Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10



N: 1993-01
Autores: M. Recuero, C. Gil y M. Sobreira
Ttulo: Changing a Large Film Production Studio Into a T.V. Studio.
Tipo de participacin:
Congreso: AES

Publicacin: Proceedings

Lugar de celebracin: New York (USA) Fecha: 1993


Recuero M., Gil C., Sobreira M.

E.U.I.T. Telecomunicacin, U.P.M.
Carretera de Valencia, km 7
28031 Madrid, Spain

In this paper the process of changing film production studio into a

T.V. studio is presented. The acoustic problems found, from the
points of view of insulation and conditioning, and the solutions
designed are explained. The special characteristics of the T.V. studio
(large volume, doors with a large surface, etc.) make to design
Specific acoustic Solutions for it.


The appearance in Spain of T.V. shows and contests with audience presence in the studio
has brought the necessity to have large studios fullfiling these productions' requirements. Due to this
fact, Televisin Espaola (public T.V. enterprise) has bought an old film production studios
(Bronston Studios) to convert them into two large T.V. studios (Buuel Studios) with minimum
cost. Due to the conditions and the antiquity of die buildings, measurements of airborne sound
acoustic insulation and the acoustic conditioning had to be made in order to design the solutions to
the detected problems. The materials covering the different surfaces are: a) Floor of concrete; b)
Lateral walls covered with mineral wool; c) ceiling made with prefab structure made in concrete.


The above mentioned measurements were made to adduce different ideas about the
installation's acoustic state and take. into account these data to design the new insulations and the
acoustic conditioning.

The measurements made in the studio were:

1.- Background Noise Level. The measurements have heen made in both studios for different
microphones' positions, in 1/3 octave bands (20 different bands in each position).

2.- Acoustic Pressure Level. 1/3 octave bands measurements of sound pressure level produced by
a patron sound source were made in different microphones' positions.

3.- Reverberation Time. By exciting the acoustic field using a sound source, the reverberation time
was measured in 1/3 octave bands.


In this type of rooms, image and sound are going to be recorded simultaneously, with a
perfect synchronism between both . Any T. V. studio must meet the following conditions: first,
optimum reverberation time; second, perfect insulation against the penetration of external airborne
noise and vibrations; third, an accurate degree of sound diffusion and fourth, a frequency response
as uniform as possible. From the point of view of insulation and acoustic conditioning of a T.V.
studio, the frequencies to analyze are between 50 lo 10000 Hz. To calculate the acoustic materials
correct position inside the studios geometrical and wave theory based criteria have been used.

This rooms must have an optimum reverberation time less than the needed for direct hearing,
because we cannot forget that the recorded signal is going to be reproduced in a secondary room.
The subjective reverberation time in this room is greater than the direct hearing one. Due to the
signals are taken with microphones with certain directivity patted and at some distance of the sound
source, the difference between direct and subjective reverberation time results.

When a microphone is placed near the source, only the direct signal is taken, but far away
direct (from the source) and reflected (from the inner surfaces of the studio) signals arrive to the

As it has been already mentioned, the reverberation time must not change with frequency
inside the audible range, with a value depending on the room's volume.

To design the acoustic insulation, the following special facts for these studios must be

1.- Image and sound are taken simultaneously.

2.- microphones cannot appear in the image, then, the distance between source and
microphone must be large.
3.- in spite of using directional microphones, besides the direct signal, the microphone takes
the reverberant signal and the noise inside the studio.
4.- the acoustic environment in the studio is greater the one in another recording studios, due
to the movements of the recording equipment and the great number of persons present (actors,
tec1mical staff, etc.).
5.- then a great insulation level from external noise is needed. International standards specify
NR-15/30 or NC-10/20.

In order to contribute to a greater level of acoustic insulation, the controls cabin is placed in a
different floor than the studios. Related to the diffusion, the situation microphones is not so
problematic if the sound diffusion degree is accurate.

The activities that will he performed in the studios will determine the size and for o the rooms.
Large studios are commonly parallelepipeds and the ratio between sides is recommended to be
2.4/1.3/1 o 3.2/0/l.


The insulation measurements have been made according to ISO-140/4-1978

"Acoustics-Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and buildings elements- Part 4 Field
Measurements of airborne sound insulation of building elements". Th repeatability conditions have
been check according to the standardized method show in ISO 140/2. The used instruments fulfil
the requirements specified in the IEC 22 standard. The reverberation time is measured according to
ISO 354-1985.

The equipment was integrated by: Building Acoustics Analyzer B&K 4418, Sound Source
B&K 4224; 1/2 microphones B&K 4165, input preamplifiers B&K 2619, narrow band
Spectrum Analyzer B&K 2031; X-Y Registerer HP 7015, Accelerometer B&K 4368 and
Vibration meter B&K 2518.


The measurements results are shown in [....] 1. Fig. 1 shows a map of the studios. The sound
source was placed in positions FS.l, FS.2 and FS.3. FS. 1 belong to a lateral position and FS.2 to
a central position in studio 1 while FS.3 is a lateral position in studio 2. Microphones were placed
in the numbered positions from one to nine in the studio 1 and from 9 to 16 in studio 2.

With the microphones and source placed on the described positions, the reverberation times
in both studios are shown in tables 1 and 2 and depicted in fig 4.

The same equipment given before was used to measure the sound pressure level in studios 1
and 2 (tables 3 and 4). Finally the background noise level was found as it shown in table S. Fig. 2
shows the blocks diagram for the measurements made.


Graphics and tables of reverberation time for studio number one shows great increasing in
frequencies from 100 to 500 Hz. This problem in lows frequencies is solved by designing a set of
resonators for these frequencies. The recommended medium reverberation time value is rounding
0.6 s.. The large volume (33600 m3) implies that the air absortion must be considered, especially at
high frequencies where its value will have an important weight. Studio 2 has a similar problem, but
with its smaller volume (7200 m3) the recommended medium reverberation time is 0.5 s.

The spatial distribution of sound presure level measurements show good values in both
studios as the airborne noise acoustic insulation, NC-15 in studio 1 and NC-10 in studio 2, does.

In order to diminish the background noise level as much as possible, we have concentrate the
designing efforts in the following aspects:

1.- The acoustic insulation was increased, with double structures made with concrete and a
plastic intermedial layer. Furthermore, due to the large surface of the doors and their low acoustic
qualities, new acoustic doors had to he designed. The doors designed are depicted in fig. 3, where
their structure can be observed.
2.- lt. has been considered that the main source of noise is traffic and it will increase in the
area as the provisions point to.

3.- Furthermore, the contribution of the conditioning air to the total noise level was taken into
account. It was needed to design a new installation which produces lower levels of noise.

To get the reverberation time lower, the walls were built up in drilled briks until 6m height, in
such a way that the briks show their drilled face inwards the studios, and resulting a reflecting
surface of 70 %. Behind this wall a mineral wool is placed and a doable layer structure fified with
phenolic foam. Besides it has to be considered that these studios will be use to T.V. contest with a
great number of persons, scenes, decoration, etc. and then the absortion will get higher.


[1] Everest Alton, F. "Acoustic Techniques for Home and Studio". Ed. Tab Books Inc.
USA. 2 (1984).

[2] Cooper, J. Building a Recording Studio. Ed. Recording Institute of America, New
York (1978).

[3] Alking, E.G,M. "Sound With Vision. Sound Tec1miques For Television and Film". Ed.
Butterworths, London 1973.

[4] Amos, S.W. Radio, Television & Audio. Technical Reference Book. Ed. Butterworths,
London 1973.

[5] Noise Rating Curves,. ISO R.1966 (1971).

[6] Vin Gizzi, B. "Computers and Studio Design" Ed. The Recording Industry Magazine. Vol
10. N. 8. August (1986).

[7] Vn Gzzi, B.Studio Design and Construction".Ed. The Recording Industry Magazine.

Fig 1: Map of the studios ith the microphone and source positions

Table 1:Reverberation times measured in studio 1

Table 2: Sound Preausre Level spatial disrtibution in Studio 1.

Table 3: Reverberation times measured in studio 2.

Table 4: Sound Preausre Level spatial disrtibution in Studio 1.

Table 5: Background Noise Level.

Fig 2: Blocks diagram.