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Materials and NDE Book A MQPS 0-2

Materials and Qualification Procedures for Ships

Procedure 0-2
Guidelines for Welder Qualification

1 Introduction

1.1 Scope

1.1.1 These guidelines are based on ISO 9606 and are intended for use in ship construction
and repair yards where recognized equivalent qualification procedures do not exist.
They specify requirements, ranges of approval, test conditions, acceptance
requirements and certification for the approval testing of welder performance for the
welding of steels and aluminium alloys. The recommended format for the certificate of
approval testing is given in Appendix A.

1.1.2 During the approval tests, the Surveyors are to be satisfied that the welders show
adequate skill in the welding processes, for which they are seeking approval.

1.1.3 Operators of fully mechanised and fully automatic processes are not included.

1.1.4 These guidelines cover approval testing of welders for work on semi-finished and
finished products made from wrought, forged, or cast material types listed in 5.4 and
5.5.

1.2 Related standards and Rules

1.2.1 These guidelines refer to various standards containing provisions which provide the
basis for parts of these guidelines. Where these standards relate to methods of testing
and inspection, the procedures used should satisfy the requirements of the relevant
standard. All standards are subject to revision. Consequently the shipyard is responsible
for applying the most recent editions of the standards indicated.

1.2.2 The following are referred to within the body of these guidelines:

ISO 857-1 Welding and allied processes - Vocabulary Part 1: Metal welding
processes.

ISO 1106-1 Recommended practice for Radiographic examination of fusion welded


Joints Part 1: Fusion welded butt joints in steel plates up to 50 mm
thick.

ISO 1106-2 Recommended practice for Radiographic examination of fusion welded


joints Part 2: Fusion welded butt joints in steel plates thicker than 50
mm and up to and including 200 mm in thickness.

ISO 1106-3 Recommended practice for Radiographic examination of fusion welded


joints Part 3: Fusion welded circumferential joints in steel pipes of up
to 50 mm wall thickness.

ISO 2437 Recommended practice for the X-ray inspection of fusion welded butt
joints for aluminium and its alloys and magnesium and its alloys 5 mm
to 50 mm thick.

ISO 3452 Non-destructive testing -Penetrant testing - General principles.

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ISO 4063 Welding and allied processes Nomenclature of processes and
reference numbers for symbolic representation on drawings.

ISO 5173 Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials Bend tests.

ISO 6520-1 Welding and allied processes Classification of geometric


imperfections in metallic fusion welds.

ISO 6947 Welds Working positions Definitions of angles of slope and rotation.

1.2.3 Reference is also made in these guidelines to LR's Rules for the Manufacture, Testing
and Certification of Materials (hereafter referred to as the Rules for Materials).

1.3 Equivalents

1.3.1 Where the fabricator has already established approval practices based on national or
other published standards, these may be accepted by the Surveyor provided they are
equivalent to these guidelines. As a minimum the welder is required to demonstrate his
skill by performing a test weld of the appropriate type, which is subjected to non-
destructive examination and /or destructive mechanical testing with satisfactory results.
This applies equally to those standards cross-referenced in this document.

2 Definitions

2.1 Personnel

2.1.1 Welder. Person who performs the welding. This is a collective term used for both
manual welders and welding operators. It does not cover operators for fully mechanized
and fully automatic welding processes.

2.1.2 Manual welder. Welder who holds and manipulates the electrode holder, welding gun,
torch or blowpipe by hand. (Manual and semi-automatic welding).

2.1.3 Welding operator. Welder who operates equipment with partly mechanized relative
movements between the electrode holder, welding gun, torch or blowpipe and the
workpiece. (For example, submerged arc welding in which either the work or the
welding head is traversed mechanically, but the joint line is followed with manual
assistance).

2.1.4 Fully mechanised or fully automated welding. Welding process in which manual
adjustment of welding variables during the welding is not possible.

2.1.5 Examiner or test body. Person or organization appointed, or agreed by LR,to verify
compliance with these guidelines.

2.2 Documentation

2.2.1 Welding procedure specification (WPS). Document specifying the variables for a
specific application to assure repeatability.

2.3 Variables and tests

2.3.1 Essential variable. Any part of the welder's qualification which if changed requires the
welder to be re-qualified.

2.3.2 Range of approval. Extent of approval for an essential variable.

2.3.3 Test assembly . Welded assembly which is used in the approval test.

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2.3.4 Test specimen. Part or portion cut from the test assembly in order to perform a
specified destructive test.

2.3.5 Qualification Test. Series of operations which will include the making of a welded test
assembly, subsequent non-destructive and/or destructive testing, and reporting of
results.

3 Symbols and abbreviations

3.1 Test assembly

3.1.1 Where the full wording is not used, the following symbols and abbreviations are to be
used in any documentation including the test certificate, see Appendix A.

a nominal throat thickness


BW butt weld
D outside diameter of pipe
FW fillet weld
P plate
t plate or pipe wall thickness
T pipe or tubular
Z leg length of fillet weld

3.2 Consumable (auxiliaries, e.g. shielding gas, flux)

3.2.1 Where the full wording is not used, the following symbols and abbreviations are to be
used in any documentation including the test certificate, see Appendix A.

A acid covering
B basic covering
C cellulosic covering
R rutile covering
RA rutile-acid covering
RB rutile-basic covering
RC rutile-cellulosic covering
RR rutile thick covering
S other types

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4 Essential variables for approval testing

4.1 General

4.1.1 The criteria specified in this Section are to be examined in order to identify the ability of
the welder in these areas. Each criterion is considered to be a significant factor in the
approval testing.

4.1.2 The welder's approval test is to be carried out on test pieces and not by way of
production welding.

4.2 Welding processes

4.2.1 The welding processes listed below are defined in ISO 857 and the reference numbers
of these welding processes for symbolic representation are listed in ISO 4063.
Reference to these standards is not necessary in respect of these guidelines.

4.2.2 These guidelines cover the following processes:

111 metal-arc welding with covered electrode


114 flux-cored wire metal-arc welding without gas shield
12 submerged arc welding
131 metal-arc inert gas arc welding (MIG welding)
135 metal-arc active gas welding (MAG welding)
136 flux-cored wire metal-arc welding with active gas shield
141 tungsten inert gas arc welding (TIG welding)
15 plasma arc welding
311 oxy-acetylene welding.

4.2.3 The guidelines may be used to cover other fusion welding processes, by agreement
with LR.

4.3 Joint types (butt and fillet welds)

4.3.1 Test assemblies are to be produced for butt weld (BW) and fillet weld (FW) in plates (P)
or pipes, tubes, hollow sections (T) for approval tests in accordance with Section 6,
appropriate to the qualification range required.

4.4 Material groups

4.4.1 In order to minimize unnecessary multiplication of technically identical tests, materials


with similar metallurgical and welding characteristics are grouped for the purpose of a
welder's approval, see Table 0-2.4.1 and 5.4.

4.4.2 In general, a welder's approval test is to involve depositing weld metal having a
chemical composition compatible with any of the materials in the particular parent metal
group(s).

4.5 Filler metal, shielding gas and flux

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4.5.1 When a welder's test has been carried out using a filler metal, shielding gas or flux
suitable for that material group, this test will confer approval on the welder to use other

similar consumables (metal, shielding gas or flux) for the same material group.
4.6 Dimensions

4.6.1 The welder approval test should be based on the thickness of the material (plate
thickness or wall thickness of pipe) and pipe diameters which the welder will use in
production. An approval is given based on the plate thickness, or pipe wall thickness
and pipe diameter, as specified in Tables 0-2.4.4 and 0-2.4.5 taking note of the
differences between steel and aluminium.

4.6.2 It is not intended that thicknesses or diameters should be measured precisely but rather
that the values given in Tables 0-2.4.4 and 0-2.4.5 should be applied in respect of the
thickness stated on the steel certificate.

4.7 Welding positions

4.7.1 For the purpose of these guidelines, the welding positions are identified in
Figs. 0-2.4.1 and 0-2.4.2 according to the ISO designations. For cross-reference
between LR, ISO and AWS terminology and abbreviations, see Appendix B. The angles
of slope and rotation for straight welds in these welding positions are to be in
accordance with either ISO 6947 or general practice.

5 Range of approval

5.1 General

5.1.1 Generally, the qualification test approves the welder not only for the conditions used in
the test, but also for all joints which are considered easier to weld. The range of
approval for each type of test is given in the following sub-sections and tables. In these
tables, the range of approval is indicated in the same horizontal line.

5.2 Welding process

5.2.1 Each test normally approves one process. A change of process requires a new approval
test. However, it is possible for a welder to be approved for more than one welding
process by a single test or by two separate approval tests. For example, in a case
where approval is required for a single-side butt joint with the root to be welded by TIG
(141) without backing and to be filled by metal-arc welding with covered electrode (111),
the welder may be approved by either of the following routes:

(a) Successful completion of an approval test simulating the multi-process joint, i.e. the
root run welded by TIG (141) without backing, subsequent runs or layers welded by
metal-arc welding with covered electrode (111) within the limits of the range of approval.

(b) Successful completion of separate relevant approval tests, one for TIG (141) without
backing for the root run and a separate test for the fill by metal-arc welding with covered
electrode (111) with backing or welded from both sides with or without backing.

5.2.2 The range of approval for thickness in the case of a multi-process qualification test is to
be based on the thickness of the test plates used, not on the actual thickness of weld
metal deposited by each process.

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5.3 Joint types

5.3.1 Depending on the test assembly, the range of welds for which the welder is approved is
shown in Table 0-2.5.1. The following criteria are applicable:

(a) Approval for butt welds in pipes includes welds in plates.

(b) Approval for butt welds in plates in all relevant positions includes butt welds on pipes
having an outside diameter greater than or equal to 500 mm; for rotating pipes (c)
applies.

(c) Approval on test butt joints in plates welded in the flat (PA) or horizontal (PC) position
includes approval for butt joints in rotating pipes of outside diameter greater than or
equal to 150 mm welded in similar positions according to Table 0-2.5.2.

(d) Butt welds include approval for fillet welds for similar welding conditions. Where the
production work is predominantly fillet welding, the welder should be approved also by
an appropriate fillet welding test.

(e) Approval for butt welds in pipes without backing includes approval for branch
connections within the same range of approvals as in Tables 0-2.4.4 and 0-2.4.5.
For a branch weld, the range of approval is based on the diameter of the branch.

5.3.2 Where the production work is either predominantly branch welding or involves a
complex branch connection, or where access is restricted, it is recommended that the
welder should receive special training, and the welder approval test should be on a test
assembly of representative complexity and accessibility.

5.4 Steel parent metal groups

5.4.1 According to the material group of the test piece, the range of materials for which a
welder is approved is shown in Table 0-2.4.1, and as detailed below. For any material
not covered by any of the groups, the welder's test on that material gives approval only
for that material.

5.4.2 Normalized, controlled-rolled, thermomechanically controlled processed (TMCP) and


quenched and tempered steels: For the welding of steels in the range from normal
strength up to and including those with a specified minimum yield strength of 690
N/mm2, qualification at any strength level also qualifies the welder to weld any lower
strength steels within the other limits of the welder's qualification.

5.4.3 Low temperature nickel steels:- Qualification on either 1 Ni or 3 Ni qualifies the


welder for the other. Similarly, qualification on either 5 Ni or 9 Ni qualifies for the other.

5.4.4 The satisfactory welding of any one material in a group confers approval of the welder
for the welding of all other materials within the same group.

5.4.5 When welding parent metals from two different groups which do not give approval to
each other according to Tables 0-2.4.2 and 0-2.4.3, an approval for the combination as
a separate group is required.

5.4.6 When the filler metal is dissimilar to the parent metal group, an approval for that
combination of parent metal group and filler metal is needed, except when permitted by
Tables 0-2.4.2 and 0-2.4.3.

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5.5 Aluminium parent metal groups

5.5.1 Non-heat treatable alloys:

Qualification on any of the aluminium-magnesium alloys (5000 series) qualifies


for welding any of the other alloys in this group.

5.5.2 Heat-treatable alloys:

Qualification on any of the 6000 series alloys qualifies for welding any of the
other alloys in this group and any non-heat treatable alloys (5000 series).

5.6 Covered electrodes

5.6.1 For shielded metal arc welding (111) a change in the type of electrode coating may
require a change in the welder's technique. An approval test of one electrode coating
will include approval of the welder for other coatings as specified in Table 0-2.5.3.

5.7 Shielding gas and flux

5.7.1 A change of shielding gas or flux is permitted (see 4.5).However, a change from active
(CO2, Ar-CO2, Ar-O2, Ar-CO2-O2, etc.) to inert (Ar, He, Ar-He, etc.) shielding gas or from
inert to active shielding gas requires a new approval test for the welder.

5.8 Filler metal and shielding gas

5.8.1 An approval test made with a specific filler metal and shielding gas (pure gas or mixture
or combination) includes approval to weld with any other filler metal compatible with the
parent metal group when using the same welding process and a shielding gas (pure gas
or mixture or combination) which does not require a change in the welder's technique.

5.9 Dimensions

5.9.1 The range of approval according to plate thickness or wall thickness of pipe and/or pipe
diameter is shown in Tables 0-2.4.4 and 0-2.4.5.

5.10 Welding positions

5.10.1 The range of approval for each welding position is given in Table 0-2.5.2. The welding
positions and codes refer to Figs. 0-2.4.1 and 0-2.4.2, and Appendix B.

6 Examination and testing

6.1 Supervision

6.1.1 The welding and testing of the qualification test assembly are to be witnessed by an LR
Surveyor, or an examiner or test body acceptable to LR and other contracting parties.

6.1.2 The test assemblies are to be marked with the identification of the examiner and the
welder before welding starts.

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6.1.3 The examiner or test body may stop the test if the welding conditions are not correct or if
it appears that the welder does not have the technical competence to achieve the
required standard, e.g. where there are excessive and/or systematic repairs.

6.2 Shape and dimensions of test assemblies

6.2.1 The shape and dimensions of test assemblies (see 4.6) are to be as shown in
Figs. 0-2.6.1 to 0-2.6.4.

6.3 Welding conditions

6.3.1 The approval test for the welder is to correspond to the conditions used in production
(see also 5.3.2) and follow a WPS (see 2.2) prepared in accordance with Materials and
Qualification Procedures for Ships, Procedure 0-1.

6.3.2 When preparing the welders qualification test, the following conditions are to apply:

(a) The test is to be carried out with the welding process(es) to be used in production.

(b) Filler metals are to be compatible with the particular welding process(es) and
position(s).

(c) The edge preparation of plate and/or pipes for the test assembly is to be representative
of that to be used in production; cleaning and degreasing is to be applied, as
appropriate to the materials involved.

(d) The dimensions of the test assembly are to be in accordance with Tables 0-2.4.4 and
0-2.4.5 and Figs. 0-2.6.1 to 0-2.6.4.

(e) The welding equipment should be similar to that used in production.

(f) The welding is to be carried out in the position(s), and angle(s) of branch connections,
normally used in production (see Figs. 0-2.4.1 and 0-2.4.2).

(g) The combination of parent metal, filler metal, flux, shielding gas and any auxiliary
materials are to correspond to those used in production.

(h) The weld is to be assessed in accordance with the rest of this Section and Section 7.

(j) The welding time for the qualification test assembly is to correspond to the working time
under usual production conditions.

(k) The test assembly is to have at least one stop and one restart in the root run and in
the top capping run and these are to be marked for identification in the
inspection length to be examined.

(l) Any preheat or controlled heat input required in the WPS is mandatory for the
welder's test assembly.

(m) Any post-weld heat treatment and/or ageing required in the WPS may be omitted unless
bend tests are included in the examination of the welder's test assembly.

(n) Identification of the test assembly with a unique reference number.

(o) The welder is to be allowed to remove minor imperfections, except on the surface layer,
by grinding, gouging or any other method used in production, provided the prior
approval of the examiner or test body is obtained.

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6.4 Test methods

6.4.1 Each completed weld is to be examined visually in the as welded condition, prior to
proceeding with the tests required in Table 0-2.6.1. Visual examination can be
supplemented by magnetic particle, dye penetrant (see ISO 3452) or other test
methods, and macro tests on butt welds.

6.4.2 If acceptable by visual inspection, additional radiographic, fracture tests and/or macro
tests are then required (see Table 0-2.6.1).

6.4.3 The macro specimen is to be prepared and etched on one side to reveal the weld metal
and fusion boundaries, to enable the identification of those defects which could be
attributed to the welder.

6.4.4 When radiography is used, bend tests are always to be applied to butt welds made by
MIG or MAG (131,135) or by oxy-acetylene (311) welding.

6.4.5 Where backing strips are used, they are to be removed prior to mechanical testing. The
test assembly can be sectioned by thermal cutting or by mechanical means. Any
thermal cutting must be at least 20 mm away from the test length of any mechanical test
specimen, or macro-section, and remaining surplus material is then to be removed
mechanically. In sectioning the weld for test specimens, the first and last 25 mm of the
test assembly can be discarded (see Figs.0-2.6.5 and 0-2.6.6).

6.5 Tests for butt welds in plate

6.5.1 When radiography is used, (see Table 0-2.6.1) the whole inspection length of the weld
in the test assembly is to be radiographed in the as-welded condition in accordance with
ISO 1106-1 or 1106-2 for steels and ISO 1106-3 for aluminium, using class B technique
in all cases.

6.5.2 When fracture testing is used, (see Table 0-2.6.1) the full test assembly inspection
length is to be tested and to do this, the test assembly is to be cut into several test
specimens (see Fig. 0-2.6.5(a)). The length of any fracture test specimen is to be
approximately 40 mm. If necessary, the weld reinforcement of the test specimen may be
removed and additionally the weld edges may be notched to a depth of approximately 5
mm to facilitate fracture in the weld metal (see Fig. 0-2.6.5(b)). In the case of single-
sided welding without backing, half of the inspection length is to be tested against the
face side and the other half against the root side (see Figs. 0-2.6.5(c) and (d)).

6.5.2 When transverse bend testing is used (see Table 0-2.6.1), for plate thickness greater
than or equal to 3 mm, two root bend test specimens and two face bend test specimens
are to be tested in accordance with the following :

a) Steel

Testing shall be in accordance with ISO 5173. The diameter of the former or inner roller
(Df) is to be based on the requirements of the Rules for Materials, Ch 11 appropriate to
the welding process and material:

Df=(F+1)t mm

Where
F = value of the bend test ratio, (D/t) in
Tables 11.3.3, 11.4.3, 11.8.2 as
applicable of the Rules for Materials, Ch 11.

t = thickness of the bend test specimen.

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Each test specimen is to be bent through an angle of at least 120.

b) Aluminium

Testing shall be generally in accordance with ISO 5173. Each specimen shall be bent
round a former with a diameter as specified in the Rules for Materials, Chapter 11,
Section 9, through an angle of 180.

6.5.4 For plate thicknesses greater than or equal to 12 mm, the four transverse bend tests
(two face, two root) may be substituted by four side bend tests.

6.6 Tests for fillet welds on plate

6.6.1 Fracture tests are preferred and the test assembly may be cut, if necessary, into several
test specimens (see Fig. 0-2.6.6(a)). Each test specimen is to be positioned for breaking
as shown in Fig 0-2.6.6(b), and examined after fracture.

6.6.2 When macro examination is used, four test specimens are to be taken equally spaced in
the inspection length.

6.7 Tests for butt welds in pipe

6.7.1 When radiography is used, the whole inspection length of the weld in the test
assembly is to be radiographed in the as-welded condition using agreed procedures.

6.7.2 When fracture testing is used, the full test assembly inspection length is to be tested and
to do this the test assembly is to be cut into at least four test specimens (see Fig. 0-
2.6.7(a)). If the pipe diameter is too small to provide the required number of test
specimens, two or more test assemblies are to be welded.

6.7.3 The inspection length of any test specimen is to be approximately 40 mm. If necessary,
the weld reinforcement of the test specimen may be removed and additionally the weld
edges may notched to be a depth of approximately 5 mm to facilitate fracture in the weld
metal (see Fig. 0-2.6.7(b)). In the case of single-side welding without backing half of the
inspection length of the test assembly (see Fig. 0-2.6.7(a)) is to be tested against the
face side and the other half against the root side (see Figs. 0-2.6.7(c) and (d)).

6.7.4 When transverse bend testing is used for wall thickness greater than or equal to 3 mm,
two root bend test specimens and two face bend test specimens are to be tested. The
diameter of the former or the inner roller is to be as given in 6.5.3 and the angle of bend
is to be at least 120.

6.7.5 For the sectioning of test assemblies welded in position PF, PG and H-L045 (see Fig. 0-
2.4.2), test specimens are to be taken from different welding positions around the
circumference of the weld joint.

6.7.6 For wall thickness greater than or equal to 12 mm, the four transverse bend tests may
be substituted by four side bend tests.

6.8 Tests for fillet welds on pipe

6.8.1 Fracture tests are preferred and the test assemblies are to be cut into four or more test
specimens and fractured (see Fig. 0-2.6.8).

6.8.2 When macro examination is used, at least four test specimens are to be taken equally
spaced around the pipe.

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7 Evaluation and acceptance requirements

7.1 Evaluation

7.1.1 Test assemblies are to be evaluated according to the acceptance requirements


specified for relevant types of imperfections. A full explanation of these imperfections is
given in ISO 6520.

7.2 NDE evaluation

7.2.1 The acceptance requirements for imperfections found by test methods in accordance
with these guidelines are to be in accordance with Table 0-2.6.1. A welder will be approved if the
imperfections in the test assembly are within the specified limits in Table 0-2.7.1.

7.3 Evaluation of destructive tests

7.3.1 After performing a bend test there should be no defect present on the tension surface
exceeding 3 mm in any direction. Flaws appearing at the corners of the test specimen
may be ignored provided these are not associated with welding defects such as slag or
porosity.

7.3.2 After fracture testing, any defects present on the fracture faces are to be evaluated in
accordance with the NDE acceptance criteria specified in Table 0-2.7.1.

7.3.3 The macro-section is to be examined for defects, which shall be assessed in


accordance with the NDE acceptance criteria specified in Table 0-2.7.1.

7.4 Acceptance criteria

7.4.1 If any imperfections in the welder's test assembly, or test specimens exceed the
permitted maximum, then the welder is not to be approved.

7.4.2 Documented procedures are to be used for destructive and non-destructive


examinations.

8 Re-tests

8.1 General

8.1.1 If any test fails to comply with the acceptance requirements, the welder may be
permitted to weld another test assembly.

8.1.2 If it is established that failure is attributed to the welder's lack of skill, the welder should
undergo further training before re-testing.

8.1.3 If it is established that failure is due to metallurgical or other extraneous causes and
cannot be directly attributed to the welder's lack of skill, an additional test is required in
order to assess the quality and integrity of the new test material and/or new test
conditions.

8.2 Additional test specimens

8.2.1 If a bend test specimen fails, two additional test specimens may be prepared either from
the same test assembly, if there is sufficient material available or, if necessary, from an
additional test assembly and subjected to the same tests. Both test specimens are to be
tested with satisfactory results.

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8.2.2 If a fracture test specimen shows unacceptable imperfections, two additional test
specimens may be prepared and tested as specified in 8.2.1.

8.2.3 If one of these additional test specimens in accordance with 8.2.1 and 8.2.2 does not
comply with the acceptance requirements, the cause of failure is to be established.

8.2.4 If a bend or fracture test specimen from a pipe welded with fixed axis fails, two
additional test specimens are to be taken from the equivalent position.

8.2.5 If a macro-section is unacceptable, two additional test specimens may be prepared and
examined as specified in 8.2.1 and 8.2.4.

9 Period of validity

9.1 Initial approval

9.1.1 The validity of the welder's approval begins from the date when all the required tests are
satisfactorily completed (Date of test'). This date may be different from the date of issue
marked on the certificate.

9.1.2 A welder's approval is to remain valid for a period of two years providing that the
relevant certificate is signed at six month intervals by the employer or co-ordinator
responsible for weld quality, and that all the following conditions are fulfilled:

(a) The welder is engaged with reasonable continuity on welding work within the
current range of approval. An interruption for a period no longer than
six months is permitted.

(b) The welder's work is generally in accordance with the technical conditions under
which the approval test was carried out.

(c) There is no specific reason to question the welder's skill and knowledge.

9.1.3 If any of these conditions are not fulfilled, the approval is to be cancelled.

9.2 Extension of validity

9.2.1 The validity of the approval on the certificate may be extended by the LR Surveyor for
further periods of two years (subject to renewal at six month intervals, as in 9.1.2), within
the original range approved, provided each of the following conditions in accordance
with 9.1 are fulfilled for each prolongation period:

(a) The production welds made by the welder are of the required quality.

(b) Records of tests, e.g. documentation about X-ray or ultrasonic inspections or


test reports about fracture tests, are maintained on file with the welder's
approval certificate.

9.2.2 The Surveyor is to verify compliance with the above conditions and sign the
prolongation of the welder's approval test certificate.

10 Certification

10.1 Welder approval certificate

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10.1.1 It is to be certified that the welder has successfully passed the approval test. All relevant
test conditions are to be recorded on the certificate. If the welder fails any of the
prescribed tests, no certificate is to be issued.

10.1.2 The certificate is to be issued under the sole responsibility of the LR Surveyor and is to
contain all the information detailed in Appendix A. The format of Appendix A is
recommended to be used as the welder's approval test certificate. This is available as
LR Form 5208.

10.1.3 If any other form of welder's approval test certificate is used, it is to contain the
information required in Appendix A.

10.1.4 The welder's approval test certificate is to be issued at least in English.

10.1.5 Each change of the essential variables for the approval testing beyond the permitted
ranges will require a new test and a new approval certificate.

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Table 0-2.4.1 Welder Qualification Steel Approval Groupings

Material Rules for Materials


Material Description Typical LR Grades
Group Reference
W 01 A,B,D,E Ch3.2
AH27S to FH36 Ch3.3
Boiler up to 510FG Ch3.4
Low carbon un-alloyed, C-Mn or
2 LTAH27S to LTFH36 Ch3.6
low alloy steels Re =360N/mm
U1, U2 Ch3.9, Ch10.2
Steel castings Ch4.2,Ch4.3, Ch4.6, Ch4.7
Steel pipes Ch6.2, Ch6.3, Ch6.4, Ch6.6
W 02 13CrMo45, 11CrMo910 Ch 3.4
Cr-Mo and/or Cr-Mo-V Creep
1CrMo, 2Cr1Mo Ch4.6, Ch6.2, Ch6.3, Ch6.6
resisting steels
CrMoV Ch4.6, Ch6.2
W 03 High strength fine grained, AH to FH 40 to 69 Ch3.3 Ch3.10
normalised or quenched and LT-AH to LT-FH 40 Ch3.6
tempered. 1Ni , 3 Ni Ch3.6, Ch6.4
2
TMCP steels with Re! 360 N/mm 2Ni, 3Ni castings Ch4.7
Ni steels ! 5.0% Ni U3, R3, R3S, R4 Ch3.9, Ch10.2,
W 04 Ferritic or martensitic stainless 13%Cr (Martensitic) Ch4.5 (Martensitic)
steels, 12-20% Cr
W 05 Ferritic low temperature steels 5Ni, 9Ni Ch 3.6
5Ni 9% Ni
W 11 Austenitic stainless steels 304.316,317,321,347 Ch3.7
Duplex (austenitic-ferritic) S31260, S31803, S32550, Ch3.7, Ch4.8, Ch6.5
stainless steels S32750

Table 0-2.4.2 Range of approval for parent metal

Material Groups of Range of Approval


approval test W 01 W 02 W 03 W 04 W 05 W 11
W 01 i i i i i
W 02 x i i i i
W 03 x x i i i
W 04 i i i i i
W 05 i i i i i
W 11 x* x* x* x* x*

Key to Table
indicates the material group for which the welder is approved from the
approval test.
X indicates those material groups for which the welder is also approved.
i indicates those material groups for which the welder is not approved.
* material groups approved when using filler metal from group W11 test.

Note: This table applies when the filler material used for the approval test is in the same group
as the base material. Where these are different the test only approves the combination tested.

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Table 0-2.4.3 Range of approval for dissimilar joints

Material group of approval Range of approval


test
W 02 W 02 welded to W 01 (see note 1)
W 02 welded to W 01 (see note 1)
W 03 W 03 welded to W 01 (see note 1)
W 03 welded to W 02 (see note 1)
W 02 welded to W 01 (see note 1)
W 04 W 04 welded to W 01 (see note 1)
W 04 welded to W 02 (see note 1)
W 05 welded to W 01 (see note 1)
W 05 W 05 welded to W 03 (see note 1)

W 11 welded to W 01 (see note 2)


W 11 welded to W 02 (see note 2)
W 11 welded to W 03 (see note 2)
W 11
W 11 welded to W 04 (see note 2)
W 11 welded to W 05 (see note 2)

Notes:
1. For dissimilar metal joint the filler metal is to correspond to the group of one of the
parent materials.
2. When using a filler metal appropriate for material group W 11.

Table 0-2.4.4 Test assembly (plate or pipe) and range of approval

Material Test assembly thickness, t mm Range of approval

t d 3 t to 2t (see Note 1)
Steel 3  t d 12 3mm to 2t (see Note 2)
t ! 12 t 5mm
t d 6 0.7t to 2.5t
6  t d 15 6 mm  t d 40 mm (see
Aluminium
Note 3)

Notes:

1. For oxy-acetylene welding (311): t to 1.5t.


2. For oxy-acetylene welding (311): 3 mm to 1.5t.
3. A special test is required for material thickness greater than 40 mm. This special test shall
be indicated on the welders certificate.

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Table 0.2.4.5 Test assembly diameter and range of approval

Test assembly diameter, D mm


Material Range of approval
(See Note 1)
D d 25 D to 2D (see Note 1)
Steel 25  D d 150 0.5D to 2D (25 mm min)
D ! 150 t 0.5 D
D d 125 0.25 to 2D
Aluminium D ! 125 t 0.5 D

Note:

For structural hollow sections, D is the dimension of the smallest side.

Table 0-2.5.1 range of approval for tests on butt joints (Details of weld type)

Range of approval
Butt welds in plate Butt welds in
pipe
Welded from Welded from Welded from
Details of weld type one side both sides one side
ss bs ss
With No With No With No
backing backing gouging gouging backing backing
mb nb gg ng mb nb
With See
Welded from backing
mb i X i Note i
one side ss No See See
Butt
backing
nb X X X
Note Note
weld in
With See
plate
Welded from gouging
gg X i i Note i
both sides bs No See
gouging
ng X i X Note i
With
Butt
Welded from backing
mb X i X i i
welds in
one side ss No
pipe
backing
nb X X X X X

Key
indicates those weld for which the welder is approved in the approval test
X indicates those welds for which the welder is also approved
i indicates those welds for which the welder is not approved
Note:
See 5.3.1(b) and 5.3.1(c)

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Range of approval according to welding position
Range of approval
Plates Pipes
Butt welds Fillet welds
Welding position of approval assembly Pipe-axis and angle
Butt welds Fillet welds
rotating fixed rotating Note fixed
1
0 90 45 45 0 90
PA PC PG PF PE PA PB PG PF PD PA PG PF PC H-L045 J-L045 PA PB PG PF PD
Note 2
PA
i i i i X X i i i X i i i i i X X i i i
PC
X i i i X X i i i X i i X i i X X i i i
PG
Butt welds i i i i i i X i i i i i i i i i i i i i
PF
X i i i X X i X i X i i i i i X X i X i
PE
X X i X X X i X X X i i i i i X X i X X
Plates PA
i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i X i i i i
PB
i i i i i X i i i i i i i i i X X i i i
PG
Fillet welds i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i
PF
i i i i i X X i i i i i i i i X X i i i
PD
i i i i i X X i X i i i i i i X X i i X
PA
rotating X i i i i X X i i i i i i i i X X i i i
PG
0 i i X i i i i X i i i i i i i i i X i i
PF
X i i X X X X i X X X i i i i X X i X X
Butt
welds PC
fixed 90 X X i i i X X i i i X i i i i X X i i i
H-LO45
Pipe X X i X X X X i X X X i X X i X X i X X
Pipes axis and 45
J-LO45
angle i i X i i i i X i i i X i i i i i X i i
PA
rotating 45 i i i i i X i i i i i i i i i i i i i i
PB
Note 1 i i i i i X X i i i i i i i i i X i i i
Fillet
welds PG
i i i i i i i X i i i i i i i i i i i i
fixed 0
PF
i i i i i X X i X X i i i i i i X X i X
Notes: 1. PB for pipes may be welded in two versions Key indicates those weld for which the welder is approved in the approval test
a) pipe: rotating; axis: horizontal; weld: horizontal vertical X indicates those welds for which the welder is also approved

b) pipe: fixed; axis: vertical; weld: horizontal vertical i indicates those welding positions for which the welder is not approved
2. This is an approved position and is covered by other related tests
Table 0-2.5.2 Range of approval according to welding position

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Table 0-2.5.3 Range of approval for electrode coating


Type of covered electrodes of Range of approval
approval test assembly A; RA R; RB;RC; RR B C S
A; RA i i i i
R; RB; RC; RR X i i i
B X X i i
C i i i i
S (see Note 1) i i i i
Key

indicates the covered electrode type for which the welder is approved in the approval test
X indicates those electrode groups for which the welder is also approved
i indicates those electrode groups or which the welder is not approved
Note
S only gives approval for the specific type of electrode coating used in the test.

Table 0-2.6.1 Test methods


Test Method Butt weld plate Butt weld pipe Fillet weld
Visual
Radiography X
see Notes 1&2 see Notes 1&2
Bend X
see Notes 3 see Notes 3
Fracture
see Notes 1 see Notes 1 see Notes 4&5
Macro X X
see Notes 5
(without polishing)
Magnetic X X X
particle/dye
penetrant
Key
indicates that the test method is mandatory
X indicates that the test method is not mandatory
NOTES
1.. Radiography or fracture test is to be used , but not both.
2. The radiographic test may be replaced by an ultrasonic test for thickness
greater than or equal to 12 mm on ferritic steels only.
3. When radiography is used, then the bend tests are mandatory for the
processes 131, 135 and 311.
4. The fracture test should be supported by magnetic particle/dye penetrant
testing when required by the examiner or the test body.
5. The fracture test may be replaced by a macro examination of at least four
sections.

Table 0-2.7.1 NDE Acceptance criteria


The following table specifies the minimum acceptance criteria for welding imperfections detected by the non-
destructive examination during qualification testing.
Acceptance Limits
2
Imperfection Commentary Steel Aluminium
Type
Cracks Cracks, tears, etc. Not permitted Not permitted

Lack of fusion Lack of root, side wall, inter-run Not permitted Not permitted

Lack of penetration in square edge butt Not permitted Not permitted


welds and fillet welds

Lack of penetration in the root of single Depth d 0.1t, Depth d 0.1t,


sided welds Length d t Length d t
Max 25 Max 25
Lack of (CONTINUED OVERLEAF)
penetration

Porosity single Single pores, elongated cavities and d d 0.25t for butt welds d d 0.2t for butt welds

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pores wormholes d d 0.25a for fillet welds d d 0.2a for fillet welds
Max. d d 3.0 Max. d d 2.0
Min. separation 2.5d
Length d 6.0

The area of weld affected (i.e. length of Not exceeding 2.0% of the Not exceeding 25 in any
Porosity
cluster by width of weld) total weld area. 100 weld.
localised
Single pore d d 2.0
(clustered)
Single pore d d 1.5
Porosity Uniformly distributed along weld length Not permitted Single pore d d 1.0
uniformly
distributed
May be accepted if it can be shown that See limits for single pores See limits for single
Porosity linear it is not associated with other defects or localised porosity pores or localised porosity
(i.e. lack of penetration or fusion)
Slag, oxide Width d 0.3t, Not permitted
Max. 3.0
Length d t,
Max. 25mm
Solid inclusions
Copper Not permitted Not permitted

Tungsten See limits for single pores d d t/20,


Max. d d 0.8
Acceptable within the limits stated Depth d 1.0 Depth d 0.1t,
Root concavity
provided it is intermittent and has a Max. 1.5
and shrinkage
smooth transition
Undercut Provided it is intermittent Depth d 0.5 Depth d 0.5
Acceptable within the limits stated Height d 0.2b, Height d 1.5 + 0.2b,
Excessive
provided weld blends smoothly with the Max. 6.0 Max. 5.0
reinforcement and
base material
convexity
Acceptable within the limits stated Height d 0.2b, Height d 3.0
Excessive root
provided it blends smoothly with the Max. 3.0
penetration
base material
Excessive Excessive asymmetry in the leg lengths Max difference in Max. difference in
asymmetry of fillet welds provided it is intermittent measured leg lengths 2.0 measured leg lengths 2.0
Incomplete fill, undersize weld permitted Depth d 1.0, Height d 0.05t,
Under fill
if it blends smoothly with base material Max. length t/2 Max. 1.0
Overlap Cold lap Length d t Not permitted
Butt weld misalignment Not exceeding 0.15t, Not exceeding 0.1t,
Misalignment
Max. 3.0 Max. 2.5
These may be removed prior to Not permitted Not permitted
Arc strikes &
inspection, with the agreement of the
Spatter
Surveyor
Notes to table: 2. The table specifies actual imperfection dimensions, it may
1. Symbols be necessary to perform additional NDE, in some instances, in
a ~ fillet weld throat thickness order to determine defect dimensions and evaluate
b ~ weld width acceptability.
d ~ diameter or width of imperfection 3. All dimensions are in mm.
t ~ material thickness

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PA (flat) PE (overhead) PC (horizontal)

PG (vertical downward) PF (Vertical upwards)

(a) Butt welds

PA (flat) PD (horizontal overhead) PB (horizontal vertical)

PG (vertical downward) PF (vertical upwards)


4607/01

(b) Fillet welds

Fig. 0-2.4.1 Welding positions for plates

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Pipe : rotating Pipe : fixed Pipe : fixed


PA Axis : horizontal PF Axis : horizontal PG Axis : horizontal
Weld : flat Weld : vertical upwards Weld : vertical downwards

45

Pipe : fixed Pipe : fixed


PC Axis : vertical H L045 Axis : inclined
Weld : horizontal vertical Weld : upward

(a) Butt welds

Pipe : rotating Pipe : fixed Pipe : fixed


PC Axis : vertical PF Axis : horizontal PG Axis : horizontal
Weld : horizontal vertical Weld : vertical upwards Weld : vertical downwards

Pipe : fixed Pipe : fixed


PB Axis : vertical PD Axis : vertical
Weld : horizontal vertical Weld : horizontal overhead

4607/02
(b) Fillet welds

Fig. 0-2.4.2 Welding positions for pipes

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z=a 2
125 mm 125 mm For t 6 mm, a 0,5t
z
(150) (150) For t < 6 mm, 0,5t a t
(z = 0,7t)
a
t

125 mm
(150)

300 mm
(300)

150 mm
(300)
t
125 mm
4607/39
(150)
4607/38 t
Fig. 0-2.6.1 Fig. 0-2.6.2
Dimensions for test assembly for a butt weld in plates Dimensions for test assembly for a fillet weld(s) in plates

(dimensions in brackets are for assemblies in aluminium) (dimensions in brackets are for assemblies in aluminium)

t
0,5D min.
50 mm max.

125 mm
(150)
0,5D min.
50 mm max.

t
125 mm l1
(150)
l1

125 mm
(150) z=a 2

t corresponds to the thinner part


t For t 6 mm, a 0,5t
4607/42 For t < 6 mm, 0,5 t a t
D (z = 0,7t) 4607/43

Fig. 0-2.6.3 Fig. 0-2.6.4


Dimensions for test assembly for a butt weld in pipe Dimensions for test assembly for a fillet weld. in pipe
(dimensions in brackets are for assemblies in aluminium) (dimensions in brackets are for assemblies in aluminium)

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l1
= 2 mm = 2 mm

l1

Inspection length
of the test piece
25 mm 25 mm = 5 mm = 40 mm = 5 mm
l2

(a) (b)
Sectioning into an even-numbered quantity of test specimens Preparation

(c) (d)
Fracture testing root bend test Fracture testing face bend test
4607/40

Fig.0-2.6.5 Preparation and fracture testing of test specimens for a butt weld in plate

Inspection length
of the test piece
25 mm

25 mm

(a) (b)
Sectioning into an even-numbered quantity Fracture testing
of test specimens (The fillet weld may be notched if necessary)
4607/41

Fig. 0-2.6.6 Preparation and fracture testing of test specimens for a fillet weld in plate

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Inspection length
of the test piece

= 2 mm = 2 mm

Inspection length
of test specimen
(a) = 40 mm = 5 mm
= 5 mm
Sectioning into at least four
test specimens
Inspection length = 40 mm
of the test specimen

(b)
Preparation

(c) (d)
Fracture testing root bend test Fracture testing face bend test
4607/44

Fig. 0-2.6.7 Preparation and fracture testing of test specimens for a butt weld in pipe

(a) (b)
Sectioning into test specimens Fracture testing
4607/45

Fig. 0-2.6.6 Preparation and fracture testing of test specimens


for a fillet weld in pipe

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Appendix A to be inserted

Appendix A to be inserted

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APPENDIX B

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Welding positions and codes

Table 0-2.B.1 Equivalent welding positions description and identifying codes

LR ISO AWS
Butt Fillet Butt Fillet Butt Fillet
Downhand D DX Flat PA PA Flat 1G 1F
Horizontal-vertical X X Horizontal-vertical PC PB Horizontal 2G 2F
* *
Vertical-upward Vu Vu Vertical-upward PF PF Vertical 3G 3F
* *
Vertical-downward Vd Vd Vertical-downward PG PG Vertical 3G 3F
Overhead O O Overhead O O Overhead 4G 4F
Horizontal-overhead - PD
Fixed pipe inclined 45 H-LO45 Fixed inclined pipe 6G
upward
Fixed pipe inclined 45 J-LO45 Fixed inclined pipe 6G
downwards
Key
*
These codes need further identification of the direction of progression; upward or downward
In ISO, these codes apply equally to plate and pipe welds. In the latter, the position referred to by the code
is that of the weld, not the pipe.

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