: Basic
This simple example shows the steps in a code Principles. Bookmasters Inc., Mansfield, Ohio.
Ang A.H.S and Tang W. (1984b) Probability Concepts
calibration procedure, and also points out the in Engineering Planning and Design. Volume II: Deci-
shortcomings of a codified, factored approach. To sion, Risk and Reliability. Bookmasters Inc., Mans-
achieve good results, the load factors must be field, Ohio.
optimised taking into account a sufficiently large Augusti G., Baratta A. and Casciati F. (1984) Proba-
number of calibration sites, reasonably covering bilistic Methods in Structural Engineering. Chapman
& Hall.
the range of code applicability. Benjamin J. and Cornell A. (1970) Probability, Statis-
tics and Decision for Civil Engineers. McGraw-Hill,
New York.
11.10 CONCLUSIONS Bucher C.G. and Bourgund U. (1990) A fast and effi-
cient response surface approach for structural relia-
This chapter has presented a brief review of relia- bility problems. Structural Safety, 7, 5766.
bility concepts and methods. These have been illus- Der Kiureghian A. and Liu P. (1986) Structural reliabil-
trated with applications to several typical problems ity under incomplete probability information. Journal
in timber engineering: deflections and bending fail- of Engineering Mechanics, 112 1).
Ditlevsen O. (1981) Principle of normal tail approxi-
ure of a glued-laminated beam under service or mation. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 107(6),
fire conditions; failure of a floor system with mul- 1191-1208.
tiple joists; design of a doweled connection under Ditlevsen O. and Madsen H.O. (19%) Structural Relia-
earthquake excitation; assessment of an existing bility Methods. Wiley, Chichester.
structure for reliability under a change of service Faravelli L. (1989) Response surface approach for reli-
ability analysis. Journal of Engineering Mechanics,
conditions; and finally, the calibration of a factored 115, 2763-2781.
code equation. Foschi R.O., Folz B. and Yao F. (1990) Reliability-
As in all aspects of civil engineering, reliability Based Design of Wood Structures. Structural Research
theory and probabilistic methods provide also in Series Report No. 34, Department of Civil Engi-
timber engineering a realistic approach to problem neering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver,
Canada.
solving, taking into account the unavoidable uncer- Foschi R.O., Li H., Folz B., Yao F. and Baldwin J.
tainties in the intervening variables. In timber engi- (2000) RELAN: A General Software Package for
neering, reliability theory also offers, in particular, Reliability Analysis. Department of Civil Engineer-
a sound framework for the study of quality control ing, University of British Columbia, Vancouver,
implementation, material mixing and optimisation. Canada.
Foschi R.O. (2000) Modeling the hysteretic response of
The vast potential of the approach, however, is mechanical connections for wood structures. Proceed-
fully exploited when problems are solved on a one- ings World Timber Engineering Conference, Whistler,
to-one basis, customising the solution. Although B.C. Canada.
Reliability of Structures 199
Foschi R.O. and Li H. (2001) A methodology for Melchers R. (1987) Structural Reliability: Analysis and
performance-based design in earthquake engineering. Prediction. Ellis Horwood, Chichester.
Proceedings 8th International Conference on Struc- Rackwitz R. and Fiessler B. (1978) Structural reliability
tural Safety and Reliability, ICOSSAR'Ol, Newport under combined random load sequence. Computers
Beach, CA. and Structures, 9(5), 489494.
Hasofer A.M. and Lind N.C. (1974) Exact and invariant Schueller G.I., Bucher C.G. and Bourgund U. (1989)
second-moment code format. Journal of Engineering On efficient computational schemes to calculate struc-
Mechanics, 100( 1), 111 121. tural failure probabilities. Probabilistic Engineering
Li H. and Foschi R.O. (1998) An inverse reliabil- Mechanics, 4(1), 10-18.
ity method and applications. Structural Safety, 20, Thoft-Christensen P. and Baker M. (1982) Structural
257-270. Reliability Theory and Its Applications. Springer-
Liu Y.W. and Moses F. (1994) A sequential response Verlag.
surface method and its application in the reliabil- Thoft-Christensen P. and Murotsu Y. (1986) Applica-
ity analysis of aircraft structural systems. Structural tion of Structural Systems Reliability Theory. Springer-
Safety, 19, 319. Verlag.
Madsen H.O., Krenk S. and Lind N.C. (1986) Methods Wen Y.K. (1990) Structural Load Modeling and Com-
of Structural Safety. Prentice-Hall, Eaglewood Cliffs, bination for Performance and Safety Evaluation.
NJ. Elsevier.
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12

Design of Structures Based on Glulam,


LVL and Other Solid Timber Products
Hans J. Larsen

12.1 Introduction 201


12.2 Failure criteria and volume effects 206
12.3 Curved beams 209
12.4 Tapered, pitched and cambered beams 211
12.5 End-notched beams and beams with holes 214
12.6 Instability 214

12.1 INTRODUCTION structures are often large: size/volume effects and


instability problems may therefore be more severe.
12.1.1 General These problems are covered in the following.
For the design of structural elements, glulam is In some cases, it is necessary or advantageous to
normally treated as a homogenous, orthotropic, carry out a more detailed analysis. Finite element
elastic material with one main axis in the fibre methods may be very effective, either 2D or 3D
direction and with the same properties in all methods making it possible to take into account
directions perpendicular to this axis. How to derive the influence of the year ring pattern. This topic is
the properties from those of the laminations is dealt with in Section 12.1.6.
treated in Chapter 5. The special problems in the Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) with all the
design of glulam are then related to the special fibres in the same direction, behaves in principle as
shapes that are possible or more common for solid timber: the strength and stiffness parameters
glulam than for solid timber, e.g. curved or tapered and the magnitude of the size effect may differ,
members. Furthermore, the volumes of glulam but the design equations are the same. Therefore,
202 Timber Engineering

LVL will not be dealt with separately. The same


applies to parallam and similar products.
LVLcross, where the fibre direction of some of
the veneers is perpendicular to the main direction,
behaves in the same way as plywood.

12.1.2 Assumptions
Unless otherwise stated, members with rectangular
M,
cross-sections are regarded with axes as shown
in Figure 12.1. In cases where it is convenient Figure 12.1 Axes and positive directions of stress
to distinguish between the axes, the z-coordinates resultants
are in the strong direction of the member, and
My corresponds to the bending moment about the
strong axis.
12.1.4 Stress-strain Curve
According to Blass (1988) and Glos (1978), the
12.1.3 Notation stress-strain curve under axial load is as shown
The notation follows that of Draft Eurocode 5 in Figure 12.2. In tension there is a linear rela-
(2000). Frequently used symbols are listed below; tionship. In compression the relation is described
other symbols are defined where they are used. by the initial modulus of elasticity E = tan a, the

A Area of cross-section Subscripts:


E Modulus of Elasticity
F Force c Compression
G Shear modulus crit Critical
I Second moment of area d Design
M Moment def Deformation
N Axial force dis Distribution
V Volume ef Effective
W Section modulus k Characteristic
m Bending, material partial safety factor
b Width mod Modification
f Strength rel Relative
h Depth, height t Tension
i Radius of inertia ult Ultimate
k Factor, coefficient V Shear
l Length vol Volume
r Radius x, y, z Directions of axes
t Thickness y Yielding
u Deflection
0, a and 90 denotes the angle () between the
a Angle force/stress-direction and the grain direction,
y Angle, Partial coefficient i.e. 0 is parallel and 90 perpendicular to grain.
s Strain
A. Slenderaess ratio The fibre direction is marked with ^
p Density (in kg/m3)
a Stress
T Shear stress
Design of Structures Based on Solid Timber Products 203

compression strength fc, the asymptotic final com-


pression stress fc, y,the strain ec at maximum stress
and the ultimate strain eu. The following empirical
relation is assumed:

0" -~ (12.1)
Mg/c)7
1+ -f
Jc,y
Figure 12.3 Strain and stress distribution at failure for
where a rectangular cross-section (width = b) for an axial load
N and a bending moment M
Jc,y
6(1 - (fc,y/fc))

__ E__2_ assumed that at failure, the strain and stress varia-


(12.3) tion over the depth is as shown in Figure 12.3.
fc fee
Axial equilibrium gives:
Typical values for the parameters are:
= b (-hfc, ft)) (12.5)
fc,y/fc ~ 0.8 sc = 0.81.2% su 3ec
(12.4) from which

2h (12.6)
12.1.5 Axial Load and Bending fc,y + ft

The behaviour for axial load in combination with Moment equilibrium taken at z = 0.5h gives
a moment about the y-axis can be determined
by equilibrium conditions. The procedure can be
M
illustrated for the simplified linear elastic-plastic
stress-strain relation shown in Figure 12.2. It is (12.7)

c,y

Compression E=tan

Tension

Figure 12.2 Stress-strain relation according to Blass (1988). A simplified linear elastic plastic stress-strain curve is
shown with thin line
204 Timber Engineering

The permissible combinations of N and M are For pure bending, the following relation applies:
found by inserting (12.5) into (12.7):
bh2
M = -Nh-b[ ^ ry JC,)
c,y
fc,
(12.8)
(12.13)
The moment may be expressed as a formal bending
stress crm:
(12.14)
M 6M
> fc,y + ft
(12.9) Corresponding values of am and ON at failure
where ON = N/A. are shown in Figure 12.4. Parts of the curves are
The following relation between the ultimate shown dotted. They correspond to ?> > 3et, which
strains in tension and compression is found from is hardly likely. The failure mode depends upon
similar triangles: the magnitude of the axial load. For large positive
values (tension), the conditions are linear elastic
until failure. For small values (the curved parts),
and = (12.10) the fibres in the compression side will initially
h e^ + et e, ft
'yield' until final tensile failure. For large values
Inserting (12.6) into (12.10) gives: of f t / f c , i.e. for clear wood, the moment capacity
is reduced when superimposed by a compression
/ (1 + fc,y/f<)2 A load. For small values of ft/fc, the moment capac-
g -^ g_ I . . . . j^ I
(12.11)
ity is increased by a compression stress, because
the compression action relieves the tension side.
Expressions (12.7), (12.8) and (12.11) are only The tensile strength is determined from tests
valid for h1 < h. For larger tensile forces, the in which the axial force acts in the geometrical
conditions are elastic. centre in the end cross-sections. Knots and density

Figure 12.4 Corresponding values of axial stresses and bending stresses


Design of Structures Based on Solid Timber Products 205

variations along the test piece and across the cross- use may lead to quite surprising results because
sections result in bending stresses that can be rather of the difference in stiffness in the radial and
high. In a beam cross-section, these secondary tangential directions, the stiffness in the former
effects are prevented and further stresses can be being the bigger. Two examples will be mentioned:
redistributed when failure starts. This means that a the first is the stress distribution perpendicular
higher tensile strength than that used in the design to grain in a curved beam; the second is the
of tension members should be inserted in the stress distribution in a glulam block loaded in
expressions derived above. A value of ft ~ 1.5 fm compression perpendicular to grain.
gives reasonable results. In Dahlblom and Ormarsson (1993), the stress
For the cases where the bending stresses in distribution in a curved beam is calculated taking
compression are so high that the fibres yield, the into account the different wood properties in the
shear stress distribution will also be influenced radial and tangential directions. The results are
(see Figure 12.5). The bending stresses are almost shown in Figure 12.6. For a 22 growth ring slope
constant in the plastic zone, and the shear stresses at the surface, the maximum stress perpendicular to
are therefore zero. The shear force has to be taken grain is about 30% higher than the average stress.
on the reduced depth, which can be calculated to For a 45 slope, the increase is about 70%. An
(3-<r m /f c,y )h/2, i.e.: example on moisture-induced stresses in curved
1.5V beams is given in Chapter 9.
a
(12.15) The other example is the results of tests to
3/c,v - n determine the compression strength of glulam
perpendicular to grain (see Figure 12.7) (Damkilde
12.1.6 Finite Element Calculations et al., 1999). It was expected that failure would
Most of the design equations given in the following take place for a uniform stress perpendicular to
aim at 'manual calculations'. They are usually the glue lines of about 6 MPa, which is the value
on the safe side, and it may be advantageous assumed in most codes. Instead, failure occurred
to make a more detailed analysis of the stress as tensile failure perpendicular to the grain: a
distribution. This may be the case for a special crack started in the origo and spread along the x-
type of structure, or for economically important axis. The compression strength was only 3 MPa.
members in a structure. An important tool for such A detailed analysis revealed that the compression
analyses is finite element methods - either 2D stress was not uniform across the cross-section
methods, where the members are regarded as plane (ax in the section y = 0 is about 1.5 the average
structures, or 3D methods, where the cylindrical, stress, ac). More importantly, the inclination of
orthotropic structure is taken into account. With the growth rings gave tension stresses (a y ) over
the increase of computer power, 3D methods and compression stresses under the glue lines, the
are becoming more and more common and their maximum tensile value being about 0.5 ac. As a

Elastic Elasto-plastic

1.5V
bh

Figure 12.5 The stress variations over the depth for a rectangular cross-section with moment and a shear force V
206 Timber Engineering

F
2.0 Horizontal

45 at surface

1.5- 22 at surface

45 at surface
1.0-

0.5-

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 ^

Figure 12.6 Tensile stresses perpendicular to grain in a curved glulam beam with constant bending moment

For a 2D analysis, the normal failure criteria and


\ design values apply. For a 3D analysis, higher val-
ues may be applied, since many of the effects that
\ reduce the formal strength have been taken into
\ ^ consideration. This may be of particular impor-
CT/( 7
C ) Ac tance for tension perpendicular to grain, where
\. values 50% higher than normal may be used. For
\ failure analysis at a point, the tensile strength
parallel to grain may be taken as ft,0 = l.5fm

1
I
^ (cf. Section 12.1.5).
t

\
t
<
\ 12.2 FAILURE CRITERIA AND
-1 0
VOLUME EFFECTS
12.2.1 Failure Criteria
Figure 12.7 Compression test stresses in the section For cases other than the simple ones - unidirec-
at y = 0 tional stresses in the main directions or pure
shear - it is necessary to have failure criteria. Var-
ious criteria, originally pioneered by aircraft build-
consequence, code values were halved, which has ing, have been proposed. Recently, failure models
created many problems. for orthotropic materials have attracted renewed
Typical stiffness parameters for glulam L40 are: interest in connection with the development of
modern fibre composite materials.
EL = 14000 MPa ER = 800 MPa ET = 500 MPa The simplest failure criterion is the maximum
GLR = 800 MPa GLT = 500 MPa GRT = 60 MPa
VLR = 0.02 VLT = 0.02 VRT = 0.45
stress criterion, where the stresses in the main
(12.16) direction and the shear stresses are limited to the
Design of Structures Based on Solid Timber Products 207

corresponding strength values, i.e. the interaction the failure criterion becomes:
between the stresses is - often rather on the
unsafe side - disregarded. For tension and shear, crA '90
for example: Jt,OJc,0 ft,90 fc,90

Of.0 < ft,0 OV.90 < ft,90


T
< fv (12.17)
1 1 1
-i-^on-1
CTO i 090 i
ft,0 fc,0 ft,90 Jc,90 /
One of the most common failure criteria for (12.19)
isotropic materials is the von Mises yield criterion,
(TO and 090 are the stresses parallel and perpendic-
and most of the proposals found in the literature
ular to grain (tension is positive), T are the shear
take this as their point of departure, by postulating
that failure takes place when: stresses, and f the corresponding strength values.
Tsai (2000) proposed writing the interaction con-
stant k2 as

=1 (12.18) v-0.5
(12.20)
Equation (12.18) contains six parameters, five of
which can be found from simple uniaxial tension where 1 < k < 0 for all materials. Figure 12.8
or compression tests or shear tests. The parameter shows the failure envelope for T = 0 according
k2 can only be determined from complicated com- to (12.19)(12.20)-often denoted the Tsai-Wu
bined stress tests, and is often treated as an empir- failure criterion - for fc,0 = 0.67 ft, 0, ft,90 =
ical constant. Inserting the basic strength values, 0.025ft,0, fc,90 = 0.10ft,0 and k = 0 or k = -0.5.

-1.5
-1.0

Figure 12.8 Failure envelopes


208 Timber Engineering

A simple semi-empirical failure condition is the 12.2.2 Volume Effects


quadric expression proposed in Norris (1962):
It is often claimed that the strength of timber
depends upon the size of the stressed volume: deep
beams are weaker than shallow ones, wide and
(12.21) long tension members are weaker than narrow and
short ones, etc. Whether this is really the case
is much discussed; for instance, many maintain
The Norris criterion - composed of four ellipses -
that the effect for ordinary timber beams is
is also shown in Figure 12.8. The difference between
due to cutting and grading practices. There is,
Norris and Tsai-Wu with k = 0 is small, and since
however, no doubt that the effect is real for tension
there are very few tests with combined stresses, it is perpendicular to the grain and other brittle failures.
recommend that the Norris criterion be used. A more The effect may be explained by the size effect
detailed treatment of the Norris criterion is given in always inherent in fracture mechanics problems,
Chapter 7. or by the so-called Weibull theory, which will
In many codes, a very simple criterion - the be described briefly in the following. For a more
Hankinson expression (Hankinson, 1921) - is used general treatment, reference is made to Gustafsson
for the strength fa at an angle a to the grain (see (2001). Volume effects in beams (effects of length
Figure 12.9). For tension, it is assumed that the and load configuration) are treated in Chapter 4.
strength is: The Weibull theory (Weibull, 1939), also called
the weakest link theory, is based on the following
ft,0 ft,90 assumptions:
(12.22)
ft,0 sin2 or + ft,90 cos2 a
The stressed volume, V, consists of a large
For compression, the tensile strengths are replaced number of basic volumes, each containing a
by the corresponding compression strengths. The weak spot.
Hankinson criterion is generally on the unsafe The probability of failure is the same for all
side, especially at small angles to the grain - the basic volumes.
most common situation in practice. Reference is Failure in one basic volume will lead to brittle
also made to Chapter 7. failure of the total volume.

1.0
Compression Tension
Hankinson:
Norris:
b) a)

0.5

30 60 90

Figure 12.9 Relative unidirectional strength at an angle to the grain according to Norris and Hankinson
Design of Structures Based on Solid Timber Products 209

The probability of failure is then: crude, and in most cases a determination according
to Equation (12.26) will prove advantageous.
a -a0
-V (12.23)
m 12.2.3 Fracture Mechanics
This model is based on the three-parameter Weibull At notches and holes in beams, for example, the
distribution, a is the tensile stress perpendicular to stresses become theoretically infinite, and failure
the grain, and k and m are material parameters, k is often very sudden and brittle and not preceded
may be found from the mean and the coefficient of by large deformations or other visible warning. In
variation for the tensile strength, and is about 3-6. these cases, it is meaningless to try to determine the
In many codes, a value of 1/k = 0.2 is assumed. load-carrying capacity by means of conventional
The threshold stress (the minimum failure strength) stress criteria. Instead, fracture mechanics may
<TO can often with good approximation be taken offer a solution (see Chapter 7).
equal to 0, resulting in the two-parameter Weibull
distribution:
12.3 CURVED BEAMS
Pf(a) = 1 - exp -V (12.24)
12.3.1 Introduction
From Equation (12.24), it can be seen that two Curved beams have lower strength than straight
uniformly stressed volumes, V1 and V2, have the ones because of bending prestresses in the
same probability of failure if the stresses o\ and laminations. Furthermore, there are stresses
G-> fulfil the condition: perpendicular to grain and the stress variation
over depth is not linear, even when assuming
(12.25) that plane cross-sections perpendicular to the
The probability of failure of a volume V with a axis remain plane (Bernouilli beam). Lekhnitskii
varying stress a(x, y, z) with the maximum value (1968) gives expressions from which the edge
<rmax is the same as that of a volume stresses parallel to grain, ai, at>, and the
maximum stress perpendicular to grain, max cr t,90 ,
a(x,y,z)k may be found, taking the orthotropy into
dV (12.26)
account. Approximate solutions are derived in
Sections 12.3.3 and 12.3.4.
The ratio ( V / V * ) l / k is called the distribution
factor, k dis , and is convenient, for instance, for
calculating the tension perpendicular to grain
12.3.2 Prestresses
strength of a volume V for different load or stress High eigenstresses are built into the laminations
configurations: during production. Their magnitude is
v
f
Jt.90,d -
(12.27) am = Et/(2r + t) (12.28)

where ft,90,d refers to a reference volume V0 under where t is the thickness of the laminations and r
uniform stress and kvol = (V 0 /V) 1 / k . Examples is the minimum radius. For glulam laminations,
of kdis may be found in Colling (1986). As an E / f m ~ 300. Normally, r/t varies between 125
example, for k = 5, kdis = 1.22 for the parabolic and 250, i.e. am varies between 0.6fm and 1.2fm.
variation of the tension stresses perpendicular One would expect some laminations to break
to the grain found in a curved beam with during production and the strength of the curved
constant moment. member to be reduced considerably. However,
Eurocode 5 also gives kdis for cambered and according to Wilson (1939) and Hudson (1960),
pitched cambered beams, but the values are very that is not the case. The bending strength is only
210 Timber Engineering

reduced marginally. The explanation may be creep, By rearranging and disregarding second order
especially during production where there is some terms in e,
moisture from the glue. Based on the tests in
these references, the following reduction factor (12.32)
1 Z/i'mean
to the bending strength of straight beams seems
appropriate for r/t < 240: a = E - e , =cfQ + Ek- (12.33)
- z/rn
kcurvature = 0.76 + 0.001r/t (12.29) where
(12.34)
For r/t = 150, where the eigenstress is 1.2fm, k
is only about 0.9. The equilibrium conditions / abdz = 0 and
fabzdz = M, together with Equation (12.33),
lead to:
M M
12.33 Bending Stress Distribution + (12.35)
bhrn lef 1 + Z/rn

Because of the varying length of the arcs, the stress where an effective second order moment Ief has
variation with depth is as shown in Figure 12.10. been introduced:
The mean radius is changed from rmean to p and the
neutral axis is shifted downwards. The initial arc - f ^b -dz (12.36)
lengths are s = s0 (1 - z/rmean). The arc lengths ~J 1-z/r.
are increased by ds0 and ds: If there is also an axial force F, Equation (12.36)
is changed to
s + ds = (s0 + ds 0 )(1 - z/p) (12.30)
N + M/rn M
1 - 1 bh Ief1+z/rmean
s (12.37)
- l-z/p Equilibrium requires stresses perpendicular to
(12.31) the grain. The maximum force perpendicular
1 Z/fffiet

Figure 12.10 Plane curved beam with constant moment M. The cross-section is rectangular with thickness b. The
inner radius is r and the mean radius is rmean, from which z is measured
Design of Structures Based on Solid Timber Products

to the grain acts in the neutral axis for pure 12.4 TAPERED, PITCHED AND
bending, i.e. for z = r m e a n I e f /(I e f + bhr2mean). A CAMBERED BEAMS
good approximation illustrating the problem can be
found by approximating the moment by two forces 12.4.1 Tapered Beams
F = l.5 M/h (i.e. the influence of the curvature on
the stress distribution is disregarded). Equilibrium It is often advantageous to vary the depth of beams
of the small segment dO gives to obtain an inclined roof or to adjust the depth to
the moments or shear forces. The depth variation
<790brmeand0 = FdO influences the stress distribution in a beam (see
(790 = 1.5 M/(bhrmean) Section B in Figure 12.11). A bending moment
will, in addition to the normal stresses in the
12.3.4 Failure Criteria beam direction, result in stresses perpendicular to
grain and in shear stresses: the stresses at the top
The bending stresses shall satisfy the follow- must necessarily be parallel to the surface, and
ing condition: therefore have a component at an angle a to the
<kcu (12.38) grain/beam direction. The stresses perpendicular
to the grain reduce the strength in accordance
where kcurvature (see Equation (12.29)) takes into with Section 12.2.1.
account the strength reduction due to the curvature According to Riberholt (1979), the stresses parallel
of the innermost fibre. The stresses perpendicular to surfaces can be written as:
to grain shall satisfy the following condition:
^surface = ka 6M/(bh 2 ) (12.41)
<t,90 < k dis (V ref /V)V 1/k f t, 90 (12.39)
For k = 5 and with a reference volume Vref = As an approximation, the following values
0.01 m3, Equation (12.39) becomes with kdis = are found:
1.22, see (12.27):
at the surface where there is an angle a to
<t,90 < 1.22 0.010.2 V -0.2 f t,90 = 0.49V-0.2ft,90 the grain:
(12.40)
V is the volume of the curved part in m3. ka = 1 4.4 tan2 a (12.42)

"min I

Figure 12.11 Stress distributions in a tapered beam and in a pitched beam. The stresses in section B in the pitched
beam are similar to those in the cambered beam
212 Timber Engineering

at the surface where or = 0: the upper surface at the apex are zero and the
bending stresses at the lower surface are increased.
ka = 1 +3.7 tan2 a (12.43) Furthermore, there will be stresses perpendicular to
the grain in the whole volume. The biggest stresses
At the surface with an angle to the grain, the can be expressed as
stresses relative to the principal axes of the
wood are:
a
.-=*'TZ2 (12.45)
= ^surface COS2 Of <790 = (^surface Sin2 Of bhap
(12.44) 6M a
T = a surface COS Of Sin Of (12.46)
These stresses should be inserted in the relevant
failure criterion. Analytical expressions for the factors k1 and kr
are given in Figures 12.13 and 12.14. Map is
12.4.2 Pitched and Pitched Cambered the bending moment in the cross-section through
the apex and a, hap and r are as defined in
Beams Figure 12.12. The factors are determined by a
In a pitched beam (see Figures 12.11 and 12.12) finite element analysis (see Blumer (1979) and
the stresses in the shaded zones are heavily Riberholt (1979)). The bending stress is limited
influenced by the pitch. The bending stresses at to k curvature f m , where kcurvature is the reduction

(b)

Figure 12.12 Pitched beam (a), and pitched cambered beam (b)
Design of Structures Based on Solid Timber Products 213

3.0

Ki +
a = 25.0C
ft, = 1 + 1.4 tan a + 5.4 tan2 a kz = 0.35 - 8 tan a
k3 = 0.6 + 8.3 tan a - 7.8 tan2 a k4 = 6 tan2 a

1.0
"ap "mid

Figure 12.13 &/ for pitched cambered beam

0.15

-t- 0.2 tan a /% = 0.25 - 1.5 tan a + 2.6 tan2


tana-4tan 2 a

0.10

0.05

Figure 12.14 kr for pitched cambered beam


214 Timber Engineering

factor due to the curvature of the inner lamination


(see Section 12.3.2). The stresses perpendicular
to the grain are limited to kdis(Vref/V)0.2ft,90 kv = min
3
Vref = 0.01 m is a reference volume, and V
is the volume of the shaded areas. According
to Draft Eurocode 5 (2000), kdis = 1.7. For the
straight pitched beam, kdis = 1.4 with a volume (12.49)
bh2ap, where b is the width of the beam. Both where kn = 6.5. The reason why there are two
values are rather crude and, as mentioned in conditions in Equation (12.4.9) is that, for small
Section 12.2.2, a more detailed analysis should be values of the notched depth, the shear strength, and
done for important structures. not cracking, is decisive. The term with i takes into
account the fact that the load-carrying capacity is
increased by the taper (see Riberholt et al., 1991).
12.5 END-NOTCHED BEAMS AND For case c) kv = 1.
BEAMS WITH HOLES
12.6 INSTABILITY
12.5.1 End-notched Beams
12.6.1 Centrally Loaded Columns
According to Gustafsson (1988) (See also
It is assumed that the column deflects in
Chapter 7), for cases a) and b) in Figure 12.15:
the direction of one of the main axes. The
corresponding second order moment is / and the
Vcr = bhef radius of gyration is i. The free column length is /
and the geometrical slenderness ratio A, = 1/i. The
compression stress is ac = F/A, where F is the
0.6(-a2)- axial load. The column strength is expressed as
(12.47) k c f c . The relative slenderness ratio is defined by

where a = h e f / h and ft is defined in Figure 12.15. (12.50)


7T2E
Gf is the perpendicular to the grain fracture
energy. With E/G ~ 16 and assuming that both The compression strength parallel to grain fc =
the shear strength fv and Gf are proportional to fc.0 is determined from tests with X^/ ~ 0.3
G, the strength criterion can be formulated as a and, therefore, kc = 1 for X.rel < 0.3. For slender
usual strength requirement: columns, the load-carrying capacity is always with
a good approximation the Euler load, i.e.
3
T = - <kvfv (12.48)
2 bhef kc = 1/Al, (12.51)

:i r

(a) (b)

Figure 12.15 Geometry of end-notched beams


Design of Structures Based on Solid Timber Products 215

conditions, the deflection should correspond to


the expected deflection curve.
An axial load is estimated and the initial moment
distribution is calculated.
The stiffness in all cross-sections is calculated
(the stiffness decreases with increasing axial
Figure 12.16 Simply supported centrally loaded col- load and moment).
umn with an initial deviation from straightness corre-
sponding to e (reference condition) The deflections are calculated and a new
moment distribution is found, resulting in new
To demonstrate how kc is determined, a very stiffness and moments, etc.
simple case is initially investigated. It is assumed If the deflections diverge, the critical load is
that the column initially has a sinusoidal deviation exceeded and a new, lower axial load has to
from straightness with a midspan value e (see be estimated.
Figure 12.16). If the deflections converge, it must be checked
From the differential equation for the column: that the load-carrying capacity is not exceeded.
The capacity is exceeded if
" _ -M = -ptu + esin} (12.52) - fc (or ec) is exceeded,
EI
dx2 \ I ' - the capacity of the compression zone
the resulting midspan deviation is found: is exceeded,
- the tensile strength is exceeded.
1
e + Q.
(12.53) If the load-carrying capacity is exceeded/not
exceeded, a new trial is made with a
lower/higher axial load.
The stresses in the middle are ac and am =
F(e + umid)/W. Inserting these stresses in the The calculations are repeated until equilibrium
simple failure criterion ac/fc + crm/fm = 1 results is obtained with an axial load corresponding to
in: the capacity of the cross-sections.

_ 1 The calculations can be performed using deter-


<I (12.54) ministic design values or the parameters can be
fc
assumed to be stochastic variables. The follow-
The equal sign corresponds to ac/fc = kc, i.e. kc ing expressions given in Draft Eurocode 5 (2000)
can be found from: are based on curve fitting to results from a Monte
Carlo simulation (see Blass, 1988):
(12.55) for Krel < 0.3
for A.rel > 0.3
The column formula in Draft Eurocode 5 (2000)
is, in accordance with Blass (1988), derived along (12.56)
the same lines, but the parabolic stress-strain k = 0.5(1 + ~ 0.3) + (12.57)
curve from Figure 12.3 is used. In this case, it is For structural timber, an initial deviation from
not possible to give a closed solution, but it is straightness of e = 0.005l has been assumed, and
necessary to use an iterative numerical method: for glulam, e = 0.003l.
An initial deviation from straightness is esti-
mated. For a simply supported column, 12.6.2 Laterally Loaded Columns
a sinusoidal deviation from straightness is A simply supported column is considered (see
appropriate (see Figure 12.16). For other Figure 12.17). In addition to the axial force, there
216 Timber Engineering

The results of calculations for typical material


parameters are given in Figure 12.18, showing
acceptable combinations of ac and am. The values
on the ordinate correspond to centrally loaded
columns, and are thus kc.
Codes normally give the following simple
interaction formula:

ffc/(k c f c ) + <Tm/fm<1 (12.58)


For very slender columns, Equation (12.58) is
a good approximation but generally on the
safe side - in most practical cases very much
so - and a more general calculation can lead to
Figure 12.17 Laterally loaded column
considerable savings.
For the case with bending about two axes, no
verified design method exists, but it is assumed
is a lateral load giving a bending moment MO and that structures are safe if both of the following
a corresponding bending stress am in the middle of interaction formulae are satisfied:
the undeformed column (note that om has another
meaning than in relation to Equation (12.54)). -^- + ^ + * ^ < l (12.59)
This case is in principle treated as the centrally Jm.y
loaded column, the only difference being that cr,m.y
the midpoint deflection is formally (e + Jm.v Jm.z

0.8

0.6

J-2
0.4

0.0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

Figure 12.18 Acceptable combinations of crm/fm and ac/fc


Design of Structures Based on Solid Timber Products 217

& c,y is the column factor for bending about the y- section modulus. Inserting the values for a rect-
axis (deflection in the z-direction) and kC, Z is the angular cross-section - W = bh2/6, Iz = b3h/12
factor for deflection in the y-direction. Account is and Itor ~ hb3(1 - 0.63b/h)/3 - and utilising the
taken of the fact that the bending strengths may be fact that b/ h is small for beams where lateral insta-
different due to size factors, k is a reduction factor bility occurs:
(form factor). In Eurocode 5, k = 0.7. 2
W -bh
6
12.6.3 Lateral Instability of Beams
Slender beams - beams that are long and deep
jr*>kl-i
V 12
h(\ --0,.63b/h)
relative to the width - fail in lateral instability, i.e. h 1
in torsion and lateral deflection of the compression
flange (see Figure 12.19). The critical moment
& r '1 -0.63b/h'- p(12..62)
can (Timoshenko and Gere, 1961) be expressed The slenderness ratio then becomes:
as shown in Equation (12.60). Slightly more
complicated expressions may be found in the (12.63)
literature that take into consideration secondary
effects (e.g. warping) that are unimportant For glulam, the mean values are E/fn, 275, and
for timber. E/G ~ 15, i.e.
n
(12.60)
ef 0.067- (12.64)
where EIZ is the bending stiffness about the z-axis Equation (12.61) only applies in the linear elastic
(the weak direction), GItor is the torsional stiffness range, i.e. for am/fm < 0.5 corresponding to km >
(Itor is the torsional second order moment, not the 1.4. The bending strength is found from tests
polar moment, see below), and lef is the effective with h/b ~ 3 and le/h ~ 15, i.e. with km ~ 0.75,
length. lef depends upon the geometry, the load and in this case, lateral buckling is included, i.e.
configuration and the support conditions. Examples km = 1. In the interval between 0.75 and 1.4, linear
are shown in Figure 12.20. interpolation is normally used in codes, resulting
The reduction factor due to instability is: in Figure 12.21.
= Mcr/(Wfm) = l/X2m (12.61)
The expressions are correct for equal end
km =
moments and for isotropic materials. For other
where the slenderness ratio km has been intro- cases, the effective lengths given in Figure 12.20
duced in analogy with Equation (12.50). W is the may be used. However, the results are only
approximations, and often rather on the safe
side. For important structures it is therefore
recommended that a more correct finite element
analysis taking into account the anisotropy be
performed. A very effective calculation model is
described in Eggen (2000), which also contains
examples on the critical load.

Deformed 12.6.4 Combined Column Effect and


Lateral Instability
Cross-section
The expressions in Section 12.6.2 are only valid if
Figure 12.19 Deformations by lateral instability lateral instability is prevented. This is the case for
218 Timber Engineering

The load acts


at the top in the axis of at the
gravity bottom

GL -^
-A
1

11 1 1 M
Vxxxx"
11
A
"XXXXX
0.95 0.9 0.85

V7xx/
1
j- * /-x '%' O.Sor 0.75a 0.7a
0 = 1.35-1.4
?(' - f)
1
*
^
1 i 1 1i
0.6
\ **
1 0.85
il
1 1 1 1^1 1 1 1 0.35
'xxxx/ -| C^ r L
Q C^ V///X
0.4

i
v&, '7x9x7 0.25

r Denotes that lateral deflection and torsion is prevented (but the


beam is free to deflect vertically).

Figure 12.20 Examples on le/l

1.0 N
\ *,n *C07Pt '. o~ /> -1
\ 0.7!5 < X ^1A:o'cr'fn 7 =
'
56- '*m
.4 < ^m- \l\n

\
s
\

0.5
\
\
\

^
^ '
1

) 0.7 5 1 0 1.4 20 3.
*m
Figure 12.21 The critical bending stress as a function of the slenderness ratio in bending
Design of Structures Based on Solid Timber Products 219

bending about the weak axis. For bending about 12.6.5 Safety Elements
the strong axis, it is a condition that bending about
the weak axis is prevented, e.g. by holding the For non-slender columns and beams, the load-
compression flange effectively in place. There is carrying capacity depends upon the material
no theoretical solution for the general case with a strengths - compression and bending strength -
beam free to deflect and with an axial compression and design values will be used, i.e. characteristic
load. Eggen has developed a very effective finite five-percentiles reduced by the partial coefficient
element program to solve the general problem of and load duration factors. For slender members,
beam/column instability (Eggen, 2000), and has the load-carrying capacity depends upon stiffness
investigated the interaction between the two types values (see Equations (12.59) and (12.65)). The
of failure. On the basis of these, he suggests, coefficient of variation is about the same for
in addition to the column interaction formulae strength and stiffness values, and it is obvious that
(12.59), that, for bending about the strong axis, the modulus of elasticity and the shear modulus
it be verified that: to be used are the five-percentiles reduced by the
normal partial coefficient. It is normally assumed
that the strength development with time is the
Ot/(*c/c) + (Om/acrY < 1 (12.65)
same for the two situations, and that the kmod
for timber can also be used for the stiffness
where acr is defined in (12.61). values. It is doubtful, however, whether the use
A suitable value seems to be n = 1.75 2.0. of kmod is sufficient. The design equations are
A comparison between (12.59) and (12.65) is based on a second-order method, where the internal
shown in Figure 12.22. It will be seen that even forces are calculated in the deformed state, and
small axial forces have a serious influence on the the reduction of stiffness due to creep may be
buckling moment. much larger than corresponding to kmod. It is

Figure 12.22 Comparison between the requirements (12.59) (straight lines) and (12.65) (curve) with n = 1.75. The
dotted lines show where (12.59) is on the safe side
220 Timber Engineering

therefore recommended that the lower value of Dissertation, Department of Structural Engineering,
+ kcreep and be used. Norwegian University of Science and Technology,
Trondheim.
Glos P. (1978) Zur Bestimmung des Festigkeitsverhal-
ten von Brettschichtholz bei Druch-beanspruchung
REFERENCES aus Werkstoff- und Einwirkungskenngrossen. Disser-
tation, TU Munchen.
Blass H.J. (1988) Traglastberechnung von Druckstaben Gustafsson P.J. (1988) A study of Strength of Notched
aus Brettschichtholz. Bauingenieur, 63, 245251. Beams. CIB, Working Commission W18, Paper
Blumer H. (1979) Spannungsberechnung an isotropen W18/21-101.
Kreisbogenscheiben und Satteldachtragern mit kon- Hankinson R.L. (1921) Investigation of crushing
stanter Dicke. Lehrstuhl fur Ingenieurholzbau und strength of spruce at varying angles of grain. Air
Baukonstruktionen. Universitat Karlsruhe, Germany. Service Information Circular, III(259).
Colling F. (1986) Einfluss des Volumens und der Span- Hudson M. (1960) The effect of initial bending on the
nungsverteilung auf die Festigkeit eines Rechteck- strength of curved laminated beams. Wood, 25.
stragers. Holz als Roh- und Werkstqff, 121, 179183. Norris C.B. (1962) Strength of Orthotropic Materials
Dahlblom O. and Ormarsson S. (1993) Analysis of subjected to Combined stresses. Report 1816, Forest
stress distribution. In: Dahlblom et al., Fibre Products Laboratory, Madison, WI.
Reinforcement of Glulam, Report TVSM7083, Riberholt H. (1979) Tapered Timber Beams. CIB,
Division of Structural Mechanics, Lund Institute of Working Commission W18, Paper Wl8/11-10-1.
Technology, Lund, Sweden. Riberholt H. Enquist B. Gustafsson P.J. and Jensen R.B.
Damkilde L., Hoffmeyer P. and Pedersen N.P. (1998) (1991) Timber beams notched at the support. Report
Compression strength perpendicular to grain of TVSM-7071, Lund University, Sweden.
structural timber and glulam. CIB W18, Paper CIB Tsai S.W. (2000) Comparison of various failure
W 18/3 1-6-4, Savonlinna, Finland. criteria of orthotropic materials. Proceedings of
Draft Eurocode 5 (2000) Draft prEN 1995-1-1, Design the International Conf. on Wood and Wood Fibre
of timber structures. Part 1.1, General rules and rules Composites, Stuttgart, Germany, pp. 573-584.
for buildings. Wilson T.R.C. (1939) The glued laminated wooden
Eggen T.E. (2000) Buckling and geometrical non- arch. U.S. Dept. for Agriculture, Technical Bulletin
linear beam-type analyses of timber structures. No. 691.
13

Short- and Long-term Deformations


of Timber Structures
Annika Martensson

13.1 Introduction 221


13.2 State of the art 222
13.3 Prediction and limitation of deformations 233
13.4 Avoidance of problems with deformations 237
13.5 Concluding remarks 238

13.1 INTRODUCTION with opening doors and windows. In special build-


ings such as gymnasiums, or facilities with strong
Deflections and movements in a building must requirements of surface planeness (e.g. due to sen-
be limited to avoid damage and other undesirable sitive equipment), deformations may also lead to
effects in service. Lightweight structures like tim- problems. In the latter case, it is important that the
ber are especially prone to exhibit deformations. design is made in co-operation with the equipment
Several factors influence deformations in timber manufacturer.
structures. Since wood is an anisotropic material, Deformation limitations should also be applied
different loading modes will lead to different types to buildings and their components so that non-
of response. One of the most important factors structural elements are not introduced into the load
affecting the deformation is the combined effect path. If there is insufficient separation between
of loading and moisture changes. deflecting primary structural elements and non-
Deformations may be unfavourable for the uti- structural components, the load may be trans-
lization of the building in many ways. Examples ferred through the non-structural element. Such
are an insufficient slope of roofs, and problems non-structural elements include walls, windows,
222 Timber Engineering

ceilings, floor and roof coverings, facades, lifts, with adequate accuracy, and that the requirements
etc. The resulting damage may include crack- on the magnitude are correctly formulated. This is
ing and buckling of some elements of moderate a problem in the design process today, since the
stiffness and integrity, or tearing and folding of knowledge is lacking with regards to both require-
more flexible items such as coverings and linings. ments and prediction methods. In the following, a
Whereas these forms of failure in general do not description of knowledge concerning deformations
affect the stability of the structure, they may render in timber structures will be given.
the building unserviceable. Limitations to prevent This chapter mainly discusses the behaviour in
damage to non-structural elements should, in many the serviceability state, i.e. the stress levels will be
cases, be determined on the basis of variable loads, moderate.
with respect to the higher values that these may
attain during shorter periods.
Excessive deformations do not look attractive
13.2 STATE OF THE ART
to the public, and may lead to a feeling of Deformations occur in practically all timber struc-
insecurity. These observations are subjective, and tures, but they are of more interest in some cases
although the deformations will not endanger the than in others. In Figure 13.1, some typical situa-
structure or shorten its lifetime, it is appropriate tions where deformations may lead to problems are
to limit deformation to ensure that confidence is indicated. Beams subjected to loading will deflect
maintained. Such limits especially apply to long- under load, a deflection that is also affected by
term deformation, and not so much to shorter, but current moisture content as well as moisture con-
recoverable deformations that may occur due to tent variations. This deflection can be of such a
high load peaks. magnitude that it severely affects the behaviour
Requirements on the limitations of deformation of the individual structural element, and also the
will in many cases be the decisive criterion in the behaviour of the surrounding elements.
design process. This means it is important that the In many structural systems based on timber or
magnitude of the deformations can be predicted other wooden products, wood will be subjected to

Floor joist

Figure 13.1 Timber frame structure. Positions where significant deformations may occur are indicated by circles
Short- and Long-term Deformations of Timber Structures 223

Deformation

a
LU

Constant load
+ Load removed

Figure 13.2 The components of the deformation of wood

compression perpendicular to grain. Since wood values represent the combined effect of related
has low stiffness in this direction and exhibits shrinkage and deformation under load.
large moisture-induced movements, compression Under service conditions, timber often has to
will lead to large deformations. When this occurs withstand an imposed load for many years. In
in a connection between floor and wall struc- Figure 13.2 a generalised interpretation of the vari-
tures, it may lead to undesired settlements in ation of deformations is given. On application
the buildings. of a load at time zero, an instantaneous (and
Platform frame constructions have walls which reversible) deformation occurs which represents
are one storey high with the floor joists resting on elastic behaviour. On maintaining the load to time
top of the wall (see Figure 13.1). Each storey is t\ the deformation increases, though the rate of
built up from a floor platform, which also serves increase is continually decreasing; this increase
as the ceiling of the storey below it. Deforma- in deformation with time is termed 'creep'. On
tions in joints (see Figure 13.1) where structural removal of the load at time t\, an instantaneous
wood elements are subject to compressive loads reduction in deformation occurs, which is approx-
perpendicular to grain can then lead to large ver- imately equal in magnitude to the initial elastic
tical movements. In a multi-storey wood frame deformation. With time, the remaining deformation
building, large compressive loads may occur in the will decrease at a decreasing rate.
lower floors and at the foundation level. High loads Moisture variations will influence the deforma-
will also occur if the room layout varies from floor tion curve. As discussed later, moisture varia-
to floor and a concrete topping is used to limit tions will significantly increase the deformations.
noise. This effect is commonly referred to as 'mechano-
The deformations due to load are further com- sorptive behaviour'.
pounded by wood shrinkage perpendicular to grain, The deformations can then be divided into
which is far more severe than shrinkage parallel elastic deformations, viscoelastic deformations and
to the grain, which is negligible. In the case of mechano-sorptive deformations. It can also be
a 38 x 235 mm dropped header, or joist at floor added that at higher stress levels, the material
level, Thorson (1989) has observed real field val- exhibits plastic behaviour, but this effect will not
ues for vertical movements of 13 mm. These field be discussed here.
224 Timber Engineering

13.2.1 Elastic Deformation moisture content the smaller the elastic modulus,
hence larger deformations occur. It is therefore
When a sample of timber is loaded in tension,
important to have an accurate estimation of the
compression or bending, the instantaneous defor- moisture content in the timber.
mations obtained with increasing load are approx-
In the direction perpendicular to grain the elastic
imately proportional to the values of the applied modulus is much smaller than along the grain, thus
load. For all loading directions a point on the load- a load will induce much larger deformations in that
deflection curve known as the limit of proportion- direction. For this special loading case, there are
ality can be identified, below which the relation- some aspects that have to be specially recognised
ship between load and deformation is linear, and and they will be discussed in the following. To
above which nonlinearity occurs. In Figure 13.3 determine the load-deformation curve tests have
typical load-deformation curves for tension and to be carried out, and in the case of compression
compression are presented. As can be seen, there perpendicular to grain, a test set-up like that in
is a difference between these two loading modes. Figure 13.4 could be used.
The linearity is more valid in tension than in com- If the loaded length covers the whole surface of
pression. the beam, i.e. Le = 0, the deformation A would be
At the lower levels of loading where the straight- given by
line relationship appears to be valid, the material
is said to be linearly elastic, and the linearity is A = (13.1)
90
described with the elastic modulus E. The value
of the elastic modulus is often determined at a where d is the beam depth, E90 is the elastic
certain moisture level, and if the moisture content modulus perpendicular to grain, and the stress
at loading differs from the reference state the value perpendicular to grain is given by
of the elastic modulus is changed. The higher the
090 = (13.2)
Load Tension where b is the beam width, L is the length of the
loaded surface and P is the applied load. Experi-
ments have shown that in the case where the load
does not cover the entire surface, the deformation
is less than that determined by Equations (13.1)
and (13.2).
Limit of proportionality
Figure 13.5 illustrates an example result from
tests made on test specimens designed from
45 x 95 mm dimensioned timber from Norway
Compression spruce (Picea Abies) (see Frater and Thelanders-
son, 1996). The moisture content in the specimens
was between 10% and 13%. The specimen con-
figurations were designed to examine the bearing
performance between studs, plates and joists. In
Figure 13.5, the load-deformation curve for a test
Limit of proportionality of type SPP (one stud resting on two plates) is
shown.
Deformation Other very comprehensive test series of the
behaviour of wood subjected to compressive
Figure 13.3 Load-deformation curves for timber stres- stresses perpendicular to grain have been per-
sed in tension and compression. The limit of proportion- formed by Backsell (1966) and Gehri (1997),
ality is indicated and a number of parameters were investigated in
Short- and Long-term Deformations of Timber Structures 225

'P

Bearing /
End distance lengthi/End distance^
, 1\- ;- T'

Figure 13.4 Test set-up

60 r Load, kN
Test SPP

40

20

Def. mm
0
0 4 8 16

Figure 13.5 Load deformation curve for test SPP

those studies, where test set-ups similar to that in There is also a tendency that a smaller bearing
Figure 13.4 were used. length leads to higher stress at the proportional
Conclusions that can be drawn from short-term limit.
tests are:
The initial stiffness decreases strongly with
The load-deformation relations show a distinct increasing moisture content, but increases with
change in slope at a certain stress level, which wood density.
is defined as the proportional limit.
When two members loaded perpendicular to
The initial stiffness increases significantly with grain are in contact at the bearing area the
decreasing bearing length (with Le > 0). deformations are significantly higher compared
226 Timber Engineering

to the normal case when one of the members is 13.2.3 Mechano-Sorptive Deformation
loaded parallel to the grain.
Wood under load, when subjected to moisture con-
The conclusion from tests is that Equations (13.1) tent changes, exhibits much greater deformations
and (13.2) will not give accurate values of the than under constant humidity conditions. This phe-
deformation for situations when Le > 0. nomenon is oft