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Realistic Testing Procedure of Power Swing

Blocking Function in Distance Relay


Farzad Razavi, Behrooz Taheri, Mohammad Parpaei, Mehdi Mohammadi Ghalesefidi and Siamak Zarei

AbstractAs one of the major problems in protecting large- may cause a considerable loss in a protection relay due
dimension power systems, power swing and its effect on distance to its long duration of operation in the power grid, which
have caused a lot of damages to energy transfer systems in many can only been detected by system troubleshooting tests. This
parts of the world. Therefore, power swing has gained attentions of
many researchers, which has led to invention of different methods for manuscript discusses the test and examination of the power
power swing detection. Power swing detection algorithm is highly swing function of a SIEMENS 7sa522 distance relay using a
important in distance relay, but protection relays should have general VEBKO AMIRKABIR AMT-105 relay test device.
requirements such as correct fault detection, response rate, and
minimization of disturbances in a power system. To ensure meeting
the requirements, protection relays need different tests during devel- II. P OWER S WING
opment, setup, maintenance, configuration, and troubleshooting steps.
This paper covers power swing scheme of the modern numerical relay
protection, 7sa522 to address the effect of the different fault types on Dynamic events such as load change, fault, reclose dead
the function of the power swing blocking. In this study, it was shown time, and switching may cause power swing [6]. The apparent
that the different fault types during power swing cause different time impedance of a distance relay may enter its operational zone
for unblocking distance relay. and deactivate sound lines unnecessarily [7]. In this condition,
KeywordsPower Swing, Distance Relay, Power System Protec- generators swing in proportion to one another and introduce
tion, Relay Test, Transient in Power System. instability to the system [6]. Figure 1 shows the measurement
values for power swing in the Siemens distance relay.
I. I NTRODUCTION

T HE number of short-circuit currents in power systems is


constantly increasing due to the growing use of electrical
energy [1]. Moreover, power systems have a great tendency
toward fault [2]. Therefore, the need for protection relays,
which play a crucial role in ensuring power system reliability,
has increased rapidly [3]. Distance relay is one of major types
of the relays. When the changes in the grid (such as change Fig. 1. Measured quantities during a power swing [6].
of demand and short circuit) are accompanied by a sudden
distortion, the impedance seen by distance relays may swing, As shown by Figure 1, value I is obtained at the measure-
enter a protection zone, and cause an unwanted function in ment zone of M using the following formula [6]:
the relays [4]. In addition, the method of detection of swing
power in distance relays is always important. The appropriate G1 + G2
test to examine the correct performance of the relay plays a I= (1)
Z1 + Z2
major role in this regard.
Protection relays need various tests during development, In a two-machine system such as Figure 2, the relationship
setup, maintenance, configuration, and troubleshooting steps between the in line real power and the angle between generator
[3]. One of the tests is Power Swing Blocking (PSB) function and engine voltages can be defined as follows [8]:
test which aims to ensure the correct function of distance relay
during power swing. VG Vm
Protection relays should satisfy general requirements such P G = PM = sin() (2)
XG + XL + Xm
as correct detection of problem, response rate, and minimiza-
tion of disturbances in a power system [5]. These factors The real power transmission between the generator and en-
F.Razavi and B.Taheri are with the Faculty of Electrical, Biomedical and gine is limited by generator source impedance, line impedance,
Mechatronics Engineering, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, and motor impedance. The above formula shows that maxi-
Iran. mum power transmission occurs at the voltage angle of 90.
M.Parpaei is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir
University of Technology, Iran. For the angle of voltages greater than 90 in the steady state,
M.M.Ghalesefidi is with the Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty the real power becomes smaller and system becomes instable,
of Engineering and Technology, Imam Khomeini International University, since the generator will be unable to provide the required real
Qazvin, Iran
S.Zarei is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Vebko Amirkabir power even if the voltage angle increases. Normally, a grid
Research and Development Company, I. R. of Iran operates on voltage angles smaller than 60 [8].
UP hE
ZP hE = (3)
IP h KE IE
where KE = ZE/ZL and I0 = IE. In three-phase
faults, IE = 0. Therefore, impedance in three-phase faults
is achieved using the following equation:
Fig. 2. Two machine model [8].
U
Z3P hase = (4)
I
III. P OWER S WING F UNCTION T EST M ETHOD A. DC-Decay
It is possible to communicate with the machine using a For some of our tests, we may need the DC current to be
software developed in C#. The software can communicate with start from a certain value and be gradually damped overtime.
the machine using the T CP/IP v4 network protocol. Figure The following formula allows this condition:
3 shows the test diagram for an AMT-105 relay tester.
A e(tT ) (5)
In the previous formula, A is the magnitude and T is
the reverse time constant. This manuscript carries out the
following tests and the results and analyses are expressed in
each section.
1) Power swing detection test.
2) Single-phase fault detection test during power swing.
3) Three-phase fault detection test during power swing.

IV. P OWER S WING D ETECTION A LGORITHM FOR R ELAY


7 SA 522
The detection algorithm for power swing test in relay
7sa522 is based on the continuous impedance calculation
method [10]. This method has the following features [8]:
1) No settings are required, thus no complex calculation is
needed.
Fig. 3. Test diagram for an AMT-105 relay tester.
2) Detection of power swing with frequencies up to 10Hz.
3) Detection of power swings that occur during singlepole
To start examining the power swings, distance relay zones open condition and during faults.
should first be provided to the software as the inputs. Figure 4) Immediate unblocking of distance protection on all kind
4 shows a sample zoning of distance relays. of faults occurring during power swing.
5) Quick detection of reappeared power swing after fault
clearance.
6) Out-of-step tripping in case of unstable power swing.
The main features for power swing detection in relay 7sa522
include Monotony, Continuity, and Smoothness. They are also
important for power swing detection, velocity, and change of
impedance vectors [6]. Figure 5 shows the impedance vectors
in two modes of fault and power swing.

Fig. 4. Typical distance relay zones. Fig. 5. Impedance vectors during a power swing and during a fault [6].

The Z-Tracking ability, which was used for the test function
of power swing in the machine, allows changes in impedance A. Monotony
at any angle, velocity, and direction of distance relay zones. The directions of derivatives of R and X will be calculated.
Impedance value in a single-phase fault is obtained from Since none of these variables changes direction, monotony is
the following formula [9]: guaranteed along one direction [8].
B. Continuity
The distance between R and X values should exceed a
threshold value. This guarantees that the impedance vector is
not stationary [8].

C. Smoothnesse
The values of sequence of derivatives for R and X should
be lower than the threshold value. This guarantees that the
impedance geometrical location has a smooth motion [8]:

X1
< thereshold R1 < thereshold


X1 R1 (6)

This criterion is met only at the time of power oscillation,


but not at the time of power supply and occurrence of faults. Fig. 7. Impedance trajectory of Power Swing
Impedance vector never moves smoothly on a regular path. In
the event of faults, impedance vectors jump abruptly toward
fault impedance. Impedance vectors do not usually move when
loads are being supplied [8]. Figure 6 shows the performance
of power swing function in relay 7sa522.

Fig. 8. Voltage and Current during Power Swing

function distance immediately and issue a Trip command. If a


Trip command is not issued on time, it may cause instability
in a grid.
Fig. 6. Logic diagram of power swing detection [6].
VII. S INGLE - PHASE D ETECTION T EST DURING P OWER
S WING
This section examines some single-phase samples during
V. P OWER S WING D ETECTION T EST
power swing. As one of the factors effective in examining
Distance relays are immune to unwanted operations at the the correct performance of relays during power swing is
time of oscillations. The immunity is due to a function called fault current magnitude power, the single-phase fault with the
PSB, whose main function is to differentiate faults from power magnitudes different from power swing current was tested. In
swing [2]. The major part of PSB function test is to check the each case, the Trip the monitored power swing signals are
correct function of relay at the time of power swing. monitored and the fault detection command is evaluated by
Figure 7 shows how the power oscillations enter into and the relay.
exits from the distance relay zones. As shown by Figure 8, the
relay has detected the power swing correctly and has prevented A. Test with a Fault Current Equal to Maximum Swing Current
an undue trip.
In this test, a power swing was created using AMPro power
swing test module.
VI. FAULT D ETECTION I MPORTANCE DURING P OWER As shown by Figure 9, the power swing current ranges
S WING between 0.5 and 3 amperes. Impedance trajectory enters into
One of the major items that should be considered in power Zone 1 within 0.5 sec and exits from Zone 3 after 0.5 sec.
swing function test is the ability of relay to differentiate Figure 10 shows the current and voltage caused by power
between simultaneous error and power swing in proportion swing in which the frequency of envelope of curve changes
to power swing. A relay should block distance function trip specifies the frequency current of power swing. As shown, the
at the time of power swing. However, if a fault is created frequency of this power swing is 1 Hz. The swing power fre-
simultaneous to a power swing, the relay should unblock quency can be changed conveniently in AMPro. Power swing
test can be performed in AMPro with varied frequencies. To
further examine the relay performance, a single-phase fault
was generated in Zone 1 after power swing. Fault current is
equal to the maximum power swing current. It is expected
that the relay detects the fault during power swing and issues
the Trip command. As shown by Figure 10, power swing has
been detected correctly by the relay and relay trip has been
blocked. Moreover, the relay has detected the single-phase
fault generated in Zone 1 and has issued the Trip command
in 94 ms.

Fig. 11. Single phase fault during Power Swing

to the creation of zero and non-zero sequence components,


single- and double-phase faults are detected easier during
power swing. However, sequence components are almost zero
for symmetrical three-phase faults. Therefore, the algorithm
used in relays is highly important in detecting such faults, so
that it is capable of detecting a fault at the right time and
issuing a Trip command.

Fig. 9. Power Swing and Fault A. Testing using Symmetrical Three-phase Fault with a Mag-
nitude Equal to Power Swing Current
Similar to the single-fault test, a power swing was generated
in this test using the test module AMPro (Figure 9). A sym-
metrical three-phase fault was generated in Zone 1 after the
power swing. The fault current is equal to the maximum power
swing current. As shown by Figure 12, the relay detected the
fault during power swing and issued a Trip command 120 ms
after applying the fault.

Fig. 10. Power Swing and single phase fault

B. Test with a Current Lower than the Maximum Power Swing


Current
The relays may encounter problems in fault model detection.
In this case, a single-phase fault was considered in Zone 1
with a low current magnitude. Figure 11 shows that the power Fig. 12. Power Swing and 3 phase fault
swing has been detected correctly by the relay in 101.7 ms
after applying the fault.

VIII. D ETECTION T EST OF S YMMETRICAL T HREE - PHASE B. Testing with the Symmetrical Three-phase Fault with the
FAULT DURING P OWER S WING Magnitude Lower than Power Swing Current
As the symmetrical three-phase fault in power swing has a In this case, a fault in Zone 1 is assumed with low current
symmetrical nature, three-phase fault detection during power magnitude. As shown by Figure 13, the fault was detected
swing has changed into a basic challenge for relays. Due correctly by the relay in 126.6 ms.
[4] R. Jafari, N. Moaddabi, M. Eskandari-Nasab, G. Gharehpetian, and M.
Naderi, A novel power swing detection scheme independent of the rate
of change of power system parameters, IEEE Transactions on Power
Delivery, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 1192-1202, 2014.
[5] S. H. Horowitz and A. G. Phadke, Power system relaying. John Wiley
& Sons, 2008.
[6] S. SIPROTEC, Distance Protection 7SA522 V4. 70, instruction man-
ual, 2011.
[7] J. G. Rao and A. K. Pradhan, Power-swing detection using moving
window averaging of current signals, IEEE Transactions on Power
Delivery, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 368-376, 2015.
[8] J. Blumschein, Y. Yelgin, and M. Kereit, Proper detection and treatment
of power swing to reduce the risk of Blackouts, in Electric Utility
Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies, 2008. DRPT
2008. Third International Conference on, 2008, pp. 2440-2446: IEEE.
[9] G. Ziegler, Numerical distance protection: principles and applications.
John Wiley & Sons, 2011.
[10] A. Jurisch and M. Schwenke, Method of deriving a signal indicating
Fig. 13. 3 phase fault during Power Swing an oscillation in an electric power supply system, ed: Google Patents,
2000.

IX. C ONCLUSION
As explained in the manuscript, examination of protection
relays is highly important. The authors tested and analyzed
the power swing function of a 7sa522 distance relay. Table
1 shows that the lower the magnitude of fault during power Farzad Razavi received the B.S, M.S., and Ph.D.
degrees in power engineering from the Amirkabir
swing is, the higher the fault detection time will be. Fault University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, in 1998,
detection duration during power swing depends on fault type. 2000, and 2007, respectively. He was the chief exec-
utive officer (CEO) of Vebko Amirkabir research and
TABLE I development company. His fields of interest include
R ESULTS OF TESTS power system protection, power system transient,
mathematics, and flexible ac transmission systems.
Test Current Power Fault Time of
type magnitude Swing Detection fault
detection
Detection Test (ms)
during
Power
Swing
Power Swing - * - -
Behrooz Taheri is a power system protection engi-
Single phase Low * * 101.7 neer in Qazvin Islamic Azad University. His main
fault during research interests include power system protection,
Power Swing(1) power system transient, smart grid, and information
technology.
Single phase Equals * * 94
fault during
Power Swing(2)
3 phase Low * * 126.6
fault during
Power Swing(1)
3 phase Equals * * 120
fault during
Power Swing(2)

Mohammad Parpaei is a power system protection


engineer in Amirkabir University of technology.
He received his masters degree in power electron-
R EFERENCES ics engineering from Imam Khomeini International
University in 2014. He is currently pursuing the
[1] B. Taheri, F. Razavi, and M. M. Ghalesefidi, Transient Fault Analysis PhD degree in power system protection engineering
in 63/20 KV Substation, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, at Amirkabir University of technology. His main
vol. 10, no. 21, 2017. research interests include power system protection,
[2] J. Khodaparast and M. Khederzadeh, Three-phase fault detection dur- Optimization algorithm, and renewable energy.
ing power swing by transient monitor, IEEE Transactions on Power
Systems, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 2558-2565, 2015.
[3] M. Musaruddin, M. Zaporoshenko, and R. Zivanovic, Remote protec-
tive relay testing, in Power Engineering Conference, 2008. AUPEC08.
Australasian Universities, 2008, pp. 1-4: IEEE.
Mehdi Mohammadi Ghalesefidi He received his
B.S degree in Tafresh University. He is currently pur-
suing the MA degree in power system protection at
Imam Khomeini International University. His main
research interests include power system protection,
power system transient and smart grid.

Siamak Zarei is a electronic engineer in Vebko


Amirkabir research and development company. He
received his BS degree in Abhar Islamic Azad
University. His main research interests include Elec-
tronic and control.