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Methodology

The materials and equipment needed were 15 kg of Mud Clam shells

(Polymesoda erosa), steel screen, plain tin, and 1 motor cycle.

FLOW CHART

Preparation of materials

Experimental set-up Control set-up

Installation of each scrubber to the motorcycle

Speed variation Vehicle variation Emission testing

Observation

Data Gathering Recording

Analysis and Conclusion

PREPARATION OF MATERIALS
A total of 15 kg of Mud Clam shells were collected from a nearby river. Half of

which were pellets (experimental set-up) and the other half were powdered (control set-

up).

The experimental set-up was consisted of a total of 7,500 grams of clamshells.

The clamshells in this set-up were collected activated and pellet. The other 7,500 grams

of clamshells were not made into pellets but remain in powder formthese served as the

control set-up of the study.

A specially designed filter will be constructed that will be used as the container of

the clamshells.

After preparing the 2 set-ups, a motorcycle was hired for the

experimentation.

INSTALLATION OF THE FILTERS

Emission testing was conducted for the experimentation. Exhaust from the motor

cycle were tested to determine the particulate matter emission before installing the filters.

This was composed of 3 trials. The filters containing powdered and pellet clam shell were

installed. These were also composed of 3 trials each. Exhaust from the vehicle were

measured during each trial.

OBSERVATION, DATA GATHERING AND RECORDING


The results of all the trials in each set-up were carefully gathered and recorded.

After which, the data gathered were tabulated.

STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA

Average means and percentage difference of exhaust particulate matter were

computed. F-test (two way analysis of variance) was used to determine significant

differences of the means.

HIRED TRUCK
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Graph 1

110
108
106
104
102 Carbon monoxide (CO)
100
98 Carbon dioxide
96 hydrocarbons
94
Nitrous oxide

This graph shows that the masses of the eggshells increased after installing into the

trucks exhaust pipe. The increase in the initial mass of the eggshell indicates the mass of

exhaust particulates the eggshell adsorbed. The initial masses of each eggshell in both set-

ups were 100 grams. During the first trial, the first scrubber which contains untreated

eggshells increased its mass from 100 grams to 105 grams after 5 minutes exposure to the

exhaust, while the treated one increased its mass from 100 grams to 110 grams. Thus 5

grams of exhaust particles was filtered by untreated eggshells and 10 grams of exhaust

particles was filtered by activated eggshells. On the second trial, the obtained results were

the same as the first trial.

After the conduct of the third trial, the mass of the untreated eggshell increased

from 100 grams to 103 grams after 5 minutes of exposure to the truck exhaust, while the
treated eggshell increased its mass from 100 grams to 106 grams after the same time of

exposure. After the ten trials, it revealed that the increase in the mass of activated eggshells

is higher than that of untreated. The activation of the eggshell in set-up A opened its pores,

thus increasing its adsorbing capacity. After installing both set-ups, it was observed that

there is an accumulation of black materials in the set-ups.


Graph 2

20
18
16
14
12
10 DESIGN 1
8 DESIGN 2

6
4
2
0
TRIAL TRIAL TRIAL TRIAL TRIAL TRIAL TRIAL TRIAL TRIAL TRIAL
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

This graph shows that design 1 adsorbed more exhaust particles than design 2. In design 2, both

ends of the container are covered with nylon stocking net which allows smoke to pass through.

Thus, design 1 is more effective in filtering engine exhaust.


SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS
AND RECOMMENDATIONS

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

The recorded data presented above showed the significant difference between the

increase in the masses of the eggshells in the control and experimental set-up after the

installation to the exhaust pipe for 5 minutes. The increase in the mass of the untreated

eggshells was half the increase in the mass of the treated eggshells.

On the first trial, 5 grams of particulate was adsorbed by the untreated eggshell and

10 grams of particulate was adsorbed by the activated eggshell. The same results were

obtained on the second trial. On the third trial, 3 grams of particulate was adsorbed by the

untreated eggshell and 6 grams of particulate was adsorbed by the activated eggshell

For the first two trials, the untreated eggshell increased its mass by 5%, while the

activated eggshell increased its mass by 10%. On the other hand, the mass of the untreated

eggshell increased by 3% and the mass of the activated eggshell increased by 6% on the

third trial.

All in all, the mean percentage increase in the mass of the eggshell in set-up A was

8.67% while in set-up B is 4.33%.


CONCLUSIONS

Based on the gathered and computed data and results we conclude that:

1. The activated eggshell increased its mass by 8.67% while untreated eggshell

increased its mass by 4.33% after installing both set-ups in the trucks exhaust

pipe for 5 minutes.

2. There is a significant difference between the increase in the two set-ups.

3. The activated eggshell is 100% more effective in adsorbing exhaust particles

than the untreated eggshell.

4. Design 1 is more efficient in filtering exhaust particles and has lesser adverse

effects on engine pressures of the vehicles used.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The researchers recommend using activated eggshell in adsorbing and filtering

engine exhaust and conducting further studies on the use of eggshell and other calcium

carbonate-containing media in adsorbing car exhaust materials. It is also recommended to

use a more accurate eggshell activation procedure in the further studies to produce more

accurate results.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

The American Heritage Dictionary, Copyright 2000, 1997,1993, Houghton


Miffin Company
Arms, K. (1996). Holt Environment Science (p.155).Texas: Holt, Rinehart
And Winston
ChemCom Chemistry in the Community (pp. 385-400). 2nd Edition. Iowa:
Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company
www.youtube.com Carbon Filter
fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/47810.pdf